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:
1. Engineering Hydrology by Subramanya
2. Advanced Hydrology by V.T. Chow
3. Engineering Hydrology by Linsley

:
:
: )( Introduction
: )( Precipitation

: )( Abstraction from Precipitation


: )( Run-Off

:
: )(Hydrograph
: )(Floods

: )(Flood Routing
: )(Ground Water

)( Introduction
.1. 1 : Hydrology


( ) .

:
.1 : .

.2 ( ) : :
.

.
.

.2 .1 :Hydrological Cycle

( )

()
.

. 3. 1 :Hydrological cycle Paths


:

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.4 .1 :Hydrological Budget Equation


2

) (t :
=

S = Vi - Vo

/ 15 2 :
3
.1 ( ) 114*8
114*6.5 3
.2 117 3
:

S = Vi - Vo

1.

S = 8 * 104 6.5 * 104 = 1.5 * 104 m3


Average Depth = 107 / 15*106 = 0.667 m. = 66.7 cm.

2.

.5 .1 :Engineering Aplications of Hydrology


:

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

(
).

(
.) Spillway
(
)

. 6 .1 :

.1 (
.)Spillway

.2 .

.3 (

).

.7 .1 :Sources of Data

.1 : .
.2 .

.3 .
.4 .

.5 .
.6 .

.7 .

)( Precipitation
.1.2

:
.1 .

.2 .

.3 .
.4 .

. 2.2 : Forms of Precipitation

( )

5.5 6

2.5 /

7.5 2.5 /

7.5 /

.3.2 :

p i

100 m1
p

m 1

p i2

m 1

C
N v

p
1

1
m

N :

Cv : )%( m
Pi : ith
m :

___________________________________________________________________________

( / )1 ( )6

()cm

82.6

102.9

180.3

110.3

98.8

136.7

%10
/

_
P 118 .6

= 10%

; m-1 = 35.04

m=6

Cv = 100 * 35.04 / 118.6 = 29.54


N = 8.7 = 9 stations

. 4.2 : Preparation of Data

( )30.

.5.2 :Estimating of Missing Data


:

. 1 :

]Px = 1/m [P1+P2++Pm


m :

Px :

%10

. X Pm ,.. , P2 , P1

m , . , 2 , 1 .

____ _________________________________________________________

. 2 :
]Px=Nx/m[P1/N1+P2/N2++Pm/Nm

: ( ) Nm / Nx > 1.1 % 10

( 30) N1 , N2 , , Nm
( 30) Nx

( / )2 A B C D 80.97

92.01 76.28 67.59 1975 D


A B C 79.89 72.23 91.11 D

% 10
PD = 92.01/3 (91.11/80.97 + 72.23/67.59 + 79.89/76.28) = 99.41 cm.

.6.2 :Test for Consistency of Records

. 1 .
. 2 .

. 3 .
. 4 .

: Double Mass Curve Technique

. X ( )Px

.
( )Pav
. ( )Px ()Pav

X X
:
Pcx = Px * Mc / Ma
: Pcx t1 x

: Mc

: Px t1 x

: Ma

Accumulated
Annual
Rainfull at X
)station (Px

a
c

Correction Ratio = Mc / Ma = c / a

)Accumulated Annual Rainfull at multi station (Pav

( / )3 D
1996 .1997

1996

79.7

77.2

78.4

14..15

1996

69.4

66.5

67.9

125.2

1996

65.3

61.3

6.

123

1996

71.7

68.1

62.3

116.9

1996

83

8..1

81.8

155.1

1996

82.7

85.6

87.3

168.1

1996

89.4

9..1

89.9

88.6

1996
1996

91.5

93.7

94.7

93.7

1997

92.4

91.5

92.8

93.5

1997

9..1

9..3

89.9

9..2

1997

82.3

83.6

84.9

83.5

1997

8..7

83.4

87.1

82.4

P cx

Px

Pav

Pav

8 2 .4

8 2 .4

83.73

83.73

1997

8 3 .5

1 6 5 .9

167.33

83.6

1997

9 0 .2

2 5 6 .1

257.43

9..1

1997

9 3 .5

3 4 9 .6

349.66

92.23

1997

9 3 .7

4 4 3 .3

442.96

93.3

1996

8 8 .6

5 3 1 .9

532.76

89.8

1996

9 4 .1 4

700

617.96

85.2

1996

8 6 .8 6

8 5 5 .1

699.59

81.63

1996

6 5 .4 6

972

766.96

67.37

1996

6 8 .8 8

1095

829.16

62.2

1996

7 0 .1 1

1220.2

897..9

67.93

1996

7 8 .4 8

1360.35

975.52

78.43

1996

1996

Ma = 12.5 / 7 = 1.79

Mc = 11/11 = 1
Pcx = Px * Mc / Ma
Accumulated
Annual
Rainfull at X
station (Px)

