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L> = {aibj : i > j}

L> is not regular. We prove it using the Pumping Lemma.

L> = {aibj : i > j}

L> is not regular. • Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.

• Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0. • Choose a proper string s in L>. .L> = {aibj : i > j} L> is not regular.

• Choose a proper string s in L>. |s|≥ n .L> = {aibj : i > j} L> is not regular. • Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.

aaa…aabb…b n+1 n .L> = {aibj : i > j} L> is not regular. • s = an+1bn ϵ L>. • Choose a proper string s in L>. • Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.

L> = {aibj : i > j}

• • • •

L> is not regular. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0. Choose a proper string s in L>. s = an+1bn ϵ L>. Consider all possible splittings of s in x,y,z with the desired properties.

aaa…aabb…b

n+1

n

L> = {aibj : i > j}

• • • •

L> is not regular. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0. Choose a proper string s in L>. |xy|≤ n s = an+1bn ϵ L>. |y|≥ 1 Consider all possible splittings of s in x,y,z with the desired properties.

aaa…aabb…b

n+1

n

L> = {aibj : i > j}

• • • •

L> is not regular. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0. Choose a proper string s in L>. |xy|≤ n s = an+1bn ϵ L>. |y|≥ 1 Consider all possible splittings of s in x,y,z with the desired properties.

aaa…aabb…b

n+1

n

Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0. |xy|≤ n s = an+1bn ϵ L>.L> = {aibj : i > j} • • • • L> is not regular.y.z with the desired properties. Choose a proper string s in L>. |y|≥ 1 Consider all possible splittings of s in x. aaa…aabb…b n+1 n .

aaa…aabb…b n+1 n . Choose a proper string s in L>. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.z with the desired properties: y = am.y. 1 ≤ m ≤ n. s = an+1bn ϵ L>. Consider all possible splittings of s in x.L> = {aibj : i > j} • • • • L> is not regular.

xz =an+1-mbn ∉ L>. 1 ≤ m ≤ n. s = an+1bn ϵ L>.z with the desired properties: y = am. Consider all possible splittings of s in x.L> = {aibj : i > j} • • • • • L> is not regular. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.y. aaabb…b n+1-m n . Choose a proper string s in L>.

L> = {aibj : i > j} • • • • • • L> is not regular. Choose a proper string s in L>.z with the desired properties: y = am. s = an+1bn ϵ L>. Fix an arbitrary pumping length n>0.y. xz =an+1-mbn ∉ L>. Consider all possible splittings of s in x. So L> is not regular! . 1 ≤ m ≤ n.

figure out what this language is.b} } • First. .L={ww : w in * {a.

L={ww : w in * {a. figure out what this language is. • A string in the language? .b} } • First.

L={ww : w in * {a.b} } • First. • A string in the language? aabaab . figure out what this language is.

• A string in the language? aabaab • Another string in the language? .L={ww : w in * {a. figure out what this language is.b} } • First.

figure out what this language is. • A string in the language? aabaab • Another string in the language? aaaaaa .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } • First.

figure out what this language is. A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? .L={ww : w in • • • • * {a.b} } First.

A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb .L={ww : w in • • • • * {a. figure out what this language is.b} } First.

b} } First. A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? .L={ww : w in • • • • • * {a. figure out what this language is.

A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? YES! (ε = εε) . figure out what this language is.b} } First.L={ww : w in • • • • • * {a.

L={ww : w in • • • • • • * {a. figure out what this language is.b} } First. A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? YES! (ε = εε) Is aa in the language? .

L={ww : w in • • • • • • * {a.b} } First. A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? YES! (ε = εε) Is aa in the language? YES! . figure out what this language is.

b} } First. A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? YES! (ε = εε) Is aa in the language? YES! Is a in the language? . figure out what this language is.L={ww : w in • • • • • • • * {a.

A string in the language? aabaab Another string in the language? aaaaaa A string not in the language? abbb Is ε in the language? YES! (ε = εε) Is aa in the language? YES! Is a in the language? NO! . figure out what this language is.L={ww : w in • • • • • • • * {a.b} } First.

bbbb.L={ww : w in * {a. aaaa. L = {ε. bb. abab.b} } • First. figure out what this language is. aa. baba. aaaaaa …} abaabba|abaabba .

b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. .L={ww : w in * {a.

• First fix an arbitrary number n>0 to be the pumping length. .b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.L={ww : w in * {a.

• Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.

• Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. Choose wisely!!! .b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.L={ww : w in * {a.

L={ww : w in * {a. Example: For s = a2n aaa…aaa|aaa…aaa n n . • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.

y = a2. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. z = a2n-2 y z aaa…aaa|aaa…aaa n n .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε.

Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.L={ww : w in * {a. z = a2n-2 y y z aaaaa…aa|aaaa…aaa ϵ L n+1 n+1 . y = a2.

• Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.L={ww : w in * {a. y = a2. z = a2n-2 y y y z aaaaaaa…a|aaaaa…aaa ϵ L n+2 n+2 . Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.

• Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. z = a2n-2 z a…aaaa|aa…aaa ϵ L n-1 n-1 .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. y = a2. Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε.

L={ww : w in * {a. z = a2n-2. y = a2.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε. there is no i: xyiz ∉ L! .

y = a2.L={ww : w in * {a. z = a2n-2. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. Example: For s = a2n • For x = ε. there is no i: xyiz ∉ L! • s = a2n doesn’t work!!! .b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.

