You are on page 1of 517

03~7.

~ 76
!~~~AA.AA

Advanced Mechanics of Fluids in Porous Media

1111~Ill\00452784
1111~1 1 1 1\l ilrn II

1999.

~!le.

illi '!l<Jl>00:7J'l' /'fLll'l'l !l!:i. -1't HE, 'I' llil flf'l'ii\' # :!:"!' Li llH , 19 99. 7
ISBN 7-312-01052-0
I.

iili"'

Il.

1' i!l ;+ <!' cit ;fl

fL ..

I. ~~00:7J'J' N. 0357. 3

*"' ill ii.I."" ~

JI;, ~ ./t

c~~irire-rn:ita- 96-i}.230025)

1' Ill ;+ <!' cit ;fl 3c <!' fp 41 T 'P ~I


,., i!l Iii ii' 'il /,I ll: lil
Jf-#:787rnmXI092mm/16
19991f. 'i fr]. l J&

f'lllk.:32. 5

'f:tt:B29

1999Jf.1J'l1;.J:(lJJH

f:lll:l-2100.M

ISBN 7-312-01052-0/0215

Jtif!:36. 00 Jt

f-

-.

hf~~~hf~-+~*t~f~#f~I9tt*liJ~-~
~20fr~~l~l~f#~~Itt#~~tliJf~m*~2lfr

~hff#liJlW~-~.~~~~tll*~~liL##.~~
~~liJI~~ f*~:!c~*+~.R#htff<P~*liJ~tt
j( $:*':ti iill It!.*
,J1i!mJ:' tl'd9i:. it
fil #I 9' ~ :t Ii) IW)th f !& lfJ
~ :!c 7f .A 1986 !f.ft!;, t!J Kluwer ill JiK 0-ll] ill lilt T -t,!l\i tf #<:4\ "Transport in Porous
Media",.!': 1998 !p ~ :ll Jti: T 30 I ill;. ~ ilil , :IJf ;it 1#( 4lI ~;!<<I' :ii[ ii" f I
I ;I;: df

i' *

:t'

fHi ! f!

~a#t#~A~-*~~llff~-~~.

*t;Jil:~f~!f.*h9'1#$tt**ht~h~
!~liJW!i~a~e~;m~~iillitt-tt~imillttliJch

i ))ill: <!Jl liJ

fl .II' IJi! *It i1fi ~ liJ. Ji!::( !If-;![ ill X liJ ;J: J::, I& tl

*Miii' iT. I *lf II .R

IMM.~<P-~rtf~**0R~i4J~A.*~

fhi4Jll~.~lMl~~-#~:ti~I<llla~.~~~.t--T
Ji<;Jt j( Cf' Jl.1 ~ f JJ! J: t1' !1i!!l(' !It*' 11'. J: ~bl 1#!tlffJ:t1il'4)\ ~ "1 ~

i4Ji<'f11r.

~ ~i '.lV 11' h

iJt

ill lll .! i"' ii , #!JI lJli ii it ll!li %:11~ JS~ '* A *' :fj , !Iii if ~

~f~*~M~a.1~rh~~*

~~*7IW.l2*ii8.:1lf7I*.l~-~Tilll.
~#illl*~m~fM*,tt9ttMfMR~M~K-~RMKM7I*;Jil:
*#1~7I91iJ-hIA, tht9'~m~lliJ-illR~
~.l3-5ti+%-~iiT~87J*~~~.~fl,#1'!7J~AliJ

*~~--~;Jil:liJ.~l~~-~*-~-6
9' \ #d'it;!J ll i4J f .
hTS~~+~illiJ~~~-.~~~~~-~ -~
~flfll!!f!~dill**fl7fl~iiT~~*iillliJ#lll
~ ~ ii JI; i'\ ?lbili i4J I iii. Ii) :11
i.l' '" il J'IJ J!i\
!ilf 'ff - ffi.. ~ Ii) 'h Jj;
-Ii #! '! J~ ii 1!f , 4 t ~ il' ~ + l'l llt - %J: :o!t Jic ;t >'.
4 iWt :t ill iZ .11~
~#lliJlfll41~lfll. ~~*~~I9W.~-
.t~-~MlliaM::lf9'1P*M#.~T1ill~-~
II': ,t 1: II( ii! <P jlij 11J. "' i.t. =1<r ~ 1 JN iiE 1 :1r ht ~" :Jt w:1r .1v !f .liI # JJ ;,Jt
f o if D"'cy Jl,i. it liJ #I 1lt :t t
9 f <!' ii' !f li ill , f iF il\ 11: ~4 $-Ii iiE fl

: lf

*
*"'
*

! f!

'~

I 7-

*
B

ii*

'1P a

m,

% _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ..

ffi

nf
JJ- x ;frl irl! , it

: 9' Ell mro -i 111. t :>r - it ,1 \iii :11: 9' '1i ll' 1' ii' 11 1tt a~
;~.
% !l.1>J
'!' :/E it 9' Ell EI lfl S . it ,1>t ii ,JJ; JI: ~ 1-i; i!i ii }J "!' Ell i: If P1 $. :/E Jill 1 o 1: '!' .1\' ~
~~11ett~E1Jtt1tJJ-*~ili~~*~.:/E~a~
lflJJ-7.W~-ili~~XM#J,#lfl~M~Mit~*~~~t"'n
irl! ~"-.
41 41- 1: i!t A "1 .ffi ~t .JJui: t , l. ill S: f if J!J( 1\ 41-1' 1: f .i'.)'1 "1 {IL It ii- , .!f ff

:/E

!If. i" It' iJlJ ~fl!: 41 h ilfi! .. ft] i'"J llt ' # ~~ ii I; [,(. !le zo
~e*n~E1J-~:>r~#E1J,R\E1J.
~JJ-~JJ-%~'f E1J~a1~1w;frl~ff~E1Jtt

ill t' ' #J -1'

*~97R~ill;frl~tt*#i~*f8JJ-1t18eEIJ#
f;. .<; f;. ~ Y: ~
Gp :r: 1t , :/E ~ ,/l; "' ~ iii.
t J J'f :/E 111. f >Iii .P.: ~ :f Ji'. , JX Jil! 'f{
:t :lit I; JVfP it i:l.

Ell 1T

ili

;;L

~:f

1999 eif::it!l

'f '1' ~ l'f 'l'tti' ;!:'!'


ffij

().

......................... ., ............................................................................... 1

i:'l'.; ................................................................................................... 1
0. .l ;\11 Vii: jJ "'lilf )\'. Et'J ~J \1 bt ;t iii: ljlf ~
1
0.1.1 Jt!!."flt-iff,, .................................................................................... 1
~

x ......... .. .... .. ....... ...... .. ..... ........ ........... .

0. 1. 2

_:t:.,f,~;'tf,

0.1. 3

1..>#J~;'ti,

o. 2

20

2
.................................................................................... 2
....................................................................................

tltiili\11ll1i:JJ"l'i'Jlltl1'1'Ulilfl'EJ!tllt .........................................................

0. 2. 1

:fh1f{.t,'fi~it

0.2.2
0. 2. 3

1f-f~~;.i\t

2
.............................................................................. 3

................................................................................. 3
~~4-till:;'At#~;t ........................................................................... 3

o. 3. 1 11. it- ' ~ ~ ;ft1 -if ;.A liJf :5t ......... " .................................. " .. " .............. "
0.3.2

J)Lffl.$Jf1C ............................................. ,. ..................................... 6

1 Jl;j;;.;lt,;tl1l;;j;;:1;!!1 ................................................................................. 8
1. 1 51 .@i................................... ., ......................................................... B
l.1.1
Ll.2

~)it,;foif.i'il..tJ~

..................... ,.,,, ... ,, .. .,,, ...................... ,,,,, .. ,,., .... 8

}Jl.Jril! .................................................................................. g
L J. 3 1itilb/!f!J-t-1Jt.~ ........................................................................... 10
1. 1. 4 ili1 ~ 'f .Ill& id? -if J'.. .:::.,J:,:fiJ .~ ;.t iil.J .............................. '" ................. . 12
L 2 ill ii' i'J ttJl!t .. .. .... .... .... .. ' .. ........................... " .... " ...... " ..... .. 14
J. 2. J _,{; ;\il ;,t t-+.- 4? m~ >fv ~" .~ '.lt 1.t. .. .... .. .. .... .... .. 14
1. 2. 2 if.t# ~) 1131l ;ft1.t .;f ........................................................................ 15
It il> ill ;~ 'l tt .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . 16
L 2. 3 ;,ii,

*'

jj.., ;;

1. 2. 4

ill

1. 2. 5

L 3

Jl..,

w
ili -t
*
i'J tt Jlli .. ... . ... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

lli Ill! .~ It
)IQ {r{i 11!, ~ f*.. ;fg

,;; JL fr )lit

:!!, MJ Jill. .~ ~ .j!'.


4 .. .... .. .... .... .... .. ......
$):. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

17
18
18

1.3.1

J1L.1l'-Jli~'f11LJ"f:Jt

1.3.2

ttdii.it"'ll.il'-~4

1.3.3

}JL1i'Jli.,1IIJ<,j\J!t.j!'.1!,"t<I ..................................................... 22

1. 4

JLi"~:i;i;~ffiJM

.. ................................................................. 19

.....................................................................

.................................................................................

21
24

]. 4. 3

Dupuit-Forchheimer .;!;._~Ji.., ............................................. 24


.fl! it ;IL #.ill ill;; ii:'~'.\\ .Ii. w.J;ci/. WI a 'J\ .Ii..................................... ... 25
#J ~ -t: {r{i Mi1 ft'!
J:J ill1i Jt?..
21

1. 4. 4

wt; ;fl1 }[ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29

L 4.1
]. 4. 2

~l11ti:tJ.t

_.a

_.a .......................................... ......... ...

\. 5 :if_fJJif:ffi"'"'''''"'"'''"''"'"''""''""""'''''"''''"''''"""'"''"''''''"''""""""''"'"'"' 30
1. S. 1 Darcy A:# i!ti!-'f ..................................................................... 31
1. 5. 2 D"'Y '1:4*"1fillll-Jtlt!fv1ili!i!.I 11,111 .......................................
1.S.3 Darcy.Jt#67.tfi( ........................................................................
1.5.4 Darcy;t,f;t-6~.tfi-* ....................................................................... ,
1. 6 :i.fil~r:J:Jrffil_ ......................................................................................
]. 6.1
l. ii. 2
l 6' 3

32
35
37
39

4'luillll-f!.;.l,~itilitl.'tll'"""""''""''""""""""'""""""""""""' 40
;~,~"ilnTili'il!i};.1,!it!~tl.'tc!l ...................................................

41
;ib :t. Jj<. .:::_ :ftl ~ ;)ft 67 it~ It ;f 11 ................................................. " . .. 42

1. 7 ill2:!11f1'11 .. .. .............. 43
"-~j'IA"" ........................................................................ 43
I. 7, 1 ""-" II "T
'I" .'( '"' "T ;X~"'IG

1. 7' 2
]. 1. 3
1. 7. 4

4,"' ill>}

ii'.'

*''

j: "t ~ -~~ ilsil!. ...................................................... 45

*'

4'"1 ;;ie
'4"illi}iJt ~ j: 't'11 .. ................................................ 47
i"1 'l ,~ .=. l 4e'4" ill il' ;f, ; lo ct "t ;r .. .................... .. .. .. .. .. .... 49

1. 8 :ttl'~7fffi1"''""'"''""'"'"'"''"" 0 ""'"'"'"''""'''''""'"''"'"'"''''"'"'''"'' 49
1. s. 1 .:J:t.tTofl ................................................................................ 50
1. 8. 2 ,:$;.;fLJ,Yi! ................................................................................... 50

!.

9 liitU Ill. !*~Iii!$ ill iii;~)} /illi\.& ;I;/. !IJH!d'f ............ ....... .... .. ..... ........ 52
]. 9. 2

........................................................................... 52
ill J!- ii\ it !fv .,, M: ii\ it .. . .. ... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... ....... .. ... .. . ............... 5s

1. 9. .1

1"tttfr7r~l69~1ttt;t&Jt.:t.~1;;i~ 57

l. 9. 1

,...;,f,,~M_4i\.i"i1

~l!lil1*11J!l;!;ij!1Jlf.

2. 1

JLf'ft~Hf

2. 1.1

.................................................................................

.59

vtt ~;ftl =mini. till.................................................................... 59

fdi:rf-ftiilL"''""''""''""'"''""''""'"''""''""'''''''"'"''""''''''""''" 39

2. 1. 2 +UU.ti1!i1;Jit ................................................................................ 59
2.1.3

Fit11JM~~lt'~

................................................................................. 61

................................................... 61
2. 2 .!! ~ ll! 'iilO!i! il: :tE lii.f'fllll: it' 'V lli1!\!.:5~ill9' flJ l'Z Ill....................................... 64
2.1.4

ili.J!-.1.S:fJ~''i'1'iililf:.1i1'tjilt#J

2. 2. 1

~M~:i!JT

....................................................................................

64

.................................................................
Jfl ~-rtik.:.4- ...........................................................................
2.2.3 !lli!cililt#!il.>t.~ ........................................................................
2. 3 ,1Jtt:rf:ruJfll!! ...................................................................................
2.3.1 ~.Jffl'c:;iP.Jf ....... , ..................................................................

70
73
75
s1
81

2. 2. 3
z. 2. 4

Jf]

2.3.2
2.3.3

:fr_O.Jf~i:rJLO.JT"'"''"''''""''""'"'''''""'"'''''''"'"''"'"''"''"''''" 82

2. 3. 4

otl~-!<Jt!<iJ\lki/i.J!-Nf;[LlJttf

~:11c>t;.J::4:.tf"

!DlJa)J:...Jf""t"' .. ................................................................. 83
...................................................... 81

z. 4 Xlit'!J:fflF .......................................................................................

85

--'lt-iff. .............................................................. 85
2. 4. 2 Ji !l\iJ\lkiil !l\ Nf ;{L -+if Jt M~ ......................................................... 86
2. 4. 1

;l(..~il*.>e~tf

2. 4. 3 i.t\:.1Jl:-~i!L~llft-ili.Jt'\'ltMF
2. s it 11< 1t i"I if ,1u#

~;fili~l!Z ........................................... .

87
89
q] i; ... '" ........................... "' .................................... "' ........... . 80
~ .1"E..M~J1J e~ 1:i.J. 1T- I") ...... '" ...... '" ..... , ...... "' ............ "' ... '""''"'"''''" 89

s"v ............ ... .......... ... ......... .... .

' 5. j
"'
2. s. 2
2. 5. 3
2. ;; . 4
2. e>. 5

.1i..c."-4l'l'llu2l1Hlf9'14l'l'I .. 91
,}:_, ...p, ;-
. ., .tt
r

m1.,, ........... , ......... ,,.,.,.,,,,,,,,.,.,.,,.,,.,,.,,,,,.,,,,,.,,,,,,.,.,.,. .. .


r1

94
;,iJ)<..JT- f"l flfr ll1.tl:.4~,.(i;\,~ .. ....................................................... 96

;jcqg)&'" .............. . 97
z. 6. 1 '1 "-Mf ''i 4f ~I 1l !l\ 111! 67'~1G It 4' ... .. .. 98
2. 6. :> Jl1tlM~J'i4f~lJi.!J\.qB7*'1lRi!4' 99
2. 5. s ft..~,>~* Fl &!J 7]<. .%11tl .if. ... "' ................ " ...... '" ........ '' ........... ".... ... l 00

2. 6

2. 6. 1
2. 6. s

-t:'.f.(J('ltltiJB?*'lB!tt.14'- ............................................................... 101


l.i1K4fr-1aJ~.Ji;tioJ1't:-

.................................................................. 101

........................................................................ 103
st lill'll':llrt-miti! ..................................................................... l 03

5tli!ll!llJli~DjiJHl-!ll!l!4li;

3. 1

3. !. l

3. ]. 2
3, 1. 3

l. t-- ltlf. /;!? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 103


Sturm~l"iouville liiJJtg,ri~if.~r

~iijf..i! ...\

................................................ ,,,,,, 104

"''""''"'""''""''""''"'"'""''''"'"' .................... lOS

3. 2 Afflilit!Fif;'f-1IT)7tf@;JJ::it .................................................................. 10s


.............................................................................. 105

3. 2. 1

:t.irifJ~ll)

3.2.2

;;fii'fJt\!,+A6fJ~-#fi;ilt#J

3. 2. 3

'i'JU~I!>Al-llti'-#1

............................................................... 109

3. 2. 4
3.2.5

}iJi.fL~;[~)lit~~iifL

.......... ,. ............................ ,,,.,,,.,.,.,,,. ....... 111


............................................................... 112

3. 3

.?Mi:.;;fii'~iL~fiiit.~;.-1t

l!!lt~Hl\l*Ji\'l'~J7t/1!1Jl'Jl

3. 3.1

.................................................................. 106

J(::t~?~.ti

.................................................................. 114

.............................................................................. 11-1

3. 3. 2

m:0: fr- ct JI l # /ff.1! 11 'I:

3.3.3

fdir&~};'f,t

.. .... " .. ........ .. .. 11"


.............................................................................. 121

.p ::.t)t':tL#J "'"''""''"'""'.""""'"''""''"'"'''"'"''""'"''"
JOI< ;i;. Ii' Ji\ '!' A'i 5t 11!> 'J\' lil

3, ;\, 4

.J . 4
3. 4.1

fijtf.f.#;

123

12 6

t!'674-lfi .............................................................................. 126

7r ~l ~~ii: ft J'1,i it .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... 126
3. 4. 3 !t: 1- ;,j: 115 Li g_ 119 Jit :i,t ;f,Y, iii iJ1 .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 8
3. 4. 2

-~ilkf:.

3. 4. 4

'f,;:;Jt-f!;i;{1Attg1,J!.tf'f',f.:Jf'u#J ......................................................... 129

3. "c fJ!+T1:lt:~i't:----fl!tii"i& ..................................... ,..................... , ............ 130


3. 5. l '""j\'~,tll'ilt ..................................................................... 130
.J. 5. 2 ct il lv cin Ji; :\\ 1t l 'Jt ~ It !It ..... ... ... . .. .. . ... .. . .... .. ... .. . ... ... .. . ... .. . .. . .. 13 j
3. 5. 3

~1'1~~

................................................................................. 133

3. 5. 4 "' 'ii' ;r, JJI. Jt . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. 13 4


3, 5. 5 fp, 0'- :lL .\ i! ~v ,,Jt ~ 11W. ....................................... ... ... ... ... 134
3. 6 llill !!'.ti..l\ "' fl'J If( 5t '.'): l* ... ... ...... ...................... ... .. .. .. .. .. ........... .... . .. . 13 5

Ii!;;,'" -Hi ;ll,"' ... '" ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ...... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ...
3.6.2 ~IRl:!:1JJ.;ll,'1Jfl!l;j;;-Ki1,,.-ik .........................................................
3. G. 3 -'f;lf!l!IJil't1--1'itiift.f;/) ...............................................................
3. 6. 4 :ililJJlt#.* 1' jlj<;ll,U, ...............................................................
3. 7 l!ltt'Jl:!ii.l\9'!'11ll5t'.l!'J!k ..................................................................
3. 7.1 lfflll!}j_d~filil~it.J;Jt .. ,, .........................................................
3. 7. 2 A.1R':lii;li.'Vfditi"ii* ............................................................

145

s. 1. s

""'"";':-11<;t,m .....................................................................

145

3. 7. 4

#Jtit1fjll{~MJ-:..~jffi,#,)

3. 6. l

.3. 8

~ f~

135
136
140
141

143
143

............................................................... 146

.....................................................................

148

...........................................................................
11<a1 .\\\ ill\ ta Jl!: J1: <t !!'. '.!!' 1!k .. .... ..

150

:Bf:~f..-f,~r.ptJfR5t:Je.~

~~lt,.f:3.:t*~ltB1JJi!Ej:ij

1. l
4. 1. l

4. I. 2

~F::t!~filrifffiii'L
~r4&-f'i1i7&/f1J;t

15 o
..................................................................... 150
..................................................................... 1s1

.............................................................................. 152
4. ]. 4 .f~lt#~.1li_l/,jt ........................................................................ 153
4. 2 3l:~!iL!f:l;fi1i:12.m! .............................................................................. 155
4. 2.
'31::!-f-67.lii.fJftiJ. ..................................................................... 155
4. 2. 2 ;Jt.!--ta;11tJ~ ..................................................................... 157
4. J. 3

4, J

~at.?.,~'f.

7Gli&*:.llli~'ftll'.tc7t1Tl

*" -t- ill ' 1i.

..................................................................... 158

4.3. 1

fr... f!l

4. 3.2
4.3.3

+lilt n,<l!l'i/I. .................................................................. 159


fc.f!lX-tifutlmJllU!t .................................................................. 159

4. 3. 4

4. 4

Ujt ................................................................. . 1$8

A.I~;!;

}Lf!lX-f-ifutlllifr?~

.................................................................. 160

ffl!~itl~:i1l!~'Pi1tC7t{ff

............................................................... 162

4. 4. 1 **1'.jM!,,;o/ 1i.~i'lt: .................................................................. 162


4.4.2 11!1.&f 164
4. 4. 3 .<f:-~at:J!/.ili~-~ ................................ , ................................... . 165
4. 5 Newman JWl!\!!i.!:J ~!i!illi1ill( i'il I& 1;'r;j;j< i'il I& ... ... ... 166
4. 5. l
1. 5. 2

Newman *-flt}.k ,....................................................................... 166

J:t-Jtlj(f-#- ..............................................................................

168

4. 5. 3 ilh~<f~l!1"i$ili~~. ~#ii~ ................................................... 171


4. 6 1if~!tJJ:1t5ttff ................................................................................. 172

..............................

#'ft .................................................................. 173

4. 6.1

J~1)1')-f-f;fti-J1J

4. fi. 2

f~*

4.6.3

:tJ'i:lf.!Jffil,.~[f.!Joi.ldti!i.*

................................................... 179

~Ei.tJ/lt;'{..llb~~;titr'Jid9&!:..JTI

................................................... 182

4. 6. 4

* ...... . . ... . . .. ......... . .. . . . . . ... ... . . ...

175

ll' J' i: [f. /) ff It~ [f. /) ~ j_"'


183
7)1'.--f-#- }!_ 1J Ft~#!..* .................................................................. 185
4. 7 l!lil!Rffiifiit1t~fl!:-1JY*: ..................................................................... 18'1
4. 7.1 ,,.-~J!\!1.&1'%4'11.ltlf ............................................................... 188
4.6.5
4.6.6

;J:

4. 7. 2

;\.I~!;: Ji!.,;\ 1' 1'f fR !i' iilUi fl} .!I; .\'L>t 41

4. 8. 3

>)>

189
4. s "1-!l't~ i'ilE Ii llHJ<J lll # rn 'l'Ot 192
4. 8 1 !!I l~#Ji.lt;Jl~;;-jt)ll'-U, ......................................................... 192
4, 8. z :fa.#.lii~6VlAJ.i.t,,-f.k ........................................................... , ..... 195
4. 9

!i .................................................................................... 196

m.tt~l/r.il}.E:tfJJil:'.Jff

...........................................................................

19s

................................................... 196

4,9.1

~#.ihtt.tt.tfei11ttFJA'f67El..Wl

4. 9. 2

l> # Ji .It .;le ill ji ;it <f. ,j\ 'f il _E Ill .. .... ...... ...... I 99

s t.iI l1!I IiiWT !Jl! ll! ii& .. 2o2


s. 1 lfttl'l!l:Wi'.!f'1!1!2'Jl;-ttiilt ..................................................................... 202
s.1. 1

.tii.tAtMi:.~a{JJLJl

.................................................................. 202

$. 1. 2 .j;. .. '~JI.\ :it & ;; .i. ~I iii ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .... ... . .. ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... 203
5. 2 :ttriW"tLWT5!::~1.Jm1Jf&iltr ................................................................. . 206

1 !!I .Ji.f-.j;.-'f Jt&~J!ilt il.i'/i

...................................................... 207
5. 2. 2 ft)Jtl lll:il:ff\-1i}>'fi.J.f-JiiJ/k .............................................................. . 209
5. 2. 1

5.a

mmm'.!f'~& 214

5. 3. I
5. 3. 2

Stehfest :&' ~ '" ... " ...... "' " " ............ ... .. '"' " 215
Crump ';f;:J;;- .. , ................................................................... .. 215

,.

5. 3. 3 .J ' i l .................................................................................... 217


(), 4 [M]fBff~:tt!!Ji.4'1l..'"""'l::J][1t ............................................................. .. 218
5. 4, 1

J~i.!1$.tt1J'it;ff

........................................................................ 218

5.4. 2
5.4. 3

!~i!l.Jr-Jtl!ftffj

........................................................................ 221

fJ!g~!f:EitJ

........................................................................... 223

s. s 1Pf,t"!Mli:-frw ..............................................................................
5. s. 1 ~;1::_..g.,iiJ!Ji'Jtlll.!:'.ii:"1iild9if ...............................................................

s. s. 2
s. s.
.5. 6

221

227

.................................................................. 228
3 1TJ!.I.j) ................................................................................. 231
40J.J:'ttila-~)JitJ.ifiil/lfi.

JGl\E!::k:ltt!.~

.................................................................................... 232

............................................................ 232
S.6.2 !UR k !i!.!;\ 1' 11. 41<;iJU\U.41 ................................. 235
5.6.3 JLf!l:k._ 11!!:.,1i-'f 1j(f1j' ~ ~-<t<-Jt f"'14f iii ......................................... . 237
239
5, 6. 4
................................................................................
242
5. 7 Duhamel ~};lf1
5. 7. 1 J)uhamel X:A?-lt~ f..__if ............................................................ 242
5. 7' 2 Duhamel ;t.1!991il 0Jl ............................................... ,,. ................ 243
5. 7. 3 ,\\ '1'-# f1i.lj' ;,t T Duh, me! ;tJ>t ;; $>; 'l' ~ J! ... ...... 244

5. 6. 1

Jt,f!l:k~~'fii:1!'11?1ii.1J

s. 7. 4

Duhar11el .ltJd'17tf_.ffl .................................................................. 246

1!!\:. ~e.g;fld.t:JI~

6. 1

............................................. ......... ...............

X?&k(;lJt?J:f~f;!fl1:

6. !. I

:'1f., #.:i}(.~

248

.......................................................................... . 248
!.!I -1' ............................................................ 249

::;-il{l:l'~.l

................................................ 249

6. ]. 2

'C!!.Eiliil.i~.t !1.ju!tl;,l;\l!.f,,*~

6. ). 3

<. !l \ ,, ,, Ii ................. '... ...... ... ...... ...... ... ...... ... ...... .. . ...... ... ...

25 l

t S(,,' i;l " t.i _&_~#.it {If" .......... ., ............ ,.,". "' ............................ " 252
'l1* jj} ltt :If ill ........................................................ ' ........................

6. !. 4
6. 2

6. 2. 1

~$. ->'11.

253

6. 2. 3

................................................... 254
\ 1!.ijc;.~ ff!lll: """'" l -A1*! #..
{. #.~ ifft 6~ 4~A,ffi, tJ ':i/-f! ................................................ " ............ . 25G

6.2.4
6.2.S

'C #-;jc ifc 14 iff. ~' ... oil jj iii. R. lu fl j: !>) 1<. ........ .. " ...... .............. .... 2tiO
,., ................................. "
"'"
262
it

6. 2. 2

6. 3

..........

.............. ..

................................................................................ .
~hm'f'!f1t.61"'" ................................................................... ..

~t$'i,iS~rm.

6. 3. 1
6. 3. 2

~ifit&M'ft;!;~lf.l

263
263

.................................................................... . 264

Darcy ::@.,tl-t.li.i, ........................................................ . 264


fa][l!\1t~~~,;:5~V[ ...................................................................... .. 265

6. 3. 3

6.4

...............

6. 4. l
6. 4. ')

+iih-&rf>J"~~

fl I~ k

!~.;\JC

r" i: cit

..................................................................

*&'i'u-o!tl'i:cltlu!taclt
_Jt4f~_fi{~~-!f}Q~J\W~!fJ\W-

6. 4. 3
(), $ ;J(Jf-J:rA\-f*~j'i[

6.5.1

266

269
............................................................ 272

........................................................................... ,..

~lli\,\l:f?JC-f*

271

..................................................................... 274
,.................................................................... 277

\.ii\ 1' r~f-clf


6. 6 k\.1t11Ff111ii\J:r .............................................................................. 27V
6. 5. 2

i~Jj;

6. 6. l

l'ii!;,'l'i"~-"*

6. 6. 2

"', "' <

6. 6. 3
6. 6. 4

-trr.tFt~ia.*

b>.,; A

~,-~JG!'lt.~7T

,Ii#.. ................................................................ .. 279


.......................................................................... . 281
.......................................................................... . 283

'till /fj ,f et I'~!~\* ................................. """""" ... """""" .................. 285


6. 7 Ai(:ffli~Bi)J~~-ftlai:iJ~.!_iit*P ......................................................... 285
2s6
6. 7. l fI,. /) l1t fl. 'f _ijL iA.
6. 7. 2 a1Jl<.il'/;lil.i!i.clt ..................................................................... zss

* '............................'. ........... ...... . ..... ... .. ...

.................................................................. 291
'\,--!t69JJ!..1-\#:.7f ........................................................................ 292

-1f-)'!!.Jtl!.~~J!J:j~tl.f)

i!lif'f>ll1!1*! ii!i !1Jliiilbl11!TI?:il'a;l!.:lll~ll1i: ........... .............. ........................ .... 294


7. 1 :tt~~VifJf\j~*fatR ....................................................................... . 294
7. 1. 1 iilt 11- i~ t& ;flt Ii. ........................................... ' ............... '' ............. ' 295
7. 1. 2

7. 1. :J

!l'"llil'TI-".w
L "
.!; f"tu:
~ ''. ,liJ I"
296
{.ft; ................................................................................... .
_Jo.

.................................................................... .

............................................................................. . 300
7.2 :fir :i;tJ ~ Itii Bil :f~ FrJ Ettgm ftff. f*V!i .;tJ ... ... ......... ............................. . 302
7. 2. 1 f dii-f' !fife #J<j :f; '.ii <\1[ .. """""" "' """ """" ""' """"" "' '"""" ""' '" ........ , """ 302
7. 1. 4

7, 2. 2

1QJl<f-*.i!~

*Ill'"

JI;

Ii!.,,.. ... """" """ ............... """""" """ ...... ""' """"" """ .....................

7.2.3

7.2.4

>!. li<ill .. """" """ .. """" ... "" """ .. "... """" ... """" ................................... "

304

......................................................... 306

#J::ff..dil~;tfi;t 1H::fai:Jil'.4'ili!t

308

"I '

.. 1PJIJ II' llif ii; iiJ LE llif iit Ii< mt iilJ ........................., ................................... ..
,')

9
310

311
.i IA. 10 i.i A. t.L1J M
314
7. 3. 2 "" [l[ Al lit l .a; 1J 1!l ill. M
322
7' 3, 3 ii. "
.a; 1J 1!l ill. ii;
1H
Jt
p;q
,ffi
~
fiiL
................................................................................
.
7. 4
322
7. 4, l fi:b .11<- il1J fUl -f il ~ i'lrt at; - ~:t .It }.i; .. .. .. .... ... .. .. 322
7. 4, 2 .$ ~. f !J *'1 ":t fJ 6~ -t'\i ;'f.t i/J Buckl.:y~l,everett #<ft ... "' ... 323
7.4.3 't Jl\fo'i' 1J 10-lft;,t;;; ffi1~1iM ................................................ 325
7. 3. 1

"" [l[

* ..................................................................

