1. Epicurean philosophy offered happiness to all human beings.
It taught that the greatest obstacle to an individual’s acquisition of happiness was Epicurus, followed by the Roman poet Lucretius centuries later, tried to offer a way for humans to be happy by teaching them how to remove the major obstacles to their happiness, which are superstition about the gods and the fear of death. 2. The Epicurean system tried to help people to attain happiness by persuadingthem about the nature of the physical world. What did Epicureanism believe about the nature of the world? The problem for Epicurus was to find a way of explaining the natural phenomena of bodily movement out of infinitely small divisions. It means that the only things in the universe are atoms and the empty spaces they move in. Atoms are unchanging "beings", but they have no other property than their shape. They don't self-move, they only jostle about. Therefore, there is nothing called a "soul" as a principle of movement. 3. Another effort at bringing human beings happiness was that of the early Christians. St. Paul is one of the leaders of the early Christian church. He believed that God was“calling out” people from the normal world in which they lived, creating a new, perfect community, the Ekklesia (the “called out” community). What kind of world, in more specific terms, were people being called out from, and what kind of community were they being called into? This world is like the body of the faithful individual in Christ: undyingly alive (through the spirit that is forward-looking and looking forward to its new body in the new world), and livingly dead (in a mortal body). In the new world, what keeps order is not law, but the perfect life and perfect knowing of the spirit. In the new community: men worship shadows and images. Their own shadows are cast on the walls, and they think those are true. They don't see their own bodies, or their true selves, only the images. 4. The Ekklesia, according to Paul, is the body of Christ. The Ekklesia is still composed of many individuals with their own physical bodies, but they all share another identity as members of the Ekklesia. The ceremony of sharing a meal, the communion, was the way
now revealed fully in the Christian faith. In this respect. they would be virtually identical to the “remnant” of God’s people.e.that the Ekklesia participated in the body of Christ. and Adam
. According to Augustine. to be able to love something that would never disappoint them. Augustine calls the City of Man and the City of God. and have submerged their own identity in order to truly be one with God. society. an innate love of life. 4. 5. The ekklesia of God demands a new lifestyle. sharply divided two “Cities. How does Augustine go about proving that we really love God and not our own life? Augustine argues that humans love themselves because they are children of Adam. He begins by showing that we are born with a desire to stay alive. but if we understand what we really love when we love our individual life. passing world. what was the relationship between the two cities. consists of people who have immersed themselves in the cares and pleasures of the present. Explain in more detail how the communion created the single community of the Ekklesia as the body of Christ. over one hundred years after Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. This is all clearly delineated in the New Testament relative to the teachings of Christ and of the kingdom of God. Augustine tries to prove that God is the true object of our love. The City of Man. on the other hand.. with its own culture. attitudes and habits. economy and authority structure. in spirit and in truth. values. those who are truly united with God. we can get beyond selfishness and sin. beliefs. The ekklesia of God would be used to identify those who recognize the perils of such a system and are the truly “called out” assembly of the saints of God. Augustine. a conflict that is destined to end in victory of the latter. And we all have to learn to speak the same spiritual language by becoming disciples of Jesus Christ. with new traditions.” the City of Man (under the power of the Devil) and the City of God (the Ekklesia). The City of God is marked by people who forgot earthly pleasure to dedicate themselves to the eternal truths of God. Augustine attempted to show that Christianity alone could provide human beings with what they were seeking in life. namely. i. This often makes us selfish and causes us to sin.
animals cannot do these things. called "the state of nature"). and dominion means rightful ownership. that the New World inhabitants had a right to the land and also a right to refuse to be baptized. Francisco de Vitoria argued. Whether they had a right to the land and also a right to refuse to be baptized depends on whether they are able to having a self-directed culture and therefore
they are not natural slaves. One of the great questions raised by the discovery of the so-called New World by Columbus was. Thus he
. to a true masters of themselves.