Ma
Mc

Accumulated Annual Rainfull at multi station (Pav)

10

. 7 . 2 : Rainfall Data-show Methods

.1 :Accumulated Rainfall Curve

:
)2nd. storm (4 cm

1st. storm
)(10 cm

Accumulated
Precipitation
)(cm

)Time (days

. 1 : ()cm

.2

. 3 ()cm/hr.
__________________________________________________________________________

.2 ( )

:Hyetograph

(.)Bar Chart

( 8 1. /)


Rainfall
Intensity
Cm/hr.

)Time (hr.

11

. 8 .2 : Average Precipitation over Area


:

.1 : Arithmatic Mean Method


P1 P2 ....... Pi .... Pn
1 N
Pi
N
N i 1

P1 P2 .... Pi.... PN

: N

. 2 :Thiessen Average Method


M

Ai
A

Pi
i 1

P A
i

i 1

P A P2 A 2 ....... Pn A n
P 1 1

A1 A 2 ..... A n

___________________________________________________________________________

. 3 :Isohyetal LineMethod

P P3

P Pn
....... a n n -1
a2 2

2
A

a1 a2 a3 an ..... .
12

P P2
a1 1

2
P

.
( / )4 100

1980

)(100,100

)(30,80

)(70,100

)(100,140

)(130,100

)(100,70

()

85

135.2

95.3

146.4

1.2.2

c
2

4
b

1
5

Weighted P
)(cm
-

85

36.86

135.2

..2726

19.53

95.3

..2.49

16.9

39.91

146.4

..2726

2141

Ecbf

25.54
121.84

1.2.2

..2499
1.0000

1963
7854

fba

Rainfall

Fraction of Total
Area
-

)Area (Km2

Boundary of Area

Station

2141

Abcd

Dce

3
4
5
Total

Mean Precipitation = 121.84 cm

13

( / )5
:

6
8

9.2
C

10

12

D
A
7.2

10

9.1
8
6

/
= 5

)Area (Km2
()3

(Fraction of Area %(4

12

12

3.

...667

..8

12- 1.

11

14.

..3111

3.422

1. 8

8.

..1778

1.6

86

18.

..4...

2.8

6-4

2.
450

...444

14

* 2 4

..222
8.84 cm

. 9 .2 :

24
.

( )24

Annual Max.
Precipitation
)(cm

)Time (year


( ) X

P ( recurrence interval ) :

)T = 1/P ..(1
( )20 ( )24 ( )10

A ( )20 ( )24 ()10


( )10 ( )100 ( )10

A :

) (2

P = 1/T

P :
) (3

15

q = 1-P

r n :!n
P r q n -r
!n - r !r

). (4

Pr, n

:
. P n :
!n
P 2 q n -2
!n - 2!2

).(4-a
. n :
)(4-b
. n :
)..(4-c

Pr, n

)P0,n = q = (1-P

P1 = 1-qn = 1- (1-P)n

( /)6 28.

28. :
5.
. 2.

. 15

. 2.

.
P = 1/50 = 0.02
.

r = 1 , T = 50 ,

n = 20 ,

P1,20 = (20 !)/(19! * 1!) * 0.02 * (0.98)19 = 0.272


n = 15 , r = 2

P2,15 = (15!)/(13!*2!)*(0,02)2 * (0.98)13 = 0.0323


P1 = 1- (0.98)20 = 0.332

16

.10 .2 : Plotting Position Criterea

() .

( m

1 = m 2 = m m = N ).

P ()Weibull Formula
)P = m / (N+1
and
T=1/P
___________________________________________________________________________

( / )6 A 24 - :
. 24 - 13 5.