7.4.4
7, 5

7. 6

'" "' "' "' '" "'''' '"' "'''" '" "''" .......................... . 328

ittr'c i"f mwi!li "'\ J!(:=:.11 ifi lilt .. ..

329

*1l itl.E!ll it 1'11 Jj( ijN i!1i B'J 1i11 .E!ll ll!Jll .. .. .. ........... .

331

7. 6. I

7.6.2
7. 6. 3

7. 7

&! lfR1'i. 1)( /!>] ~

i;\ .%: 61] 'f1!. te ... Id: ............................................................ ' ... .. 332
3,34
'~~g i~<h!>!ili"''"' 1,;i;M
338
JIHI:' Jj !11 '1:. rJ ;jf l!; i: 10 ,,; Ill J;;; JI~ ~~);

.........................................................
.............................................

.m

Lt~fk(*Yttl~ttilmm

.....................................................................

339
340

1..ft'fr:f ......................................................
7. 7.2 1. it if fl llt '" l!t }( JJ: !>! . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . 343

7. 7. l

tlikf~i\!lg~.ftt_*:fa

7. 7.3
7. 7.4

~<{itfi671'Jt.hlt

........................................................................... 346

Mi<l!;'li'litJI- ........................................................................ 347

~:fa#fflfi1t'JB:419'tl>8~

8. 1

-~*m::&:fllts!:~;jjllji

........................................................................ 318
...................... ,................................................. 348

.. 4?#4i ..................................................................... 348

8. 1. 1

ll!tl'i~'ti

8.1.2

"'i1t!li'i'i~;,li,;;/ll.>)-'"""

8. 1. 3

51:t.:fl.P.f./tf'7;f.i(.~i!,,..,"l~

8. 2
s.

......................................................... 349

.......................................................... .. 350
11.><,,l
m 'L JI-'!'-'
A I'". 'I' "
OJ ><>'ft
~()IL ' " ' " " ' " ' ' " ' " ' ' " .. .. 35 I
2. 1 i:t:fL.1rll1t 4' ~o;:tt;:TI.*~it. ............................................................. .. 351

8.2.2

t4k~*" 354

8. 2. 3 tt<L-iril! 1' 4Ht-i~ ............................................................... 356


8, 3 "J;l..~frlVt..PW:J~mt ......................................................................... .. 359
8. 3. 1 lllJ;jf Ji.,.,q.;t&:lf"ili! ......................................................... 360
8. 3. 2
8. 3. 3

s. 4

JU~Ji:.,.,h\,lfJ!;~k~JtJti"'t!li*i 362
!c.11l:k.Ji..)!Iib .. ...................................................................... .. 366

~IRiJIJ~

..................................................................................... ..

372

8.4. I .k.rllkJJJ.;w-. ........................................................................ 373


8.4. 2 Iii) 1fj. .J:t l'.fl } Jk nb lb. ................................................................... .. 374

8. 5

~mttt,~4'.~mt

8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3

s. 5. 4
8. 6

..............................................................................

:lt./k:fri~~"l,67~~#1

::it, #.4fJ .ftit Fick

376

............................................................ 377

;t# ...............................................................

380

ff A'. "Ult~ ? 't .m 'l:! .. 3 82


i;k.'lf,;)-ilf ................................................................................. 384

7.tJ&.fTtl~

.......................................................................................

..

--------~- ~~~ -~--"--

386

10

8.6.2

J4L1i"!lf.Ml4J"-.ff}#'rt ................................................................., 387


}1Lt.Mt'1Llll\H-~!#lf>l;Jj- ...................................................... 389

s. 6. 3

i;'f1ffiiiiJIJ..#J4:l:::f:.tt6~

8.6.l

.................................................................. 390
8.6.4 -?f"JFJl"'Jt$.1i'-J1f.6Jl:fi1J.4f- ............................................................... 393
9

............................................................... 395
'\If fl' ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ..... ... ... . .. ...... ... ... ... ... 395
.................................................................. 395

q~.t.plj@jjJfi{ti;it:~'aiil~ Darcy~~

9. 1 ip 4
9. 1.1

Im iii:{;$: fJ'J ?t !!l: 11<4't mt '.1l'"'


~F f-4'_V!ik~#&,t.-n'-~

9.1. 2

Ji;\JTl'n1Jt:k7il:.~.!iliift#

............................................................ 396
9. 1. 3 !;>t1<1:/f *'l!-Ct.lfitd!. ............................................................ 398
9. 1. 4

:t!;l}i(tlii,lt# .............................................................................. 400

9. 2

4Jfitl:~Vit>f4'*'tiit

..............................................................................

401
401

9. 2. l

*if&JlJ;;-llit~i!:Jf

..................................................................

9.2.2

~~itl##~iiit~>fl

.................................................................. 404

9.2.3

~1t"i.f>f!1iV/flf

9. 3

Bingham mLfl'~Vi:

........................................................................... 405

9. 3. I ;!l WI JI .IJ ~It .t; hi: l~t! 1J


9. 3. 2 Bingham ;,ii.,#- a~ ;if;. lJlt ~
9. 3. 3
9. 3. 4

9. 4

.IV* ,j'. .........


............................................................

408

408
410

Bingham ;Ji, #if iii. .!Vi.!.J'f. il'dt" 411


1i;J~a~.>Jt~ .............................................................................. 413

mt 1* W. 1'5 ttffe Vft: .... .... .... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. 414


:f#ili.#. .............................................................................. 414
Bingham ;.it# ........................................................................... 415

~ F' 11!!1!

9. 4. l

9.4.2

9. 5 :\ZfL:fl'!lt'i''ll'1$Vi:i*feti;J~Vl:
9. 5. 1

AAC<L 1f' Jli

415
'f llli 1'1 j'Ht, ,ti >J' il\, fl; ~! .............................. ....... .. 416

l../1f. 'f 4):. :t i5 ~if~ Jt 1fj ............................................................... 418


9. 6 'J;J..'.fLfr@l:J:fl Bingham Vft:f*:fi!ltiJ~11m. ...................................................... 419
9. 5. 2

9. 6. 1

"-1c1r-Jli '1'1l11<l4'Ht,t!;filt 420

:i.Jli. -r 4~4t~;if;.i'J.t::fl~ .............................................................. . 420


YTJB.frnft~ Bingham lffl:f*~mf. ........................................................... . 421

9. 6. 2

9. 7

9. 8 "Darcy ~Vi: 423


423
9. 8. 1 -~!*i>lO
425
9. s. 2 4'.il!t;;tcll!kfl!

.................................................................................
........................................................................

10

~~L1r'J!r:f~~~

.................................................................................

428

10. l ~$J;lllt 428


10. 1. 1 Darcy Jt.#a?.fftT ..................................................................... 428
10. 1. 2

:ilfiill"i.f4J,ill~ Boussinesq la.liiA""'''''''"'''''''"'''''"''''""""""'"'""' 429

10. 1. 3

Miitfif~fr!J$1111A#

................................................................... . 431

~**~~:fl'!lt'i'fl'JM 432
10.2.1 ~ft .!f. ~ ~ Jfj ......................................................................... .. 4:12

10.2

10.2.2

i.\1, ti ~;t Ii '1-ilr ....................................................................... . 432

o!z

1J

10. 3 JrmtNWilnM\ .................................................................................


JO. 3. J 4*~~-t~"""'
J0.3.2
JO. 3. 3
JO. 4 flmiz..!Jt(:rpEt1J~~tiJit .......................................................................
10. 4. J .::. !j. J2~!1!. .ii li iJ\Jl.. 'JI"' I~

...........
'J<.+Af\+.M
*-+Afllllli

**:1' #- 5.1*.JiL

..

435

436
438

440
441

~!Jt> ~, .................... '" ......... '" .... ,, ..................

441
443

s xt!ltEf:J:lt.JZ
s. J
.................................................................................

447
448

10. 4. 2

10.
10.

10. 5. 2

.:::..

-~t*;,-

~flll.it'?fi.f::

.. .............................................................. 450

.ft.** ........................... "............. "........ '..... "......... 454

J0.5.3 it ,n: t;t .:t2l


J0.5.4 .j_f;}J*'"''''"'"'""''''''''"'""'''''''"'"''"'"'""''''"''"'"'"''""''"'"
JO. 6 iii Nl
10. 6. 1 ~J i" ....................................................................................
10. 6.2
JO. 6. 3
JO. 6. 4

*< ~! li !.I\ P; 'JI ;/f liJ .lJ 8 il!U~ ,i. !? It f

456
459
459

t.l llli. .. .. 460

-PJf '}l aj' i/.t ilt JtJJil t, 61 \ii Ff! J.. :9'i!t 1~ ...... "' ...... "' ............... ..... ... ... 461
1JW4t.-!l;,llit:fu~:ti,4i

............................................................ 463

;11 ...................................................................................................... 465


!JM' jl ................ ,. .............................................................., ..................... 480
A. ~ifilll!l!Q:)t.:m;IQ:)tri~,i>!~ri~,~~llli!i~ .......................................... 480
B. Jil.~:8\iil~ ....................................................................................... 481
c. ~j.fj~ ............................................................................................. 487
;;J

llliill'll' 491

=DXti ...............................................................................................

495

0. 1

l!iit:h~lilf3tf.Jr*J~&!til!:~~)l

iili ff jjj!J1$ lt fr !lt B'J Vlt iilJ fl< 1J ~ !lL zl!:lt fr 1't3' Ill ffi l>l !f'llf 1\i!fU ;jjj E:i'Ejjji a<HL l!llL lil!ii llt
~ l'i' ~!fl :f!,!111 'i!f PJf !!! lit B'J *& *4 ~VII. :iJ 'lit 3' liJf '1\: VII. #::iE $ rL fr !lt 'I' il iilJ I!$ B'J llf.' E: 3'
!It1* :iJ 'l'B'J ~1'!JtU::ll- x. 3'Vlt fi':h'l' '1!Ir5 .ti'. $ti. fr !Jt:(!l!.Ji>. :i!! ilif ifPJl!l fll ifPJilfHt'l' X'.J..
ilif llf litB'J
l!l> iili :iJ ' (!<; !lJ. /fl 11! Ill AlllJIE ;Ii;(' S .!!'lit :\1 $ fl> I Ill :It* B'J 1!l ii>. o!il/J lE r $fl. fr !lt i It ff
f 1' !l MJ'I-. Il'il;lt *'lfll iillttiil* fll . ~ ilii~* Vlt 'l'B'J !lJ. 111ia:Illjlij1'f .:klil: nJ ~a JJ-1' l1!! r ~
VII. , I Ill llH~ fll 'E ifPJ * iili 31' 11 ilii

*ill'

:n

o. 1. 1 Jl!ffl#m!
l1ilf*iili~lll~.!lr5fUl1!!:i!i~ffi!fllJ'l'iili1*B'J!lJ;!lt.B~l1!!fiili1**ll!'.~llt.l1!!~il

Jiiffe mt t1 &!1!! ritt 'f !lJ; Vlf.JLi'll\l:ll-. !1!! r iili f* 'Mll!'. m5ii!!.*~"'.11'.ll!"l: .!1!! l' 1tc !1!!~.
l1!! F lift 1,k 1&= tt it ill! ;\!f ;\!f. 1' Jlt;tfl ~ B<J ~llll 11!I.!lk i'r!E l!li Ji.<& Ill ii< ~J . J: ill i!l: Iii <1\1 ~HiHll
~ fU il.t i!ll ~i!i:l1!! IKB'J J:~c~ Iii l to ti~llllI l1il. lll!. l'151Kjj:1!l. 1f< J$ji' J!<Xt JliJ 111 lil!..IK a~*'."1'1fll71>
J$fll lltl1!! It' l1!! llif t!i:~ ! JllJ J/li
l1!!PJt ifiJ ;!!! $ VII.~ iii !f[ f* }J ' fll l1!!~ifia J'!! ' X'. J..t/1 fl" llif lb ffll !'J * !f[ 1\lJ 11 i:\: flll Im fi'J !if Ji:
ill' !J; !ll!ilil T l'i'i iJit :iJ ' 1.1! ;(>;(l'J : l!t l1!!1* ~ J!I! l'i'i iJit fil ffillf Ill '!' (l'J $ iJit tU "If J!\j !'J if> !lit , l1!! Jlk 00
!'J l!f lit llf.iili ,t 1* Ill B'J it . B'l !It;yi fl! lit !irfF 111 i:t l1il 1:1 & llf. 11' l1!!"" "' !'J* VII. '1li 'if l!f Ill
mr 111; 1i1!l!iHll'jjji 11tlli r Jlk w!111!1: PJT t1 :cE rll B'J l!f i;; '!' 1'l' tE fl-lji: :f Iii a9 ""!. \l'f fl~ 1!I:. ili i!
i'i':f jj!!f. ttli! ~lli!Ht ~~ 111 ffll l!fJ!\j , Powee' "1' (J 985) liJf '!\: T !I'!!! 'f B'Jjjlilf[. {E;~!&lil!.IB: lll;$
1!1111!.IK l1!!'1'li:< H1 fflllfflPfl. ;f,*ifi!i<$it!Jfl!'Jlil!~lf 00 i!3' fil 'f JJ< ti!tn !'J ~'I'~ E~B'J, ~
11" !'J llt:Jt 12: BE:!!: B'J l*ili t!f itilil >Pll iEl ii JJ<fll !!I! :!il Jt ~llif ifii1< B'J $it! Jfl 00 !'J ll: 1 'f P.l JJo. 1m-1 Om. GJea,on "Ii(! 986) fll Geo,ge "'!'Cl 989) ll<JlililMAt:IJ'l'!!! ;(>;t1'!111!ill l'!: T ill:!!!l 00 'lf!::ll>
11< (l'J!Ji,l!l, f;l;i9 18 ODO "f.l:l li!JB'J /j(lt'J, llf.'f" iJlj ltJ!.1! ;(!911 1OOm ti::tf. $Jl: f~ (l'J >f.\t!l\l!i: i'i!J~
l&l1!!1K"1; J1!l)fi l1<1:J< $Ill, '11!1:\'llf.'f jjij ftJli , :j\! !ilt!f ft ,(;Q,ink 1;. Boke; (! 990) ,~]~ ;(>;, ~i!l'tU ffll

*
*

*.

a<JlllB'Jmit~fFffl.*rWR!'Jl'E~K~'fl!I
NvierStokes 1f!!i!$"J, {];! ;CE;Jil;ll'ti!f K f, fllJ~n , ~ '6ll<!lid>H11.lll!J!Ul!li!t;lfi n~ J?;l"L ii" !lt , l'f

frn ili ll<tll !!!. etlfl Jj( li'J llil!IHt. jf Eiuf'illrft!fl!Jlfr;jjj!Llil!i (l'J!Jt;!!! 11'!$. ill:Ht!/rlf<89Vll. iilli!HA.
Doccy "'llt .Ryan o 990 Jt1'!illi1':J T !#ll<l'i'i mtB'J J.'1! J, Palm< 1990 Jlilf '1\: T Ji!:Wi't!!i!!'Jl'i'i ii!E#l
J'I!. Srnveoon g, Scott (1991) xtW!li'.iil !'J iif '1\: 11' T i!lilf'. ilif llil 11'l1!!Jt 41 8'1~ iJit m~lii Lowell
(! 980) !'Jiif 'It.
l'f $ !1!!r I !!i!f'l .!i!-"5111!.r jjJ; VII.!!'! t]J >113'. jm l1!! F {ill"'l;rn; Ill! ' l1!! l' "' f!J]I !l! ' ;oj(I@$! ' illi

iV ill' Jl'!!l( i0J11! T Will\:" J.il. IJ(Jl! *'lO'J i'I: JlJ! ~ ,

o. L

If.!ll)fmt

L !'I lj;!ii' c!ii:I!lt1$ ii[ l Jil:t~ 4'i- 1"' A.J!t $ fL MN i1l I f.lllilt l!t 9' i1'J !ii' fl>: Iii m , iE ffil l.i! 1 i!i l!I
ffil !E ;tilt illlfl O'Jill $ Il'I tt* 9' ! z 1lU!I f'i-1"''1\lll ITT A;:/;$ J'1At1" , tl: J'!ll if xi: f'i-l'f ITT$ fL fl>:
tt liif 'il: !ii' fl>: 1'E J;l; 1'< $ fl 't 1'f 9" i~ illJ *,Ml 11! JI: i e1i!' 1' 'lli' ITT (!Ill ~ , 1986J , I~ it> !ii' 1!11 J.il. it$ I
!It. ill siI!lt, trllii!T.!lt. Ji!$t!lt, >f Ji!i{Jf,!P, Ill( T'lillIIL ~; lk *2T.11t lb i:l'~lll, il:.ll' I!lt 9' 1'11!
$ liiil!\ii!IL ~niiil!\ , i;t Ill. !'1<!1iif11 :fr~, Iii J'tf!i VJ. 1' ,l[ lldt $ !iliii!!L 11; 9'11 W$!!Ii lk it>
tm:!!I! ti':. 111 sif11FA;J"'I!lt9' t!l 111~i!' lli'!ii'n 'I' i"l ll!i, fro 1!>\fol It: 9' !ill J%11ff Ill m: nxm."\, si1iil
!!!lll.i'E ~il!li'Y lll 9' ll'J i'll!:!\~ 1!1t, ~!ck M*'f. ~ ll:fli lillill '1! II: ill' A.il!$fLttlf<4 ~i 'i.il!!I! itll'i'tl!ltllll
"'1it>il1Lttlll11 ft, li!5'1:'11'.lli ffl li'1 :ti. l!i!!lt, *r.t.1'1J Iii ill' 9''.K"t it>llU!I~ 'I?: fn lei J!':i.n J!':i.'.J\:ft
#- , >f {Jf,tt* 9' ITT lif It: '11: l!! Ill It: WHt , Ill( T flti I lt'. 9' ii!I lll<lit M ft*!!: 'f fll I >[Lill( ill: "'l'iJT' BJ!ttr
T it>illt liif ?i:' AA'i!, Allx Ill'. 'I' J!!!I $J'lMi'~- li l!:l'iJ.!llm' './lti'fltli!JtJ:;j:.litJlUt 9'-1'1J' ~t
~r. YOlli!Y! ITT !lfJ\. i'>'i.ilfli il!i:/i.f.ttif i'J ll!#ffll#i'E "ti* it> mt f\iJ Ill!' il!!l\I ;It 9' i'J ire~/li'1lli iil'r~

*,

ll!i~~~illtnll'll'J!!i!~fllliffl~iliT~l!ll.

I Ill Iii'lit i"l ll!i -A!! !Ill tt ~ ;!["" ,'llJi J.il. $ t!l it!; !ii' 4' tp ;Ji iiit fie Iii' iiit Iii !!I! it "I' it!; illt 1'IJ 1F ill' Ill
1'; lit ill' , i!: ~ f\iJ l!ll !'11111#< xt l!il Fi! ;g, llf 1111 ell' i1' Jll , Jl' lii't *J!f-iV i!El!I' it> ill! n$ ITT 21: I!! ,

o. 1. 3 iE !l'lll l# m

't 'ill Iii' iili:Jli Ill iilJ !fl 'ill 1* Pl !'1/II'1* lilt illJ ' Ji; lilt 1* :IJ $ J;j 't 'ill "" 't!!I! 31.: Jl Iii'i!l iJij 21: I!!;@*
11'1 '*lil:"I:fr j</il/JliJ i*rAJ ll'J jj!; llf."'111! l!J fi'fkJ ITTJ!I' illt'
ft 'f iilJ Wfie VJ ll'J/li' illt, ~, 'f, ! ( 1982, 1986 l X'f 't'i.il mlff 'f;'I!'#- iJE ITTll''11 j;f,:ijs: l!l'1Tli\l:mli'll
~>~ilf <ll'.'11! 'JI , iilJ Iii 4 l'i'.!!Uf i'J s fi''f i! li\iJEJill '1:l'L:lt' 1!1t, 'I?: fll:l!\ 'if ITT Jll 'f li\l!Cfl1 !efll! 'ti!iJE 1j;j! ITT Jll 'll' iJEffi j;jf lfll-li\l:illl ~"'\'If llt 1llf i'J Jll 'f Ji\ !It. !O JffJ illJ [!lj( Ji\ !it fl1HR1J'f Ji\ !!C, 11\ &.
cO'Jlfil 'If il\ll'C, i!!l!H\ll'CJ:> if $fl ft' l!lt ll'J ::E:Jli1\f iiE, n11fLta1ilJ1'TfiiItilif1&*. !ii' 1*1'E.Jl;9' illtilll
J!tJjl./li' !IL :of'. fill 'E 'iilllliUll ll'J fLP.li(!l!'."1!tl1&*, il'J ill!, Ji 'If"1 o. 161, 'llllf :% 0. 275 , 'l!j;jf flo. 495,
h' ',!ll! ll' i!li)1JBS lff! 'I' lil :Ill &J '" ill' ITT lil'*'l 'IX !11 'ff ,ii;:-*" li': x; A. flelil iPll ;iJ 'i.iJ ll'J !<'I?: Ji!; '1l' lllE ;i:
ffi illi!1 VJ ITTIM!!iii 'fli! #-!It 1!>,:J!\1fll!:ITT , il'JPn, llliJll'll' ~ iJE , Ell I-i!:'\11 .,;iJEJ'gJiiO $ .!l:lt'1!1t, J1: 9'1lf.
iill ll'J illt fie :Z!iiO" 'F Ill lilt1* (ill! Jfil lll' J , f,!f Tfii J;J;~ it> mt!!: It~;!["" ITT , 1' A1* 11 'le ITT it> iilt::E: JJi IJI jZ
Jll ll!'llir F llt B lll' llir Ff Wf '!! l:1 Jk 'le1' lfil ii ill' 11 ft i"l I!,
ft'f lii'.lilit> iJil, ilf 'l!'ll! l!ll , Ii!'i.iJ i'J ii!. ;11;. otl!>.$ JI\$ 'fL:lt' l!lt, li!lili* VJ IK:fr .111! :fri'll "\ fi'ITT
'1iJ iii ii jjl\J Iii 't 'ill~ !ii' '
'E 'i.iJ it!c!ii' i1'J lif jZX'f A II:i!l!tu 1"1'1 i!li iil . Ii! 'ill'!< fl1 ;/J. jj< '11'. ll'J :It/Iii 11litff11!. 51.
JN. r-it> !ii'n "' VJ;;, <F 11t r ~ .:oi;orll!l ilif ilif iJi, "11 , '*''fl : Jl! li':JJt!rF 1'; m~ 1i< !'1 'i.il !!I! ml,l!l:fr
Iii Ii:$ i'l:!!I!:IfIt lk l't 1'E iJli "{7]: , !;Ii! !O "tfli 11!!,li\ lT :li: ~:If lil ll'J I f.ll Ji)lj ,

0.2

2o~~n~wE~

Jtl :Ji:!'! lli!il!Lt , .~.!Ii ll: ~f ~illi :lfjll, RP Fo JIEIJI( fF Z 1iJ Darcy )E 11! , 2: ~f,j\(fl ~illl :IJ $ !'Jifil
'E, 1IJ:!:ZFo. ill:~!'! !&$11 '!':it N E iliiif 4'J!Jilli1I 19 1!t!C3f';f~illl lliJ l!!!J!tfr T iJlli:, 11'
'l' 1889 11'1' Ill T ~!IL ll>::fr1f 1lil. it.iE !ill Jilt JI! Ill JI!&"!' ~~ii[ 'Ill ~i~ 'I!> 1lt!ft(1'1!!t. zo ill:!i:!.
it iJll iJ $1' T if: Ji'.!'! lit!!!
:lt l!il '\ ~ iJI[ ~ 1iJ ~ !If i1'J i1f )i:;fl;),\ 20 ill:!C 2o 'f.ftJf !ti; !'] , lif!fi' ;q iJli Iill'. il'J 11!!lil , l!il '\ ~ iJI[
ml!!'.!!' !ll! i!llJIE ,!'l 30 - 'I' ft '!l-;!fl ::i; iif If !iii '!ll l!!: iif If !iii !IL I* t lJ l!!t Jill ll'! q, !'! it mt fill l!ll e .i:i;
4<11'111! ( W.#~ 4! 13 [I J) , \l: iif U3!o ::!Pltlil>ltrllflfl'.J!Ji Jill'-'!O Foud" }f 1li!. ip.;ffl '\ 1*1IIJl!!t'I'
~ iJll il'I il:fr:lf l.ll'f 20 'l'ii:l!!Jt. ;J;jjj.;t; <RP ii! 1lt , E lill Ill'-Jlil 'Ii< 1iJl!\li! J ~illli1'J l\t ?t:lf lllillJ>
:ff lit ff J!lWin ll'-"'1*5l:; "!Jj. ;ti ( RP "ii! 1lt ' E iJli Ill'-Jlil 1'F 1iJ :or: !!\IE )!@;ill il'I '!& $ t!lltll! WI 1e
~1'tlfli11!J!lil:lr Ill.. so 'l'f"t;JHt~!llilH'f f il'I ;ffl il:lt. M;t;ffl~Jll[ !'! i1f Ji:Jtt;"f 30 'l'ft. fl! 'f
IJ<'l' If! f1J ff ;iJ T !'i ill Ill Jf lit'!ll fl' 71< iflit iii! J!t T iJli
;ffl'!ll iill 71< tll lt iJlt a~ lill '11: , Iii! "f@! .Jl:!lll
tll~t~i!llllf1J 'Ii'!!' iJ !~ lli!$, Buckley &- Leverett< 1942)1I.tl~'5 'If ;!J il'd'f Till !llJ'l'tl't1.ii!!l.f.
I& tlJ ~it tillllt T =;!fl~ J$:~!1 :lrllil!'Jl'!'lil>, !1'!1'1:!1H!l!1l!' Ill ll'l'!O !'ft: lJ 1'1111111'1, Sheldon ;'/Ji< 1959)
!fl 11t111: i1'J
lilf "1; w: 1\lJ mr fill
~ltl '5 'Ir tJ ttJ
!?!:till rii< <19 6s i ~ %11!: 1' ;!fl wE
fl'I ,llli, )(lJ 0 980 J, l!li, l!! o 980 li1!-il'Wf 'il: T J(!(l!!:lr m!*1itittill31' il'J =ill~iilt. -llltil'J =t!tll
"'ifl~!IL r'll!ll!J'lll!il!'fr!&ll;l<llf. 60 'I' ft if li1, lif!fi'~ i!!Hl:*:ir l!!tl!l !!ii i1'Jl!! Jtl<.( &l>:!J:<iJ!i Ill
il'I Jf ~ ' T ill'lllt:ir!i: 1'.( & ;;; :11;:1)- Iii: "'" iJlt !'] lill li::f1111111 tu xO ' !Iii (1982)1111 T 70'l'ft il'l lill
'Ii; i!t II! *Ill A.Ill< i!lliHt * lill lll'!lli , ill ili'il!' M i.'r!li:i!!it filJ /Ill il'l lill 'il: ,

"G=

ill.

Ji!;"""'

m,

m.

