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I S TUYN TNH

GII BI TP HNG CA MA TRN


Phin bn chnh sa

PGS TS M Vinh Quang


Ngy 3 thng 12 nm 2004
13) Tm hng ca ma trn:

4
8
A=
4
8

3
6
3
6

5
7
8
1

2 3
4 2

2 7
4 6

Gii:

d2(2)d1+d2
0
A
0
d3d1+d3
d4(2)d1+d4
0

3 5 2 3
0 3 0 4
d3d2+d3


0 3 0 4 d4(3)d2+d4
0 9 0 12

4
0
0
0

3 5 2 3
0 3 0 4

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

Vy rank A = 3 .
14) Tm hng ca ma trn:

3
5
A=
1
7

1
3
3
5

3
2
5
1

2
3
0
4

5
4

7
1

Gii:

3
i dng
A
5
7

3
1
3
5

5
3
2
1

0
2
3
4

7
5
d2 - 3d1 + d2


4 d35d1+d3
d42d1+d4
1

1 3 5 0 7
0 8 12 2 16

0 12 23 3 31
0 16 34 4 48

1 3 5 0 7
d3 3
d2 + d3 0
8 12 2 16
d42d3+d4
2

0 5 0 7
d47d1+d4 0
0 0 10 0 16
Vy rank A = 4 .

1 3 5 0 7
0 8 12 2 16

0 0 5 0 7
0 16
0 0 2

15) Tm hng ca ma trn:

2
1
A=
3
5

1
2
4
5

2
1
3
6

1
2
4
7

2
1
3
5

1
2

4
5

Gii

2
d1d2
A
3
5

2
1
4
5

1
2
3
6

2
1
4
7

1
2
3
5

2
1
d22d1+d2

4
d33d1+d3
d45d1+d4
5

1 2 1 2
0 3 0 3
0 2 0 2
0 5 1 3

1 2 1 2 1 2
d2 13 d2 0
1 0 1 0 1
d32d2+d3


0 2 0 2 0 2 d45d2+d4

0 5 1 3 0 5

0
d3d4

0
0

2
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

2
1
2
0

1
0
0
0

2
1
0
0

1
0
0
1

2
1
0
2

1 2
0 3

0 2
0 5
1
0
0
0

2
1

0
0

1
0
0
0

Vy rank A = 3 .
16) Tm hng ca ma trn:

A=

2
1
1
1
1
1

1
3
1
1
2
1

1
1
4
1
3
1

1
1
1
5
4
1

Gii:

i dng
A

d32d2+d3

d6d2+d6

d22d1+d2
d3d1+d4

d4d1+d4
d5d1+d5
d6d1+d6

1 1
1
1
0 1 1 1

0 2
0
0

0 0
3
0

0 0
0
4
0 1
2
3

1 1
1
1

0 1 1 1

0 0 2 2
d3d6

0 0
3
0

0 0
0
4
0 0
1
2

1 1
1
1
0 1 1 1

0 0
1
2

0 0
3
0

0 0
0
4
0 0 2 2

1
2
1
1
1
1

1
1
3
1
1
2

1
1
1
4
1
3

1
1
1
1
5
4

2
1

0
0

d43d3+d4

d62d3+d6

1 1
1
1

0 1 1 1

2
d5 3 d4+d5
0 0
1
2

0 0
0 6
d6
d4+d6

0 0
0
4
0 0
0
2

1 1
1
1
0 1 1 1

0 0
1
2

0 0
0 6

0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0

Vy rank A = 4 .
17) Tm hng ca ma trn :

3
a
A=
1
2

1 1 4
4 10 1

7 17 3
2 4 3

Gii:

1 1 4 3
i ct 4 10 1 a d24d1+d2

A
7 17 3 1
d37d1+d3
d42d1+d4
2 4 3 2

1 1
4
3
0 6
0 a 12

0 10 25 20
0 2 5
4

1 1
4
3
2 5
4
i dng 0
d33d2+d3



0 6
0 a 12 d45d2+d4
0 10 15 20

1
0
0
0

1 4
3
2 5 4

0 15 a
0 0
0

Vy rank A = 3. Vi mi a.
18) Tm hng ca ma trn:

1 2 1 1 1
a 1 1 1 1

A=
1
a 0 1
1
1
2 2 1 1
Gii:

1 1 1 1 2
d2d1+d2
a 1
i ct 1 1 1
d3d1+d3

A

1

1 0 1
a
d4d1+d4
1 1 2 1
2

1 1 1
1
2
0 2 2 a 1
1

0 2 1
2
a2
0 0
1
2
0

1 1 1 1
2

1
d3d2+d3 0 2 2 a 1
d4d3+d4

0 0 1 a + 1 a 1
0 0 1
2
0
Vy : nu a 6= 1 th rank A = 4 .
3

1 1 1 1
2
0 2 2 a 1
1

0 0 1 a+1 a1
0 0 0 a1 1a

nu a = 1 th rank A = 3 .

19) Tm hng ca ma trn:

1+a
a
a
1+a
A=
...
...
a
a

...
a
...
a

... ...
... 1 + a

Gii:

1 + na
a

1 + na 1 + a
c1c1+c2+...+cn
A
...
...
1 + na
a

...
a
1 + na a

...
a d2d1+d2
0
1

. . . . . . .....................
.
.
.
.
..
dnd1+dn
... 1 + a
0
0

... a
... 0

... ...
... 1

1
Nu a 6= . Khi 1 + na 6= 0 v rank A = n .
n
1
Nu a = . Khi 1 + na = 0 v rank A = n 1 v c nh thc con cp n 1 gm n 1
n
dng cui, ct cui .


1 0 ... 0


1 1 ... 0

= 1 6= 0
Dn1

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


0 0 ... 1
Cn nh thc cp n bng 0 .
20) Tm hng ca ma trn (n 2 )

0 1 1
1 0 x

A=
1 x 0
... ... ...
1 x x

... 1
... x
... x
... ...
... 0

Gii:
Nu x 6= 0 :

A
d1xd1

c1xc1

0 x x
x 0 x
x x 0
... ... ...
x x x

... x
... x
... x
... ...
... 0


d3d1+d3
.....................
d2d1+d2

dnd1+dn

c1c1+c2+...+cn

(n 1)x x x
(n 1)x 0 x
(n 1)x x 0
...
... ...
(n 1)x x x

(n 1)x x
x ... x
0
x 0 . . . 0
0
0 x . . . 0
...
... ... ... ...
0
0
0 . . . x

Vy rank A = n
4

... x
... x
... x
... ...
... 0

Nu x = 0

A=

0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 0
... ... ...
1 0 0

... 1
... 0
... 0
... ...
... 0

d3d2+d3


...................

dnd2+dn

0 1 1
1 0 0
0 0 0
... ... ...
0 0 0

... 1
... 0
... 0
... ...
... 0

rankA = 2.
Vy
rankA = n nu x 6= 0
rankA = 2 nu x = 0
21) Tm hng ca ma trn vung cp n:

a
b
b
b
a
b

b
b
a
A=

... ... ...


b
b
b

... b
... b
... b
... ...
... a

Gii:

a + (n 1)b b
b
a
+
(n

1)b
a
b
c1c1+c2+...+cn
A

...
... ...
a + (n 1)b b
b

... b
a + (n 1)b
b
b
d2d1+d2
... b
0
a

b
0
d3d1+d3

. . . . . . .....................
...
... ...
dnd1+dn
... a
0
0
0

1. Nu a 6= (1 n)b, a 6= b th rankA = n
2. a = b 6= 0 th rankA = 1
a = b = 0 th rankA = 0
3. a = (n 1)b = 0 th rankA = n 1
V c nh thc con cp n 1 (b dng u, ct u)


ab

0
.
.
.
0


0
a b ...
0
n1

6= 0
...
= (a b)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


0
0
... a b
Cn nh thc cp n bng 0.

... b
... 0

... ...
... 0