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THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER.pdf

THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER.pdf

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THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER
THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER

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Published by: amirq4 on Sep 28, 2013
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THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER

1.0 POWER GENERATION CAPACITY OF PAKISTAN The total power generation capacity in Pakistan is of the order of 17,457 MW. This includes the hydropower generation capacity of 5,013 MW, thermal power generation capacity of 12,169 MW and nuclear power generation capacity of 462 MW. Based on the present generation capacity the hydro: thermal/ nuclear mix in the country is 29: 71. 2.0 SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY

The main sources of electricity generation in Pakistan are hydel, oil, gas, coal and nuclear. Thermal power is produced using furnace oil, diesel, coal and gas as raw material, all of which are fossil fuels. Thermal and nuclear power are expensive compared to hydel power where the water used is a renewable commodity. Nuclear power has not developed according to expectation in Pakistan due to certain external factors. In 2000-01, the total electricity generated was 68,117 Giga-Watts-Hours (GWh), of which 71.5% was produced from a thermal source.

Electricity Generation by Source
Total = 68,117 GWh 2000-01

Gas 32.0% Coal 0.4%

Nuclear 2.9%

Hydel 25.2%

Oil 39.5%

3.0

POWER DEMAND OF PAKISTAN

According to WAPDA’s estimate, the provincial power demands in Pakistan are: § § § Punjab: The current power demand in the Punjab is about 7,027 MW which is expected to rise to 29,103 MW in 2024-25 under the most conservative growth rate of 6.1%. Sindh: The current power demand of 2,642 MW in Sindh is expected to rise to 10,993 MW in 2024-25. NWFP: The current power demand of 1,697 MW in NWFP is expected to rise to 7,018 MW in 2024-25.

SO2. which consumes a huge amount of foreign exchange.000 25. the current power demand of 474 MW is expected to rise to 1.000 10. Ø Thermal power stations can be designed and constructed in relatively less time and therefore. Ø Initial capital cost of thermal projects is relatively less. Ø Ø Ø Ø . HYDEL MERITS DEMERITS Ø The cost of power per unit from a thermal power station is much higher compared to hydel and in the longer term. NOx. Thermal power stations do not add towards recreation.964 MW in 2024-25. compared to hydel projects. thermal power stations do not cause displacement problems.000 Mega Watts 20. Ø Thermal power production is more demand-driven and can accommodate daily. Thermal power stations use nonrenewable fossil fuel as raw material. seasonal and annual fluctuations and peaking requirements.000 15. thermal becomes an expensive proposition. Particulate Matter pollution are a big problem from thermal power stations.0 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF THERMAL POWER THERMAL VS.000 Si nd h Ba lo ch ist an Pu nj ab N W FP 4. thermal power production is a burden on the national economy because its raw material has to be imported. Ø Mostly. In case of Pakistan. etc Ø Transmission cost of thermal power is much less compared to hydel power because thermal power stations are located closer to the distribution centers.§ Balochistan: In Balochistan.000 5. wetlands.000 30. fisheries. are planned for short/ mediumterm needs. aesthetics. Provincial Power Demands Year 2000 vs 2025 35.

5. The growth of nuclear plants in Pakistan has been stifled due to international agendas and pressures. Of the total power produced.0 NUCLEAR POWER ASSESSMENT There are only two nuclear generation centers in Pakistan – Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) producing 137 MW of power and Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP) with an installed capacity of 325 MW. in the 21st century.9% of the total generation. The total nuclear power capacity is 462 MW. German and British firms sold vacuum pumps/ equipment and high efficiency inverters for the centrifuge in 1977. China provided assistance and equipment all through for KANUPP and later for CHASHNUP. Canada supplied the reactor for the heavy water based. KANUPP has completed its 30 years life and is now producing only 70 MW due to certain upgradations by Pakistani engineers. in case of accident. KANUPP consumes 10 MW for its own operations. in 1976. Moreover. which is only 2. KANUPP and CHASHNUPP are the first two nuclear power plant of the Islamic world. However.0 THERMAL POWER GENERATION PROJECTS . nuclear power plants are not considered a very favorable option. CHASHNUPP is being set up by Chinese assistance and is running on liquid fuel. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant and a heavy-water production facility in 1972. 6. due to the huge costs of decommissioning and catastrophes of national scale. it abruptly stopped supplying fuel after which Pakistan started construction of the first uranium-enrichment centrifuge at Kahuta.