~~JIEJ@;iilt;!J$i1'Jlit!ll!~tE~TR~:lroo,

o. 2. 1 fl! I! it: :\J! 1# mt


11!! 1!l! 11:'1'~ ill::ll!f.i~;/f ;li ""11iJl!l!?JHt '!O lt $ & &:iltll'-il'J ~illl 2:1:!;11!! Jll!'JI: ii: f1J ii:$ & &:
iltl'il1f Mil!r: , It !!L >Fl!!: , '!!! ~ , 11'1 'i!! , 111 !iii , :fr ,Ill , :!L 111 , if! 'Jl<, ;;; !!!:fr 1'.( bl. *1. ii:, :it. ii:, i!! I* ii:
;; , 1 lill
l!I! , !Ill li!! Tlili lit , il:I , 111 ill: lilt 11: !till!.!ll Jibl< lit11:illtt# "' ,ll!li!lJ!J\tI!!

n:= ix*

11iJJJ il:'i'itill C!lilill', 1990 J ,


0. 2. 2

~~'-!illl#lilf

i'i!lt il'I ~ill :IJ $11111\'l ~ill>if fli ill'lll.lltlll , ~~ ;\1! 1!1:11' JI! 1'$1 T J!t I!! !Ii .:IJ ~'Ill i!\ It~ 1'.( 7r , JEo!\'
~ $1i11lt~. 1I "'lX.!l' lJli, Jil\!l\Jf lit~J & Jil:;;o Ill'- ~ill 'I' , ;J. !liJ!t $ill:J,h 'I' il'llll.fft:?t iii!!.( &IJlt
I* fll !ill I* il'I !!\Ill! 1111~!&'Ill!!\51: ~ '!& ll1! l!ll !'! !!\ 1'l 15 !E !II: l'I fl' !\\ 71< llli !!Ii I>! 'Ill !I! ta~;; .
!EIii: /'OZ 1'f7t jg 'If ilJ: ( l"l ll!:fl' A> f1J 1il: l'I: !JI!lil1 <aifl;fl'A l , l!TJ 80 Jf.ft~ !'! i1i :*ill !if f1l ~ lJ\' ill
~lil!J Bb!l~. tf 511!. flt .Jm. ~ill' lll1 !J:ff lil*ill Ill 'fl< ~.Yl:J'irll! iii l!ll 1!1. 111f!Jllli ai t11 iili'liJ!i m e
J11fr T it Jf. il'J !l\jfl:I f\i ,

0. 2. 3 ~~!:!=~mt~l#lilf

**

'JI:* *)

"IrJI\! il'l ltili ;!J $ Jilllill 'il: il'I iii j$: jl,J ~ !\' ;!J. &:
:ll!ii!tt lX !') ' :or:~ fri>:"" !\'
;iJ Si')('** il'J !IL j;j; JJ:1iJ 4F 'f Ill iJI[ J$: , ~iii iJ '!' 9' '!!" 1!11: l!TJ i1'J 4F 'f Ill !Ill'.!: 1iJ '.II( Ill l!J (B;oghom) ll:I
!1 I* , ;i;;1'1! !!ii il'I i!l 1!/l tt ill I* tll 111! 1111f!1L I* , tE.=o ii: jf/:l!il '1' rliJ li!!I>! fl' A!JI! lill ll~ il'I ~Jili' lll! fr11!Jl'll
l!I , :11.>l*:l!I , ~Jl<l!l'f1l !lil!ii ~ !&:k il'l Iii il1l!I ;\I! llll:ll! 4F 4' '!Ji iJI[ I* . t 7./<;!J !Ii i!I 1!: '1' !EA il'I ill:I*

wm

tt tttl!,JlH~ <t ~mt Ii' 1 :r !l1 Jll mt <!' fl'J '' 4 wr mt Ii' 11 Jl!iu $1L II!!~ ~l"' ft
111J11 !il Jll( diu
$1L ~UIJ!M~fllil!i ;f <!' 8'J !!! kl!iilf ill', Vi!RI>lt <!' U!f !'.i< 'li r*i 8~111t li'!J>. "!!.*.'I: 1Jllmt <!' 1~$
mt li' ill;/,; qp 4 ~mt lj:
-119:iJ!JIE .<e <t~ !It li'JI; mt 111!:Jt!r l!i 11; 4P ~ tt fl'J M'f-!IM'l Ii!! , ij AJl!iulit ;i; llHt1lli ll!
llt Jfi~ 11::3" jljli{;@!I; Jll , MJI; mt jl\Jll! Jill lll! 1lU1' /f ilii flil[ T -%!! I ft .xt" ~tt/f Ill BT ill
llJ #1 Jl:l tt xt ~~tlt flt' m,,. 5t :lritoJ rr l<l11l!>Jtm Jlt 91 ,1 l:E !!! il'l!i lll:lti R>t fl'J illJ ;t; !J!i i'IJ !r
ilii tli,:!l:Jii! T -%!!'1J11!ljjl!J:l1fli<.
ll!i .ti "!:lill'l\:J1ii! 9r, Jt't!m!ili,l!I (meso) Jlltlt, filf. li!ll/l!il'fl'Jlilf 'Ii:,$ fL fr llft'i'B'Jliiiilll!
j(>; <!r11f(. li<11f(.\'f J mi ft> ~ttillfltlll! j(>; <4P'.'li!!il Jt;m <PB'I it x. im i<ti. :Jtlf' fr mt <PJlltlt .\'!') 'I:
1$<111t wa Jt; mt :ii;~"' lll: fl'J 1m J't it . tr :11'. nito fl'J tili!!iil' ii111t ~:1rw mi;; 111 T
fl'J Jml

'r

o. 3

~ 21

tttti! JfiJll:JI ~ im JJ~J!!!i~ 4i I& JlHi!f 1i (f.J Jim

Jll mt 71'I'8'J :!!: Iii! , - ) f il!fJi!dl': llJ I :&ill'.'!:?" 19i'll! lll 45- # :il; Iii' f'l Ii!! fl<] ilf(Jilll t~ ff!! illJ 1-1ril!f:lit
ll' l!J #l ~ #;i; l!i ;f :!!:ml FJill! i!\ 45-f'i' ilHll :IfIt 8'J Y: 1'fifll 111 WJ li13iJIE JI; l>IE ;h "l' 8'J :!!: mlX.11k:k
ll!! f)j!J ~- illll'l fl<] '!:?":!!:ml ifll *11!tz1ili J!I fl<] ~ l!i J:W 1E 20 t!t!C *lll !J1[ 71"" *!it ifll #1 #"!' l!i
:ift:Jt!il! fl'J .il!i!ili .t. Jt; mt71'1' fl'J l'I! il:fll !tz Ill !lf n1E 21 t!t tc.t '!'or~ i;:;, l!bo r'" ltifll iit!A fl'J :Jt
!II!, ril!f itMIJ'f ; J:lj Jf fl<] ilJI;\,

0. 3. 1

l!I! 52 '~!Ii ;ft] JJ ~ lilf ~

1E !ill 'I\: lill J!I , BT 7} ;iJ .!!!Hi: !ill 'Ii: , :t ~!ill 'Ii: 'fill it:ll'. :lrli< =: 1' #1:aitift':a#l1' Jt ~ 1f ilii
0 , 3 , J. I !ill Ill, if! iJl 811 !ii! !J!:
illl llll JI; !Ii~ lll !lf J'f1 Ill !Ill R llt .t: c '1f:::: ill: ft:# <pixel) '111.=.!1 ft:# <,oxelJ 8'J ~ R llt l<J 1E

T.

WrJJI; fl[ fl'JttJ!lt, f~!l!B'JJI; tlti!:lill 'Ii ii: l~1'l'tt. RP Itlt'i"l<J 1'l'tt, Tlil ;f llll ii1l tJ1
$
1L Jr llft r'J i!ll a~ 1 lll! it"" ill:@.& JI; lllt !IUl! !Ill Jiil .5;' :!VIVAil 'II; #1:ff10 Jt BT ij; x&i$; mt ~ ik jg JI! lm~
i!lJ !ii! Jiil Jll fJIL !ill 'Ii: fl'J r'J <\' iil lli , $ll fr 1llt '1 fl'J 1'l'l'Un fr 1llt fl'J1!i tf !IfIll , ll f!l('fll !!Ii!!~ 5t ;tp ti\'
15' 1L iltii! il!f 8'J ll!11!illt , fL llJ!!lt ffi Jll~ $ fl'J 5t ;fpfll Ill~ , $ ll fr llft "1 l>fE f4> fiJ fl'J JJ\ , !m cii! Ii!! ffij
llH, ll'lfflffill'l 1'l'tt, ll!l~U !lf )t;;'pffi 45-.19ZfiiJfl<]if;;'p!iii111',
I OOm

0. 3 !. 2

ill fil 1/11 '!\l' 81! !Jf !I!:

tlt~l/llfrB'Jlill'li:~~:ll!~Jllmt71'1'.5;'~71;i;~#*19i'~~fl'Jr'J~fjjf,lj~ijj*illl,*

* '*'. n*

$ll! :Jtll!! :111 , ll!! wm ~ ifll m; ll! "Jt; !Ii" . ~ iiJJ * illl :lit i"J Ill J<r :h ft Ill *jJ! ill;.o illl i&
1'f
llJI ,1'E3l:''l!:ilti1lift mr, ll' 1Lfr !ll!iflltlt l*kl:'f llll ll*i&i11i fl'J 'll: tl'ilt lli!. !tz J1. li\''l!:Y< ~ ~ illl'l!::IJt
;t;,*$*t*~~~~~~li'!tz71~~.ll!!iliim~a~~iltl!itli,~.&~li!ll/ll#~~.~
!;! 'I' !l'i "\ Jllflt 1'J ill'l* 71 ;i; B'J I/II ii' i!:*ill'ill'.:fll ill'll'! 'I' 11\i ''Oft;: 9' <l!H!lf!lf 'II; fl'J lliillf il!BI A J9f Jiil
lill ,ILJ!li ~ It F llill!!.!JlJll)l!l;il"I A 0'J 'I: ~'ti:~ , iii~ ll! "\ 7f t;: E ~ 1a JllH!\ !Ill ii~ ~-tllilt fl .

lllt flt' ll!lifll fl'J $ fL fr !I!! 9' iB1 .!\ fl'J flf 111tJi,:ll!-1'11111 Ji: Ill fl'J 'Iii!$;

o. 3, 1. 3 ltiilitllll'Jlill!I!:
iEilt!!il~ l!l ftJt; tlt 71 'I' 'I' ll'J lli'llf il!!i!! 'B ~ .& ll!! r * 15l!! fl'J l!lilil , Jll fl'J !iUltit Ll .&=:

o. 3 'I 21 -lit le, lli" Jill it iJI. ;? ~ ))'. i!; Jj s !II "I :I<: I? .l lt
5
II:
"l'l~, Jtlff 71</ii!ilill'J IJj( IB fil1l)i\.l'.C!lll Cf J!l , :Jt!!!ll< Ji; Jdi!li!! Jf J!! A *71<r.! , I!lkil 1)(
fU 1': Iii /ii 71< ff~ A!!: l!ll Fc Ji; Alti! T * Jj(Jl! ,1t ief!J ;&JJi $ Altl!li!! Jf J11 A* :iJ<:il! , lltl'illll!!Jz: B'J l'ill71<

*ill!

A~~&~~l'ill~m~il!~~*A~M:iJ<:Jl!;!l' m!ll'IJ'J~ili~~ll!!T:iJ<:*fi~~fim!ll'ffi

xm-tt *~. JY!ll!! T 7J<if.it. !tiA !\\1': m. IAtJll :iJ<:fll ti!lkllilllll'* Flll:li~ =:11: *ill!~ fiillti!

il!ii Ali!! mffltt ~J !11'!ll! illl lll' m1iJi &. Ill' ili 1!!: B'1!If11. !ll'lill ilir.t 8'J !If Ji'. ~ 1115f. CFick Jlf
1!lt IE iil!f!J :iJ<:ilb :iJ Fil!l1'1! ti>;~ ll!iil!! , 1''F i1Jrf1 !il<l!lt!Illti>; El ll!1L - 1!!1 ~P !Ill 'II' 4' !Ill 'Ii' JI[ fU i"J
!Jf~1!!1 "l'. U;: !121'5-fi tt~.;\\ :1'lJl&*l5J!JlillliUI! ill 1111' "!!llll>IJ'J 1'11!1:. :iJ<:;;JJ Ji !ii<1!1tll'J~:itt~
~ ' !l'l iE 1'11!-ffe %11,

o. 3. 1. 4

llli-t~~i!Eillillf:ti

!11111: -~ i!\lttn~ fl" !llt :iJ 'I' !it I!!! l~ti< El 1!1J t' iltlll Ji'.51 Jl.fll If!. N! 51i!! !Illti':fll J)Jt 'f l"I! ii': 3 t-

n ilil .~~~:IJ'i'~~~~)iJi&51J1.fllmN!~&51*!111~.
-1' 1~ i!\ltt Ji\ it.~ ;ll;M lit i!;~~lf 1~7;: 8'J JiXtm tt , l!i if<i1> ~ '!l' itill!r.t rhli J'il{i![ i'J , Ji\ 11C 'llJ iii
t'tt.i (;lil; t.i ill) (!<; l!5~ ili 111\"' '!)' 1i1l ii. ' ;;: l!t:@tt iil1If!fl8'J '1 -tt ili 1i1l JL 1-ffl 8'J 51 Ji: J2;:Jltll!i

iii<~ 51 JI. J2;: f>i 51 X n) iii< ::\1 'lll !&51 JI. , Jl>~!lii!!!l; JI!;!;: , J: !!>!Ill~ ilJ lill~il'Jf 8'J 7)< 'F J: lll: J( , BP ~lJJ

!1!51J\'.51 Ji:J:i"''E::!il:fr J\'.. l'i/" ':=':!1!51 JI., Jlllit!lti!!l:, ili 111\ll!'ll'f iliii'.t!!:JTJ- !t iltf<I!. Ill:
N! ;( 1& Ji\ ilf. ~ f\llillllt 't ,1f 8'J ;to x"il JI. 8'J tilll' till! . I!! N! Ji! ttl '.Ji' 1': ~ ~ IE ttli\ ~ 9' (!<; ~ 1\:l Mi
llLIJ'J r.tfi\, 'f': Ji!<eii!lttll'J !+Jilltt. ijlJ Ji!~ !"itJi!ttlilll tJ 'Ji\ it IJ'Jnl!tf!J 'IJJ!ii{i![%f:!it IE .M.
~ 'i' t !llJ:'! t- ;;JJ Ji 'I' it~ 11: -t- ijlJ ll! ttilt mi!!l :it m!'i +::B>11liJtr JJ II! 1l:l Mim ,Ji!!jll ::\Till Ill <IE
@~!if<.<\\ Jiil: f1' xJ.I\ 8'J illilll 11. fl" Ill' ~ l!l l:!t x~ im: Ji!ilf Ji'. ?l- x fll 111 N! IJ'J-1' It~!~ , m1n
ilf li'.lli! N!ilJ N"1JJll fi o!! (!<; l!li'li, l't lllJ :f:"1H1'Jlllf<I!
51% l'l!~:ll\ 1982 "!'Eli lii! ll!I ~'I' :ii( M.nddbwt JI!: Ill (!<; , cjf El llJi J'' IZ.li!!!l'!ll 'F1W Ill!, -It$,
Ji!!* ' 1': 1W ' Ii!! it ' ilt:filf ~ & ~ ~ ;!J'"i' 1ili ~ J2;: ;{!, "ii!ltt~liE 8'J JL {ii[ 111111\ ~ <i l!lif!J 1.11;!Jtift
~ El llJi }lj 'J'~jl! , Ji!!/ll' , ,j!f6;f\11,l';l'f'~1L fl" Mf1'tt 8'J jjl i , ;('ft 11!.11\!<Eudid ) JL i'J ~ , 1W fflt
'i! f~Jl\ Ill l!l~!t'i!<1iEifJ , IP 1. 2, 3 !t. ill:fr*!lll ii':Jl\'ll J1151~!11i!lli >! l:!tlll\~, <lf'l'J'U;:~!* ~
1151%. ;II;~#.\ 1*1i1l~ 'i! lliJ 511P Ji! lliJ Jfif1'1. 1~l;J "1ifJ,7f: j'(:1it ifJ, .l'.C lil:'i''llitifJ, ~'Ii R!lt !l'.N<

8'J"~J\:lttfll"~M1't.51%!111~~~*@*~8'J~llli~-~~#TilJJlllitf>i~fill'Jn~li!!

1i1l ili Jo ill!l*A 'If~ ii:l tt , BP !Iii* f'l llli~ M!'Ii :lL 8'J J!! :iE '1fllAll:!Iii*8'J !ii! Iii . !>: f>i<l!I ~'f lli 1L 8'J .!\'. :iE
iii<::\151%5E.R51ID5E~fiil51%ill!i*i'.t!!:i*~Y~51%5E~l!li*IJ'J~t.i~itMl!l.1i1l~A
ill~ iii ' 'l'{)(jjl i im N!;,; ~ B'J!l!i'l I'f A :fl 51 * ~ !!; ' ilii il.lllJ 1.llHli j'& Jf.Wi nlll B'J ~tt;ll; lil: 'l' 51

!j!>[1ij.
~ill ili 71 'I' ~ 1!'Ii' JI! !.!! JTJ , xf *Alf 51*ttJl!ill'J1!11 ill! , Eli 'f fl" !llt 8'J 'IL !!(Ii': fll ill ili $

'"51

iii Iii~ fi ~ ' l!i !:!t!llll> ill Im: !!\\iii! B'J ~'I'. !l'l #Ej **!lilt 'Ii~ .
51*JCJo51 IDi*z f.;J 8'J i!IH\11*1i1l ~ ~1iER ill' 8'J ~ii: tt Eli 'f fl'tE $ii: ~1iE R!!I: .51* !Ill it:
llt!li Y lit ~iii< !lt ~ & 8'J n~ ,NP It!!I-It lf11!111ti>;

o. 3. i. s ;Jl;!l&J!'*l!!i!l!rl!!l!ffU1'1
tE$ iii "1 !I'; 11< !If ~nililif{I 11H11 it;1;::Vt I!! i:t mr x lii!lli! ~ fll 11,;r; tt n ill fl'; Ill XI! t !I';

"*

~~li'.nilii$!1l71"i'~Fcr-:itE71"1'51J<.~#~~~*tt*"11!1,M~1fT~m.~~x
lii! !ill iji,~J'i'.!'J 1: ~l'll:;l!:}lj X Mi!\lll'!ili All; il!fi( <X-CT)f!J !IH!l:Jlil!!~ jj!fi( CMRI tl NMR!J,

''"--~----------------

o;t;;;

X-CT fl'J I fl'!l\1'1!"' X M~i!J:tlJltilll llil>i'i'I ;t\'l!!lUl:JI 'JI ilil X M~'lf 1' i 11 '1<Jll'. fl'Jllt~, EE lit
1lJ m!l( lJl111!1lliJ1* fl'J Pl llil !lifl;J, j; Jt fl- !lt fl'J 'IL liit'i'n ~!Jl:))-;/fi ffi_ ;It ))-JB$ll!L MRI fl'J liJ ll\i ft 'f
X-CT, ;it I i1' JB(ll!!":lt l1<111lJl1 illl lfia f4i fl'J ti( iii"'!!! /Ii .Iii , ifi! l\li ;it l!!!'Mt llt f1lJ fl'J ~ ~ , ill' EE fl ;Ill' ~L Ll
Fomi ;!tl!l!li:l\l!li<i!l'1ilt1iltjg!,I!<1lJtil:illl j;J'L f)- !ltfl'J!lii'J~tt ( J1. !li!'i'n ~!it))-;/fi, fl liitJll'., ))JB $~ "1' l , t!t. lif tl:ill J;;J!t;lfiall! ~tt 'fl! il!f. iJIJ $~<iii ililI!! i1ll tt. li!!'fll Jll'.Jl-;/fi mU>l:~tt'.lli 1t"1' l Ll
&;)![ 1*-'5 'lfli fiil>IE!B: fl' 11! "1'. t W-m~J: :t:/ll1 &ci!fti li!lt'!l' IOl 1*til !lt. El itr lil.ii"ltfl'J Jl-111$ ;1; ,
=!tit# <BP Jil.;iJ<llU!vJ> 1lJ IK?rfl'J!!li:ll::it:lt.\\\) Eli!if s.JJ 1'.
lliJ ll!l!Utl"'jfj !!! lliJll! <llif 1' ft ilD ff.!1ilt1. n >li!Xt'f !l\ !!'l 111-)1! tt i;lj 11\iltlii!!'l tE '!!;!10::'2 9'
ill' !!\:It#!!lg, '.Iii 1tli@fl'J tt J;\:#liittl 1if Ll !lo !1! fl'J t!t. 1if Ll "':0:!1! fl'J ' 1lJ Ll :!< -'ll->lil Ell 1!!. iiJ' Ll
"'*>lilfl'J , 1iT u :11oJ!limfl'J 1!!. iiJ'Ll "''"ill'm B'!. -#11!' l!!fl'J ti1 ll!liil1:t'!lll"'* m=!t l!!!!'l <1'1JJm ,
;it 4'-ilil J'l'l1!!11$1$! l!D , J'l'I !ii. illt tt:t'i'n l'l lillii if }j\\i!l'JJ\\!,~ ::::11111! !!'l P'; fl'J ii<;)![ !111'1! ifll J!ll1'1!. xt
Ii!! "'1l Jll'. Ell i111 :lti!!. iiJ' *11 J'l'I il!l I" ill'. f!ill'!M~ .X. 9' 'f JI! ,;it W-1'1! 1E. Jib!f 'fl< l8J fl'!;)![ iJ; xt M~ o!f :f i'I
fl'! llJt ~.Iii 'li1 ''If at ;I; 11< /iii illl :11111 Jll'. ' J '1E'1<>1i! 4' bu A'll''f llJt ~Jf!B!!ll>I (ilU Nd)

*'

:I; 11; a<J liJf !II:


ill '-" (L,,ticg") l!i , :It :)'1; !" 90 "ff t:J<:J1' fl'Ji/l T 'it II':;!( ;ll: 1i'1< (LBE) 1ilt1'911 iA ;I; !"-1'1' :It
O. 3. L 6

i!H1'JttJ!l'.j>l!t (fill. illl. 1Jli. l 997). LBE 1ili<:IHl't--t ~;)![ llf<tlI 'f 'li1!li Jll'. iflltlI 'f*l!l.ltJll'.1! 3C
fl'!))- t iil3 'li1 , ~ FotE I'll ii J: f!'l 1$_ 1'))- 1JH1i ttfl'J iill ti 1ifi!. xt 1- A1! !!'Ill i1.I. tt fl'!$ l'L:il'!lt , 1iT Ll
!TI fiillllli1tl'i'l!!ll( , ti\ ii'l i1!' rr !! 1*~ im ill "I: !!'l J J'l'I i!Ei1!' rr1101111$:iili. a<i tt l!: ?t Iii , ~u i!>Z'f "!'
fl'J >1'>1i! ii1i. iJIJ a<Jil< ii1i. !111'1! 1"i>Iii;)![ 1* fl'J !!\ill ill '!!ll 'i'n 1111 WJ!ll ~ , ill ii' fl'J >Iii '.Iii "'1l >Iii ?T ~ tn'l!i! J!li <!!',!Ill
'*1990),
lt J!I' 1il!i Ell lilf 'I! 1f{ 'li'ff ti J!I' 1iilf JIZ 11! i11'!1' :IH'i'itl!: e<i llli '1< .!!,
1f-1' s :k B'J ti J!I'
!E .!rit ll! 11!!.?l- JIG ;i;:!'i'f'f !E.!r 'Ji':IE;J; 1'cl'U!l lm J: 'li'fi'Ji!!. !M'i' iJli il!G1!1:i0:1!!JV1'J: f4'iEJ!l''li' rril:
1il!iililW'lfjl!j~. -~Jl;JKJ>;!;))-111*. i!t:l:fl!Ji\J,\,!:!r~ Ill Jll'.Mliill11'J: fti!Hr '!Hr it. Jl-!J;Jj\
SST (Sequential Staging of Tasks, 1[ ll' ;l;f:E9' Jlil!ll' Ill f'!) 1ilt1 .il<:li'l!i:l!di'- a1 1'u) lfl Jll'.X{ ;j!!lt( ~
ft i1!' rr 'Ji' ff it, ;i i'i', '1E SST .\l,\ ;\!\ fl'J li!iill t, :J!:)!O T Double SST 1il!i (\ii', l1. "1i .J 998) 'fl!
Multiple SST :l:f#( (Zhong, Kong et al, 1999) , J;\:Jl\;'f'{J( 1'!11l il1J 7(.li:;i!tfi' fl'J-~:}(j;i!jjljf jll' r~
Uii:l:t 'If fl it;Ill' fl'J 1ilt11' Ll f!'llib mi .f'l I~ o!f~Ji!!. l1i! il!il! Jll'. , iiJ'xt iJli iii i!t ff l!ill WiJ Ji!!. 'li111! !!! Ji:(,
~ llif 'lfl'i'ltJI: e $.:o;ilJl!!il<ttll!!llWB'J lltl1' 1i JiiJ.

!Ii."'

llliii'il!!ll1fl'i1!~5C1t11E.J1o--t:itl1'1i1'J,J:t~fl'Jllliii'ittll!l!!tt1-~!"li!ir'lf~~Jl-1i1*

:<t !1'Jalll<' B'! 1l ~;11!Jl-1ili< tt ~Jli-a r Jl"ilt1il!ll m~ fl'! 11!!.l:k ill 1! ~ 5G1i !*A oir I'll iii l'!J Jl-1'!. m
fl'J ft,\\\ , Ml!l Jll Jl'iltl~ .'f'J!ll IJVJ .X. Ao!f ;i: ~fl'!" 'll <'.>J ~ttJl- ffi fl'J fill Ii! i~il J'l'I 'Ji'.f'l111 Jll'.~il!i , i&
~ tt~J!f m
111 i!t-ffelilf 'I!
illl ii'i mm9' 1lJ1!\l Jt tt :f111"J:&11' :1t e<i it :1J1ilt1 IIB z. it 11* 11: 71<1f 1'! llli tt
m& ;i;!Ii JI! it'1 1m ill! ff 'fl! ill! J'l'l llil i1i llJ -1'

o. 3. 2

*
:Iii*"",

mm

m:mfi.11~

lfH!i.tl !!' 1'E I fl ;fi1I ti: :it iii J>;!;fl'J l!Y' J'l'I J1l lklt't;I; e; >lil'lC !!' f'f iii>;!; fl'! 1"7 J'l'l lilf 'I! Ao!f 4' 1lt I~ l!J e<J
.itr J:. { 21 tltiil, M'lflllf :it fl'! !Y'J'l'llilf l'C 1Jl"'i$:;)1[}1!!' Ell :E'!l!'!E.!r Z. - ,Ji!!. T'lf lli!~l!i <ilJIJ:R
~ "1: , lti! T 71<. :l;Jl;Jl\f '-". Ji!!.!:!\ Ji!!. T r:!f 7J<'i'n lit ilJl 'If~ "1' '1i'i' iJli "1: 'If lJ!( s Ji~:'.!> , Jf :!t fl'J JlfliJll'.ill!!i!E

o. 3 "I 21 11tlc JI; lll>hil 11 'I' J1tl!i.!; .!l Ill '11 !\:IV !I. ii!

*,

ili&:k xt f'f 'I' tt :;ft fl'J Ji :>it 1J1,;i!tli>/Eili& 11!i , 111: #Iii! [ii] Nii, lll!Jll fl'J ~ 1'1- #JI<' ilii ilitt.M fl'J !t A , ilil Ill
~'1Ji!, JllFilJ lJli '!!'. ~#!!Vlin'l'JIHB T - *711.'! :i\1 !il: "'1fl'J if 4'. Jlt'7r, ;ff l!l T:/'i'f lizllllill'J'l:~J,11;
!fr iii iJli tJ $ JJiHB T 21 i!i: fl'J ff 4r <'11 0 996>I
:& Ill *'J@il;l ~ t!l.11! 111 e!t !l . iili II& It iii !lll .-:'.!>!tie './<g!j 15!I! , ~ f.l';fll it !lll ~Ill ,
;;!: Ji >lt'ffi .!J!-19: ti: -7]< illf -!If15mf\iO'J-1'!!!1* fl'J ~I llli1!'tf lilf l'l: ;;; lJI! 11!i AA-11<!11'. fl1 '1
t.l' !:< :l1: lit .w.
~ill!!t!lliiilll*A il'Dlli<*i\l!J!t!llii ll*A illl1ill1lil! ~ k!I fi'J ::ki!. 7':11'. i'J ;t. llJ *.IL ii>&
J: lll'l!'iilll!J{li liri'J 1f till"'i!i:fl'J 1$7]<A fit,~~ T J}(!lt !!Ht, ll llll -f 1&"1:Jfl Im, !fr;! I!!>~ lir fl'J I

"* '

:1<~~F;fl!A~~mm~~~.m~*~J{lilir[ii]H!i~~!"'i!i:.m~itlilll'l:*rr!liii!.

!t!l111 ili:i!lli ll1i !'1'!11! ff!\ 1lii 11U4 iti 1: J! Ill\ C!I I!!~ T 71: fl'J '!'it !lll li!l 11& , 'l I iii! l'IJIJ( Pl iJli 1* lli tJ T
i!lli i!' lil'.J1!! ll!~ifi . il<:f~ ll!i fl'J lilf <ll: !!Ii &iii ! *M 1i" f\'iJ ll!i. <'< li!1J:111. 7< lllt& .Jt B -~ ::k JJ>!Tinl!l ili mi
Fitfi'J ff!\ iliflltll!<. f!lHm , xllltrn Pl 1f'l"~Vti!lli:k'f Scm, 1'~tlJ1!!1S it 14cm, 1949-19911!' lli\Jt
!!till< El it 2. 7m, J:ll!J{li Ii.[. 1949 1 llt>/Elil! lliiTifG 1- 2m, 'Ii' Jil!;lf ;!; ! "1\0IJlllPI" ili1 \'.( T, lit
Ji!;!JliJ}(A fl, 7); lift !!Ht , ;1J; >I! 'lit illl*ll!! 1ir ill 20 ' J{li ilif T !ft lm , ii!ltftllaflJ{li JKl,iJ- !17f !II' 'If ill: ill
trL, !Ii !It I !l! (i<J !If!ltj)f, 1l Till<~ ~ M lt$tillPl!f J1E F i!i:li' nJil
*$ill:&!t!lfOJlll *$8171: \'.( Fc , ~l'I ii<!' fl ~lli;IJ!fl:k. Xfr :/l!ll'!ititi l'H4<, !'1'7J<iil
~#!ll'!it~Al'l~~afl,J!t~ftlli!lll'l~J'l;IJ~-.~l'l~<l'~J!t~;IJ&~-~rn~~J1!!-fl'J~

'*
"*

!E. ~ k!I Jil:i'J .t l! !t <!'.ti!!' lt. j.lf<;/li!tfi'JtltJ!. !!! ::k!ll!'i'i' !!.( & "Jl!;Jm![7); ;Ii '!!IJJ'f lit$
li' . i!"' '!!m< (!'J 7f tt
~ e ::k fl'J : .'1t it 'If *4'1<' !II <'< oo J{li 11.\l. ~ iti 'I':"17J<!'l'illttJ1!! 11.
xtlt< l"J !lllfi'Jlilf 'fl:J!,1filt 'll!~;c,
! I!l@il1&811 El !!11111 !!I: JI; illt l'EI !l!@lJi< (i<J 1'lffl R iltl it , !liZIJ!i!:!lilJ:I !IL llili!! 0 /llf /llf
'!Ii lt~, J{li T iilf 't!'l'I 1!il, >f i'<I !l! , lt $I Ill'!!' l'E Ni'i! , Nix tt'1t;fll '*I ill!. !J,11; Ji'Vli jf1, ;ffi!i:
J! j,l[J!l ,
~ilt!@.llU!: <MEMSJ <l'~ill! iJ\l:ll!! (i<J '1! -f-lilill:l'l'kl'! <liif !i);il\l:IJI. '1! !\!IE >I!! 21 lltiiliJ\ <IU\
ii! fl'J i!i: 'll!lilf"1:1f 1"I -It K -t :i\liJ\I: !!<: lt!il. B fl'J .ll. J> >I!. fl'J mJ!l@l Ji<;ffii! !m 1i!i C!I I !l! , !E1W 1!i'l'
"1.il'i' l'l
l!illl i.l'J.. ff'!!'. l'EI1'1!it jf1,1f11.i: fl'J11>tm!!l lltr:ll:, !mllfi jj!JJ!!!l'J. rrl11
ff Ji~ ' iJ\l:lil '1! >II !IE"' ii) '11''1 ~ 1a il\l:!i<: :1:1!& ll:i:J!!lll ' ;M; 9' It 11! ll
ili1 lJI! #1. lli!i: Ji ' Ji 11 ;!;

:r:"'

**,

*. *

Rkl'ftfl'J~.ll.~~.'\l*l'E.Jt<l'fl'Jiiijj!J-~:i\l~iJli~Jt,'l!'~~l!li&~~[ii]l!l.:ffi~li'll!iitiliJf

n111*-@m (i<J lll!!lll,


!t!l~~~@il;l

fil1!'JIE$illtn'l't~~1W~~~fi'J1'l!llili&*ili&lit.~~~X'l'#fi'J~

'liO B:lti l'l: ~rJ i!i:~ ti! il'i'1f !IU1') ili jjlJ , Ji(: J{lil'ftfll ii;fll J{li!il fl'J if>~ !!JI fiil l!l l!l &lit:l!i!llli 1111 !lilll , 'Ill
W~#liillffiiJH!i.~Ji'iii;iJ'l'~J{lil'ft;/J$,l'IE;IJ'l'!li~ilil*illrrlilf'll::ffill&~lll.'ll!Ji!;~,

!E 1W'4!!j!9f1;t

~iii l'E!E 411! *""!Ji< fl'J

1'lm 'ffiili! *ill& l'l: il'J 111. ~ , l*: ! J,11; fl'l li1f n~ JI! (i<J i!i:

Ji ;Ii; ;c IE Bilt RA Jill, l' iii!i!l'J..!i!: ftll\!ililJ ll:Jit!J!o/11;, M'lJIJ:l!ldil A!J!::i ifriili!;l"'lli:Jlli:Jlllil'J L', 11!1
fil*!J!~iti!lfifl;tfilif~~~~~fl'J~*

'---"'---------------~-

1. 1

.,; I l'1f

1. 1. 1 )# mt 'Ill )# ilit 1.J

iii /JIUi!: IJt 1* jjjiiJ: $ ll Jr J!lt "'1 IJt i9J , iii IJt JJ 'l' litJi!:liJf 'ii: IJt 1* l'E $ fL Jr J!lt <!' iE i9J i!Hlll "'1 flf 'l' .
Iii IJt :11 'l' Ji!: IJt 1* :11 'l' "'1 ~ 1'ilt J! 1t 51 , Ji!: iii 1* f1 'l' !'J $ tL Jr J!lt l'I! ll': , il! iii ttJ l'I! Wl'I! it 'l' I;( &
'lo 1ilJ"' x >C i!Oil! jjij '/}_""' (!<] ~ I'] l'l
'14
Iii iii ll\\~ '11-iil#l'E 'f e11.tl'l-JHJ .ldll:tt1'1 '4'. frn:lt!! r l;ll?J<JHJ !:7~ "'1/ilmt,1' illl x ~ "\~~
!litli.!'1: ei ill Vil i ilb'ii51* i*J "'1 J1!Lil<1!lillillf 'HI l!lilll ;I:'<: il'O'J llf IJt , iJl WI* i*J 7)< 7}, 9: li'JHJ til:fr ei lli
l!! , '1!1 '1< , Ji'; 1' , ll!> iii , fl'! J't:ll' :!li.A.ill:$ JL M"'4 .P "\1* Hi Iiililt'\'ii.
iilmt:ll'l'l'EiM ,r;@ Ill flf'l'JHJ Ill! tt l!lf lilff 1f !i.Z "'1 @Ill fru ll!.7J !!',:It!! r ?J<?J<)C 'l',
:ti rlllI!ll, :lt!!!:!\I ll! ,ii!?J< I Ill. lf~I ll! 'tl:,IJHJ ilii:lll~ !!!''\'ii. JH::l>r' l'E liil !liIJ!k <!' 'jQ flli'i!!Jli
.A' IJ!k 9' (!()'fr ff lt!fl . !l'i Clt *I "'1 !IJ;l'I! Vl & ii\' fro !Ii$ iilf l!! "'1 liJf ih'J '\'ii J!il lffe & iii iii :11 'i' fiiJ I!!! , 'll '111
ff :*:It!! f liJJ "'(7)< tjf iii Hi ;II:@ li!i *!'!IQ; & ;!; !!1 l!l
!Iii iliei 1'!'.\\\ ;{ 'f, li" st. $l1 Jr J!lt >IL{~ l*llHL !lto<J il! ffi11'1Utl'%7c, 'll!ffi1 f\! Ill 'fi Ji!., {l:fiiloti~
J!l 1!:ill ""J!!:fl;tt f\! Ill , ;t:{:i:, l'f !ti, r iilill <I' 1 i:Hli;!J l'l:!c , (ll ffi1iili1it J!11f J!!iili: 1* "'1 Jil4i! tt, if
Ii ,J'lil!%1!(;!("'1, m;!J 7c, 'B'\l' :11 f~ l!ll'l l!f M!I. ff Btif l!if31f J!!'tf :iJ , lJl'.jlf, jji'l'rai!ff ;!(Ji;(!()
Wl'I! it 'l' ill: llL
lilill:ll 'l',l!,~ 1'111: ff I'll': BJ li:X &f:!Biilii1'"'1 f!f'l', M. Duey ii! 111! "'1ililli!Bi::!:11-1' ~ t!t
re . 20 tttrc <i illl ::i: ft "'1 llll & :icltl, Jt ii!I f Iii ill ;!J 'l' o<J '!i.llL Ill ff ;Ill*fl!!' tt "'1 ;i;:~ l!1l lli tt
l!Hr!l:!IL "'1 :!Hll!. !l'illl::IJ.ol!!. CT "'!ill Ill; il I;( & ~ t: ;\;J!!iiil:!l&n!B: !!l 'f iii ii[,)(~ iilill;IJ
:!cltil! T ~!Ji. i!!'f.*. ll!ff~Pli!<'l'l::ll'i' "'1 ;!;:~, 'iif?t .ll. .llil'il I;( & ?tllil'l!ll':!!l 'f iiliili:, Jtt: lit
ful li\"'\ii!11:1 ~)!I! :V. ~~, J!f iil!Ji;iili::ll'l' Hi '!i.~i!IA -1-:@:fl[O') !ii' llt .

ilt"'

*,

JI!"'""

