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1: Point Loading of a 1D Cantilever Beam
Table of Contents Introduction Problem Description Theory Geometry Preprocessor Element Type Real Constants and Material Properties Meshing Loads Solution General Postprocessor Results Validation
Page Number 2 3 3 4 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17
UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1
1-1. These problems are generally quick to solve using the software and are easier to set up.1-1.3W.9 are also designed as an introduction to Linear Static Structural problems.5W and 1.1 Page 2 .9 are designed to be an introduction to the fundamental modeling considerations and features in ANSYS. common modeling mistakes and other modeling considerations. we will model fundamental structures in one two and three dimensions in an environment where theoretical answers are known and can be compared against the created models. Completion of this first series of modules will help the user gain proficiency in the layout of the APDL environment and draw attention to the modeling process. Using classical beam loadings.7W. a general category of Finite Element problems which can be solved in one load step and one iteration. a small introduction to ANSYS Workbench is explored in modules 1. Modules 1. Also.Introduction Welcome to the UCONN ANSYS Mechanical Training Suite! Modules 1. While most tutorials in this suite use the ANSYS Mechanical APDL package. we will investigate how different boundary conditions affect the number of mesh elements required to achieve a converged solution. 1. We will study the tradeoffs and benefits of modeling in one two or three dimensions. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.
4) Where and .1.6) With Maximum Stress at: = 66 KPa (1.1.1) Since the nodes of choice are located at the top surface of the beam.1. the Von Mises Equivalent Stress from equation 1 reduces to: (1. ( .33 x Length of beam Cross Section Base Cross Section Height Point Load Young’s Modulus of Aluminum at Room Temperature Poisson’s Ratio of Aluminum In this module.1. The beam theory for this analysis is shown below: Theory Von Mises Stress Assuming plane stress. the Von Mises Equivalent Stress can be expressed as: (1.1.1 Page 3 .Problem Description y Nomenclature: L =110m b =10m h =1 m P=1000N E=70GPa =0.1.3) Bending Stress is given by: (1. (1. we can derive: (1. We will be using beam theory and mesh independence as our key validation requirements.2) Using these simplifications. we will be modeling an Aluminum cantilever beam with a point load at the end with one dimensional elements in ANSYS Mechanical APDL. From statics.7) UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1. the shear stress at this location is zero.5) (1.
13) (1.1. so deflection ( is: (1.7.14) ( ) The maximum displacement occurs at the point load( x=L) .y(0)= 0 thus .1 2 Page 4 . we get: (1. thus 0 (1. On your Windows 7 Desktop click the Start button 2.8) Plugging in equation 1.1. Click on Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start ANSYS.1.9) Integrating once to get an angular displacement. we get: (1.11) Geometry Opening ANSYS Mechanical APDL 1.1.1. This step may take time. Integrating again to get deflection: (1. 3 1 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Under Search Programs and Files type “ANSYS” 3.12) At the fixed end.5.1.10) At the fixed end (x=0).1.Beam Deflection The governing equation of a beam in bending is given by the Euler-Bernoulli relationship: (1.
Check the box that says Structural 3.Preferences 1.1 Page 5 . Click OK 1 2 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences 2.
0 5. 3. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the point 110. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Replot Your graphics window should look as shown: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create ->Keypoints -> On Working Plane 1. our goal is to model the length of the beam. To get rid of the triad. The Triad in the top left corner is blocking keypoint 1. In the box underneath. type /triad.off in Utility Menu -> Command Prompt 8 7 7.0. write 0.0 creating a keypoint at the origin. Click OK 1 5 2 3 6. Click Apply 4.1 Page 6 .Keypoints Since we will be using 1D Elements.0. Click Global Cartesian 2.
Click OK Go to Utility Menu -> Ansys Toolbar -> SAVE_DB The resulting graphic should be as shown: 2 3 4 SAVE_DB Since we have made considerable progress thus far.Line 1.1 Page 7 .2 for keypoints 4. Select Pick 3. If you ever wish to return to this checkpoint in your model generation. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Lines -> Straight Line 2. going to Utility Menu -> File -> Clear & Start New -> Do not read file ->OK is recommended. go to Utility Menu -> RESUM_DB WARNING: It is VERY HARD to delete or modify inputs and commands to your model once they have been entered. we will create a temporary save file for our model. Thus it is recommended you use the SAVE_DB and RESUM_DB functions frequently to create checkpoints in your work. Enter 1. 1. Go to Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar ->SAVE_DB This creates a save checkpoint 2. If salvaging your project is hopeless. This will start your model from scratch. This temporary save will allow us to return to this stage of the tutorial if an error is made.
compression. Go to Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> SAVE_DB 2 * BEAM4 is a one dimensional linear element with 6 degrees of freedom (UX. Click OK 5. The ANSYS HELP library also provides useful information on the theory behind ANSYS calculations and modeling best practices. It has tension.UZ. Click beam -> 3D Elastic 4 4.Preprocessor Element Type 1. Similar to the Java APL or the Matlab HELP feature.ROTZ). Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete 2. We encourage you to explore the vast volumes of ANSYS HELP to increase your proficiency in ANSYS beyond the scope of these tutorials UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Click Close 6. consult the ANSYS HELP by clicking HELP ANSYS HELP ANSYS Mechanical APDL at its core is a command line driven FEA code.1 5 3 4 * Page 8 . For more information.ROTY. Click Add 3.ROTX. and torsional capabilities.UY. ANSYS has its own library of internal functions known as Commands that are used in the backend from the GUI front end. bending.