Example: For s = (ab)2n abab…abab|abab…abab n n .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.

b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. Example: For s = (ab)2n • For x = ε.L={ww : w in * {a. y = abab. z = (ab)2n-2 y z abab…abab|abab…abab n n .

z = (ab)2n-2 y y z abababab…ab|ababab…abab ϵ L n+1 n+1 .L={ww : w in * {a.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language. y = abab. Example: For s = (ab)2n • For x = ε.

Example: For s = (ab)2n • For x = ε.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. y = abab.L={ww : w in * {a. xyiz = (ab)2i(ab)2n-2 = (ab)2(i-n-2) ϵ L! . z = (ab)2n-2 • For any i. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.

z = (ab)2n-2 • For any i. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma. Example: For s = (ab)2n • For x = ε. xyiz = (ab)2i(ab)2n-2 = (ab)2(i-n-2) ϵ L! • s = (ab)2n doesn’t work! . y = abab.L={ww : w in * {a.

• Use s = anbanb aaaa…aab|aaaa.aab n n . • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.L={ww : w in * {a...

• Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language..z with the desired properties: aaaa…aab|aaaa. • Use s = anbanb • For any splitting of s in x.aab n n .b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.L={ww : w in * {a..y.

y. .z with the desired properties: y = am with 1 ≤ m ≤ n.L={ww : w in * {a. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language • Use s = anbanb • For any splitting of s in x.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.

L={ww : w in * {a. • Observe that xy2z = am+nbanb is not in L QED .y.b} } We prove that L is not regular by using the pumping lemma.z with the desired properties: y = am with 1 ≤ m ≤ n. • Pumping length: n • Choose a proper string in the language • Use s = anbanb • For any splitting of s in x.

w2 ϵ {a.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? .L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b}*.

b q2n-3 a.b q2n-1 a.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.. .b a..b q20 .|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • A first attempt to design a FA a. q1n ε q2n a.b q2n-2 a.b}*..w2 ϵ {a..b a.b q10 q11 q12 q13 .b a.

.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b a. .b a....|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • A first attempt to design a FA fails! a.b q2n-2 a.b q2n-1 a.b}*.b q2n-3 a. q1n ε q2n a.b a.b q20 .w2 ϵ {a.b q10 q11 q12 q13 .

b}*. .w2 ϵ {a.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.

w2 ϵ {a.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b}*. • But the pumping lemma holds! .

. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2.w2 ϵ {a.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b}*.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.

b}*. 2n≥2 abbba…abb|bbaba…aaa n n .w2 ϵ {a. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.L’ = {w1w2 : w1. – For every proper string s in L’.

|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.w2 ϵ {a.L’ = {w1w2 : w1. – split s in x. y n z |y|≥1 and |xy|≤ 2 n abbba…abb|bbaba…aaa .b}*. – For every proper string s in L’. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2. z with the desired properties. y.

z = rest.L’ = {w1w2 : w1. y n z n abbba…abb|bbaba…aaa . – split s in x = ε .y = first two symbols of s. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2.b}*.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.w2 ϵ {a. – For every proper string s in L’.

– For every proper string s in L’.y = first two symbols of s. – split s in x = ε . y y z ababbba…ab|bbbaba…aaaϵ L’ n+1 n+1 . z = rest.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b}*.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.w2 ϵ {a. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2. – xy2z in L’.

L’ = {w1w2 : w1. – xy3z in L’.b}*. z = rest. y y y z abababbba…a|bbbbaba…aaa ϵ L’ n+2 n+2 . – split s in x = ε .y = first two symbols of s. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length k=2. – For every proper string s in L’.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}.w2 ϵ {a.

w2 ϵ {a.b}*. – xy0z in L’. – For every proper string s in L’.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}. – split s in x = ε .L’ = {w1w2 : w1. z = rest.y = first two symbols of s. • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length n=2. z bba…abbb|baba…aaa ϵ L’ n-1 n-1 .

. xyiz in L’. – split s in x = ε . • But the pumping lemma holds! – Fix pumping length n=2.w2 ϵ {a. z = rest.b}*.y = first two symbols of s. – For every i ≥ 0.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Looks similar with L (L = {w1w2 : w1 = w2}. – For every proper string s in L’.

w2 ϵ {a.b}*.L’ = {w1w2 : w1. .|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length}.

w2 ϵ {a.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length}. Every string of even length abbbaabb….L’ = {w1w2 : w1.b}*.…bbabaaaa 2n .

b}*.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length}.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.w2 ϵ {a. Every string of even length can be split into two parts of equal length abbbaabb…|…bbabaaaa n n .

w2 ϵ {a.…bbabaaaa 2n .L’ = {w1w2 : w1. Every string of even length can be split into two parts of equal length and vice versa. abbbaabb….b}*.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length}.

. • L’ = L’’ Every string of even length can be split into two parts of equal length and vice versa.b}*.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.w2 ϵ {a.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length}.

w2 ϵ {a.b odd .L’ = {w1w2 : w1.|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • Consider L’’ = {w : w has even length} • L’ = L’’ • A DFA for L’’: a.b}*.b even a.

w2 ϵ {a.b even a.b odd .|w1|=|w2|} Is it regular? • YES!!! • L’ = L’’ • A DFA for L’: a.b}*.L’ = {w1w2 : w1.

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