"'*

].J.2 !\31,:f'l'/iA
Iii >IL i!!*. $l1Jr !Pi: j!,Jll~ff :!c:!li'i! !lto<J llil 1$. t!l!>t:l!oil\' ;(i!Jll llil l*tt*'f '4' ~ff JL!I(' l\!:!!i!
'If!!!'!>- 1'P ~ 11'1 '8 !ill 'If Ii' j; Hi 11' J!lt rn 'f flt ifl :l!oM. iii iili: "'1 f!I It* iE >c $ tL 11' !Pi: if llHil ii! M.11' !It
-ill~ !!IJ ;'ij ~~~ff 'l'i' Ti!!<!ll Hi jjj!ili ' ;If Ji fl i!!(;jill jjj!jJ!: ;{ ll!1' Jr J!lt <!' ff ff
Hi Jt ;/ff ll!fli
llT !!l l:l r IL,\\\ l!E!Oli$ l1 Jr J!lt,
D $iL fr J!lt <til'l11'4il'f >;{l! $.tll Jr !iii 6' J!!-#12' fii! , ;t: <!'Ill! ;!flllll?l-11'1' 7'r li!ilif'fr141!, llii
lill: llil ffi 6' J!ii !'Jllll :fr2'f"l 11'1'1iJ JLl!JJ!. <L !It i*I nr v1;{l!'"t 1*'!!<li.Ii'. t!l nr I;( ~1'tmmt 1*.
2) llll ;Ill /i\r:iil :ffi ll! 1' Jr !Pi: tL !I("" !!i' ill ;/ff ll! 1' Jr l!lt lit Ji!:iJi ;{ 11' ii!t 9' ll)C jj!t 2!; :!c;J, Hi 1* 715
( jQ L 3. 1 <!' rJi)E )(Hi 1''iiE 1*715 l i$: f1.; ;it i*J 1'!Dfff ~)E It ~J O'J llil i*!!l!IV:JHJ 1L !I(,

J"'

*.
*

1. 1

~l

t;

