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Recording Motion:


Measurements made with electronic sensors will be more precise and more accurate than measurements made by people using stopwatches and rulers. Electronic measurements will not suffer from human errors such as reaction time or misreading of scales. This means that results and any conclusions drawn will be more reliable. during an experiment there can be three kind of errors: 1. personal ----> may be due to carelessness 2. Systematic ----> may be due to fault in apparatus 3. Random ---> maybe due to invisible unseen causes to minimize error ----> 1. repeat it again 2. take average what is uncertainty? fault in the apparatus due to limitation of apparatus limitation of apparatus = least count/ precision reliable ---> less error Precise ---> small value less reliable ---> more precise >>> reason: because its difficult to take small measurement! absolute uncertainty = least count = maximum value of uncertainty greater than least count ---> personal error percentage uncertainty = least count/measurement*100

Metre rule -> +/-1mm Vernier callipers +/-0.1mm Micrometre Screwgauge +/-0.01mm A- 0538628418

B- 03333408884 AS- 0530673678 H- 03322260717s

Making measurements -Note for zero error -Tabulate measurement When repeating exp & getting the average, draw a graph inorder to min random errors NOTE - when finding average, random errors are ignored. Systematic errors caused by -Zero error -Poor callibration -Parallex reading % uncertainity = [(Range/2)/average]*100 Random errors A random error, is an error which affects a reading at random. Sources of random errors include:

The observer being less than perfect The readability of the equipment External effects on the observed item Systematic errors A systematic error, is an error which occurs at each reading. Sources of systematic errors include:

The observer being less than perfect in the same way every time An instrument with a zero offset error An instrument that is improperly calibrated Precision A measurement is said to be accurate if it has little systematic errors.

Accuracy A measurement is said to be precise if it has little random errors. A measurement can be of great precision but be inaccurate (for example, if the instrument used had a zero offset error).