. 1. 24 . A
6.

59

58

57

56

55

54

53

52

51

5.

Year

8.9

8.9

11.2

12.5

9.6

16

14.3

7.6

12

13

)Rainfall (cm

71

7.

69

68

67

66

65

64

63

62

61

Year

9.5

8.3

1..6

1..8

8.4

7.5

8.5

1..2

7.8

)Rainfall (cm

/
T=1/P

)P= m/(N+1

1.92
1.64
1.53
1.44
1.35
1.28
1.21
1.15
1.1
1.05

0.522
0.609
0.652
0.696
0.739
0.783
0.826
0.87
0.913
0.957

Rainfall
)(cm
9
8.9
8.9
8.5
8.4
8.3
8
7.8
7.6
7.5
6

T=1/P

)P= m/(N+1

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23.26
11.5
7.67
5.75
4.6
3.83
3.29
2.88
2.56
2.3
2.09

0.043
0.087
0.13
0.174
0.217
0.261
0.304
0.348
0.391
0.435
0.478

Rainfall
)(cm
16
14.3
13
12.5
12
11.2
10.8
10.6
10.2
9.6
9.5

m
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

( Y ( )Rainfall ) Return Period (T)( X ) :


.
()

()
14.55

13

18

5.

. = 1. 2.4 = T
P = 0.417
17


)(Abstraction from Precipitation

.1 .3 : Evaporation

( 585 / )

:
.1 .
.2 .
.3 .

.4 .
.5 .

.6 .
.1 : Vapor Pressure
ew ea

ew , ea

( )
,

C :

ea = ew ew> ea .

) EL = C( ew ea
(/) EL :

. 2 :Temperature .

. 3

:Wind

.
. 4 :Atmospheric Pressure
.

. 5

: Soluble Salts

.
18

.2 .3 : Evaporimeter

.1
.2
.3

____________________________________________________________________

.3 .3 : Evaporation Measurement Stations

WMO :

.1 : 3.....2

.2 : 5.....2
.3 : 1......2

___________________________________________________________________

.4 .3 :Empirical Evaporation Eqs.


:
: k

) : f(u

)EL = k f(u) (ew ea

.1. 4. 3 : Meyer Eq.


)EL = km (ew ea) (1+ U9/16

(/) 9 U9 :

( ..36 ..5 ) Km :
19

. 2 .4 3 : Rohwer Eq.
)EL = 0.771 (1.465 0.000732 Pa) (0.44 + 0.0733 Vo) (ew ea
( ) Pa :

(/) ..6 Vo :

1.3

ew ( ) 3 3

( )Uh ( )U :
Uh = U ( h )1/7

( / )1 25. = 2..
= % 4. 1 = 16/

/ ( 17.54 = ew : )3-3
ea = 0.4 * 17.54 = 7.02 mmHg
:

U9 = U1 * (9)1/7 = 16 * (9)1/7 = 21.9 km/hr.

EL = 0.36 (17.54 7.02) (1 + 21.9/16) = 8.97 mm/day


7 ( ) 3 :
7 * (8.97/1000) *250*10-4 = 157000 m3

20

.5 .3 :Analytical methods for estimating Evaporation


:
.1
.2
.3

______________________________________________________________________

. 1 :Water Budget Method


P + Vig + Vis = Vog + Vos + EL + S + TL
Or : EL = P + (Vis Vso) + (Vig vog) TL S
: P

: Vig

: Vog ()Seepage

: Vis ( ) : EL

: Vos : TL
: S

/ ( )m3 () .

.6 .3 :Evapotranspiration Eqs.

.1. 6. 3 :Penman Equation

AH n E a Y
AY

: PET ()mm/day

1.3

: A ( )mmHg/Co ( )3-3
: Y = )mmHg/Co( ..49

21

PET

: Hn ()

: Ea

))Hn = Ha(1- r) (a+b(n/N)) - Ta4 (0.56 - 0.092 e a ) (0.1 + 0.9 (n/N

1.4

: Ha (( )mm/day ( )4-3
: r = ..25
..52 = b

= n ()

a = 0.29 cos
)

1.4

= N ( )5-3
= - = 10 -9 *2 /

Co + 273 = Ta

: U2 2 (/)