3) R1<~rai~1f-ll!S~*ms?t:l!~sitli!Efi ,I!it~llJ1jt i=f~;tJ ,J!$?t1l.l:~rsJ

~~~R~rsJ.m~~~1l.~~~it~m~-1l.~~~~~~ ~:1!~1l.~
~!'SJ.~r~~~~R~~;/JWW,~R~~~~~~~-~~~
-:X~~AI~R ;f;t~~~J-T71'r00 i. 1.

I! 1. 1
.t.M .A.111tit1tp

-a~MfOA;t._Jt1t.asgff-J

B.~~ C.?i'J/{;~

D. iti{S E.*# F.)d i'


tlit:ll!Bii$!At km :fi:.11'~<51!<<5

r ~IL ~:11HlkIQ.1g O. San ~ Liapor <R>1M t

J.$.llt;!?fuJ.t.'7'1

10

*<ILii' lllir.J !Ititt!I~

\I.. Jli !II fl'J 1lll ,I\\~ Ill , 1111'1!! Mii' 11:1< 1'1! fl'J Jt fol tt!!t .i!l:ff Jill JJ;. m'f fr

11t11t1'i!il'l~~tt.~~m~oon~*m~~~11t1'i!fl'Jfliiif'!lli!il~foT*~!i!t~llJllllfl'J.~'!!!

fl J!!i l'i'Jill ~nm . - l'inm J:!t*' mfl'J ttr. tt JiPf'1l fl'JJill ~ 11uu111ul!'. tt oo $J>it!ftt #<~* !iiJ!I! ;1:
1L 1r!!t1!t!llil'ltt!Vt 'i.l:HE l. 3 'I' .i!l:ff ll:i " 31-!'l'nii<Jl!t tA 1!t !! fl'J ;lit;@!IC lrl'.E!!t ~ollililll il'J'
i!J!l. tF- Iii ijj.fr !B.
I) *1iliBt:/6 't i'~Jjl i.l:!IHe flii !Ii tfJ il'lt fr !It ~~IJ J:!t'll;lli!1l'. 'I' !'LA.lit ii' flii !Ii Jr !It'
1lJ tA Ill ;t i!iL l'!!:)T 1li ** > , ~ T 1!11 JlJ!t!ll: iE $ ilii f:!: !lli!il fl'J ;\:1J'~ llll l!l -1'!1t.R 't "1 -1111 jj:i {E
-Mtlf 1IL r ,ilU 1;Ill 15! o1u Ill*-" 1li fl'J 'II! ii< fl Jlli ?:l' l.l;f!l .ilt1*tl.I; 'Em" ~IJ ii !11 'f ~*!lli 11Jl:fll
>ll 1J,11;r~1. il!:)tl.l;;ll!o~lil if'!IY!1'1.Q!l;f!Ji-fl -jj:l.R '1" fl'J JEn* i"l lllfl'J il!'f J:.i!l:ffllll5l,, !if tA M'1>1
il'J .R 'ti& i!i!'f il!i!! il'l Ri'. M'f ~l~.~IJ ffl':/j;il'!!fl!!il J! .R llll&~;lt:k~.R i' . .ilt~ii<!'orl: ,~M
ii'!! tEii!E if''!' fl'1fii:f!4'l1!1l!'.'1!:)t.1Uli*1ifl'J:k!]. !il*..R i'illi 11!' !II jjf,lfliO!i 13 ll'Z "m ii!;;;, (me.h )"'1
4if 2..54cm J< ll!'.J: A ;Ji !Iii ~q g fl'J ~:I: , 'ff 1'112 fl'1 !f<;ll: ~* :%
( ] . l. 1)
ll!lilil J1[1 (m) -16 X 1O' Iii! '!'I

jft1t:~ I[:! {me$h)

\llli:ltl:~(m)

4160

2380

65

100

150

200

210

147

104

14

2) ~Lf;J-:/f;

x~ T Ii!] tli i'J $1L1r

'"
"

'"
1100

'2

"

490

'95

'25

400

500

800

1250

"

37

25

15

10

mt. :i'ti*!li te :)l;l!l1:)T 1if. flii 7\ lll!lll lt1:)t111*1ill i. fl

lllJ:ll: & 8 li!>l::IJJL lllJ: 'i'MlliJC'lfi'J li!t:klillll!jtfl'J 1!:12, lliFfL12:)t11f llf !ll lfil 'f a
lti'.?. < 8 fl! t+da zrll] i'J !IJ(JiJf <11 .\lelt !IJ(f:!:ifR v. fl'J s :)t t~ T'Ji!t fi

f~ .cs>ds - 1

* )(,:I('!'
jj:I

a ;li!o

u. 1. 2)

*'fl 9' ltl1< fl'1 $lt fr !!t:li:l:\ Ji!t Ill#! ill!"(* fl'J :Ill! ll! :I)"19( :lll!ll\!J'>':/I; $ 3t fr i!l~tt ?:)-lll; llf?:l'
79 1Ji ft!!ti'tl)!Jl.ltfr !lti!'J;\:>j! I 11!-ftJ9t Ji. 1lf:)l' ~iji-Jt !IJ(1f'!lt"1!111!1\llii!iltfl' J!l, ~ l'f J! tli
.!lll {E 11!> !Ji !ii> \!tf!l B
'I' I Fw if 'II! te .!lll {E lill lll!lit\!t 'I' ' l!Jtli :ft !It Ji'dll\ ;jf 3t lllJ: Ji. jf lii!ili fl'J
fr 1" ttr. i!!A'li lt lllJ:ll!'.f!l ~ill;$~ 1ii1 fl'J Xll.ll! iJI! ill! 1'E ~ '< ,;i,!11! J: Xll..ilt Jr!It Ji. Of:)t ~ Xll.lt lllJ: ti: fr
!ltfll Xl1. ~i!$1r !It. 1111'1\t!i!t:>t'flt ml(;<; ~i!$i&lJ'fil!!lilifl'J~i!$tl!Jli. :!!li\lf Jblil!\!., ilHL ml(
i'J ~l!I: li' J!t1i:V!l f'F'i', ~ llii {~ IJfi. nf.Ull. '!' ili :Ill! il!f t'lt lll!Ul!'. iif .R ili :Ill! ~1' ~ill;$ Fw if"1t XI
'T JL mi( i'J *J!1*t'J" il!!l!t 8'i ~ i!$ J VJ :l!i tt ~ fl'J 111% ~'flt !IJ(ll!'. *11 ~J!i $ fl'1 jj:i)( , 'Hf tE 1. 3. 1

*'

fl!

!. 5. 1

L L3

ii*

'l'!tili,

ilf )l!j ~ ij[J ~ 7.J< ~

1'JIJ "!. ll!Jl!lil!i!tiiltEJ!tJL l!IJ( 'I' :'iOJ>'il ;Ji -fif lll:~~ !!JG"l:l!I lill l\\ ii'.; trJ c1i llll ll'Zx Iii\"\>;<; ltk

lil. ti: ~J:''f lill"l1: Ill! fl'J 'll >J!. iA~fl#Ll!Jill <:>l<'E JllJl!Jf!lii'l!J l :)tlfl Fl!! (J'J llll!I it itll.1 Ji!tJ!..
i:t ltk 1i!t"f ft'E #- fl'J :W#L l*ili '!!' i1ii fl'J ,1J! J'lii!i'"f ltllli illl* fl'J !11 ll!! iJli 'till! ii: . Ir 1'ri! !'I' l!J lilt i'J
ltklil 4 f!lc!tirll!li tE 1: ill! IJl '!' F 'E fl'J lill 11\ Jttrll.1 tE l'L lllJ:'i' Ill]% Ill!-@ 1J I!! ii!:;i,1J, Ii!!1'E ' !ill fl

....

_ !I__
LI
............

,_

1"........

......,

__

,_...........,__

......

,,

..........

.........

....,

11
__

tll i IttJ il'J ti' Ill l' fiiJ iii! 1i11 I!! E ~ tll !I! iii! liil 1:1 lill tll "t tt Jlil ~Jll'i'L Ill( 'I' l1'J 1)( 11 , t ll' IttJ ti' !fl T ii
iili 1''iii: lill "\1J< JJ- 1'I . Ji' {j; lill j;( 11'.:if 4&.i Im!Jt!I! JI\ :tE ;It fliI ii'li ,;!{!Lit!! Ill E fiat ,1'!!111' i~ ~ i:!!'U l1'J
l:l!!lllmm~. 11t JI\ it'J m~l!!li1' EB iii, ml'f llltllill'f Jjlf llJ lllt. u iil!lill l!!i!! 11t EB llJ> l'f, !lfl!J>l'f, lill
~ tl;l'f llJ iii .1l! 1lf llHi!t r.11 'iii: 141 it'J :tJ ,l'( l'f , 1$11! l'! , !l!tt Jll l'I tll~ Y' l1'J i!f llU'tllJ iii , {j; lill l!t it it~
lllllil'iil! illil;H!< it'J llJ ilt fF J\J flUill llllli!i ,,ljl; l1'J iil!lill llJ ilt1' tt!l~i!i nit lil;?J)'JJ ii' iii nit it'J 1: II iii llJ ilt .
i'L !il(!f fl1 ~i:!!' '1< 11~ rtiJi~ 9' li1."' ;KJB Jl\t it'J !Ii iii Ill Jl't , 1;1.&.w;I!! 'IJ' 'IJ' w00 J. 2 Mffi

1
~~

~
(d) $:-.fl,Jtl.!/*:k'krm

(e) lfffilWlti;i>R.JtM

"'"'' "'"' r;;;.,"'

iO l'l iil

"'"'""'"I<

(f) t'1~1/Jl!lf~fl.Jd!1*

"'Jil.'9 ~"' lili01'1"1

1111.' JLl'lll$1N!im~llll<J~lllllll
-1-!ii Ji: ~' illl 4\ iii! ill ffi iffl: ;;iJ l1'J '!! f';J IK lJJ\>t :% -1-iibll , lill 11 lii: .)I; JL M.IB:t't::k'ili:or ft J\J !il
'1itil!i f< f!I #t '1it lill Al:i!!i ::k ~ , IE:t't illl l!tt ii# tE 'T lflltll llVIJUll Pl !Ii .i!JI!! m!J\ "l 'I' , -M: Jlf '1:: Ji!
it'J IE.!;; llL". lllJ 1'1'i:!!'i)(li1. il>!i:!1'1J<it'J 1' !!! , Ii! ill! of ~11i'Jil!iffl: <llltll!iffl:l , 1J! 1lf i;i !lt1'Jil!?IL tJ!"*
1111 iii: ;fl; tE 1'Hl1 1<1 iii 'fl( Pl 15 fi il!J 8'J lltifil1 !119 , jjjj 1it Jil;!l[ l'f :O< El 2' l'f il!i "I; ill! Jii'!lJ: : J!il i1'J 11'1illt11' Ill
.&. i\I i!l:l'1n ti' mf!I! 111 1 !&
!E !&s i.,: ii' 'I' lllliil! ill 'ff ill! j;( it it 111
Jill ill l1ll Jlil i1'J ill Jll :k'ilt1'lfft Y.; >t fJl i1'J <Jl\t 1' i:!!'J}: it'J l 1;1.&.l< EE l1'J i!1i :k~ , "l !!!\ 1l! or JU ;fl;llflj)>t fJl llll ?1 Ji! EE it'J >i! EEill Jll ;fl; ill 'T 1i':": t\ fl'Jlll: AI l1'J ill I)( iii !Ii miJI' nit i<J lill f< it'J .t T ltlcl!i!!!

+*JO

i -l!:f i!ill: it'J a~1' >tril it'JD!!ilfl1!il: Ii!. 1' @mili mor 1;1 ;;,i<EE fl'l. flll Jm 1'J'l:Je it'J"\lJl!.i< '1" li!'
fl'JJil:l)(r.Jli. (ll\ Wilkelm (1945)).
~ * JlHkl1i * :fE ;11; 'I' 1lll ~ iOC <*m im: illJ it'J lt!!!i! .e;** !i!;jfj '*lll1 l1'J "'m* m. m*Ii! 1lf r;
1lr1J< f!l.1' llE::k a~* iii Ii!it n; ;tt 'l'-fllJ :fE '!!<!iii !1.llll 'I' m* Ii! 1'lf"' ti';;, ;i; i:!!' *iti It!! Ill ''
- l"i1"f r~ fl'l;fl;ijj) 1lr7J<lli!. tE il>!1lr7J<m 'I'~ l)(J!'Jli> i:tllfli!.
;J< :fE !II!ffif i;i T it'J ~lliJJ-1'ii lii:fL !II( 'I' 1lr7J< l1'J ;ffl Mtt fllJ :tiJ ft J; J'l: "\1lHll l!!f!l 111 , l!!fi! 111 it'J it
ll1li'L Ill( 'I' illl J'Eml fl 1)( ffif 'IC'\ 111 '1'1lrfi 'i! "'\ ,1)( I'\ tll 71: It!! T 1)( Jt :it 'I' lll l'i !'J 3' '!.if Mil Ji!:l!!f~
111 ' 1!!1'1l 111 it'J 1: Jll ffif ~ ;lg ilt* ilii 'B;fl, .)I;1: .?.\ Bi]] 1111 'll''T
!E i1'J iii J'l:"' 111 ""ill* ffif 1'1.t
l!1 {$ !E It!! i!L
it7J<!i!Jii:.)l;l'f'.!J !!l~:kli\'.1lJ JJ-J\J ilf.'.IJ il'Jl:llli. lll!J!li*l'1l'I)( !i! fO :!olJ l'! 1l'i)(Ji. ilf.1' 1lr1J<Jil
:t'!Jf JJ- lliffi!il'J ill.tll LIJ,ji z 'I', 'llllii*i'1l'i)(IE1l''1Er '.!J,l'(l'f 'I', 'B it'Jl'l!:,J it'J !!\~ l'L!il(ll:it Ji<iffl:
l1'J il'f ii ;fill ll1' ~tl ,iili ill\ Jjj ::k~ll< ii fl!< ,1fflJ!l:Fct it Ii~ J\J <'lll'l It!! JK RP 'llllii'M'!ll! JK ,
1l'1J<lll Ji;: .)I; ;fl;'ll' 1lr1llll 1)(ifif ffii' JJ-J\J '!Cff. ~ ;J< !!! tll If< EE 1lr JI: IE , 'ICEE ;151)( IE li'J 1: l!!lJil Jll lit

*"\

~tlll)(ili.m1;1xtt~***~~"'it'J*~M*~lt!!*,~~**~x~ffi7J~*"'Eit'l

.t. llllfO Tllllll.i J\J :t:i:!!'i)( Ill M~ , F!i 1;1 it<lll 'I' fi'.17l< liit::klit!ll-1J< '!":If fliI

1. 1. 4 ;m. c:p ~I!: ;m 7J it . =JR 'l[J - JR Jiil


iill "C !If ill\l!\ 'F lllH'i It il!l il( , Ill ifif Jill il'1i E iJIJ '1! i& ii< id!> 3"1! l!I' iJ '1! i& $ il' 5l "1 Jletli l\'ll! Eff
ii!! l!ll lill ll!: tc , 7Z ~illi ~ 9' "H'.E ilf Tllld JI, iii tl!i "l<~iill ~ 9'1l!ll!7f
i&'$ll< 11l', -!It ft 1!
15 % ~ 30 % , "1 T il!'-&lii\ iili *q~$, 1iii 4-f Jrnillll!, 'f ;Jl;:Jtlll' T :::ix fO -1':'1!iill

**

1. 1. . 1

;i;;~;ei~;miill'lll'll>iill:ti>t

R ~im 11!11Jllll fi'w !'l illli: ii 12.( r ll l'i,


1) 111!1il 9'~"5'1aii i*9115/ll.1!!Jllllll !ill ii!tE 7f '1! ll1Lll: 'f !EfJ 'l"l!li:\lt;c;, 'El Efil lilt 1" ~lllJ;!,/
o; !Eifli, illili li' lJi'! l/}filj <lm!l<!E ~ (l'J l4t !ii' l, lliJfJci Jt Jil; !E:i:J :!z:RP F>${il;. bl- Jtjlj lliHl!l7f it1 fiJ ill
&l&Jtl! 9' '# 13fOflt1"ii'fffiiW !&: th l' tt Iii- flll, flt l*ilf ll!i, tE !E:IJ !!Ii It fF Ill rlElltl!lll 9' ll\ iillll! '"1
ltil
2) ~ * l8: B<Jlttll;lill'lalll:l< *tt!li:!Ji!ii;IJ !if '1';iJIH4'.!~'llt ff iJ\nc IK , fj\7]( IK 9' c\ll l'i fO 7)(
.:f llif WI&:~' l1ttti\lfilj, ;ic:f llif1M~ffA jf11" i\"iiil lK llif ilHffiii4li '1'. if:I! IJIJ ll<llJ fj\7]( IK:I! l!I
7]( !l!.'H Jil! ilif , 't Iii 11<tt !E:IJ f!tl!J ~' lllf >!'! iJIJ ijff A jfJil; ~li!; lf lilt ;1c 'll! !ill II<.
3l i31111'\ 911!11111"' llll !id ;\' iJIJ !K!EfJ r.JU ;Iii; ti!! (RP l!lfil !li.)J Jll. L 2. 1>;-f Ht, ll\Ji<'li\'
1'E E IJIJ 9' Iii "\1" Jf it1 i't w.~at!* :ii E fil illi 1" 9' ff J&:lJI'! tt "'R!l i'r .rr: 'ii'\ 1" ili'-&n J&: l4t tt '!!'
filj. '1. 14' Iii 1lJ !E!!ii l'I"~ Jil.:k'f R!: W , 'Bff I&: El'Jt\'filjiJ! 'Ill Jil.:k'f li<i!>. '\!i>ll ll!i1M iii rJ 11'ilif,
lllJ Ir IE 1J r. 1~ ll!l$ , 5t 711; th >If Iii "'t i!ll!l:k, ff I&: ili Iii l!Ultil!il!!illi. i!l:!F Iii Jf
f4' fl: ;igfil'

*"'

"\'ll!,
4 > '\JM I& ll'.llttll.'frn

:If M11<1! !l\ 'Elli "'t Wl ,lllJ ll 9' !E:IJ 'rl'J !Jl\l!ltl!l"11 !EJJ , fit '1!i' J'i'
Ill: !E JJ r. fll; J'i'1'f 'ftill7f !!It th I'll {tli1'1 "'t ~Rl'll :~L !lit' ffiJI(. rliJ 1'r!I Ill! ,l1!' 111'l '\'ll! illJlll :j: ~ !l:k
ili !li.JJ r-$1'lll!l'IJ '\: TliiI, "Cfli;lt'tttlll!i, iJJJ!l<"'tWlJi!. lit:k "\Wl Iii Mt ll!i~J!ilt' IP:il' tt!IJ fF !fl , ~
ff 'll! iJIJ 1f rt 1' t.i "'( JJ!'ll!
sl iill i*ll'.l {!Ill; frn MT' iti!i iii! Ill: II( :k ;!; iill .!!i&'Jl! Iii iill ll ll!J ill! pg illi 'f jfllli fl'Lll' Iii lilJ 1" :It >I'
lill ~~)\II it "1 ;iJ ill . l!l:J!\lJi tE 111: :IJ fF !fl Fill f<!! iJil lli' rliJ 11l' Jll: Iii J'i'ilif JS l'i lil illJ 1frt fl: ;I; ll::IJ 'll!
!'j Ii\ , M 'f'~ t-iJIJll rrn if,#:if il:iJ:W 9' ,%1-!it~Iii 'll! ?IJ:if>I: Pllllll!\:f-ll'llJ, 'I' flll !ii'~
fi :f l'l llJ ~K ;h1! "ti''ll'lt Ill fru Jllo:iZ~iJliii! 9' filj:!i!j~ illi, iillJ'l'tE 1i'Jlll4'ili l'll J'i Ill!. -!I!tlll! ill
!Jliiill JJ!llti!lltlf'lf ll'E p ;ill !JIJ ill ,
:::;x,a=:;J::lllitl!
::. ix 1'll "' ix* ct ~ 1'!lli !t. 11 "C , !t. lli tm tli 1t ;o F>$ 11l' J'l. llif tJ !'l
w1: , im i!l 'll! 1'11 m
'1! '\\' . Tllii f ~; lll'lif:li' !~,
1l i:t*:!Oit'\ Jl\! t:k$i!l:illJ EE illl*!!l ttnc :if lit. ill! 1ii'!t. 7)( 'If fil *llll 'lf;Jl!;l!< .~ -"1 Iii !m
m11 <r; l'lili nt!t.71< flil, trc .~ -1-11' f'iJ jf,IJ!i .&!t. *'*iJi!I: 13 ''""".11.111:. Ill! ii! iii, nil! 111:, t.11.
$ , :IL.Ii. iii fO 11 !ct< 1JHI"' 4lf #1" !iii :IfIt .ll. tt Ji' flil 11' Jf, 9' ,e,.,\ii, tE i"' jf JIJ!\ '1' !ill 'If1lif 5t ;!] iE ~ &
i!<f!'i'!li ~. 13 lltr J!l mvf Iii ;ll!;n.11. it111'f'il , IN '11': ttll<lll !l)., Jltlll 'f-!lf!illl rn
!t. "Uil:lf-J!, Ill xii!; '\ lffl !t. JI<''~ J!!'7f *.If it . ill: 11:11 Ill !E "\ Jf l>\' lll' il!i J!l14 qx
!t. 6l.
1f ~tr llif 1~ !t. '\ ;o '\ mi:t "'\ , ;i, '\ 'll!1f ~ lll' iJ\4'r Jm fltll! tt '\ Iii J!l:k iliR 11. "';ttll\I J!!:;I: 11 , 11!" "1'
l& It,~ jf \! l!ll 4; Ii! '
L 1. 4. 2

*,

* *m

* '*"

!. 1

11

13

-~

2l =iEiA:>J< <!' :IJIJAilllllJ iil'ltH:!!Ji'ill! itllJ, i'<ilii /lil'E~L ~ ~1t Iii, llll'l ill" <ID<* l <\'. ii
JI! 1'tl!J 7J<i1ff Hl'!l!l illl~ /Ir; *l& '11 fl'l ll\1\l!JiHt! :l:iAili: i1'J ii\\ ilf. M. llil l\lifil:illl 71< 1lii.ilf. It, :il; 9' iill:lt
!Ex Jg~i!'i$ K .!j iM' l*il\\Jt i1'J It {i![, illl 7J<iil[Jj'. It Tl\lia'J&ilJ!!dl\ ~~ .iffi T il\\tt!Jl;IJ;. lli:k!J!i<:I jRf
ll\ >;.( ~ i\li *q):$. mi i!tr# ffl i1'J 11!% WJlB\11 F'Jli\llltJli Ill !'J'til'JJ!<iil'tt. li!\lt!E ttfll Jt'i' lli!Ett
el ltll(j(f. /ti'< ilif t.lttltI mill' Ji!,)\) T jE iJ!l ij@OJL ml( 9' Jlll'Hn illl~NIJ\'; :Jj i;!;: J.ldili'f i;I; 1*illli'l! i1'J !.!\
JM .1'; fJ!!illlll<Jll iliflK jJ l>ll J'. fl! rf illl~E 'II' :Jj
11' "'~ Jtll'l 71<11'1 i1I' )!fl!! mil'i l1'J l!!lftJj(fll )jj\ IJll
9' Ill 11' IJll!!ltE i!llij@O 9'tt'1!Ullfift'i' &EY.i"'E Jll ilii llitt*I , JllMU:Jllilif j*}J , i!IC*li!f lll'Jl; rll *"'., 7J<
fll Jll ilii llif1tI lfc iWJ iii! llY. 1t tcrA lltt '1!1!$iilt. t 'I~;~ /iliijl! 1\i'lil' i1'J ii\\ llf.Jt lil llliilll1kJ'!. ilii. M. w
ll! uq !f i&$. Jtt l'rrt 1f tt 1&"\ll< fllifil i'Miill f!f A7K 9'11 A" "C !l!lJJt 4:tx~"1: , *1J Ill 4:
~filit!i. ll!i il: 1)(/fLk: fLit"1:illliiJI' 13: !l!ilf. ,.lll:l:!l!l'i'lilii jl\ ,Jt!. i\li!f l& $, ill ll1!'1 fl: Ill .t; Iii:~ Jl:J. l'i!
i,i< l'.E ~ '!!'!!: !ll 'P "\I* ~" ";:if!! i1'J lllix fll jlj 't , Ji;![ 3( 'II' l1'J :If l'I: Jlli J:t;!; rl 1rIm tE ii! l*i!tr !IUB llY.
1ir1'Jil 1l!< lit liiJ Jt r~. ill; !f.mlfil et-1' .'iI'iCllt'll! !'I "'1 lliJ&'ll! ll!i Jl:>f J!liiJ i.i;.
3J i!l\l!lllli jJJj#Vli:l*Mt 1'E -"'UT 8 :!!lfi!li!f !'J , ti! 1iT Lll!'f i!!l!f. IE\ illifll 71< !l!lfi!lll. IE\ illifll
x~"\Jik'f if.I&. <'Elle ffl; Elin Tlff lfi.J'HJ!! :>tn 11'14: lil(jJJj tH' !!i jJJj "1'1M' l*tl:fl:{il) It. flHIJltll! il!?Tl'E
-.. Jt li!Jiff II<*" wll!lijlJ\f ~; !l'!ll
11im:tl<t'F1:11mt1im: iii: .a r11<t1iM'1* 1:1 !l'!ll. ttA
Ill' fi'.Sj IE\ l!li z l'l 'f ff'l'E Jll ilii. !!; ?,!( tl!!it '!' f tE Jl'-ilii %: ;IJ , i9'J'l!ikllll l!!fll It~ lll't: !'J Ji!:f~ nJ tll!
1i!L il<i1HB Ill ffl\Jli 1'E f iA llllll'lJil! ill tE tJli iel'P l1'J !.!\ tJlilliitiiff !1i'r >i:l1'J iiff ffll!lt!'!', )jj t *~g i!i;illl
.~9' l1'J W. tJli, !i!z ~1111" PTlll!/ilifl'l ;R 1&'1<.
lit Ill Vit It< PT:))-;f;JVJtil'li!ii!llfll :l>lktil'lt i!HH Cll;i;JJ;;;nt!ll) 1"1~, :lt""f'i' Jgi!Hll ~g l'l'itA
11'Jllt 11'1'i Jll\illi z ril It' ff iJiJ ttf!lJll!ltll!l!i'l!;l!!it*l<f~!ll. ~LliX" II!li' f>r ;\IVJtil'ttl!!{llilt ii$:. Jl ~
@iii[ I* :ff i!l! .!; IE\ illl ii!% U>/11) liY. ill! fH , i!!tE Vitilli:t!ll 'f tE A Vit i*rR IE\ tJli :i:i!:til'll!i jiJjj'ji !fi:))-!~ i:t
Ji!! I'< J<t fF ffl ;;!J II! it .iii @Vii: I* f>rfF $ IX JI; ll!i ill'. ffi ;;It ill;;; 1& !ll lilt I* .
Iii: it<i illl "'t. tl!Jm Z'.:!lt, F'J!i\l, T lll&:ltill. itllJllJH!!Y.IM!i'J! ll<t~!l!l !'J iil'ff1J i'E!!ll!li 9' fJ!! !!I iii:
:J> itJ JI; fJ:j !i\l , ii;lft 'Jl! "1 IJ!l iJll ffi ;fJ ~ jJi i\li T f'l!fl fi'J Ill; Jll ffi ;fJ ,
illi' iii"\Ill\ ffi !Jli:!! fl; ttA Ill Z. !i\l , f'l lll l<T!it 'Ii' 9' fol5t 1-Jl~ ii\:Ji!! ffl' J<t Ji! A iffi ij@OJi!( illl llJl ;;!;:
@j" ill!ili"JilA!l\ l!ll
l"I it";: II!. !ll~ff !'I 111.'l!I! Jl;fl13 Ji!( illi :\t@!!l?t i1'J ii\:Ji!! l'i 1tf'F Jil , ~J IE lll' ;Iii llJ !lijJ i'f ;idl!l 4: il'
A li!l :ill, l!J Efll ill!i.,$ll: M!.tt~ , illl .P~!ilil'J :>t'T M.l.l\ illl 9' I'\ ftJilAttA "\ ,J!i Jliti!! l!b'.>t ili:W.
M.W,ctLllll.!ll!J!ii1'J Ill.
:::'. $:1ti!ii!!tllliliJl!o !il-# $ll:til'ttill\itl!l!l. tE lill .ti! ffi)J fU !!!It !'J;r,f'f T. cc.$: 1l:iii 1lT ~1 /Iii
ltl!fr i!li fU 7J<, l!J llli fU 71< Pl jl; 1f): Jiillff!$ ~) :::'. $: ftill!Rt ,1': ff]fl'j ii\\ !I'., Ii!' ilf.jiU Bii!i!ttillli1! Jlj i'lc

*.

mu"'""

"
*
illl iJt * .
II.Ill! !:!\ ;RJ!kt< /iii 11111'!' %1J Jl!oll!l li!l illl:ill*

'i'i' .if ru; r ~


41

qJi:

*fr z 1fiJt !'J :!fiJ< II!! !l! ncr !!.\lilt an lil, !'I ff

!!I J!tl\lifiW.IJ!lfli ilf., I.I: t!'Vttilltt, #\!f 111dl/.tJll !i!, !Ell!ll"lfll <I! nQ!i\4\' JL#:lriJ<.
;I( ll!iil! lil 1dl/.illl liif 1lT :))- 1<J if. riU fi!ll/. fll & riiJ ifMl/. JE r"J fi!ll/.J& iii 2: "\ tE'iU Jt 9' ti' tE Ajf
'i' ,#. :k . ~Fo~ii!Jl!lll'illi1'ifl1 f!ll!i!J '113!i!'J 't F11'. Ii liiJ fi!ill.Jl!o:ff !f 'i<\'11'Jffl': tJli fl'Jlli:.W:lriJ<,
.& 10J fi!ill.tl lllJ!ttEN'""ll"""~ mt 'h 'EF Jf fl'l .IF 9' ttA 2: '\ff.#. !1!!1111.ti! ~Fu tE !ll41l 11'J tcAIF
tEA 2: "( Jl!!ll/.'17 tE jjk r M. 'E F Jtlll ~?ii] 2: ";: tt A jf illl iiltilll:t B lill nq !:!; H'J
ii\\ )jf. jjJ "1<ilJ
Jll\>i:!'J 1;1000 UT,

*Ii! '

1 I. ;Jc~;, "" l. ;Jc,;- >II'.

14

!; il'i i't It Iii:!'I 31' 7Jif'J1r 1.1 Iii: i'l !JI! iJJl i'll Iii: l'i 1'i' nL i1i1 l'i !JI! iJJl :!!! lii:l'i b\ 'E !"'#!EA , llJ k'.l
JiH!lil;tloA .tE !EA#)\\! Bl$ IJit -1' i!il'i II! fjpllf , '!ll illJ 1ii\ iJJl !lt:A 'E f' lf . ci !'I 1'i' <ti::/! r'i 'E f' #

tt :1:11'1 Ji 11t ell' ti' j!lj = !!! llll !\I Fc"" JLx fl! i1l! Ill 'It l!il 'Ill l'fd\IOJil\ iJJl :ll'i oc Ill' 'ii' 7f #ft :It I':! ~
~FcffA~iJJl.~1'uWllJ&~~ff.

'l\:/Jllll! '1l bull.Ill):fr1.l '1!@11Jrrll.\;f!J i'!lt: '1! 1Jrrll! '11 @11Jnll! (Ch,kma 1992 ):/!~ illi ill! '1!@1
~ fflilfr iJIJ llif , ~ :/! rti J1l! llliJ!: lllH1'J -for ff z "lixt B<J :till\;. :Jl; tt.I.\ JI: ;f '.ll:ill<IJ!J!l ~ ffil atJ!!!!I\ T ti'
A4!t1l<'i fciJ Ii. !il1.IR JI: 'i1 l!Uttl!IB<J i\lil!il1\o% Jilt-1''!'1l'7l<B<J ill'~ 13:. Ill~ 1JUl:l\Xl:ll!o JICJll '1!@1
-lli:f.li *I ii; 'IL>l!:lilllltfr l!i it7f JIHV: ;it ll)J1!:!~~ - l!l Ji! ][!IL '1l ll\; ( Aggmrr et al , 1992!11' ~ ;!;:;'1
4!t1i!It 'I\ ti' A JtlJ. Ill , l!i !IL '1l !$i BJ Ll IJCI!' iJJl 71< i'i ;!!i B<J ;!!i ~1~!1t:Y; '111:1\f\' !ll 1\oft iJJl a<! JI.Ii It E JiR
ll$ii< ill M71<!'1 fli Jj'fj ~ 1';!;: , llil ill JI;!;: T 1J!J 71< B<J iJ!t:Jj' It , jf;;J!i!Jli1'l ~JIL

*,

1. 2

iJIE flt,; ~{J ttlut

ill: tt: B<J cll'.~f.li:lk E 8<J !I! Jj', :l\'i ! ;fJJ !$ !< 1'E liJf ~!It tt: O'J ttl!!t i!tr , 5'a T Wi- r 'Ii iJJl !It tt:
B<J I!!:fr;f!J ;j!j iii:it1tJ;;1f ell' B<J '

1. 2' 1

15 )19 Jn! ~ 0li 11:15.:l' if{I ;ff:! i\ti 3t'. it:

Ill.7t 'Ii iJJl !IL l*O'J :!: c!if Jilt :fr:l!lilll i\ it if 1111 <~#!) iJl 1J,7tTl!illtB<J II! 1'1'1111'(E'lltilil.rill "t
0. ~1.1 xl:\\"I;. 7"1:\1'1: 'Ple:k:lm'lt:l!'l'IO'O. -1111'.5 70%-98%. Jt&J\\:'.'.l>:ltf!'J Z.%'0. l'J!l<, T
ll<'i Ll JJ: 4'Jiil#!"t l*<!lU JlJ. "t, :::$\itli!ll, lilt1ttt ill'! Eil ~:k::fr+l!i!Jlt B<Jl!il tl'1111'(E 'lltll r !i\Ii<
0.~1'7<iiJJl.

1i>#!(!<J "*t.illi""'f !E:IJ 'll!ti'll Jt+.:IJ 3 i' ~"' !E:IJ:lk~][ 'fll<tt:ll! iif !'J fl' Ill fJ 12: JI!
:fr+lil!Jll "1 ti& tt B<J & ~ 7t 'FIJ!tl1!3ifr B~ !E iJ ttlt i\li !IL fl;; r'l llll 11 !E iJ ;II; Si i$i ,\\\ J: lllllt 'lb

R'J JI: Ii!: f' 1 B<J ~ ~n i1l! ilil li<J "'<: !!ilil;:/! ill J: 1r 3! "Hl' !'J lt:lt f' 1 a<! ilil.OCJl:'ib )!I( :frf'F!lJ ;;iJ Ill! a<!

1111!!! :It. ~:lt1Jn'f 1111tt:.'lt'f;;IJllllJt1Jrr, il! ill.it 'It iii. illl~Jt ta ft :fr+lii il/Jtwtl! .\l>~:fr+lt11!:
ifiJ l'i' IR!lti ll!f 1t+:tJ !!::fr'f l'i!l !'J Ne ll!M ~ 1t. !!: J!l' :fr'f raJ 11'. ll! '111 Jl! OJ< 51 :tJ '!' lmlt ;!;: II'. II!*
t17'1!!Jl!. 1t+fi!J 'i1!$illll', :fr+ z fi!Jlll;~F 'E ~~ff fl "( i*i17t'f fill ll'.11!1'!1M~liii. :fr'f ltilli
ll<t~JtL 1"1 {fj !!! "ll. 'l I:tJ. Mill: tt::fr+ 1"111'. ll!~lli. 7t f-1"1fl'1'E1f~~fffl,1'E '.ll:J!J !E'1!! at {fj ))l]jif
11t::IJ'
ill<'ll !4!1b l!!t:;< 'Ill!!7t"' !!t~~ti llil 1'!f, ll<;!!iifiJ'1:1'11 a l'f'>l*iii%"1:fl'1'E. ns-~'lf 1' l'l a<i
"* ?.!> nif!il l'.I! 111 ~11! rtX: L' 11i;!!i 1'll fil\;j!j '(E IE:tJ-ilil.Jj' oo <;!!i 0 oo i J: -ii< b\ tc r !llJ "'J: fl'1 RI!
!ct< ,1' JI< RI! !#<ii\ ~ tl!lfll lli11'i !Ii ill! Ii!< illJ !ct<S' J: :tr 1.11!<;!!i ;fl r:tr 1' '\ ;!!i , ill! i!!lJ: 4!- iii\ PP 1' 1' Ii'!