Go to Material Model Number 1 -> Structural -> Linear -> Elastic -> Isotropic 2 3. out of Define Material Model Behavior 6. Go to Main Menu -> Material Props -> Material Models 2. Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 3 3 4 Now we will add the thickness to our beam.1 Page 9 . 1.33 for Poisson’s Ratio (PRXY) 4. Click OK 5. Click Add 3. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete 2. Click OK 2 6 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Enter 7E10 for Young’s Modulus (EX) and .Real Constants and Material Properties 1.
Click Close 8. Go to Size Controls: -> Global -> Set 3.4. Click OK 6. Click Mesh 6. Click Pick All 7.1 . Under SIZE Element edge length put 55. Under Real Constants for BEAM4 ->Shell thickness at node I TK(I) enter: 10 for cross sectional area 10/12 for moment of inertia IZZ 10 for thickness along Z axis 1 for thickness along Y axis 5. Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 5 2 5 5 7 3 Loads 6 4 Page 10 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Click Close 4 Meshing 1. Click OK 5. 4. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Meshing -> Mesh Tool 2.
1. we will name the file ‘1D Cantilever’ 3. Thus it would be convenient to save the geometry so that it does not have to be made again from scratch. Under Save Database to pick a name for the Geometry. Under Directories: pick the Folder you would like to save the .Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry we have just created for the next 3 modules. 4. For this tutorial. Go to File -> Save As … 2.db file to. Click OK 2 4 3 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.1 Page 11 .
3. 2. Click Pick -> Single and with your cursor. Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB 6 8 9 7 10 The fixed end will look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes Go to Utility Menu -> Plot Controls -> Numbering… Check NODE. Node Numbers to ON Click OK 3 Your plot should look as shown: 4 5.1 Page 12 . 4. 10.Displacements 1. Click All DOF to secure all degrees of freedom 9. Click OK 8. Click OK 11. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Nodes 6. Under Value Displacement value put 0. click on first node 7.
Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Loads -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural ->Force/Moment -> On Nodes 2. 4. This step may take some time depending on mesh size and the speed of your computer (generally a minute or less). Under List of Items enter 2 for node 2 and press OK 5 3. 5. Go to Main Menu -> Solution ->Solve -> Current LS (solve). pick the nodes of interest and replace that component of force with 0 before assigning new values. LS stands for Load Step. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. Ignore any warnings that may appear on your screen. 3 4 Under Lab Direction of Force/mom select FY Under Value Force/moment value type -1000 Press OK Go to Utility Menu -> SAVE_DB USEFUL TIP: If you wish to assign new force values. as they are irrelevant to the problem at hand.1 Page 13 . This will delete the previous force assignment.Point Load 1. 6. 2 4 The load at the end face should look as below: Solution 1.
6. go to Utility Menu -> Command Prompt and type /title. Go to DOF Solution -> Y-Component of displacement 3.General Postprocessor We will now extract the Preliminary Displacement and Von-Mises Stress within our model. Displacement 1.1 Page 14 . 5. To give the graph a title. Deflection of a Cantilever Beam with a Point Load. Press enter and write /replot to refresh the window. Go to Main Menu -> General Postprocessor -> Plot Results -> Contour Plot -> Nodal Solution 2. Click OK 4. Press enter 2 3 The Resulting Plot should look as shown below: UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.
Plugging into equation 1. 1. however.4. we can readily calculate the bending stress in our model and by extension. Since we are interested in reaction moments in the z direction. we will look to the last column in the chart: According to the chart the maximum moment at the fixed end of the beam is .4. we get the expected stress of 66 kPa. We can.1. the equivalent stress.1. look up the moment reactions at each element. If we plug this value into equation 1.Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress Unfortunately. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.11E6 Nm. Go to Element Solution -> All Available force items 3. Go to Utility Menu -> List -> Results -> Element Solution … 2.1 Page 15 . we cannot create a contour plot of Von-Mises stress for 1D elements. Click OK This chart shows all reaction forces and moments at each node in the domain.
1 Page 16 .15) Max Equivalent Stress Error Using equation (1. Beam4 used twopoint Gaussian Quadrature. UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.Results The percent error (%E) in our model max deflection can be defined as: ( Max Deflection Error ) =0% (1. Since the equations for deflection and stress are fourth order and second order respectively.15) above. the percent error for Max Deflection and Equivalent Stress in our model is 0%. the answer will have no error because the Quadrature is accurate to the correct degree polynomial.1. Thus the one dimensional method has zero percent error in deflection and stress. This changes with respect to the element used.1. This is due to the fact that ANSYS uses Gaussian Quadrature to interpolate between the integration points. a numerical technique which is fourth degree accurate.
1 Page 17 . Go to Utility Menu -> List -> Results -> Nodal Solution … 2. Click Next > 12. 7. Save the file as 1D_P_YDeflection. we can export both the deflection and Von-Mises data to Excel. Select Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> Y-component of displacement 3. Go to PRNSOL Command -> File -> Save As … 5. Click a location on the ruler between the NODE and UY columns. Click Finish 10 11 UCONN ANSYS –Module 1. This will cause Excel to separate these columns into separate columns in the spreadsheet 11.lis in Excel Click Fixed Width Click Next > 8 9 10. 9. The list file should populate. 8.lis to the path of your choice 4 6 6.Further Analysis In addition to this baseline data. Click OK 4. 1. We will use the Y-deflection data as an example of how to do this. Go to PRNSOL Command -> File -> Close Open 1D_P_YDeflection.
1 Page 18 .Validation UCONN ANSYS –Module 1.
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