7. who is master of this world? According to one view. the desirefor self-preservation. God showed us. Adam "deserted" God. Love is perfection giving itself to imperfect beings. the New World can be claimed for the Emperor and the inhabitants can be baptized into the Ekklesia. Therefore. but what is right for humans to do in the state of nature because of this innate natural desire? So Hobbes starts with his own human mechanical principles: bodies of humans (all are basically equal). When Hobbes explains what humans by nature have a right do. About sin: The human being chose to love himself rather than love. Hobbes' conception of natural rights extended from his conception of man in a "state of nature". payment. movement (all bodies have a tendency to go on moving unless stopped). he begins where Augustine begins. they love God and they love love again. however.mistook who he was when he decided he could live without loving God. Rightful ownership means owning something by right or law: inheritance. the Pope and the Emperor (head of the Ekklesia and head of the City of Man) are the masters of all the earth. with the human desire to stay alive. This is the nature of humans. power (all bodies have equal power at the initial position. For example. By loving humanity to the point that he died for all humanity and when people love him in gratitude. Christ and his two lieutenants on earth. He lowered himself into the world. They are not rightful owners of the land they pasture on. 6. He made His love appear in human form. The view that he held about these inhabitants that justified his arguments was: The view that he held about these inhabitants that justified his arguments was whether the inhabitants have "true dominion”. taking unowned property and staking a claim. in perfect human form because this human loved God perfectly. That was how he tried to be like God.
You cannot give up your right to defend your life. When humans use their reason. and consequently. to use the full force of war. which is destructive of his life. From this springs forth the concept of the covenant. from natural "laws". according to Hobbes. in which men can transfer their rights of nature between each other and which forms the basis of moral obligation. Unlike bodies in movement. and made secure through fear.” Both of these
. The goal is some good. 8. if others are willing to as well. based on observation and drawing conclusions about the laws that human movement should follow. Transfer and Renunciation of Rights: two ways to limit one's rights. and humans only keep on moving (keep on living) because of their desire or will to live. like the weight of bodies and the speed of their movement. to continue to live. Hobbes sharply distinguished this natural "liberty". that is to say. which in his own judgement. His political science attempts to do the same thing for human nature. described generally as "a precept. Bodies keep on moving unless something stops them. Hobbes believes that human reason can discover the laws of nature by using observation and mathematical calculations based on certain measureable features of nature. which act as impediments towards the full use of an individual's right of nature. as he will himself. The first law states that we should seek peace.argued that the essential natural (human) right was "to use his own power. and if we cannot attain it. man's life consisted entirely of liberties and not at all of laws. that. In his natural state. an individual will trade a piece of their right of nature in order to promote cooperation between others. 9. humans do not follow the laws of their nature just because of their weight or speed. of his own Life. for the preservation of his own Nature. found out by reason. Directly building off of the first law's mandate to seek peace is the second law that states that we should lay down our rights of nature and form social contracts. The laws of human nature do not apply to humans unless they use their reason to guide their desire to live. or taketh away the means of preserving his life. Second law: to limit one's right to everything for sake of peace. what is the first law of nature that they will obey? First law of nature: to seek peace. With the enactment of each of these laws. of doing any thing. or general rule. Hobbes calls the sovereign (the king) a “mortal god” and also “Leviathan. by which a man is forbidden to do. Both are done with words.
" Kind of like a "crutch". 10. This idea of a "crutch" is studied in the Psychology of Religion. who are compelled to follow the laws of God. a conflict arises from Hobbes’s insistence that in the interest of peace. all knowledge. which would think of any sovereign who claimed to be a god and Leviathan as the Devil. Hobbes certainly does not humans to obey the Devil. so why is he challenging Christianity this way? Hobbes addresses the problem of how the Christian faith relates to the Leviathan’s ideal civic society. he derived a lot of his thoughts from the future ideology of Darwinism and the Philosophical implications that were inevitable from it. survive at all costs. In Hobbes’s attempt to reconcile Christian doctrine with civic philosophy.terms are challenges to Christianity. Hobbes (like Rousseau) didn't have the scientific evidence of evolution when he was alive. However. How do these thinkers differ in their interpretation of God’s sovereignty over this world. He attempts to create a scientific (not a religious) perspective on politics. Another way of asking this question is. For Christians. He believes that Christians can accept this because the Christian is not commanded to obey any specific laws. The view that stands most opposed to Hobbes is expressed by certain religious thinkers who consider God to be sovereign over this world. How do Augustine and Hobbes differ on the question of the relationship between the City of God (Ekklesia) and the City of Man?