llilli'. r i$i I!! j} ff] tl!l1'U 1.!ii'\ lE ,i$i illJ !Jell!ii< 'J1'jf BJlli 1'!i;fJJ "\ ;j!j ilMi lei IJ<t:(f ;(E !'J !II it i'll IE:IJ #d'f
~51< ill!ii!G B<J iii' J!H\:1'lr0i;Jll .l.i. ~ T'if<h (!<J ilil.!l!:I$ 1' rliliJllllOC, Ji!l!!J}'ib l!ftf!'J rel; l'f.ilil.Jj' T, iE51.
1'711i;!!iifii "(;j!j '1ifi' (!<j ill illill 1ilif ~ 'f iO.\\\ B<J !!i;IJ j$ jg 10i; Jl1. !li:IJ 'li !fi5l' 1111 i!!t!'J llili l'f. !E:IJ p, "'
51.11111*~ i'll"'\;!!i fllliJ!:'1iff ff]" illi !Efl
0

~/,\(~ft/,\(

m/,\(~X1'71'E~~ilil.Jj'r.*~~1111'!f'!'~{fj~''mB<JlEJJ,wa;/,\l,ii!5(

~1'E~~ilil.Jj'T.*~b\"'\;!!i'P~{fj~tll<B<J!!i;IJ,19f~~l!i:fr~~.tl!l~1.!ii'\RIJ!ct<~

!IF J:lll;J;; miii\ 1'll ll .IR O'J

*" ffil 1'1ln! , f!!:lk- ii! l!!tt B<J Ji! !fl5t *!It<~ ii!llilit r

il!!.IR fll ill .\\i mx~

!. 2 :ll #-11 /illi

15

R lfJ wl!Hik 1' "" lfJ ' "'?.ii l1r i!!l lit lfJ wmIt II .lit lfJ !* !JVJ' i~ ;l; ' {E 1' "" lll!!CFf[ 1' [ii] lfJ li!l .\\Uli
JJ'!llli .lit ff ::IJ. f5J Jlt{E I!.( ll!!t :.\7~'11'.!'J !E::IJ-i*!l:( l!Lt. illl!, '!Olli R. ~ '1 lf'i Jl!,-,!!;- ill!~, uJ!!i !l<i!ll ~ lfJ jl- JI'- .lit lit Ji!; IJ; l\'-,lit ,
iJll !fl ill li<Ji!;l;ifi7l-* jt, tNlf'i'!lf :ll:""il!;l;. 1Ei\'1ilii!E::IJ T, !&!I!* iltli!;~fllill:i* Ip IJl( iJll ,
ul'Ffii'ifi illi*iirlll llll!fl ru1l'!l'ill w 11 Jt!lll1 ffn Till\, ffiilll!!l'. Jili;;j;::f 'Jl'. 1'! ff::IJ ~u iJll !flill
R. ff ::IJ RP lil'lll !EiJ l'1 Tfl>t, @!ff "\/@,!,\!Jl(iJti '!'Ji Ill !EiJ!IUlTill\. <!:Jilt h IJ!l'i: i!'ifll~lffl.. iJll
!fl!'! 1'!! Iii. Bi.)J Tif 5'!5<.C'J iJl( lill 'I' :If lf!Ji 11111 :It"!. i!!I ~l ft /.Ii lE ::IJ , l1r l$: !E::IJ Rt lfJ iJll !fl~ f{i];ffl
iJll II<'
llH!i"'11ll*I' JIU!i '"'"'"' 5<:. illl "'l:!fl lfJ 1~ J'Hl!ili 111oc i'll ltli l\'- lll!ili 1tt11 .xt r-1' lill "1: , 1'
'Ii' lliJi:!c 1J, il illi'f Jl;1' li!ft' 1'l' 'l'liliJr>Jlltill:i* , mu <t -111t 1>1<;>; r~J'f lll!!lf lll!!l'., ilil l''l!'i'!lil itilli
11.\. fL i11i rllt;/~ lli::IJ 1!1'lilili' lllt '!. !*. mu<t - IE::IJ ~1' ;i,1t.l; l'f.lll!ili ffi.;IJ
Jttr1\il.ll7t*!It. /li::IJ Till\ Rt. {Ell((l'UE ill! ~_t" ~!till: 0 '"1 "'I: e'Jl' it, IE ::IJ J: 7t ~it'!.
;IT; '"1ill:0'Jl'1t (Ill! !Ji) Ii Ill'. I< T Ill; l\'-11! Ill'. ,!Ej) Till\~ 'l Iit!! ill:;,!; '"1 "'I: ;IT;'Jl' It. & z ill'il.\ ' Jt-l'F
$ !Jl.jj- ~ii!, i! ~Ill .Ill! ;!'l l'F.llll~, ep 1'\ l!!!t tEllSJ'f 11!1.l .5;" lt.l;J'f il'tili ;:t Ill) Ht, :t ~ ;E !'J ffi)J 11i
llil Pl , !En Till\~~ I "'\ ;IT; '"1la'?!ill'1t , tt i'l'.llll:a<. ti<;>; & $> il!ili tt If i<J "l.ifl l>l< :.\7111! iii"\ !fl
1

1. 2. 2 iii! ~ ill! !fl !IVID a iilil


;;j;: 4Pli 'Fi! l'lf :11- !It ::IJ 'l' . <It ill !li@f 'il !'!Ji!; ill !* !'! :1<11\li!i M , BP :!c:ll:illi:1* 5} f' !'! 'F '1 fr :.\7 ,
Ill< 1-IJ Jt!l1f1'!'%Ll i!l"Jl 5-r .1'1'f'il mc w7tf' lfJ 1'%Llfr ;>;
:tf!il Ill ilt: l*!ll' rl:il'J il'5<:.:t J!trJli;!;i!l f!IJ , Im.1* Jik "1 :!ell frf' /!lfll'lli< 4!)'..-t7J-f' Y.. "1 'lli'f lil( 'f
Iii Jl!., ffii lH\ f' 83J!i'f'it<'Ill>f11!'8!'!1'1T oil f'tli Jilt. lt:i ill ti< ;!;fFi!l'Ji:ll- !ltJIJ:!!ll, :ll>tllflJll'. -tmt
j;j;llt5Ctt<ffi C>V, ll!li!), j1rf[ i'f ;j;'f'jl-f',
.llll {Ej;j"JeillJ&i 'f' jf~ -.lit P(Y, y, zl , Bil !i!m.#.Jll'. -l!ti<l< 5C, ;l;j;j;<R ;.\] t>V., !lt:l!:;>J fun,, mtl
!till t>m,/ t>V, - p, jq; j\Ji$;fi< 5C '!'Vii. j;j;!'J '11-'1!1! !ft' , <!till:( ;ljl;-lj(jj i<J fl>t;f;J t, I!.( ,Ii\ P ;.\] J!li C. It\'.
-*ljji<jC,;l;J!lij! t>m,>t>m,>C,,,,, > ... , f*f!< t>V,>t>V,> >t>V - >, mH'~*;JJ lfJ
'ff'1!l!rl: p, f'''"P ... , i'if'*ll p.-t>V, i<J ill!~. intJl!lJtilJ!iJilt\'.a~fi<f!< t>V, ),\-/~ JE$:k!'Jill
lf Iii~ llliilil1J' , I l'1 .lllll: ll> illl ~i!i: 1Cl ;>;-!!<- 71: 'F~ . '11!! t. v lll!!:>lillt,J' , '1 ?!IJ lit-ti* 5C ;,v.
~ T, 83 r"E: lili11r!'J7l-f''ll:l!l!Jl1ili!J.>, P ill'il! f"'El&il!J, <!:ll!;iJl llt111li&ill''E fFJll, t.v lll!l'Jilli<
1)" p, ill!'! ill: M!lf !t'il!ili!J!El!l!:!c. ftlif it t>V, -o, BP >IJr:ilif tlJ-1' JLi"J .I!: P, int Jl!l$: ,\\\1/i :()!!' 'F
lfJ !It f'lll. '!'?-Pl mu;z1'!1!it P :!:1!11Jl( A, !m JI! l$:.?.t flitEill ?-11'1 riil ll!tki:. mtl tt1-!ll' !ft' p <!:Ji\
~, j;f.!i 2\i t>V, t>V. fl>t, J'Ji!i! !! !'J p, illli!;i!l:'lf ~[iji:ft )(!'J ,
j\J a}j li<lit!!Jil' lll illllf p;- ;,v, i!ll ~ tJli{t'.(7):: 'I' jj! l'li n i!iJil'. '}fi<jCfl; "11'!'liE w5C' elf lo fF
t.V. !!;1-t!'liE!* ;c,g.m ltmt!h!'J j;j;!l:(,J>il!$ , "'1fl>tB Y..& !mi!!, 111" Ji'. !JI:$ il'Jjl-f', l'JJOCjl-'f !'J
llt:!t!!i"Ji\1) ll!:fi' fiii< tll JfE. l'leill l''Wlt:i B~fFVii. !* !'! l'lt.lit ,'f Ji!lltilliEY...lit P(y, Y ,zl l1illi:1*
lfJ Iii'It ;I;
00

p(P,t) =

Jim ~v

AV-AV, .!.\

le ill Wif fF Ji!l'JiJl" !It :%!It l:Jl!;'tli :Jl;!li' ill'. Ji!;'!'-~ 'Jl' lilfJ ,
p,,:;,

(L 2. J)

'trff {ii)j!!j1-lil qjl!'J t\ P, '!Ii

16
(1.2.2)

p(P 1 ) = \imp(P1 )
1

P ~P

Jll; l'l'lit

mJl ri1t l*ll! llt P ;;;~ r'J-" rol!!!I; Iii~. J\;3':~fi:<lf!l .1s "I !!1 re ll! ill' >E>l O'lrrt reJ ' a<iit

QI; I'll fl.

'1 E 1rti I<IL cp ,11 rrt E Ill $1J -1- "l' ll! tl! lfl 3i: fl'l :11!\tJil;ll!: l$!( & lltlt ll! ill' ! , 911 !;! 111! J1l. Jfil re il!
!ltlll.ll<li!:!1l- flT. i*fii ~i Jilt:ll ~~ '1.!f'rJ:J;; .~ ffl l*m rtllll:lt . lll:if' r c; ll! ill' Pz i''1f< 1T3" if.,
r=pg

<1.2.3)

Jtcp ,g Ji!::Jl!:11tUJ!!!l!'.,'lti1l::<; 9. 80665m/,',


E 1f 1' lfl 3i: 8'J ll Ji!: ill'I* fl'l r ill :E: IE SI. "1 1'!1-lli\ilt1'11 lli ;tJ Till' I* ll! il!' p, "l' 7]( A'J ll! llt p,
zlt.!P
(1,2.4)

lil. ll!t . !E :!I: If! 5t l!i '!' L:: Ji!: 7C ll If! :II ,ill lE 11 lllJ I .>II'. '!' 11! Ill k'.l T ~ ii1 ll: ti<

r_T l'I:lilJ I :ii:1f* 1111

-T1l7J<lil1f**
I! ii! i~ ~ T, J'Ej)(f ll'! :t ii< cp 11 rrt *1 r il!lll 60' I SO'll:m' ii: g 'lit ill!!< f'f 1'
60'!!1. I* .bj
60'7/: filJ1l! ilt Z It . "f rrtJJ'JlH!l 'il-l'!<iltm:/f!!;, ! AP! i' ill, Jt /',AP! li!:'* I>! ?cl i!li'< ilc fi'J ill
bJ ''t:iEJl.fJ

11'"'

1. 2. 3

Jhl~~:fOll

API= l 4J 5 -131 . .5

r,

~Mill!i"'\lt

tnt I* Ji!: 'i': j]J t!J n :11 lit illl 'l I'~* fi'J lW Jilt i1t I* fi'J l!!>li'.ll'Jf5 l!< "1 iJlt ~ ill iJlt I* llllir. ff i'T '.I!'
Jf5 fi'J tt Jilt f'l: Y.; :t\'i 1'L
:!J T JI ti< :t\'i~ 8'J '1< Jilt , i!li 11!'~~"'1 'f'jj'if [lij !Ii:I* fllJ !Ii:~, ~p ~J/f( Couette l iJ1t, Jt 1' , 1'1!i
~l~ill> Jl:. ilii J:if '1 !~PF' ill P'l f\'~ll! U iiE 'ill, :!i<l!!:I< llJl , lit l*m-l'li' '1"'11-!f ill J: ; tE 1i!1 IE f
T 1!i fi'J !I\ lifa '!\ 'I' ,llit x 1i! "8' T 111. :JI!: if , m1J T if:/< illi J: iii: I* JM! ill' :!J 'It , J: 1!i :t; illi J: !Ii: I*ll! !l!'. O'i
U dliiM 1!i z i'ilJ iii: i*ll! ltil!ii!tl:1l' 'llT&'J, I'! ilii!li: i*&'JJ!! It v T It i''E'l'J T if (l'J IE/!! y, 1!! M1!i
i'ilJ IE 1'f :% h , ITT~ "

v(:v) = )i-y

~111Mi.K1-iil 'ill, &mxt J: if ~na-1-W rliJ :h Jlt;IJ

(1. 2. 5)

'i!lt I* fi'Jli'~.:h lfl {1;. wOJ;ili! nr Jill '1'1!i

J1l. fft llff 1'\ t A'J fl: J!l .:h T It 'f U I h. >!ldiJ:\ll-!li: i$:11l- ii1 llff !flJ: fl'lli'~ :l:Jlc fl: r, ITT~ r IB.bJ U I h !i!l,iE
tt , rei.K 1' tt i;lJ iii fl re fl: , >!:CL 2. 5l I y ;!< 'l''lt!il tlJ <k/ay-U I h, 'f J!o~ffHll

""

r= CJy

(l, 2.

6)

i\'. (L 2. 6) fj; ~J'flil\lilf lE1$, Jjl( 'f'iill!li: f4' (l'J t'l;IJ r .bJ t'l3)' <h>/ 3y (J'I ilJ if; )3i: ii\ , ill It \jlj ii\'li:
fF O'i !It I* A'J 1\1 J.l Jjl( illJ :iJ :t\'i it ,JI; !Ii: f*::t\'itl: ~) JI ilt , ;It.If! lli O'i Pa " :ll!i'J :% [ M/L T] , If rrt 'l Iill'
-/~ii; ii!J:t\'i It 'E Ji!:ii!J ;IJ JI\\ ill' "D'il'i It p z It. -!1'111!ll<:, :t\\ ltil!t!!!ll'l'll !E;IJ fi'J ffi fi, '1 11!' IE
f J]( fl'l :t\'i titill 911 f :# !Rii' ,

17

il!ll

"5/t[cnPao]

100

10

20

30

40

60

80

1. 794

1. 310

I. 009

0. BOO

0. !i54

0. 170

0. 357

0.

2~4

1"!!i!!l:l'fr rtJ II\ illl i!l.iJl'Ji!tJo 51 lli!S'J Jill; lll'r'*1' ffi.iJ Ji!bo 5Illi!il'J Ji\I Ill' .t Jtt~ll!i~ . P!i 1x>t
1\'i Ill' ftl ct'llf ll PJ'J l'! iill 9' Ill' AA<"\ S'J 11-:11 !Ii iJ Ji! tin lilUl! illi <Ill' "i: I: Jt bo Ell ;m Ji\I Ill' "'11 m: ,fto !li11
Jll tOill!i:J: !!' ;E S'J fl< ll!l .<11. l , "{ 1*1'1'!'11flll\~iJl!<1* 'I' t;, , J!< 1* l!l1!El11! 51 Jli!Wi Ill' .t lt .
i;l! !. 3 !it t!HIH!il -1.tt'illi Ill il'J Jil!!i!Wi iJI'. i;l!"' R,,)i !!Ulili'IJ !!if illi"\ It' Ro Jil!!i! ll!iJI' fD ffijJ r
Jll':il::lf Jl<ll\
Wr11-i'l'f flll'."1:1Eti<11Eilkl'f rftl :ll::!f Ji<'lll'.. t !J -i19:Eliil'l#li1!r''Ct~ R. 1r IJi i; l"l
sil'iE 5l1'4!J:JL :!f Ji<Jll! wll\ illiFJf 11-tFlll' ilk ft r "\ l:l>S'J :JL 1s *'Ill'., mo
R ~Jill i!if !l:('t1' i'o 'I' !llil!l fl'J"i; 1*1*111 (11J; m')
(1. 2. 7)
'
Jtll Will! "{Fu W- illifi\:111 V, <m' J
II! I. 3 'IJ<l!lIll a<!li!!lii ;,;11; Ji

ill!"'

"'i"

YI!! IE 1.l~t'l

W,(!fllft-tf:l'lll"\. lt R.,
!&II J.f( M"6 lt <mPa~-1

:XJXl'llr!Il
Pm

:k$V!f~r.\

M"

Jl'f.*11Mm Jl[/ilifflJ 26~ 18


G1'!
',15-4

'*

ff Ji: lllllll Jill l'llHll


P. Jll

I. )ft

48.Z

37. 3

70. l

21. 5

7.0

68. 5

9. 30

13. 30

1. 88

14. 20

4. 70

3. 20

tE '1f 11< iJIJ Ill *!IJ'1 ll!i at , M'f ill'll!*Vii , 1'l Vii i1IJ i1 !l! 'I' Iii iJ 'l!' It 1' :k 7' ftJ ti\'% i!l:l:l> S'J 1\'i
3: 1if "I fF lit ~L

1. 2. 4 mt i$ il\J Bi: !@ 1/i f:ll :f() ff.I !!ii .!If ~ f:ll ~ il!:i )J ~
llfi Wfl'l !li!lli-* 'Ill'. Ji "'i 1!I:W~ "< WP!i ii< -t fl'l Ii< f'l !Ii iJ li!i. ii 11 lli iJ :& 'E 51: It at l1: 1*111'l!' itli'J
lltlll'. <E l!l.!Rlt r ol'!t Wfl'l B!ili'lllt c1 J.ESI. !\I
.
I di' l !le
,...,,
,,-

.,. "' .v Ji

Vdp~pdp'

T~m.,_

\1.2.8)

iE 1lltlit im 1* !'l wm.P Ji !Ii JJ "" ~ ffi !lli *fl .s; !Ii n il'J :11 !fi1 :ii: ~ flll !!it 1' f' liL !\I

Pa-JIZ MPa-. -B:CL z. 8)111?)-!fttli

(1. 2. 9)

p=poexp[cf(p-po)J

.,. "'. p. l'!f!\~ IEn

"' !Rl'f rfl'l ll! ir. ;:;; f'i'&miiii fl:ll'i IJl'fll IE Ji cil.& l!l.IJI') z rii!S'I '*'..._;tit
!\I llfi 1* S'J :ti: iii 1f1!i. MTJ!<j;j: 'f ftJ {l!!jN1J'. "'~ ~01iti!l. r *ft) ffi!lli *'Ill'. ' ~'J:h 4. 75x 1o '
MPa-', iii 11t!IJ;iJIJfD J.i<J.Jlill'.lif ffi!li!/iii fl:, "! !li;IJ t:.p- p- p, 1'7'H1 oil: ( L 2. 8 )oJ iii f!:!Ji1!1'!
if\ 11
p~p,[l+c 1 (p-p,)]
(L Z. JO>

ti: iii :!fill< L 2. l OJ X1i-'e:lc$ 'lli'.l!<fi\:$ Jiii!Hll ftJ !Elli!-"'!& ft) fl11 fell\: Jillfi fi:ftl fi:lll!1!1i!lllt
K, 10Jil)~-{!i:1*1!1tRM'l!'ltfaJii'IO.ilf il'J ffi}J 1111:. &p

K=c~ =p~~

(1.2.11)

llfi Wftl ~ 111!i'lll'. il!>:lc!lt ~1' 1'f ii ffi!li! 'it O': l'Oit J!l 1' ffilllifi S'J llfi fil:llF 1' 1' !lilll!llifl: .

18

~,jc~;);.~,jc~il

Jltjf. {Ellf '!'E1' "il'tll jj;iJlillj' .iflif l!i' & iJli I* il'J 1*<811l!l!~lltil~iE llilillltlllk"' 'll: p. iE x 1'
a 1 av

P~~ ( J'.),~v(;rr),

0 2.12l

"'iW!L {El!! Kr~ T-T, :f;t;kil'Jil'd4 r. {Rill tll!t'l Illi!A'J \l'f !D'.5!'.Jt ilf ll<ii' 1'
p~p,[I-PCT-T,)]

CL 2.13"'

.it '11 Po :!111;,'I;' tll!t r. l!t il'J \l'f !t '17 fill l!t~ lll lliJJ ~ ll!!t gIIii! il'J \l'f !t'.!!:it J1i' il!l1!
p(p.Tl~p,<p,.T,l[l+c,(p-p,J-,1(T-T,l]

2.13b)

(!.

"t Vi' ;ll\'ll Jlltt!E~il'Jilt I*. xt'f !!I! l!l "t I* . ti: ~tllcli'<l4r .it\l'fil.!:; !EIJ !lll;JE lt . ap
p~

RT
MP

(J.2.14)

.It '1' ,M Ji!;'"( Ji'il'J Jt'f :111;, T ;Ii\'"( Ji'tllil(, R Jl!;b( #: it'J '11'~/{!'ll:, .It'll: {l;!i R ~ 8314) I (kmol
Kl , xt 'f J!I;~"'( f;i:. iJ!i 1it Jlo 51i1!-i'\li.!ill1il1' <Jl<lli~ ~Ff )Z. iP 'iitili/rl!l;!i
R:I'Z

p~JTP

CL 2. 151

\lil!l1il 1' z JiHE:IJ 1'1ill!!til'J 1i!i 'll:. Bil'Jnlt 00 ll<, .ll lil 6. 1 , xt'f~ilil II;![. iiJ"J nit z ~ z <pl ,
'f"t l*A'J !E!1li Ji\!1!1~1 6. 1 'Fl'i!'llilfl"IB.
L 2. 5

lliU!!I ell It!! IE 1* '5{ ll'i ~

'IE i't i!li 7f jt 9' 11 i!t 'I!!ll l'lJ lilt i!li Jil!I>! li'!l1 Ji\ f!i! -II!;!; , it !lo flil ;!] {E it!!I! Ii 5t tli it , Ill l"J If;
iJli ll!:!l!!Jil! mil\ 14 r *fllll' m"t rt:J 1* miJli :flt rm~ tr1 ii' ~J a<i Ji!;Jil! oo il\14 r <ill Aflllll !!l; lillilll 11
it! 1J) H~"::L!<i!li A'! 1*1!\iJli :Ill;. Jlt::: !*Ill!'! lt fli.!i!:){!)( ;IJ I.!( i!liltl!m#:lll!i\ 'll: ,fll B ll<m . iP
14 ri!li " il'f m"t il'l I*!)(
B li!Jjjjfjj;\ift:l'f<i'f rlllt'\m\ i!li A'! f:i:I!\
CL 2. 16)

fill"'*

M. flllm EE.:IJ, l!!xtfrJJil!i!Y!EJJ, m!tcli'<l4. Jllti!liA'l I* !J(:il:lt'llf1! 3 i'f.!I .~. :li!'l!e<J-i' l1il ~
!l!! il!'f{E1il!J;!il\i'frlilt!ili '11;;-1f ~iEA'Ji1l'liW"t, !lo L 2. 2 19f~. 83 flllli!cli'<f4~1'Jil!llii;1i'd'tHt,
!ifl.fl !)1 ""ii<."( f:i:M.l\t Ji'"'~ ilJ 19! Ji!( i!li li'lll.!il'fi'.Jt1J'. j(! 2 i' f.!I iltf!o !E:IJ ""1Jl:4!111l!!l!"::L!<
i!li a<i I* llHif wJJlj
.$11 3 1' l1il l< J1;M. fill mil\14 l"J Jill oo '1<14 r.1'11 i!!!t ""m; .1!i'ill! e<J 1*1!\ 1111 fl~~
!1li it =. i' flil il'J ~ 1H!'.ft JI! fl! B il[;k "f L
M'f "U!i , .!;i iE )(;Jl: <L 2. 16) ,>):;ii!! iE )( "(#: il'J Ji1!1'!1*11Ul\ 'll: B, :!J

'*

'* .

B,=it~tllll~l~~~l:=t

(!.

2 l7l

:f'Jfll'iiti!>Jf I!! (L 2. 15) , ~ti"\ #:il'J Jil!J;!f;j: l!\li('ll:llJ"J Jlll;


B -'L=p.T Z
~
q.., 1'.,p

(1 '

' -

181

l::l\'1' ,,'lll"J z.=1. Tt'F" ~if;j;j;l!Jl\14, Jl1f p. = L 01325 x lO'Pa ,T.~ 15'C=288. l 6K.
" Jf.J'lJ \l'1Jl(lgf:i:f,lil'J3' !\ -lllt;!i',~Jil! rill! fli /j(\l'f !l!'. Po 1'11 p, ti bt "\ f* \l'i il( p, )!j .)tJil! 00
~l!cli'<i'ff~iill'l!!iii. lll:l\<J. 2. 16)iflj(l. 2. 17) .~fi]:/f
p,..=p.,,,/Bm,

1. 3

(m=o,w.g)

$fl.fr JJJ{ fflJ ttJJJi

$ 'fL 1r !l!A'J '1!1'!f1'EJi!; 'Z il'J l'L mi It , ltilii, ~il'f tt ifl1 ilf llii1litt

(L 2. 19)

19

'!L'1lt!J:!1JJt)I.
&; l'L if- ii!t l'J tli ~Ji! i~ 11":!!: iJlt iti ,f.t ff]'!' llJ fill itll 11'! lil! !ill"" i;!!; !!'fL 1111(51! llil l'J Jl, fif lfi tit , t!lARll!
!J1i <] 11!! ~ AijfL f'l('.t! l\iJ liJii!! l'J iii' 1* ;\t ;t;Ej Iii! 1*1< iJij ill Ii f1' /fj liJi ll Jll! !') 11*lilO!l\1WJ "~111!~ . jJ
T .H:M~n Ill$, 8 5\;iefLl!ltlltiE5':JJ-1"-i!~ ilB llL
fl: R L 2. 1 9' iE )I. !li:f4'\ii' llt iii li';j~ 71!1' , 3lt I!!$ l'L ft !ilt'1' ff:@: - " Pc., , y. z l . BlJ !111* "
Iii' -t-t!J. *Ji!$$ lt !Ii( l'J \lf';ft t>V., t>V; i*J !!Ii( !1J ~'lit'.*; (t>\!1 ); " " P Ji!<! ![Cl; [iij ft'J jfi C., ;!\
illi'E S( 1* JG t>V; 9' '1'15JfL f'l(llt~ jJ
, ~ (t>V,J.
() .3. 1)
,,
t>V;
I. 3. t. I

3ltI!! l'iJ '" iilli'i!ll 9' &;l'L Jr ii!tllJflll :it 't'llOf, 'If Jl;-11'! iE a1 *'I 1, 9'l !!! " P !Ii'- ;f JirJ j;t; JG , #

Jii3: ~i* JE:i;ff 3iif ,1J~, )lp AV 1> 6l' z> Alll , !ll~~ (l:.l'.1>) i > (l\.V ") 2> (Al'" )3 , tk ff.~:{!ij,jlj ,~
'1( yrJ l'J 'f 15Jl'L l!ltllt 1, .1, , ,, , f ;, -.:1v, l'J 'I\ Ill f!! 'I' lei!""' .\\\J!lt!ti;;;: llJ i4 'ill-'*' illl '11<, tm
I!! L '

'Rm,
'

ll:M.tYffl~~ $1\.1r!W:tx

'

'

-~----~--

'

Iii I 3

~!IJ(ill; .. ~liE!f;t!'>tSC

tm JIHl:1* JG .:IV, . 1"- Ji! !il'::kfl'J!ilJT if!;;;llli!I! !) 'llJ Vj ;Jl:l'1! 'xryl5J ii!t I.ct~~ ' i!t+ ill! ifj !'J
'1!<ll! '1E 14' Ji:: t>V. -'OJl;1"- t>V' Z.11iJ JI!.$ y J!L!l!ll! 'xr'f 4el5J ii!tU*! '1'E t>V. " AV' Zill) l'J !i!ll!
1l! ~ .tJJ.'7.1< '1'!!<1'1t , f!l 'f .!:\ P ~~Pi l'Ll!R;J:1J,Ji1' llfiilt'll'1tft'J. !'Ji tUtl'i'f<i! lllll' ;k. !l!!lHl:if ft
t>V, !i!~llli 11', 1J'T AV, l;11, f!l 'f E l.Jf t!l.11" 1L l!li{ !'11"-lit~'.'.i', t>V, fl'J !II 1J q1f~ I@;; 111.fl'J Ii!' i;iJ ,
!f.ll.i:!:1'i'IJll ii!Jl'J 111$:1-Al!l*Al!::k, :ll!Fuil: t> v, ii!!'f "1, llP :!lli~LJ-1"- Jtfif Ai P, mLJ '1Ml'f' "f flil,
tm
ii'l: 'f l'L f'l('i'.11'1 r'l , ~~ 1' 1f: i; 1, gp
ii'l: 'f lill \lf';!!li :!'[ .t. ~rJ 1' 11: jJ o, !ii. !!!\, ~t'f
t>V, t>V. tlJ % , F.Jf!il ilJ ft'Jib, !ilJi!-iltW;;;lift;I! )(It) , ;;!;;!!, f!l 'f lli:J!!l!iitEiFJf ljL
~ illlfli .t""\lf';JG .:I I'. ;E 51.:19 &;j'L if- ii!t&i!M'!iEi*ii:, Ex& !"Ff ll'l 1. 3 '1' ;- t>V; ill! Ii! '1' 7l< '!'
J!Lil: 1'lt ft'J :Iii 1J, if ii: , i:1'if 5E&ll! tt >f!1- l'L 1!R ltJ .j!j: lltk lll- ~ , llP & 1'! 1'i IJ! ill>~ lit ft'J fL 1!R , !Jl 1.f llii. E &@I tt !!1:1"-Vlt~ iJ .R '1' 1J,lll ~ , VJ ti! E flll 1-1:51! .'liitit: iti " P 111: l'J ttl ll' Ji!:. ;EX."
J'(x .y ,zJittfl'J'!LMlJ!r jJ '!j t>V, J!>'f t>V, at Ct>V, >Jt>V; it'Jt!lf!li1 fi'i, PP

*it"

** "

(1. 3. 2)

it II! l!tl!l fLl!iUl!'


ii!!tt.

"'"ii. J\l

1
(P)=limCP
)
,., ..,.,,

'i! l'iiJ .\\\ iJ !!>:ii Pi !111.

(1.:,t3)

;o i: ~il'Jltll .t!! J [!.(lilt: if..l!.J\I at l'iiJ t iJ ii~

M~-11'.nlt ':!l'itl'l'if.Jl 1HL!l(ll!'fLl;'i!i'iiJ il'lllx""' mu ;j(j.j( 11' !ltXt'fL l!l:ll!'11fi @f ll!J:!J !ltff'J'

Oll'>iti il'llll'::i\'ft. mull!""" nita<i. fl!l(!l:lli 1'1iii:li!:.


J. 3' L l iliHUl!Jl (ii BjJ Jl) *1!i l'Uil! Jl
.t 1lfi Jilf lE .I'. iJ fl l!l:ll!':lli Ell 1* ft llJ;itif. Xff'J ,1'I tJJltll ll! '1< J\l 1*fl fll(ll!' J!I "i .tkt 7't i: 'l;f\:1 iJ
1f i!i )k! lE 51. Jt !It pg - .\\\ p iJ iliFIL l!l:Jl "' (111'1<ii! U}j 1lt) "11 l!li;fl !l(!t;,
"tIll $1L 11' !ltI' ff~ - iii\ P fll if.\\\ P ff'J-1' 'F ml,'' ml iJ it1 l!li;:lf illJ .:!1 n, :i:tlt:'f11fiJ:. ll!I m
,\\\ P ff-* Ll ffif :it (AA, l;, (llA, ), Pl 'i'. i'l( iliilR)\I (LIA,,),. Jl;'f , <M ), > C1.4,), > (llA,), ... ,
(AA,),> (11.4, l, > 11,4~), .. , , i!; l'f\J!t 1iJ ~j ;If 1iJ - .!\ Y'J !till., R~ 'f J:!Jjljffl f!l:llt (;,, ),
(AA,..)1

(,,, ) ,~ (LIA,),

(L 3, 4)

ii\ Fu illli 1IJ -!I<.!:; mJ, 3 9' rl!i i!'t~f\:1 a~ c;... J, - (LIA,), rl!i l!li; 'lelt: rl!i ~.t1): '' JIUIUlit.tlJf ~t BZ!'J
Jil J llifftic fJ? (LIA,) 'JE 5/.)\1,\\( P lll;f!i ibJ )\I n iJ l\f jjE iliift, 'f ll! n [l;J 11fifl [lil(ll!';M (P) )f.,i(;IJ
( L 3. 5)

;1"(P)=Jim ,i,,.CP')

""*

(1. 3. 6)

f'~l'

rm! it it ilifJL l!ltll ;, .Ejll,f!l:ll!'z Iii) iJ


)\I Jlt. Ill,\\( p )\l'i'!il('i![iij ITTIBt'.i'P-l!ll !iii>
!lffil'flt:jc AV ll!ltt!fill!liti [ii) ".ill! i!f!!U\J (LIA,), , fili };J Ill. ~Ill'./ (LIA.). ,miJlt:ll!J!:titil* ft
JLl!l:a<J illlR (AV,) )\I
0

~ (LIA,) ,. Ill. ~ ,,, !IV.

;I; 'I' f ;,Ji!;M l!l ll!J tt 1*!fil iJ 'J' J;j (l1[ \gl'j: j~ tfl
+(P)~p,,(P)

(!.3.7)

frn lfl,!lfliE1*:it AV. '!'Ji! l!ll!:t!f:;. Tffi Jl!ff :t.ffi>tl:. ~ti (LIA.) .Sj n [l;j IE~ I 'If* RP>l
><p)!:>V.

N,

;,.(l)[(LIA,),(l)]dl

ffiJ )\I[ (AA,) , (I)] ,!,}11!.iE iJ , JU ;M (l)jil!f;Jl. Ej (LIA,! , X* {ljJU LA 0)'.!J lilt

N,

L,,
.tlffl:.\f '1!! UJl , iJ;Jl, fl'
f:E
UJ! 1lt) '' J:!Jill. fl'! EE 'f J"' .Ej:/f illJ

[(LIA,) .(I) ]di

;,,(!)[(AA. ). {I) ]di -

Jilf >'.I Jl: (!. 3. 7) {1Jf.~li)t11:,


illJ iJ ilif 11 l!l:ll (J;J(;fl;i!i

!I( I~

j'J

<P

~ IMAV.

:@:-.\\\ P Ill; iJ (flt:) fl l!l:llt "''f Jt:,\\\ n


;<;~ iJ !f-:!I! PJi Ill.M ( P)

'"Bl .Sj jf

21

ioJ n 7t~. lil:Jl!dJl..R l!!' IE 5<. - t'fllJilifJL IDiii!JJ, JltlJJ; 1 , l'\\lflle t::ic f1',i, .!it Fn11!>
,._,.,

(]. 3. 8)

!l!MJ1!!. ti\ BJ Xt 1r !ilt 'I' if :ill- ."1 P 5EX. -1-IU'1iEi'll:it1'11 i'll'ILIDi\JlL liJ k'.I YE HJl i'll'IL flit~ ITT
'f Tll 11! "l''f i!HL 11\:/!l' , l:!l ilif tlll!A:lil''f l'Lfli{Jll'. 2:19'-*, fC!l!5E5<. -1-( iiO fll!J:Jll'. lit!/I' 1 ,

r;;

J. 3. J. 3 1),

1'Jill1H~Jij\J\I. ,l'\\llJf'1<1J>lli!'Jitl~if'ln k'.I T IL.\\\,

D !ER -1-IU'liE 14' ft 61'. , Jll ii!!!! ITT J!l;fr!ilt1!1il'i f\:l!l:<J;fiF !'J $fl 1r IPL xt'f1r !ilt 'I' ff
- .R 'ilfl'ci) k'.I leili:iill'i' !'J .~!/l'Vlli '!11'1i k'.I &iill :IJ 'j> fl'J ~'/&11! '!111&~ ~;!!; 'i! Ill] ;Ii 1*1'11 RtraJ !'J iA'l<il!
iii 'Ii , M'f !J(JI!: 11'lJlt , l'\\ flJ !! liJ k'.I le fl !Ii\ 11' !Jltt~ ~!i!fr 11!: ll 1E fi\J - t !!JUL JI! 1lt 'i! lllJ , Ii!~ 1J(
.!!. f1'J i'i.' i:l: $ fl 1r!ilt , il!'-ff , xt .% :Ill 1"1: 14' !'J 11' Vii ,le !\f-:lll llll 'il' f ;!!;;Ai l;:fr 'Ill ITT #Ii J'E ffli II: 1'
$'IL1r !!It IKl!it i$: Ii'.It JJ ltII!; ~'Ii 111 '!11 fl !'Jill !Rili: jij'.1 i!li 1!!lit1i!illl , lit1lif 1'J fll llh 'f 'Ji! ill :it Jf
l!l l 11' i11L !'J l> 1'I> Ji!l!ll'. Jlld!\ T lll!fe li!iilll ,