775.6 1.62 120.0 1.0 365.82 1. Energy Data of Thermal Power Stations Power Station Installed Generation Capacity MW Units Generated GWh Overall Cost of Generation Ps/KWh Utilization Factor % WAPDA SPS Faisalabad GTPS Faisalabad NGPS Multan TPS Muzaffargarh TPS Guddu (Unit 1-4) TPS Guddu (Unit 5-13) GTPS Kotri FBC Lakhra TPS Jamshoro TPS Pasni GTPS Panjgur WAPDA Sub-Total KESC TPS Korangi GTPS Korangi Town GTPS Site TPS Bin Qasim KESC Sub-Total Private Sector AES Lal Pir.0 129.77 398.78 362.90 29.72 na na na na 47.0 80.0 1.582.61 39.05 1.03 1.51 190.319.39 92.709.218.0 327.70 58.0 4.95 870.912.0 5.00 57.78 247.14 605.0 18.11 7.176. Karachi Habibullah HUBCO.292.96 29.0 880.99 75.00 98.101.47 1.79 262.70 4.18 48.530.95 1.015.47 22.90 216.989.87 240. Kot Addu Kohinoor Energy.0 640.37 6.834.38 33.99 6. KESC operates 4 stations.16 5.76 7.0 150.Thermal Power Stations are operated by three institutions: WAPDA operates 11 stations.58 222.0 244.80 na na 189.0 174.44 22.36 316.830.44 163.925.327.756.43 58.00 93.85 na 79.750.02 2.30 384.072.38 4.94 67.0 1.0 117.53 448.267.350. Lahore Rousch Power Saba Power Southern Electric Tapal Energy.00 .138.0 412. and IPPs (Independent Power Producers) who run their private power stations are operating at least 14.0 586.70 12.0 134.0 157.47 1. Hub Japan Power KAPCO.0 135.52 37.60 219.62 52.54 372.500.0 126.29 175.14 2.49 732.00 49.539.68 204.88 16.260.64 24.35 223.0 100. Karachi Uch Power IPPs Sub-Total Total Thermal 132.48 665.94 270.0 1.0 1.6 12.0 195.78 na 20.88 49.95 39.0 131.168.74 56.0 136.00 95.89 912.0 32. Muzaffargarh AES Pak Gen.6 611.88 25.0 1.42 6.18 21.61 na na na na 267.165. Muzaffargarh Fauji Kabirwala Gul Ahmed.08 91.00 293.25 na na na na 310.

The Associated Press. . This can also be interpreted by the energy consumed vs.mtholyoke. 2. installed capacity." New York Times. 8.000 MW.miis.edu/acad/intrel/nuchist. Pakistan. A low utilization factor indicates shut down of the power plant for a significant time period and hence is not a potential loss. There are transmission and distribution costs added to these figures. “Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2001”.5 .htm CNS – Chronology of Pakistan Nuclear Development.0 GENERATION COST The cost of generation of thermal energy by WAPDA establishments was Rs.5 per unit of electricity consumed.2 in the year 2000-01. The Utilization Factor of thermal energy is usually higher compared to hydel because thermal or nuclear plants can be run at the desired capacity and their costs and overheads also reduce proportionately whereas hydel is dependent on the water head in the reservoir. It is estimated that such IPPs are producing about 1. The utilization factor of thermal energy in Pakistan for the year 2000-01 ranged between approximately 4.0 UTILIZATION FACTOR The Utilization Factor indicates the amount of energy utilized against the total available energy. surcharges and 71. Some of the IPPs are producing power for their industrial requirement. According to the Power Policy 1994 agreements of IPPs with the Government of Pakistan. http://www.98 %. Utilization Factor also changes from year to year depending upon variation in national needs. REFERENCES 1. WAPDA/KESC is bound to buy the power produced by them at a mutually agreed rate. May 28.5% thermal-based electricity on the national grid. The average price in Pakistan is Rs. The consumer pays a much higher cost per unit of electricity consumed. 8. KAPCO and HUBCO are the two largest IPPs in Pakistan.edu/research/india/paknucch. 0. 2.48 approximately whereas that of hydel was Rs.7. This is because of pilferages.cns. "Nuclear History In India. 1998 http://www. January 2002. 4. Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan.htm 3.0 INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCERS (IPPs) Private power plants were mostly installed during the late 80s and early 90s after the load-shedding crises of the 1980s.

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