. Hobbes asserts that the sovereign’s laws may occasionally contradict God’s prophetical laws. 11. What is the essence of Christianity according to Hobbes? Hobbes would say. Hobbes believes that the sovereign has the right to determine everything dealing with the religious practices of the citizens. etc. " Christianity is just a convention that certain humans have come up with to aid with survival. Implications like survival of the fittest. and belief must stem from the sovereign. including forbidding the practice of Christianity. might makes right (Nietzsche). law. he expresses both his theories of power and human nature and his unique brand of Christian faith. Hobbes has been described as the first great political theorist of the modern Western world. Hobbes’s view of human nature informs his belief that men will become hopelessly confused when confronted with “two masters”—the civil sovereign and God.
Augustine's "City of Man" and Hobbes' view of political community. Augustine's view of the city of man is not dissimilar. and therefore that he was handing it over to the Devil. as St. the city is set up by the government as a place for all homeless people to be sent. That means that he wants to understand how the state is put together in a scientific way. men worship shadows and images. and the government is very much in control of it. with the exception that for St. The City of Man is like Plato's cave world. and they think those are true. What would Hobbes reply? What does Hobbes teach us about the meaning of the secular and scientific modern worldview as it applies to politics? What is the value that this worldview is trying to promote? Hobbes offered a dichotomy of the ‘state of nature’ (anarchy) where a war of all against all and where a strive to power prevailed with a state of the society where the sovereign’s task was to control anarchy by maintaining the peace with force. the city of God is the city above the cave. They don't see their own bodies. the city of perfect knowledge and light. Augustine’s"City of God" shows that centralized government can bring the exact opposite of peace. are identical. For Hobbes. In the cave city. and men are ordered in political communities only by their fear of violent death and lust for power. only the images. In the ‘state of nature’. 12. and how it can be best maintained. completely apart from questions about how the state promotes religious and moral values or Christian values more specifically. So Hobbes' theories that a strong centralized government will bring peace to a society are clearly flawed. Augustine would say that Hobbes was trying to cut the City of Man loose from the City of God. St. hence it is based largely on central planning. Even their concepts. St. or their true selves. The only order in society is the random order of disordered men. In "City of God". he claims that a society without a government would be chaotic and it would turn into a society where citizens are constantly fighting and the citizen. Hobbes believes that there needs to be a strong centralized government to keep the peace. even though it is controlled by the government the city is absolutely chaotic. life is a state of war. Their own shadows are cast on the walls.Augustine: old world/new world is turned into two cities: the city of Man and the city of God. “civilized life
. However. Augustine the city of man was not all of reality. only part of reality. Hobbes has been said to be the first “secular” political thinker.
We today need to take from all the philosophers and books From Plato and Socrates. Reason. condemns reason being "Godless". From the Bible we should take the idea that justice must take the side of the one who is the victim of injustice. when it splits with faith. a concerted act by which they all renounced their rights of nature at the same time” whereby the task of the sovereign is to provide security to its citizens. we should take the idea that justice is not simply about the interest of the stronger. The only reason for self-preservation was the will of those living in a commonwealth to survive. From Aristotle. whether based upon reason or faith. Therefore the power of all citizens had to be transferred to one single sovereign or a collective body that combines their will. A good relationship between the sovereign and his people was indispensable to demonstrate its power towards others. the idea that humans have potentialities that it is the task of political
. that is. grow out of our dissatisfaction with mythology.would be impossible. The modern world's values grow out of reason's split with faith. and to prevent war of all against all. sovereignty and representation. the idea that justice depends upon the power of the stronger to say what justice is. when faith became the source of violence. Hobbes outlines a theory of cooperation based on contract. This required “an agreement or contract. Hobbes believed that an external enemy who unites a society was a precondition for a lasting and stable community. bases its arguments for justice on a conception of the human as an animal that wants a long life. after the split with reason. Faith. and any life risky”. What did we learn this semester? The values we cherish. The main features of a Hobbesian state have been: absolute sovereignty of a strong central authority and a sharp demarcation to the outside world.
we can derive the idea that fear of death injures us deeply. Reason and faith must both draw from aa common source in order to find a value for human existence. can come up with principles to guide a commonwealth. we should learn that reason.governance to cultivate through fair and just laws. but it cannot come up with a purpose for our life. and that love is not a feeling but a way of being giving rather than taking. but an unfulfilled life. From Augustine.
. without faith. From Hobbes. we can learn that there are basic laws that govern our international relations. It is not death that should be hated. From Epicurus. From Vitoria. We should not make war for any other reason than to defend ourselves. and that we must cultivate a full and pleasant life that accepts death as a necessary end. The passion for justice on behalf of the one whose life potential has been cut short. we should learn that the only thing that can give our life meaning is love.