2 l ~t'f 'i! fel if:!!- .l.i\. liJ 5E ..".if fl fli(Jj'. ilif l'L mJ(/!l' 1'11 i'll l'L IDR/!l'. #Ii YEJl T ::::': 1if Jld!I ~
B'J. l:!I ilif !U!f !EJ<. -1-< 1* >fl l!ll!/!l'l!A:JE lJJ; T l'EIJ!J :lt-1'1r !ilt!'J flfli(Jj'il'.l, :/f a~~tljt ilifl'L l!ll!/!l'
!ti!'); fl!'
3 l xt'f t!J 1ll!fi, ;t; fl l!ll!/!l' 1!!:"1 !\l-Ji!l!EX 1.1 $ TLit1'f ( tt iJJJ-1' 1'rl'I' l !'J fL IDi\'i! I~ I* I!\
V, .!;" !1!14' 14'1'!1 v, :t It. f $l'Lit1'! 'f' ilif if 'l!t*!'J if!R le ft \',, Wtlil

lil*

(!. 3. 9)

xt'f 1't!J !!t1\!IJB \\i!l!!'ill' ilh'ft!f liE if :i'C!'Jl!!;il: fJui\ (J. 3. 2) l'Ll!J:/!l'J!,5i'. -~, liJ k'.I !il ;J>'I:\
lit 8 :tr'li '11! ff.;
o 1f ~fl 11\:/!l', '11! M.$l'L11' !!tfl'J .ll:Jlii tl1Jlt,3l: o. 3. 9>'I' !'J v, 'ii! 1.r11'!!t'f' ?Jf fi i'HL mJ(
'i! Ill) , rl1f +'Iii! l'L!li\ iill!f ;ijJ!. iii 1*;II; 1!i flll 1E1' 'I' iJlt iilJ i! Ii' B'J l'L l!ll! OC Ir. 1.7 !!'JM fl l!ll! Jj' f!l
4<4! ;11; lld!iili ITT :itJj; ili Jlt. l!I Jlt 7t 1!'~' li'.ffl i!ilfi ITT. illL if fllli'E ;t;'f' illL ljfJ il'HL l!ll! 5! lllJ i'il:I!
5<. i:kIi' fl'; fl Ill: >r. JJ 1l:<t fl IDii 1lif'il r- fl mJ( :<J; liF.t 1lf ff. ;11; li!l 1* it 111!a<J tifiiit l!ll:tr i! ff
5iZ 5<: ili *a<Jfl!li\/!l'JJ fi:lt fl mJ(il, & i\ o. 3. 9 l 'I' v, JiH~ 1l ~'IL l!ll! !'Jl4'1R,
0

J. 3. 2. I

It: iii

It i!if IEXY'J .!\l.ilt if1'!1i!:fl1r !!It r'l 1L!li\!'J 'il!ilif1'!1 def 2.,; '8 !'J .lt!l'IJi'di;/!l' !'J lilJ'I:\, ifi~
$JL11' Jill B'J !Ii t<ill!!ill It ilif ill!x. li'.l>c\'l!'J It ilif ;~ 1'I 1sookm, M'f fb N 1'1>1-fiili'il!Jl,tJii.. t<Jjfi
m~e~ i!:J'L:IC !!It ,;t; <P '1 1'J ,, a<J l!ll JOl<-t'/&JJ N,. m~fll!K a<J .g. ilif fJ\ A t!l.itJ!, Iii! if rm"* fl'J .e. ilif
1'Ri11li!l14' l!lli;Jta<J .e.tt:!R v, :frgu JJ
CL 3. 10)

2.,; -

1; b - 3(1

f)

3(1-1')

-I

;~J

2.,; (,.;N,)/ 2.,; VIN,).~

(!. 3. 11)

22
;It 'J' , ;: ~

:;;_:;cl NJ 2..>r N, ~ i;i/lif "1 'f'#J '!'12,

1. 3.

2. 2 ifil!i!t
SJ r 'Billi 'Ir JB 1:1::t

'*'. lill: f:!q'E :t fL fl' !lt 9' im:iio ;;r:Jld!l ll:!JI< mri!L ilii Jlorr liil ill! !lilt!! fiil mr lill:

~.ffill!!l!'.~Jlo&~~~rrliilil!i!liil'J~!l!'..

i!I: L

'l<m~ ri11'i:!l!'. , L, 'l<m mt~ 1!1H:e il'J 1'i:!l!'., ""ifJ lfljf ill! It ii! iJilli: ~ .IJ;ot;, 1'i: !!!'. 5f fl' ri11'i:
,~(LJL)'

(!.

3.12)

3" 'fi:f il!i !I!, Cf 1'11 il'J f'F'lt Ii' lfti:l:;;f lilJ il'J 1i! )(. fllJ ~n 9l !J;'';ii! ;;( iJ <LIL,>' , ilii f+;fl;!llf'' 1ii!;;(;!;
L. IL. iiif :Y<iliU: fE '1;- fiiJ Jf tt fl' !lt 9' if ill! !I( JI, 2 !ft lldlt
M 'f ii!;;(;!:<!. 3. 12 >, 1f -@ft<t Ii' X&if ill! It 60 ~ ll!J!llTtt @t';Ji;. flili: il'J !Ii llB0iE
2.0-2.s.,

iti!$
il'i$Jlo$1L fl' !lt il'J -1' lli:JIH>frt... ~. 'B Jio!I\ li!l f Da"y ii! !'I! 1fJl lJ!! ii!;;( il'J , ~ 'ilf {E
!. s. 1 9' !it tlJ , Jl1\{El'Jro!l'i'B-1'!11!~ il'JlJi A , 9 ~il'i$ Jlo$1Lk !ltXtlill: f:j<il'J llfll!fli:;IJ 'B il'J!ll
!ffi Jlkl5' I!!: il'J 'I':IT
L 3. 2. 3

1. 3. 2. 4

Jti<l<ll!ll

:/f 1*Ai!1$1LJC!lt, l'!'~IJ Jio:Y;!li!! 9' {~!fl il'J Aili$ Tl fl' !It. J!i 'lit Ji, SJ 3*JBlllW *1: 'li!lllilii rl1.
il'J !Jiil'l11i1* ~Jilli!: fl' !lt Ell 11i - 1'11 :JBlllW t-'l'lit JI! 1fJl r11. ff'! Ell r!ll9ii!V:
11:. fl' !It il'J !!'rti*
~#~if Ji!: tlJ
lllt {ii: ~illlfi< iE IL )J 14'M~ 'llJ l'i '-1 Jl!d!,~f:l1J, a~ 1L !IJU!!'Jl!c:!:. ;, - 1 - rr/6
~ o. 4764. JlJt 14' >!:: llll tli il!JB I''< i!if f:j<tt~;;IJ '1: '-1 Al'. '.It tt~ J11J , RP l'L llfi( it lit 1),, ;, ~ 1 "216 o. 2s9s. Miill.!ll!l!l:il'Jt.'1 JI.\. '"'o. 36, 1fJl it ilii il'Jil!~tr!! tc~~'llJolll A!'.'.ll tt~J11J, :11:i1!:5t ~u i'1 :;;:; , /2r0 ~ 1. 571/r0 "11 Z.::, - / /'2 r, - 2. 221/c,.:11;9' ,r, Ji!;1'j(:/Bll@ii'llil'J '!'1?..Mi!fl~f!l;il'J!/i

"'*;!!I

*.

,m, :2::

:=:::::

1. 896/ro,

'1i1*!ll!l:flfi!IJBA0l$'il!>$, fl< Ca<man-Koreny ~l!l 03'\


K~c/,z_;'

(l.3.13)

:11: 9' .c Ji, Kouny 'lit~, 1': Ei'B!!Jl'!!'il/Olltil!a0ll''i!;if~. ~t'f iE:ITJB .c-o. 5619 .~tr;,.i>it!=:
lfl JB c~ 0. 597 4 ' Mr 'i'. g. c ~ 2/ 3 :Y; l\Pe !II '!f i'l ilii ll'1:!:Jlo j~Jlj\!/ il'J :11: {l.\;j. Ji\ IE 0. 5 Ej

o. 6 :ti'L

>':<L 3.13l'Pffillil!C

di!f.11.J{E 2. 2~2. 4 :tfiiJ ,ifrJNlt!!llJ'llt Clr~o. 23."flli~tr!ll

ill.~~di{;l:(l. 3.13)1l]'{f

36 ) 3 1 -0 00291'
-o ' 23 (1. 896)
K ,,,,
ro
2 1"~ ,,,, '

<o.

(!.

3. 14)

SJ )ti; 1l]' 'A',, J1ili!1!1li Ill: $1LJC !ltil'J *il'ill< K .Ejll@ii!J'. 'f'i2il'J 'I' :Ir !11.lE It. .t>J; 9' K il'J 1" UL rlJ ,,
il'JJ1ifl!!lliiE.!mJ!.\ ,, il'JJ1if:IJ.;J; m.m~

il'Jlf!U!'-i m'.

L 3. 3 ~ ~ f)' Ii& ll\J Bi: !Iii J!li ~ :tl'. liti 1.i ~


{E 'JC ii!\111 iJll Ill 60 Jil;-j\!!f( .t .$1L fl' !lt ilk :ll'.. Pl l!Z j) "11 J'f l!Z :l:J il'J tr )fl Pl l!Z :l:J JI, tl!! f~ fl' !lt
il'J ill {ii: fJi I" 1 il'J ill'!li ;!J P ilii!'f Jii1 ;iJ a Ji\ rlJ it:l\! ITT .tJli! ill.& J: 11!.Mi: J;l 19f1Ji !JU il'J il'II! ;!J fl' mi !li

J .IL 1t- !Bi Hi !Bi


23
llll .l\ '!l:'lii& ;!;l'Pil! )(., :t l!if'1 !'r!Y. ;IJ 1'\Nitl!il! ffiirJ<5" Pl Jili.;IJ JiJi iJ Iill:!'! 1*fRlll!t5" it, VA lJ: Pl
wi1 p WNitlilE ilii<J<1'r Jili.)J PJi'l Iilil!'J #:IJHll M'!l'it ll'i:lc!il;. ilii ffi M'll'1l:Jt :St :hll!1* v, li'J
1. :1

Ill M1 it dF,/V,. [iii 1*1!1-~!4< l!1 F, li'J mxt 1 it dV,/V, Qj &.l'L l!Hl,1!1 F. li'J l!l .1t '!!:11: dV ,;v,
JLl'P:f INl li'J IE X, H,U C1953 l Ji!.11. ~1!11:Pl!l&!E!iii !ii'!&, Rr .ql{ft!f }J'.!):itJili'll ill: li'HL I: 1*1!1
li'J ffi 1t '!)'. j{,, ;t ~i!;'i'\ ;Jg
(1. 3, 15)

c;=

!~;I "w~ft

Cl. 3. 16J

Holl M119 !llfll :P !ii !if >Jill! !'I'!') JL I: ffiilii Jil 'i!l'.li'J ~fill 'llt l\il!it t!J tE l!1
I l

1. '
...

9' ,

\
I~,

0 l

~--

!ti-'!#

o fi~V

0.Q.5

O. IC>

1>

o.

!S

0,20

Q.25

ill L 4 'lf<ie<J!i!ilif<lll

1!'11. 4 9' !b\fila li'<lill l:!'J ~{ftll! 1O""'MPa .. , , Jlii[ 19! Ill tfj , ~ JllJ ffilliUI 'i!\'..~f:ilill P'i .. '. 1!;1!' 5X: Jilli\
lpsi-'"""'145. 038MPa- 1

(1,

3, 17)

Ell 1!11. ' 1iJ ](\ 'Xtr+>o. I0 1l!J!l,c,:(E 5x j O""'MPa .. ' ti:ti 'fl!:lc T 1.1< li'J !Eilii ,!\ '!!:. o'xt/Jli, 1*!E
l1il Jil'llt il!Xli'J'i!l!;'i'\ (!. 2, 8) 'J!il'J, 'it(!. 3. 16l1!1:StiiHll
i""""Poexp[c~(p-p 0 )]

(l, 3.18)

'it 9' ,,.,, Ji!! xt !Y' 'f !EtJ ;,\J p, 1llifi li'JR m!(JlL i!L!!. ft cit Jtt lill fi:Ji\tE lill 'l't 5".llHIHI! Z Pl , Bi '11
p- p,:f Ji\1~ :le, ii: o. 3. 18) iifl'Iil'J'i!IF :.\J
;~;,[l+<;(p-p,l]

(). 3.19)

~>t~li!!mw~~~tt~%~~~n~~~Rl:OC1"~1i'J~~n~.

rilffliiti< Bi \1"1.l<ll! 9' mwm~J:Jjf :lt !'Jl!'lf(Ji\'.JJ , ~cit 00 1. s, l!1 1. sa ~iF :fEat'11 1 ,
IJOC:;<J b !') 1if ffillllil?.B11!"1J<Ji! 9'til tfj !') -1'-ft'i!l'ttl<I oo, I!!! L Sb <!!R 1!"7J<il'!l: l!il:f il!'JJ<l!lJll
!'! TilfilL cit Jtt Wllil !/ill'JL1l" !IL i!lf~lfli.tt:t f\ij li'J :St7;IJ, 1'E \l"1.l<lll 9'fl' ~ ilff 1!1:.\J A li'JJJ< 'f il!i,
l'l;J:!f!ta .~. !I}J Aa 'f lill 9'1!! 1;-;clf [iii f*lfli .!itto 1!'7J< j!!ll(j!ljl!il?f, ~ 1!'11. Sc JW!R, [iii f*.!iJ llil f*!li
fliil!i!Jl:h mA, E f1 eUi\ il!i!JlJM 1J' l!il:St , ~p ml. iiii1.I< .t; ~ :P!lifliilffl!1 "1 !fl:lcl!il:St, 'f II: il!i
l!1 A 1: ffi;IJ " Ji\'. ~'f [iii #:1') l>ll 1*1'!ifli l!il7}!'J i!;IJ "'"' ;1117J<o' Iii! #:!!ili!I! Jiil 5t!I ;IJ ( l m) P :t
f!l , SP

----

,...__.,

------ ....

.....

,,,,.~

24
(1,3.20)

a=mrr,+(1-rn)p

;Ii; op , ' J1' lll 1* op 8'JJ , p 3"il\i 1*i\'liffi, 11rJ m, ~a' If- ~J fill tJ<~!l1 il'J 'lf~Ei:IJ, iii T m llt!J' , 71< op

'

(b)

ll'l l.' 'l'Billl*Bi"'*lil


0

m Jp~ p, fa.Ji,; >I: Cl. 3.

20 J")Bj['.! Jjj(;
a=cl+p

~P$l'L 1r l!ILt

(J,3.21)

i'r Jm !t.1 fJ "i\T' fill(,!> 1t 111!'Fffi't!t.1:h1' lili 1*i\'li Bi fJ z j'l1 (Ternagh;. 1960). >!:

O. 3. 21l3"JJ'l'opli'J1ili*:irl'<. i!f\ Jlo1'J!tfttlt~L ll. l'ilf J!l T' lll !Ii 11'1$l'L1r !It,
XIT' 'C!fl!fl!J!}, &:IITT~~JlJ !t.1fJ)l!! 2 !itX-111'*:1!;. }Jjl;! <!. 3. 21 l &Ill !t.1 fJ otl:'EJ JJ!!;
(1. 3. 22)

:jt.q:t , /i,,;li Kronecker r-f%.

JL1-:ilW1.lj&;lllJ~
lif lilt ll'J iilib'<' Jl!! !ti MJ/;!tl! '/tt '<'~!lit\ *11~tlJl!!JL1'!'l' 11'1 x!lll:< lll ii Vii' 1* 1'E $ l'L fr !It op flJ ii illJ
1!111! & 4HilJ1'1! t 11'1l'1ii1'l\(i!:irlti,1': l'/tli & 1!-# fr !I! :h ~.!;;$ :h 'f.'l!A:ll'J :/l!l!l!t. :fliif J'CJii;IJ
li'J f"'E fil :it ltli'J fl!( "1 , R!l'<M.i!~1r !!t1l!!!!:iUll , llf 'fi :lti'Eii< illJ"I' J:: B'J l!l 1l 1'i'L

1. 4

1. 4. 1 ~inf~ Ii!' Dupuit-Forchheimer ~ l:t


'.Ii T liJf 'fi Vii'(,!> tE $ JL:ir li!t 9' fl'J Vii' i;IJ ft ill~~$ l'L :Ir !It 9'11i rt] '.Ii n B'J *111iE lif jC (LIA,) .
~ ~~ J:: , Vii 1* 7Ulll i.i!i it <'1.4, l 9' fl'J ' !l! ilif ll\ <'1.4~ l W1i1i: illJ. lll<llll 1* <'; l!1f fl'J ~' llll '))' ilif ll\
(LIA.,) J:: ilt1f ili: tJ<ili: illJ, @.J'Eifj!j: 'i' :C'JJr f!!d;l ti<, di!! 'ii' Jl!!!Eil' ilHl'iliiJ VJ iJ!il:J:1'1iE ilif 515 (!>A,) .
f1'J ill: f.t>1* 19. io 11' 1' 1tE Vii' flt< LIQ, > WiE JI. itilltill!li V '.Ii 1'1iE Vii' t ll!i ') 1'1tElif 515 fl'J Jlli , IP
(LIQ,).
(
)
V ~ (LIA,.),
J. 4.1
J::,;:15';;111:!! ") i!lfflt!l'<ili: f,t>;iitij!l{lz: iiil!lfJ'J lili: t. IP It lili flt. !I! <q,) '!\('ii;.
T ilif liie~ ili:Jili11! v .!;;ill: !*: :Jk ~ !Vt.\\\ Jill !l!: ' liiJ 11'1 31 .f- !Vt "'Jill 11! f1'J !ti liJ '))':Iii: i'E 1\f 1iE ilif
515 'i! mi( llllot <'1.4,. J J: ll'J !9. '))'lit ll\ *111iE iiUi! IP

(.:).Q.). =

f ... nd.4,.
(!>Ajm)

(J. 4. 2)

25
- (6..4e),
I
- (a.4.). tb.A,.).

dA
t'n

""

(~,...).

1::1' 9' , tM~). I <M.) iit:l!t !lif l'Ll!i(/llr,. C,W,l'\ CL 3. 5)) ill1'Htliit l!1 Ct>A~) fil!::l!tllt .\\\J! ill

1' (M~) l::li'J "f Jo\j {I, JC f~

v, 'f i!!:/l
l'=f"" V~

(1. 4. 3)

tEJll L 3 ll' 9' E ;,;i'J aJi , i'sl jg 1L l!i(OC ~l;i;:I!;, i!hfil!:J'ldlii fLl!i(/ll , t!ltt!ll''f 1L !V-ll!'i!. ill 1'f!O illliJi
itO fl'J :!.; JI :I! J( 1:: , CM~) 1:: E1:J llt '1 'I' :HJ l! ill Ill triJ :)t II:!\!: i!!l'L l!i( 9' !It,\\\ i! !!! E1:J ill triJ :fr:lt 11J: Ji\
il! .v, 1:: li'J "f:HJ "J- er I!.( ikll/., lliJ jjij i\ CL 4. 3) errJcli! ~
(l,

V=~v

4, j)

(1.4.5)

>J: (!. 4. 5l11: ,'lg Dupuit-Fmchheime> c)::.l\>J: , ~ r 1li1 !1' DF '(;JI\ i!:.
1';j;: # ~ Ji\' ll'J 'lill' 9' . im l!Ul!::/l 1'\'~tl il! fllJ ' ~Ji Ill El:i i! Ill#Jf,j ~ !lil!/ll.
I!.( 1:: l!ll li'.:11< M."' liE ilif :iG tll :!< El:i , llil jjij lliltlt: {l'J ill' !Ii i!lll!I!: !i1J<I! ~(ill 9' l.l' ~ .\\\ El:i i! )l , Jt- ll
J'l(i!@: fr J!! 11!iii , l\t !Iii! ill V JI; 'i! l'J '.li! j}j; ll'J i!@: iii 'Ii: , flll l!ll , 'J':: t!l :!!; Ht i\!J El:J i! ill: iii fl JX iii !Ii
ill lit er~ Ml\t!lii! Ill v '1!:1Jl!l1'\ii11' T

1:: j\ 9' , ~{lfi:'J"'l\!;if, '.IC:lt.

L 4. 2 Ji ~ mt i* l!i: iilJ ~ ~ :fll "91 !i\i: ilO i!'.Hl'i 9Jl B ~ !i\i:


Jill il:!li {lfi: 1' ~ 1L fr llt 9' ;;;;iii 1l V. #iJ!il\. ~# a4 l!l:lil CEul" >iJ! .\\\ ;!l # '4 lil1il M B
<Lagrange) iJ!,\\\. iltrlt'lti& r ~l'I li'J fr1-lill ii'..\\\ , iJ. llilT 1!'111' {lfi: /11!1-'i!l'J!j!_ fi'J ~;ili111&. !ii
ll'# 1~ r!liJJii "''11-t!li' wllt il\ 11'J BiJi'! M. iiiiil!-zv T f!'111!t!li WEl:i ~illl1111it. rill fri1liXM""
jJI, },\\ ll'J 1'!It & 'Ill: 'I" l!! ;;< :11111.
lll:lll.1/i!!l\
I!!: liliili\ f.\ Ji\ ljJf it ;!1;1-111 ii'. l1'J ~~1ff, ~ r !Ii JJiJ 'I' ff- !ill "' 'i! l'I li. tE ~ii'. Ht Fil Pl i1I- t iJ l!ll Jt
q, El:itil'il! , ;1'I; 9' ,q, PT Ll :ll!dE:IJ, !l'i /ll ,ll!/lli!I. llil"1! !ll"l'. imllt-l!-1- ~Bf faJj:/l lld ii'. 'i! l'I ;\\ 1:: El:i li5
l!ll :It Iii i'1I Iii: T , m~ 1!-1- ~a& 1- 5! liiJ f!'J Iii'iltlit l\l 3': Ifii!'. T !'\'. :1l l1i ill , llif ii'. 5! liiJ f.\ .5f !ill ill {lfi:
Jlt ;\\:ii< V.1- Of lilJ ll'Ji!l::l;, !Ii {lfi:1'~ fl fr J!! 9'iii ;iii Ht, ~t !ill )ES! liiJ ;\\ /E.:;f flll Hti'!J ;\!,Bl Of roJ ff':llJi:
{lfi: 1lt.\\\Elf '5 Jfl ll'J ,!iU1JIElJi -1-llll ii'. El:i !Ii {lfi: 1lt ,\\\ 1'Of lill Ht 1'!1 & 'f ;r; fiil ll'J 'i! faJ .\\\
1'J!i:jftJJI,}'\( 9' 4-1-'il!JJll!:ill:Jl;flt liiJ I ijip 'i; fiiJ ;J; j;j; (x, y ,z) li'J iii f[, l*J l!il I: q, riJ'l\\lf, $;
1. 4, 2. 1

q,=q,(x,y,z,t) =q1(r,t)

le Ill tJ tR~rJ 5! l'I .\\\ El:I c'it If- ,~ Cx ""' Jtll Btl'I 1 'ltf\'lixlft'.IE:lll:.
/Ei!kliJ:iili\.'1 9', 01\'lli:Jiii 9' 4- ,\\( El:J ff :If. li! l!ll 111: q, J;) Of !Ii Ht liiJ~ l~, flO fl] 11: JX!'i$!1i Y,!lliii;
lll!. it r llR i5~!Ii11

~~o

CJ.4.7J

1'i mrJ 'It ;% ~'llliilii*>iit 31'! j)'..(11'J ii! illJ 'IE !Ii1* :IJ'l" '!' 11: jg) 1it !\\! 'P fil'llt ,1'1'i illl I lt 9' 'It;% ll! iE i!I.
Of llR ii'. ' {-lilt li'J 'ill:!ll! # 'i' 9' :k $ 'It "1 ll! i5 i!I. llR ~ ll! ii'_ Ji,t Of ll! ii'_ 1'#'1" tll I Ill 9' 11' 1'\' ii'. l1'J
1l' c;_ .1'!1! 7- 2. 3 '\' 9'Jti!Ot\'i'tf.IJ!l;l1'J)fl' ;lttJ&ll! 1o. 2. 2 ll' 'f'tr\l l!X>J'!li' l1'J ;ltlil! ill' i"Jil!l 9' f I'll

'

26

j!IJ J;l: l'i'!ff Xi! 1'r x. ,

ltrllill B ml,;\
l!L!il IA 8 l!il.\\\Jl\lilf li'. if-ill i*!lt B'J i'r1'lio'I!!! :!I! q,< !m ffijJ ~ill'.'.!') m!!Bt ~1B'J5!'it1\I' IJL 9J
J" ill ii' !.It .8Jl\i4'1>'1:?l'l1rt1 , ll!lilf J;:JI;'\' l!li .\\\ B'Jilii#J ,1'5\:!lHIFlf $:1iEJ:!; 1'!.It.\\\ ilJ il.llii. ;~ T 121
MIJ N"i B'J l!lt.!ii , ~ flJ Jll i'r 1' !It .<'l ;(EJl;-tuf<flrrt b1J lo< ttftn lo ol J!li !ti: B'J Ci! IOJ(lL'!:t;J'> 1li< <f, v,p l/E
$:iiE'EJIJ, tE11i-F!J;Q1liJ;K>lf >\ <RPfft!!L'i!f"):'ltf~! 'f, -1'~tu(lL"f ,~,pB'J.\\\ ,;(Etliiiif
-Ht!BJ t B'Jiftl!fciTJ!lt:B'J 31';J'>!iil/E'/l'ff.;.RP
1. 4. 2. 2

-=

.-r(~,17.~',1)

)' = ~y(i;,r,r,,,t)J

(].4.8)

= z(~,r;,,,t)

r = r(~,t)

(1. 4, 9)

Jll'.xU\;$:lf :IHlll Xl!!ilt.\\\ B'J i~ illJ ~;@' 'Xtllil Xi! B'J ".l:.5'\:f\;;,l!;if :t.Mi Xi!);\,;\\ 1E t atli11 ?JiJdoB'J lftl!1.
Bf I~ l:'f\iiTIJ jj\'Eif PJifi' i!l!."1f!'l3"i#J,
lll: iii' & if*'&' Jilt

<~ f<x,y,z,t) I
r;

11(x,y,z,t>[

(!. 4. !OJ

~ = '(x,y,z,t)

i;~i;c,,t)

(1.4.lll

El. '1ii l/ICi'i''IE ~i 1\:7} ilif &J!!ltl'f!l\ Jacobi r59~ 'fl:; J ;i; '.l'r~, ,Ii; 'i' J JE Si. '9
Jx/r;; Jx/if1

J~~\e'.~:[i ~

Jx/~

ay/d< ay/iP/ ay/3'

dz/a.;

Jz/ar;

(1.

4. 12)

Jz/t(

J;l:~-<f.v.c.1)WT'fiiliB<Ji'rW*tt~M~
{t1l'/ (lL'lit 17i Jl!, j!!; ffJjl%J..~iJ l!li,\'l fjzi!tf!'I !i2 !$ <, ~, Cfll t IJ>fffi!I\ lilJ 8 ;J'> j;f,'lit!fWJ !It;!!, jji,
t. 4. 2. 3 jllj'f'!>'il!iif911ill:!i!ll!!l
&ffi: J~ "- !'J $:) :lrlii fll ffi: lll lill s ill\.!.\ B'J ~J :lrt!:Jl\ 9\l ~iet B'J

ll< Ill 1iT ~1 R -# $:lt:IJ

l:liff J!lilliJ :!l-1'1' ~J:1rlii. FiID~t Jll'.ff Wi!i a~ ,


1l!\; i!! E'. ~ill,lii )f1B'Jlli:lo!:mil!J9J ~.kfi'l<J8 W, RP >llil!'. v Ji! if :If. Jll!!lt q, ii<;r< jg
v-=v(r,t),

Jl\11''1l''l!'J!li'9.!llrt!llO!ll s 1J;i,r, <.~,.

q,=q,(r,t)

(1. 4. 13)

*n< .miJ&~!ll <i." 1sJB<J!I!' 11'5'i:'fJrr!R?t,

rn

dx

at= t.'x(x,y,z,t)
~~
dz

= vy(x,y,z,t)

dt = v~<.x,y,z,t)

(!. 4. 14)

X""'

.:r(~o1JD1,o>f)l

y = y(:o"/o.to.t.)
z = z(o7lo~o,tJ

;11: cp , '" ,~" ,, ;'.\J l!\Jt'lit'l!1 ,"iJ HJ t~t,

(l.4.15)

et B'J Ii'. if, I!,~,' lE tH ,'f ;11;>\ o. 4. 15 J'.11'.tlt


x ~ rce.~.1,t)}
y = .Y(~,'f/,t,t)

z~ !!\ !t 11[ 11} ~i >\CL

(1.4.16)

,(<,~.\,t)

1. 16 Ji-IC A '11: <J. 1. 13 1, RP il>i!!lll i'!l lf :lli 'Im lll! I: Ill If/: fl\ ill 8 fil if.<'!: iK fl'J
(1.4.17)

&:<:: , ~ill[ Wi'5 i\IJ E HJ lft!ll Wl s l!!iil!#a tll , RP lil!lt v l!it if ,1\'!Wlll! :Ill: q, l!!iK jg
v-vcs.~,\,1!,

1,~q,ce. 1 .1.i1

CL 1. 18J

Ill jg Jocobi frjilJ ii: .J it'li: l'J-/il[ i;fi!l({E a111!J t i'!I a1l8J '" l!l:;ii; 1* m:<:: It. [!I mi.~. ;ll;-1'"~ 8'J
1! '11! j ii!! , lif1 (J -ll! ff {E $ii!! !Iii

e:
1} -

~(:r,y,z,t)l
(J,

7f(x,y,2,t).

~""" ~(.r,y,z,t)J

4, 19)

f J::il: it AC L 4. l B) RP lll Ill i!klf/:'ll.'.lil: x, y ,z, t "'if; 8'J &ill!!


V=V(r,t),

(l. 4, 20)

q1=q,(r,t)

Jtrj:l ,r= (.i,,y,z) o

{Ell;ii!f 7J "l" cp , >!it 8'J ii l!l1J Ill l!klf/:1fi*li\Ht , !!kif/: 1f i*i'll Mi#3IE.!1' iii!$-, Ill ili1411 h
'lit Ill , ll; ;II; lb 'f tE!ll: Wili.i\IJ 8'J 1f l!l cp , l!!il< ii!fW!l( JI:, i\IJ lil: ;;ti!lfllll:~ili.fl'J 'ii ..li!:!lkRl llilat!i! lliJ.i!'

'ttii!" fl'J' i.{E Jil:@jj!f (lt r' f;lJ i11r1E~1'~K IJ'/il[ Wf!ll!l.~EIJ'mt: !fil lllf 8'J tiH!tii mat. /ll lf/:111 AA
S ;IJll;!M'iil!Ejg'lf!<ic, i!;ll;liil jgJ!f'l<!fil ilif Mll!;Jl'; ffi -!!! fi!l !E 8'J /ii[ WllJl .\i\PJi!!lh9:8'J 11 l!Jl ilii.

~~-~~~-~~~@~
IJl: W!ill ii!'. !lt A\ 8'J 'Im lll! Jl q, M'f et riil B'J 'l!' it>l'>F jg W: 'Im l'I! JI: fl'J 'Im llJl "f 'llrlll: :: "f 'It , Ill .flf 'ldq./dt ll' iii ,:ir !\1!4! r.jg T !~ililA;rni .1tt DqJDt 'l<m, <Etli:J!l!lrr!ll ill s 1rmll!l!l\Jl,'lf -ii!'.ttl!Jl
l1'J Vf[ 1* !lt .<\\et , ~t 'Im !lt 'If 'l!1 JI! ;il; B'J lll!llil 1'11 l'<ii!ii.t 1F 'lit Fl lit? , i'J !m liil ii!'. fl'J Vf[ 1* lilt.cc lil! IJ! Mat i'il B'J
:itfVl'!\t;ll;ili:tO'W !It.\\\ 8'J talil!IJ!. W{E~X!i11f ll:'ll!ii! cp , 'Im !!!lit q, ;11;'2 J'iiJ fil !ff, .r. y ,z 11. at 1'1 t
l1'J t'li '1!1. W!!! lll:M'f at rilJ 8'J 1'1<'111'l\!ii; tE fi!l it!i! lliJ Jl.i. (.r, y, z) 1: i1'<o l'l!ll!: MT at 1'1 l1'J 'l!' ftil', J!
1' 'If 'llr '1> jg ti Ji!!"" 'lit"' !iii ffll.!J< 'IJ1, Ill iJq,/iJt 'fl. jji 'f ilii ti!"" ff .wl'I! JI: l>'J ll !!lt"" '111 "ti Ji!! 1!''1!1

1.4.3

:<:: j'iij 8'J 7i' ~


I 111J!.ll'il4/l}!l(O}lft
fl< lrl"l'~liil ii!'.IJ'Jiilt W!ft Jl.i. tE-'l!IJ!!i!lll: q,, .Ifl'EK!rl ;i;. if..l\ 'I' i!!'iiltie. tEatl<lJ t, lt.!ft ,/;, w:
T JN: PCx ,y, z) , 11;4.illll! lit 1sJ q,(x, y ,z .t) , !ii!l:i:Btl\fJ 6t IV.lfr. !$<!lt ,I\\ tOJ!IJ! = (v,. v" v,) jl; 3'i
,ef:?. P' (x' ::/ ,:;;') =P' Cx+v,.At,y+tiy~ z+v,1:V), ITfi1*A J!!:l:f:l;$jg q, (x' ,y' ,z' ,t') =q,.(:r
+v.N ,y+v,N, z+v.& .t+ 6t) , 'f;ll;i*4.iJ!!i!Jl:ll'J W!ft .!J<fi1iJ'ey Ji!;
1. 4. 3.

28
. q,(x' '~v' ,z1 ,t')-q;(x,y,z.,t)
dq,
~= 1
lffi
dt ill~L)
!':J;
'"

TT

q, ( J' I

)' t

(!, 4. 21)

,zI ,t ' )
q, (.r

+v~6t, )1-1,./:J,

z+v,61 .t+ CJ) -q, (x, y ,z. .t)

_Jq,
L+ Jq, L+Jq,
'+Jq''+O('')
J,xV~LJ.f, i)yVyLJ.J,
J.zv,,_,,,
!Jtut
...,,

=[~+cv V)q,]ru+ocru2 >

(1,

4, 22)

i J:ti:1tAil:<L 4. 21 l, NP1111iiJ!!t #'ii("'i~!fu#'ii(il'JcJ:'>lil:

~~=~'+<v\l)q,

(1.4.23)

mP'. <1. 4. 23 l 'L!!! , ll!J Jll' :!l q, il'J !iJJ Jilt !if 'It dq,; dt *olll'fi'$7l'.
ll! l $ Jl'Jll,~ lit .\lo'li:il< .!ill;!il#'it aq.; Jt, 'fO 11Vii Vii: i*!lt."tE Ill lE '' filL" !ilJJ!ll ll q, xta>t fill il'J
'll' 11:$, 'fO 11II!Ti>ii:Ji'iil'J"11!.;W;l't!!t. tE!i!.'5 i>fl;iJIJi1!% T, ifir'lf !li "'li'f 'I!',
ll! 2 Ljf ('. v )q, fl; ;!JX>ti>ii:lJJ!' il<ft ;!Jjf .\Jo'lt' t; f'C'l<i>ii: i* Jilt" !iilll '21\lJ &liat !JiiJ Ij\jjil'J
1iiJ 11 :Ill: q, il'J 5Hti1", iii:Ji}j u!l!'iiiJ Jlll :Ill: q, l'Ei~Ji'i 9' il'J "lJ '.lJ tt/ilt. ill':W:'iiiJ Jlll :!1!1' Vii: Ji'i 'f'Jll,lJ lJ
m1J)?(Jijjmlf'l',.,,
1'11 !In Ill f'i' !Ii: 1* ~) '!! ilif Jll, ffi ~ l!l lj(ll li; il'J Vii: i* !It "~~ Ill il'J ttJ lilt ilif W-!iJJ Jilt ilif jjJ Ill T 3'11Jr fl!

?J-Xn~J.

111. ll!i cJ:'

F'(:c,y,z,t) =O

j\ I l . 4. 22. l 'tj' '1j 'Ii: F

(!. 4, 24)

il'J !iJJ Ji!t \!''ii( jjJ'.!j ~


dF '=JF +<vV )/<'"""0
dt
dt

(].4.25)

JtP: tio !If 'I! .iHm"' iJ/1 ~lit at" 11t 1f m.


~J.!l! i* !lB} 9\1 ~Jill !ilo!lll:
231!it ti! il'J ttJ Jll' It q, ?fl: ~ il'J 1iiJ !It# 'It ,

J. 4. 3. 2

P'. cL 4.
T ilif liJf J'i: 1iiJ 11! q, i* f!t:* il'J !iJJ Elt Ii' 'ii( 1!
Jlt , !I: 1115'if l!!111t l;!i 9' If :I!: ~u wil'J Ii! liifJi* a~a, +a,. :itllli m7'1 -~ ., +,. ., 1'll ., ru A, B
!IBI ,taJJfll t !Ii:!* 6l!!ik1'-Wffi il, !mOO 1. 6 'f'JJ;!J<F.Jim' ~l:t~~IOJ ill ZFo ')!(l\;,J;J!!~iliJi*
m {] It-Jilt Cl!i<ttl Elt >l\!IC) !!' '<>-1'-!'liil'J i!rli. 't 6 l!!l*IR il' ~a,+{],. !m 00 L 6 9' lill~FJf m

m"

B ~'
/

"

'
\

"

I
I
I

l!I J. 6 !l l!I 41Jll!ll<~ ;i. !l 41J /iii 1!1111Jll1!1