)Ea = 0.35 (1 + (U2 /160)) (ew ea

______________________________________________________________________

( / )2 ( )
:

28o 4 19 %75

( 9 = )n 2 = 85 /

()3-3

1 = A Co /

()4-3

9.5 = Ha /

()5-3

16.5 = ew

1..716 = N
n / N = 9 / 10.716 = 0.84
ea = 0.75 * 16.5 = 12.38 mmHg
a = 0.29 cos 28o 4 = 0.2559 , b = 0.52 , = 2*10-9
Ta = 273 + 19 = 292 k
, Ta4 = 14.613 , r = 0.25

))Hn = 9.506(1 - 0.25) (0.2559 + 0.52*0.84) 14.613(0.56 0.092 12.38 )(0.1 + 0.9 (0.84
Hn = 1.99
Ea = 0.35 (1 + (85/100)) ( 16.5 12.38) = 2.208
, Y = 0.49

1*1.99 0.49 * 2.208 2.06 mm / day


0.49 1
22

PET

.2. 6. 3 : Blaney Criddle formula


PET = 2.54 K F
F = Ph Tf / 100
1.9

: K ( 7-3

: F

1.9

: Ph ( 6-3

: Tf ()

( / )3 PET
3.. :
2

( )

1.9

( )7-3

1
13

16.5

2
11

14.5

K = ..65
Ph Tf / 100
4.44

Ph
7.19

)Tf (Fo
61.7

3.96

7.15

55.4

3.78

7.3

51.8

4..8
Total = 16.26

7..3

58.1

Month

PET = 2.54 * 0.65 * 16.26 = 26.85 cm.

23

.8 .3

:Infiltration


()

() () .
:

.1 : Soil Properties

.

.2 : Surface of Entry

.3 : Fluid Characteristics

.9 .3

:Infiltration Capacity

( )

( ) f c ( /) . ( ) f :
i > fc

if

f = fc

i < fc

if

f = i
i :

24

.15 .3

:Infiltration Capacity Values

:
Infiltration Rate
)(mm/ hr
Dry Sandy Loam

Dry Clay Loam


Wet Sandy Loam
Wet Clay Loam
)Time from start of infiltration (hr.

()Horton

1930 :
0 t td

fct = fcf + (fco fcf) e k h t

fct :

fco : t = 0

fcf :
td :

kh :

.11 .3

:Infiltration Indices

) :

.1

25

.2 W


. 1 :
.
( )i ( )i
:
Rainfall Intensity
)(cm/ hr

Runoff

index

Losses

)Time (hr.

( / )4 1. 5.8

()hr

()cm

..4

..9

1.5

2.3

1.8

1.6

..5

= 4.2 = 5.8 1.
= tc = 8 ( )

..525 = 8 / 4.2 = / ( ( )..4


( )..5 6 = tc )

= 3.3 = ..5 ..4 5.8-1.

..55 = 6 / 3.3 = / ()O.K


()hr

26

()cm

..35

..95

1.75

1.25

..45

1..5

. 2 : W
(: )W
) ( cm / hr

P R Ia
tc

() P :
() R :

() Ia :

tc : i > w

27

) ( Run Off
.1.4 :
.

( )

(.)Subsurface Runoff

( .)Ground Water Runoff :

.1 : Direct Runoff

.

.2 : Base Flow
.

( )Virgin Flow :

Rv = Vs + Vd - Vr
(Rv : )3

(Vs : )3

Vd :
(Vr : )3

28

( / )1 .
( )Upstream ( )Weir 5 5 3 ( ) Mm3
( )Upstream
5 0 5 3 .
125 2 105


Mm3

15

11

12

15

50

56

21

10

22

14

Vr = 0.8 + 0.3 = 1.1 Mm


Vd = 3 + 0.5 = 3.5 Mm3

Rv :

15

11

12

Vs

15

50

56

21

10

22

14

Vd

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

Vr

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

Rv

44

39

32

45

15 4

25 4

24 4

16 4

11 4

94

54

Rv = 116.8 Mm3
Annual Runoff = 116.8 * 106 / 120 *106 = 0.973 m. = 97.3 cm.
Runoff Coefficient = Runoff / Rainfall = 97.3 / 185 = 0.526

.2.4 : Runoff Characteristics of Streams


:
29

.1 :
.

Discharge
m3/s.

)Time (month

. 2 : .
Discharge
m3/s.

)Time (month

.3 :

.
Discharge
m3/s.

)Time (month

.1 : .

.2 : .
.3 : .

30

.3.4 ( ) :

= x

.1 .
.2 .
.3 .

.1 :
)Runoff (R

R = aP+ b

y = mx + b

b
)Precipitation (P

)R = a P + b . (1
). (2

N PR P R

R a P

N P 2 P

) (3

R , P

).. (4
/ 0 r 1

N PR P R

N P P * N R R
2

R P
31

N:

R P

0.6 < r < 1

R P :
).. (5

R = Pm

) l n R = m l n P + l n (6

( / )2 P R
10 R P

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
/

)P(cm

)R(cm

35

..5

1.

1.

3.

13.8

11

8.2

12

3.1

14

4.
15
1.

13

3.2

15

..1

31

16

12

36

17
18

16
2

)P(cm

)R(cm

3.

1.6

1.
2

2.3
.

22

6.5

25

7.6

3.
8
6

9.4
1.5
..5

N = 18 , P = 348 , R = 104.3 , P = 9534 , R = 1040.51 , PR = 3083.3


(P)2 = 121104 , (R)2 = 10878.49
R = 0.38 P 1.55

, b = - 1.55 ,

a = 0.38
r = 0.964

.3.4 : Empirical Equation

( )1960

().

Rm = Pm Lm
32

Tm > 4.5o C

Lm = 0.48 Tm

) ( Rm 0 () Rm :
() Pm :
() Lm :

( ) Tm :

Tm 4.5 ( )Lm :
- 6.5

-1

4.5

)T(oC

1.52

1.78

2.77

)Lm (cm

______________________________________________________________________

( / )3
.

)T(oC

12

16

21

27

31

34

31

29

20

29

19

14

()cm

12

32

29

16

/
Tm 4.5
Lm = 0.48 Tm

Lm

5.76

7.68

15 50

12 96

14 00

16 32

14 00

13 92

13 44

13 92

9 12

6 72

Rm

17 12

15 50

2 56

= 34.76 = 2.56 + 15..8 + 17.12


= ..328 = 1.6 / 34.8

.4.4 - :Flow Duration Curve


. N

( )Plotting Position Q:

m
*100
N 1

Pp

m :
Pp :
33

Daily
Discharge
m3/s.

Percentage time indicated discharge is


)equalled or exceeded (Pp

______________________________________________________________________

.5.4 - :Flow Duration Curve Characteristics


.1 ( ).

.2
.

.3

.4 .

.1 .
.2 (. ) HydroPower
.3 .

.4 .

.5 .

( / )4

()m3/s


1962 - 1961

34

1963 - 1962

1964 - 1963

140 - 120.1

120 - 100.1

1
7

12

100 - 80.1

18

15

80 - 60.1

32

3.

60 - 50.1

29

7.

50 - 40.1

6.

84

40 - 30.1

75

61

30 - 25.1

5.

43

25 - 20.1

45

28

20 - 15.1

3.

15

15 - 10.1

18

10 - 5.1

1.
15
15
45
64
76
61
38
25
12
.

%75 %55

/
( Pp )X :

m
*100
N 1

( .) Y



()m3/s

1962 - 1961

1963 - 1962

1964 - 1963

140-120.1

120-100.1

100-80.1
80-60.1
60-50.1
50-40.1
40-30.1

12
15
3.
7.
84

18
32
29
6.
75

1.
15
15
45
64
76

35


1964-1961

19
45
62

1.4
194
235


)(m

25
7.

132
236
43.
665

Pp

m
Pp
*100
N 1
..55
2.28
6.38

12..3
21.51
39.19
6..62

61

30-25.1

5.

43

25-20.1
20-15.1

28

15-10.1

15

61

45

38

3.

10-5.1

N = 1096

963

83

12

837

126

25

18

172

45

76.3

87.78

1.46

95.35

1.91

99.45
99.91

1.96

1096

35 = Q50 / 3
26 = Q75 / 3
Q
m3/s.

35
26

)(Pp

75

50

_________________________________________________________________

.6.4 () :Flow Mass Curve

( )V .
t

( )

V Qdt
to

to :
Q :

Accumulated
Flow Volume
)(V
Mm3

B
D
S2

D
S1
E

36
)Time (m,w,d

tn

tc tm

.
.1 ( )Q = dv / dt
.2 AB .

.7.4 :Storage Volume Evaluation

S = Vs - VD
S :
Vs :
VD :

S ( Accumulated
) Volume S
.

( / )5 .
. 45/ 3

1.

11

12

m /s

6.

45

35

25

15

22

5.

8.

1.5

9.

8.

7.

m /s

m /s. day

m /s. day

1
2
3
4
5
6
0
6
5

6.
45
35
25
15
22
51
61
115

1661
1261
1165
051
465
661
1551
2461
3151

1661
3121
4215
4555
5421
6161
0631
11111
13261

37

51
61
01

11
11
12

16151
16451
21621

2051
2411
2101

= Demand Line
slope = 40 m3/s

Accumulated
Flow Volume
)(V
Mm3

D
S1
C

C
)Time (month

For Qd = 40 m3/s.

S1 = 2100 m3/s. day

( / )6
/


m3/s

6.

1661
1661

m3/s.
day


m3/s


)(cumec.day

)Col(3)-col(5

4.

124.

62.


()cumec day

45

1261

4.

112.

14.

35

1165

4.

124.

-155

4.

12..

25

051

15

465

22

661

4.

12..

4.

124.

-450

-605

124.

-755
-540

-1920

31.

51

1551

61

2461

4.

115

3151

4.

12..

11

51

2051

4.

11

61

2411

4.

124.

12

01

2101

4.

124.

12..

38

()cumec day
76.

-1380

124.


62.

-155

4.

31.

124.

155.

195.

35..

155.

6.5.

93.

818.

12..

725.

( m3/s. day 192. = )7

.
8

__________________________________________________________________________

.8.4 :Calculation of Maintainable Demand

.
Accumulated
Flow Volume
)(V
Mm3

B
V2
S2

V1
U2
S1
U1
A

)Time (month

.1 ( V1 ) U2
.

.2
.

________________________________________________________________________

( / )7
3655/ 3
.1 / 36../ 3.
.2 ( )C ( )Y ( )D

.3 CYD ( ) 50 m3/s. .

39
Y

Accumulated
Flow Volume
*103
Mm3

.9.4 :Variable Demand

Mass curve of demand

Accumulated
Flow Volume
*103
Mm3

Storage
Mass curve of flow

A
)Time (month

/ A . B
_________________________________________________________________________

( / )0
5/ 3 25. 2
5 5
40

m3/s

Mm3

))cm

()cm

25

12

12

2.

13

13

15

14

17

1.

16

18

16

2.

16

16

13

1..

12

24

1.8

12

19

8.

12

19

1.

4.

12

11

3.

11

12

3.

12

/
= 13.1 = 11 X 8.64 X 3..4 X 5
4

Mm

Q 5 / 3 :

= = 1.6 X 2. X E/100

Mm3 0.2 E

= Mm3 0.1 P = 1.6 X 2. X )..5-1( P/100


Mm3

Mm3

Mm3

Mm3

Mm3

()6+5+4+3
Mm3

Mm3

Mm3

Mm3
15

67

12

13.1

2.4

-0.2

27.3

39.7

39.7

48.8

13

13.1

2.6

-0.2

28.5

19.9

59.6

4..2

14

13.1

3.4

-0.1

3..4

9.8

69.4

25.9

16

13.1

3.6

-0.1

32.6

-6.7

-6.7

1..7

16

13.1

-0.1

3..6

-19.9

-26.6

23.3

16

13.1

3.2

-1.3

31

-7.7

-34.3

267.8

13.1

2.4

-2.4

19.1

248.7

248.7

289.3

13.1

2.4

-1.9

19.6

269.7

518.4

2.7.4

13.1

2.4

-1.9

19.6

187.8

7.6.2

41

1.7.1

13.1

2.4

-0.1

21.4

85.7

791.9

77.8

13.1

2.2

-0.6

2..7

57.1

849

8..4

12

13.1

3.4

-0.2

28.3

52.1

9.1.1

= 34.3

42