=11;9' ,il, .7'7 tl f!J il' !Jifr,oll. M'f i*,/J ftlt ~d1Eil'J iit illll:tllL Ill.JI!)!;)(, ff~,IJ Jlllt q, i*f!t?l-8'1,/J
Jilt \'fl& jjJ" Ill

J\.1' it m'!' 1"} o!J!

L4

29

g.d!:? =

~~ ;l[

lUJ

li~1

::u 0

f q (r ,t')di1 f q (r,t)d.0 J
n,
1

(1.4.26)

n., +(Ji

+fl;

11 lq.(r' ,t')dn - Iq,(r,t)dn]+ n~ }~[fq.<r' ,t')d.a -fq.<r,t)daJ'


~11

fl

::u 0

'

(1.4.26)

(1. 4, 27)

ci. " 26 Jxt n,

11'11'\ 5t lll! Jr!o &

"""

Hr1 P1 lilt n, fll

ffq;v n' :du

n, 8'J ;!;fl it!!!- rill ilil ., ili. tlHi' m n 11'1 :!It. t: iiJ

~i

-~ q,v

n1du

(1. 4. 28)

'

liiPt IJ, 11'1 fl\ %J'.Ji:li\ 6t Bf llil I*! Ell 5rl!-ill!if ill! ilil a, ili.!!14<1!1 ll B'J:I:. B"I:EJ lit

q,v n

du =

JJq;v n du
.,
1

(1. 4. 29)

'It 'I' n' fll n %*'J \!!if. ill! 11( 11101 l: ill! ilil 11'1 1!1 l;l 'fl ill '.Ii' :!It fll rill ilil 11'1 5f !!; iil('f!. UL;'!< :II! lill llii fl n' ,
~ -n,.n', ~ n,, 'fif !!.( J::::,J: it'll' ,11) tiH L 4. 26) 11'1 lil 2 Jjj[ 11 6t B11QJ I*! Vlt:Jl;i*!Q /J l);t .; ii!Ui1 W

m n B'Jll>lli:tlL ti &-oat. t:"T1" lit

~q.v nda

(!. 4. 30J

J~'d!l + ~q,' nda

Cl. 4 . .11)

f t(J:Jl.rtf1'AJJ: CL 4. 26l ,Jilt511lili

1tfq,d[J

' ~iliixt'5!
" rm lltrr!Rfr
'
J<til'J 1iiJ it 11!.i'f
!If Ll 3; iJt ur Ll JIL'!IHJt:lt"Jc Ll ;f, rt
<L 4. 3DttJi\l'~111.!lf oJtil'J'ilil lll!lit q. 14<1'\ %'1111 mt~~ !'J .lilt!llc*~ 'it. r,tz ti Iii ili dilriN'ilil lll!JJ! "'
~tl'i>:f!IJ!i' /J il'Jl* !R %?).;~ J:lil:Ji!rllt frJ tE:f;:!!J;isB'J /J I*! i1'J!.i lll!:I: q i1'J .~.fll. Ill Jtt. rt< L 4. 31!
11'1 ll. "f 'l<i 11 'tE'li ij!J>J ml :Iii it o/ ,ff :tt!.illl! :II q; .\<. fll 8')#1 iil\ .i'f tt ii!l 'f if< ,(;i fll i1'J "i J1!! "'fl
Ej\$:!.llll!ftll i1 i'! ~J?<Jl>: f!IJ Ii' 8<J ill! W a !Ji.lit i)!i; 'ii ilit: ili 11'1 /l>!ll ft Z fll , >I: (!. 4. 31) 1'f 1,Jll!il\
J:>t:t~lil 1 fJi JI; q,

(Reynolds)$AJi~it"

1. 4. 4

lJ:fl])[

*.

l'E!i!illt;tJ'f':cp. il![fll i[ 61'11t'l!!Jt!! fli. jf lil!Y & Jl.f'jq;)l1 ~Il!IB'J il!!flll[ ,,(;i B'Ji)! l'llJ< {E
'i! 1\iJ o/ 11ai1'J1ff.i'. ur ?T 11'Fllli .\\\ !l! cn:: 1, 'i! 1iiJ .\\\ !l! Ciel fll ii;!:!;Sl</ifillt cir. l ; WJ'l<;l:I; t'fi m~ atr'l
0 1%11 ff!~ill cir: J fll i~ ff!t.>tm: or: 1. ;1:1; 'I', i~lt;i>!!< clC 1xor:St11 "*ll1ill cic lfll f'l~i'lli cic1 ,
I 'Fmi!IDS!fiiJF.:li(!
ti!'!' WJ: - 1~ 'fr .IC 'i'ilit: tt q liiJ '!' ilil i't-1' 111"Jili. ili ~11'2 ::\! 'l"ilii .\\\ !l!. l\t;HJ "i 'f $ :fL:!i' !It
o/ I'? l'E-'i'il!<Jll. , tEJ1!!JY! o/!JJf- o 'lf';lf liiJ ff cp 1Aillt i*tt"T ti t'fi'F Wiit!l:lll!, .II. Ki\, 'tr Ill'
"' ffit :I: q ffi l1J $J1!!JY! ti!f J!5 , Jj\ tll: V "1! liiJ I!!~ r lit lit lt ~p 'If 3C ~,J:
!. 4. 4.

30

l'=q/21f'r

!\. :i'.

*"' !\.:i'

oj- ;i: _,
..................

(1. 4. 32)

;I; 9' q iE SC jgJF ilif !U~ ill' .1': Jlc.lfi.ilii!V IOJ <jji, 1'I 'f1F ilif ~J >.lfi. fiLJ!j!Jt~llLl: VIL tB Ei<J mt 1*1*1!1. ;It
llt!Jll ~} [L' /T J' j!Q JIHilli! J!J!lt ( il!'J'LI>! "''/t\lij *!!:) ;lg h. :II' ltlJ 'It jijlAmt!lt;Jg Q. mv:i; q~Ql h.
[if] Jll! , i!! IWJ 'i' - .\\\ 1i Jii'.t-Vlt ii: Q filJ Ii! flil ~ ilif Af.illlt ili f,i;>J; jg 'i! IOJ .\\\ ll!!. f!I ;lg Q Ji!:iilb::t

Ijtilif jg 4"r' Iii( tB ,'if ~J xt'f 'illiE !ITT: JI Q olt1:tlJJi!!1'! lifil'f 1i "'~ ,i:
(1.

4. 33)

~ l'BJ .\\\ ilUliltEi<J ii: !Jll!lc[L' /T],

lll! it 1if !!.( 1'E 'f llifJ::;< ' 1'19' Ei<J iE IE!itifililiJllJ} ;Ip, JXi'l'lw.>l' ~;J};/11!(. "! lil it 1if !!.( Jll:I\'
'f \\\ ill({E 'f Willi;~ 1'"1 'i'~flljf ;Ip. JX1if !;( ffl o!l:lm lllU!!i!lfi itblll!.
fti:t* .:l\'iit iii: 'l'JlcM. Ji!'. !i iilU:I: ,lifi JI; M. 1' 1f fill illtA .I! .1': f!l "'i 'f $ l'L :ii' Jilt 'i':ff'.tE1' iC /\. !it>J<z ;!; .\\\ iL Jilli! 'i' Ei<J 'EF'ltit 1if ili tt: .oil iCl'l:l!L *ii 'I' l.'!iE , ~t'f lli! <ttA Jt- J , Jlk
!!\ill' jg IE . tll jg Jilli! 'i' ;!; H1 -llflJ}iJlt If, F'E 1E Ei<J Vitlit, xt'f iC <'EF1r) , J{'(!!i\lll ;!; :!ii , l!J jg Ji!!
fil 'i' i"' '!:Ji\ Ei<JVILI:, xt'f 'I' iRf .\\\ iC, jgftifillt v llklE fll, <I< 11111

V= -q/2'10''

(!. 4, 34)

(1. 4, 35)

*lliili<iCl'jal!il6'J,.Ci[)
L:l J:~lil!Ei<J iii! (i[J :t'!!!J!\tt XH!@li:ilff Oi Ei<J l!\i!>J~ (j[) JE Xjgl!iltt:k:l1<:f'!\' Ei<Ji!i! (IC) ,
W~!m k;k1)( l*~H llHJIJ !f:Wli!t18'iflll! 1' !!: in ~ mt~ ilJ' l!! 1iiiX?!!!: <IC >l'J:ll!L
tEil;IJiifJ"i'"' !ll llt Jl!il' fl'JJlc1Fl(l,i!ii!J! \IC)' 1elii15!!! (IC) iEXJIJ ;i;!l\ ill' ~a<111 '!\'ftil'MU
Jl!;tt: !ll at IOJ1i~Ei<Jlli! <lC J , 1FI!\ '5ill( <IC> 11 $l'it!IJ!i, ~fif!!Jli:& LJ 'l!'lllllll<fili-llti!V lliJ , 1!lJ
iJU M. 1, l!JJ 1, , il\'. >l' jg1i!'l!ilt*lllili <iC l , 1!lJ !1Jl !;(IE llli.111 q !EA <F 1:11 J-lltat IOJ Fn'I< Mi!' ll: mt ;!1
lil:'<:'lt, JJ-#Jlc:l!'lllill:il'!ll;i!i! <IC l , (JlJftll O'ti"''lt M. !\:at lllJ*Ci ,11,Jl!;J!'!!llll in .JHlil'Eilf
~Ji;-1i ~at i'iil !lt/Jit: rJ! il'Jt!l ll! TilJ' "'i lfi 1i!'lllit!li!ll;ill( <iC >'ii'li.
i Oil-# !II at i!i! <iC ) Ill! B\tl!li <IC) iE X jg tE t= r <(jlJ !m jg~ >Ei<J II< l1V ltlJ B ill I.Iii If lilt fll Ei<J $
fL 11' !llt Pl RI M' ttA <JI' t!D ll!tlt fl'J IJii 1*, i!IJ{E t = r Z flU ll.i!ZJEf LJ lil:.\\\ M' !;( J'r fi'J Ul''ll'.:t!J '!'
ttA C'l'o tB l iJlt1*. l!l!1'JiliiJI., Jiil;Jl\!i';$J'L:il' Jiltlfi:llu-t- ffi:iJ ilk i'f, ffl ~ lt!EM 111!1'; Jii'.l!(lf tt
M!Ii!K OJ trWJi!. ill at.\\\ iii! Ei<J -1' ll;(JlJ ffl. !II at.\\\ i!i! Jl!l!'!l' Ji!! II'; # l1I! ll': ll!l!!! ,JliJ !ll li: -ll!'l! l'l'
1m J::ii!!ll; i!i! i'!! Iii iii ill Ei<J 111 :it. i5T m l!lll!c iJlt :h "l' 9' '1!-l'i '.I '11 Ei<J '.\t ~ l'l Ill ,
1. 4. 4. 2

* *

1. 5 ;i!i #.I 11 f'j!


;tl rJ! 11 mM 'Iii iitIf ,'if '!t ffi:h !Iii it , Jt.

no1t1 ~!'En !l!'J'r n5j mw!lit.\\\ Ei<.I nu lilt , il !lz l'iiJ !'!

*-#< , il1j M1W t'1 ft:Ill :iJ T iit iii:!'! iii iilJ , 1': ii':'!' <Ji $11 :::: )E i*<E mt iii: IJii iilJ 'i' Ei<J !Z Ill , 1'E ii< lilUi
"t 'i' , ilt ii!J:trlll'ID ili mtt H 1l!Ji!. j!lj /~
1f m xt 'e 'I!' t.11 ill Vlt>t'!l' nu J: ill I: 1f!!I is:"'/~ 11 l'1
Jlc I~> lWJ Jilt 1'l' iEoltl ilti;JJ Jib >t Ei<J ~iill IWJ !!!i'l,ill! , Jl!i 'lit lJlt ~7\Jili* 7.i!I 3'l 5K! Jrl!l!i': 5j q;, Jilti!'!'E
11 '<: Ei<J :tflli!o jj:jg ~1!1f!I , lW1 !'E1f!!I ti! Iii 'l'JU!i :Ir1!l'ja* lilf.i!!I , :l>t1f!!IJ!c ~ !i 41!1 mt (fln VI(
iii: liil \$ff!/!!) *ff!:!\ fl "l' ti<$~ tt z lllJ 3:: 1'11f11! , :t 'li!'ii':41!1 Jilt il'!'E~ tt Ii !E:iJ 1l1 t.ll Ill'!\' ft

"'*

31

il'J1f~ 'fr~>\ (1. 2. 10) , ( !. 2. 15). ( J. 3. 19) ~ *~1i!iJi!dilll l!Xiro'f i!f"' 'lilJ l!lt Pl illl!l;!!J il'J Ill

'if !ii.!'Z il'J 1f~, l! >!l!tEli! J. 8. 2 1'"'1 li! 9. I 1' 'l'i!l'-o!Mllit,


'l\l ill lJS DlJ 'ilJ;;; iii! :Ir~ . 1'E '!l-Jfl.11t flt: :fJ '!' 'I' ' 11!lli iil1:!II:jI!!1lJ Ii< \'I< tJj Jli1i tt l1t flt: il'J i,; iil11f ~
PP Novie<Stokes :Ir~. X~'f 11t li'tE$fL11' !It 'I' il'll1! '1/J , SJ 'f 11tiill E>i flilA'lf j ~ :!!: '11 fi'J El.X
xl:E lifll tJJ ~ii ii'! %ti: , ffif . 1:t W1c ii\\ tt tp !ll R .JP. Iii x ;!< '11 ,1& iilHi'< x~ 'if i!lil\I tt illtIi' iili iilJ Ml 11'
.Jr'l'llJ ii1illl:lrl'il. ml Ji\Ji!M:;l;!l<.~'a tl1 *ii'! . J:\:l!!;J! n.,ey\J.5Wl "1 i'I!.

1. 5. 1 Darcy ~If ll'l!


1856 'P, H. Dacey 1'11'1&1:1< I'll Dijon ( jf!J!!;) Jij(il'J !ll 7.1< fill ll!!at, !IJ l[Jt il'JJ!J l!ltRHiJ!!'rr T ~
11til'J :;l;li!if ~ ,lli:;l;!lll'lli''lt!lll ~ 1. 7 ?Jim 11!lli'.9<1ilii lll<. Da<ey l1!11J iii ii?:, l1t l*iil!M /lb tt!t
llliil'l i*!Rillt:!ll: Q .!;'llll Wiit .4 fO J]<!l;;li! h, -h, liltiE l:t, ml.!;'~} ti' lkit L ;t& l:t IP

"'"....
IQ:

'.,.

'

h,

"'"

:::::::;;
::::~:::
.. .. ..

.. ,,.,d ..

.....

;:: w:;,.

h,

....
.........

"'~

1111. 7 Darry ;Jt~ClFa.111


Q=K' A h1-hz
L

(!,

5. !)

:it 'I' ,K' tF 1:1 *:Ii ft.\!!> ~ill!:Jll:~IJll ~'IL 't l'l'if lili.it ii'! :!II: lll " (h, - h, l IL ~ :0'!71< :fJ j;!l it "
11!l!!7.I< :fJ'i' lil\:l'I!' 4ii'1-lil< il!l .t !fl&!lt:!ll:lil! flt: i'J iliil: ' SJ ffi:fJ fill- II' fillfil illJ iii 3 l!il0-!lllilt

h -h =L+P1 -Pi
l

f'il'.(1. 5. 2)f\'.,\.(1. 5. 1) .1l!'!1J

pg

(1.5.2)

32

IVl-~-x'(1+Pi;it') K'[pg+(p;;p,l/ll

(1.5.:Jl

l'i: 'f ,p, f1l p, 5t ~IJ ;!] IO[ ilif " - L !lo ;Jill Ji!S iii' z, - O:zt: fl<] Hi 1J 111 p, - p, Ji! li:Ji tt ,ll, j< J, 131 fl<] Hi 1J
"". Ii\'~ t~ tli , iJi[ ~lfll): 'F :If [liJ iJi[ ijlJ Oj, Jl!oM. illi !!i:zt: [liJ ffl:!EJl];il[ iJIJ, iEllf\~:!li; (!/Z iii\!~ ):If MiJi[
ijlJ at' iX~ M. illifl<J g,,j< [liJ ill:fl<J .~. 7l< !k !Zt:iJti ijlJ 'mPF-iEJl!oM.illi !E [OJ 1\\1111.ltiJIJ. il'J ~u 00 1. 7 '!'
p, /Y < p,/Y, ill i4< M. illi,j( ?!, h, reJ i~Jj(.!k h, 511:ilt i\iJ , RP M.1\\!E p, fiiJ iii'! l!i p, :zt:mtii!J , 1Jc'ktlil$\;Jl!o

l:;h

r-

h. -h,.Jt :7J !'11 ll1 I - (h, - h, JI L, '.!!;4~1'! ~.

pg !/Z.iE tt 'bj ill ~iii

)J fi; 1j< ~ 'l!t~ilf il!\

*'lit K' .Sjil[J4<i!l:~

flt"' m. rt . Ill K fl' rL 111*'!!:.a1l K' - Kpg I. :ii;'!' .K lit !!Jr19tfl'JJ$

ill''i'. >\If t: f'l:A ;to. s. 3) , lf<'Jl lii\111 z !iil!i: ri>J J: ~ J!\JJJ l1!1l11f reJ .SJ z 11l:lf 161 Ill & , 'iJJ"l !/Z

-v-K(p,-p,+pgl
L

(1. 5. 4)

'

J:it'!ef JJIO ill#Jlj A, :/j (p, - p,) IL- Jp/ Jz, 'J" ill llilJi'<Jl\ {11[. r!i\l1!1J o.,cy lE 1$

Kl

i r - - - Jdf+pgl.
J?:
I

(l.

5. 5)

it rill! *4ltl!il!. ltl!il! to7l< 'F~*ifl ::ii ~mu J:itiit tli Ill L fiil l1!1!

V'L=-~ ( ~+pgsin~)

(1. 5. 6)

Jl!olfrltl!ll!iliii34:If fiiJ Ciiiti\iJ:tf MJfl'JK ll! . Ill1 J:, :/J01~ I!ll -i'i'TJ!: !lifJ p- p +pgz. frn
!IJ p 'l<ii\, 'il:(l. 5. 5 )Oj i'lc'.!iff J&
)'!; '!' .L

v~

Kl ' 'azff!)

(J.

ff ti' lJll I!IE '!'. lillriJfJ\'.ill JJ<. "I' x 71reifl'J11[ l!iJ Rn A (1. s. 6)"'

5. 7)

~~ 0' ~'l+JX #!Wm. D""Y

"' Ill i'li it ::ii


V""" - K Jp ,,,,,,_K,J(p/pg)

Jx

J:c

(J. 5, 8)

xt i'r#:f i"I fl'J 1'11l 4Wi iiit ~ilii:J:$1L 1r IWiiit iilJ fl<J iJf 'li'.'I< !! , ~J J:: Dacey !E1"' 'I' fl<J K R.SJ
$ tL ii- !It*!<() !Ii !tJ %'tt1f 3" 1liJ 15 1'1!14 tv! iiit ii' tl'J %'tt :JG 3" . 1!!.!it JiHJI. Ill :f i"1 fl<J 1'1!14 ~M
mE il'iii:J: i"I $1Lk l!!ti1t i!IJ01. Da"y !E1"' '!' t!'i K (Ii[ ii!tli :f51' ,2'.1' K !!1:1: j;~i/!'2', :Jg .Sj ~J
Fn c!lf Jl!JJJ fl<J :ll;'Bli'!~$ IK~IJ;l;ll\I, ,2'.1- K 1E. ~;Jgl@!X<Jif!i!$, J'Z ~II! tli , JX->oii>: 71 JliJll r4
tv! iiit ii'. sx&4t4tv! iiit 1*Jl!o :f Jli!ll a<J
l'm 'IE 'Ii! ill U) l'J !itJll~'l' r 1-JESI., ;#;!$;!;/& Doccy JE*I! C!. s. 6J'!' t!'i ~ il'J JI\'!!: K .'E !It
1iZ Mo! il'll 1r )Jltt,lj!!J ti' l'tff'J t-111;~, l!f l\!71' 1a
K =-V /(

~f +pgsin91)

(]. 5. 9)

.iE 1' X'.t 7 JJit 1* l! Ii ilO l!!l fi !liJ ~ If.I l'B II


x'I D"'Y !E*I! fl'J !i'.!ll:fi -@m i!IJ , :< l: - <J ll't< El i!:!iil tli Thucy iE1"'X<l'f 1'4Wiiiit{<I'll\

1. 5. 2

Darcy

:f JliJll fl<J J!~ fJf! 9 ~ '!' i!!'-?l' PIJ it,<$: <J ll'Nii>:i* iE 1'1!x'l'f ~ iiiti:!!!lt flJ lilt i<i'li'i ll1 fl'J Ji Jll

![Bl.

33

il!lf.!:'11!
'f!J ff Axt Darcy i.E f1!J! Ill i1l: ll!l li<J ili:JJL!: ~J1!'fi T li;illt lilf Ji:. !fr Hi T Fnnning Jl,!Jtl-* n f
xrili* (Reynoldn) n R !'Ll::-* il!i !'!<. im i!l L 8 Jilf m. 00 op R, 1!!mliJ!tt}J lj':j;\ft}J Z tt il!A~ 7C
t!ilt, 3Gtll'l f 1'll R :)tgrJ ;!;
t. S. 2. I

JO'' '-o_

/"" HIOOIRe
_J__ _.i.__...J.._~L.;~

IO~i

111

L8

10 1

10

to<

JOI

10'1

l0 4

i#ill!ill!9' F.nning illlllll'llil'!illlli*'l'<lllltJ<


(1, 5. 10)

PJ' !Jl, l!!1- illl !:lfof !01 :J:J&:)t bJt 3 I!! , Jfl 11!!:1 R<5 ti';ti Cf 1RJ E1J fr !iti!1-il!I/! :ff :fillJ J J!,f4
$ ;!; - I ~J I 1:1\ I!! 1lfl 2 I!! 1 :J;: !~ 5< R< l oo :ff -1- IX ii!! 1:1\ li<J J1 l!ll' I!!: 1lfl 3 I!!: 1 !~ R >
100,J!-1-il<'f Il:l\llL
ll 1"5tltiClfl I ll!. E!I jgili;!!Jjl,1](xtnfil':1'i''Plit ti! 0'J *'f$;/;-1 li<Jl[jj(H~:ff

{l.5.11)

lnf = lnC' -lnRe


~'!'

.11tn C"1:il:'1!<1i!\fil': ~Hlli J:: 0'J iilt!E, ill J::'l!::R~ff C~ f

R' N~

f~C/R,

ifjfj\(1.

5.

lOJf~A(L

(1. 5, 12)

5. 12l#l!!1l!ZPJ'l11
v~l>d'/2C(
11
pg

+"E)
Oz

K~/>d'!2C

(]. 5. 13)

(1. 5. 14)

(1. G. 15)

v=-~(~f+pgsintp)

(1.5.16)

J!t!::ll\ D'"Y i.E *II li<J ;l;;tj\ CL 5. 5), ill Jlt14 ti! </iiC, ;(!~ R<5 li<Ji\Hli! Pl "'Y ii!f1!il:Jili!ll
li<J liZ '1'E R,>s ti.;ti. Darcy ii! j:jlj!:f Jilll li<J J!jf! I ll!;l;IJ<Jlj!l'Jt IK. i\'ittJJmL:t!l'll' llL
0

___

,__.,~.,_..

.... ,,

........

__ _

,,._.. .. _.-..

~-----~-..,--

34

2l ~ 'f i1!i ii!< i'J l!l 2ii!, !iii 'ii' R' Iii }.:tJH!\l -1-i:till: llL Jtiil IB: li1r ii!, !Ail'iittfn!Jti' '!if f'F Ill
ii' $ i:t ill: l'IJ Ill! ttn mL\\: llE it Ill iQ iiUilJ -OJ !l\Jll iilt , it iii IB: lfi ll! , ilt: iillil' illi l'i 'lt 11 1111 ilt :tit :ii . 'l'f Tc'!J' J!i JI :IJ , .~lj iii I:;( Jl!i: 'f' flJ
(1.5.]7)

dp ~-1 l'v +/3pV')


rl:r
K

(1. 5, 18)

(1:-pgsin~) ~ (j?v+ppv')

Cl. 5. 19)

ll'i )Jfif>Oi *'!ill i'J -AA 111 Jli , iif ~ n'<


3l '12 r ii!! !ill i'J 1fll 3 l:iL 1IC'Y. !ill "f JI! f ~ c, 'ii! iK , EIL't O. 5. lo l . fl

::~1 pg+~)~ V'


C\'2
, =

K(
-

(1. 5. 201

...P. + pssin50
JL.

(1,

5. 21)

liit )\'. i.1-:l\J, "l R> I00 ti':/5, IJ[ii!J'Jt!lit/iiill;li; , ap il!i!ill i'J J!l 3 ii!ilil$ ;!J liii!i'lt l?L
VLt Jl!:i!li r $JI! j\ 'il'.l't-111 \lilt! ;l;il!i l& ill il!i !;il Jjlf1111: i'J i'il .lf!5l' !If , 5Hli3!< nn , Darcy Ji!1$ 'lt!i!
\Ii l'!:il'J il!Jff l!H!l fl 1- J: fllil <ill gt;ll;J! lit v fl 1- J:fllil l , J: fllil fl :l\J R,~ 5, -llh-' :'.<;it 1-lo Z.
riJ. >rl!IJ.:a<i R,. 11t rl!lttt:IJ f Ill f!l llll ilt!i'l:f'il:. t11 1t>t o. s. 191 f!I o. s. 2u Mllli1' il'JJEJ!'. ;1
1,;jlj. $ , Ahmd & Sunada U969) Ill $l'i4' Ii!! !Ii$ 'IL 1t m!i1f''fi' fliit J'l;, Jt-illii:t;I; ~lll jlj.- j\ ?ill
dp/ dx-V

il'J illJ ~, !Zo't5J-iliiA"9 Jt~"1JJ!litr ff Ur 3".l\'it

-~~ f v+ppv"
;ll; 9', till& n ;li';Ej $1L 1t !l!t!'1i fl ''!9 fi . ilt 1-fi 1'TV11), r

<Ls. 22J
2, iJ1 Of VJ :kr 2. P\\);

n1' Darcy /ii[

PllSif.
!.

s. 2. 2 i!!lit"Ff!f!

iltrilii lilt: T Darcy iE IJl!iltlff Ill: 11! il'J J!IU!tJ: fllil, ~I'!' J:, it1& Jl;\l!!!l: f Darcy iE li!t!l, 'I' iill
Ill . JilJ !lll 1E JI;\ l! Til'ilL l', 7)( tli ml Bingham c'.f< li!ll!J l llt: 1*il'J lllt'.ll't!'tt. ~ff it-1- IE iilJ Bin j;ll it
!il:J)( fJ j;ll Lit Ch, - h, l IL. ~fJ)( itil'ii o/ilt: iilJ ,il:t 18 iilJJj(jj j;ll !t"f ; :kT 30, .1"T4!m iilf.1*l'r
fl;\i!KJ;!, 1ll' Eli:IJ1ll\ !tr tJj ml~1i'J" 4~~ IJ[ 1**1'1'.E!'J till!! 'ff J::l'i:i:: lei i'Jili.ll';' wwwl'ilJi.j;l;Jl\/JI[ 1*.'f
~'Ii'~ raJ ff 'l'E 'ii' JI!!Iii. )J ' !Ii fJ !iii !t
:ilJ -ii! l& !Fl ;t llli J'IJ~ il:l'iill> $ }J -l'iili. !!; )l!c
11m *"'ii! iliifi:it Ill! m
7J<lll il: tt"l! l!lt7.f< Ill !ll lil> 11t:1* !'! 18 iill
UT Iii' i!IJ , ;11;"' 'ii'~ fl '.'.!>ll!'a<J \I\ itlm, ftn>filil JiiL illi'if, lll1mt'iti'"I< ilii ml'En J91:. il: mtt 1lli
J91: .,,,,,. !IT'li z 11 '*'~Ill! mw Ill , tB llll "l!l!f! !i!. >IZ1!1!1'
iill!li:IJ 1"' rtnn~ "l!~J ll!%!llta<i l!ll.:IJ
:tllll~lil' i1ll Jf Mlii\L iilJ. !\j ilt:l!l\li:k Um. II}! m
Ii! lttlJUl:ti: '"" 15 il'J l/l>i!1ii4 u l9i ;l, l!l>tJ:i
Im lll! ft "l' fP Ill Mill> V!Lfi ,~ i'J ;; ij!]/f1'! "T 'l!lit

"'JM*

-1-"'

]. 5 iic iefJ -0- ;I


---------------

35

-----

(1. 5. 23)

il: 9' , AJi! J1l iilJ Bi :fJ 1'l\ ii!'. , Ell l: l'\: HT lj\ , rn 'f J1l ll!l Bi :fJ 15ii !it A !'I 1'I' ll: , ll: lflJ !'F IE :fJ 1'l\ ill: T , 1@: j)I(
i!il!'. l:t'l'1'1'll: 11l ll!l !E:h 15iiil!'.fil'ifi'llf 1J' .~t 'f 4'.Wiilf. l*, i'Lb!ill!lfrlll c!. 5. 23 l .R {E i~J!at:tlli
Jf<iL. ;!;i!i 111 '-t ll:f~l.til'il1!lll! 'I'.
I. s. 2. 3

!I! !itl'll!l!
M'f "t 1* if; lilt . ll: 1Jt 11! lll'iJl' llP ill: EE ilt ii> T Darcy Ji;1* t11, 1' ili!ll , "'ill iilJ ill ,"t l*iitt iilJ ~JI:
II! ii!'. !'I$; 11<"T :>t ;!Jii!l<;iitt, ulll:~'lit. llliitt1ll 111 :>t'fiilf. 1 1- ll!li: . "<:ti<7}'fiitiillu Ill'!'"'; JI:
c :>t'f i"i li:llfliz fiil !'1 IEll!lr- ;!J-1' I'! mIll. "\I* !'111! ilt"f !ll 'F-" l'l mlll**iiE. l "'1* ?l-'f
ll'J 'F-"11'1 i!! Ill ill J1l: : !111 '!1''!1'~ ll'J .R. >!'at , fl; tll J'I! Ill iittJ'I! ~ . RMI' ~J: ~ 1' 7t-l'i!ll !11: 'f il1 iillilt;.;;;
rnFF Jli ;!!:;: ;!.bJ if!!I: iJIE1il'Jl:i :Ill !:ti~ 'f ;t tll -i' ~bu !'I !ii ll!:. ll: if:iilf.:h $ '4' l!l;! !<i :li: r;,z \ii<
;!] Klinkenberg :li;I'\', ii! Jl: 1941 'I' Jll -lt<!lliJl!! : !lll'lf f'F ;!JIJ!~'l' :l !'J"t1*J@ii!$&il:ln!T'

K,~K(1+ 4~A)~K(1+~)

(J.5.24)

ii: 9' K, !ld\11! il T :!t"t 1* !'1~1!$, K Ji!Ntl!l l* .itii!fi!l'i ii!'.";;1* !'I ~i!f $,A Ji!il<ill ill: !li:fJ T
"t14:!'1 'F-"111! rn Ill" Ji!illlli'f 1 ll'J l:t1'1Lll 'it I b Ji! "5l-'f 'F-"l l'I Bl !!i A1ll'!l'B' r 1! ll'J'll: 'XT
T {l'Ui!f1'J -*iit C Ji!'lit'll:. ~ ;l;"'Jl!'.$ K .!\J"l!l'B' r 1!
FJ[A b 1']' Bl jj\1!.J\< K llili 11!. !;<; K ii!;!]
3,51ll

20

ooo 1- 10-m'

11>) ,h i1!5t~rJ!-i ;!] 21.3.S

*,1ll o. 69 t-

;11,-i)\ ~
'\if ,i: ( L 5, 24) '!' !li:fJ p il'ff: ;!!,'!'; ~'J!I' lo'i*!ffl !li;IJ p, jill p,

JO'P,, CflJ{E)!)(xt'itfil'.tf>!KJ:

!'J 'i'Hl(j![ .Jiltl Of '\if D"'Y

:!;'Ill~

iE;!JTYIJJ!:iil:
v~-K(1+

1. 5. :l

Darcy

Zb

)<ft

P1+P~,dx

(1. 5. 25)

lE f* il1J Ii r

n!llt ( L 5. 5) Jilt (1. 5. 6){J(~ 'f .!tti 'l'liT flilliiill i*ll'J-ltiilf.iill. Wi.IE
ti< tE i!i 5'l: .t"T !IE I l!IJ iii :l!iiill {ii ll'J .::.ltiill iill1ll $:Ill iillW8'J iill i!IJ , 1t .El;!# i!i 5'l: .t !'I !IE I ii; l!IJ 1l!
~1ll '9< iJ'1 !'I Jt ll\'
;!J T 'iii Da<ey .IE1*11l:f'l!IJ i'Y# 'l'li\J !'Jif% , Tllif lli!ir ill- )I!)(, :li'Jil'-ttm:t "11"ll: ii' m:t
'I' 1tJ trr.itx. !<: ooJ ir- ii' !l1 M'fil< tt!l1Ji! ll;J $J ll'1 oc z mu >T- ii' !ltlit"-" "' !Pi 1'i'Jl;-tE !l1 J JI: m
ii' !l19' ll'J fr ioJ x. !iltl >T- ii' i;;xt 'fi*ttl!fl Ji! 41-l\IJ f!lJ tt ll'J , Bi' mu ,, fl-l!fl:I!! 45- ioJ # tt !'I ii:~ iilf.
)1 ' 'I' ' 'llf c' ll'J Ji!"' i!f i!<jill lt Ill<!!!'. 'l'E '~"I' ml~ iilf. it <tt< tt lJJl l1' 1!-' !:i\'tE 4' 11' 'I' iht;~
l@:i!ltt.
ll:'JC~Jil!Jl;ll! 9' , i!l"li!' 1!ri!!~IJ4'f rt; #tE111%. 'l'E ;f [i\J OtJtll BJ 'f !Jt!R1Jjill !Jtlltfrl't OJ' li\J , tE
:tti!tlil-1'JY 11ll'Jl.ti!f.lf'::k:'f1" 12: :Ir rt; (J<i lji!f"'. Jj!J ~n 7J< '1"1r 1i1.til!''l'-::k: illfil fr ri i,ji!l 'l'1J' , lt lll<il Ji! W> 'I: , R 1! l!J "J 1'J i~HJ "1
Jl- ,OJ' /!V lit1J rt; tt r'l Im
'9<!1!1.~.tli tll ll'J '"Y

*.

s. 3. 1 -1!-l\IJ f!lJ tt 11- /lli 'I' .1!1:111 ill! i* *ill!


Da"y il!!!t :fEJ!:i ,i:.t !IEIJIJ"' ltiitt iilJ, J!:fr1'1G';!J
1.

36

0.5.251

V-(Vp-pg)

l:>\ '!' g !l\:Bi:;iJ hUii!!l'9' :Iii:. Jr ffiJ iliJr, Xt'f 4!-fbl li1I ttft ml. ill; ill$ K .Sj:IJ ffiJ X.5'? ,'E"f VJ '0'
jftltf[ *"X.*, <Elil-FiJ;;!l!iF* "" /f!iil(l. 5. 26)"l lllt:ltl!Jf'Jl:;IJ
V __ Kap. V __ Kap, v--K(ap+pg)
Cl.5.27)
"

ax

"

ay

dz

xt 'f J;j OJ fi-19t, 1:""', K 1.1 #!&; xt T ~ J;j OJ ft !ITT. Jl: <j1, K Cl. S.

K (x. Y ,) Jl: ( 1.

s. 26) 1li

27li!lllllt:Il:.

'*-*

'I> r.JJlof.tft ml 9' ~:flliJlt


iJlt
1t lt!i\' ll! 1li tli , xt 'f 4!-rill J1' tt Ji- ml , jl;ill $ K JI; 2 li!r lil I: 2i; Jlil; Ji! [!$:If'<\ Ji!
L 5, 3. 2

K~,,

K ..,.

K~.

K= KY"

Kyy

Ky.

,K~.

Kry

K_

(!. 5. 28)

xt 'f '11- iliJ J1'tt ft ml ,Da<ey !E 1*:(Elf'<!'. 1: ffl!} !!JJ :olftlll! illJ ;ti;/f!iil!i 1.1

v,,~- K,,ap_
K,,ap_
K,,(
ap+
Jx
I' Jy
dz pg

v __ &,'!_&,ap_&,I '!P.+ I
y

ax

/l

ay

az

ti

pg

''

c1 s 2u1

v-_K.ap_K,,ap_K.(ap+ )
.-

ft

ax

ay

az pg

ii 11' , jl;i!lll<'l!<I!; !<J:fr:!lt K,, - K,,,K~ -K.,, K. -K,,. )i)f l!.I ~il\'$'11< Jll:!l\Xtfit'li<I:, Ji! 'I! "I
/f ~ill! fil ,r iii! !fl K,,;l!;ifi )tit Ci, j - l , 2, 3),
if ii$~ 911 l:],; r.J ~Iii il'ill $l!< it K tp. U'l9' it , E fll 8<J :fr it 1l'*'l~J K,,-111 n., :l'i
#~:Kl: K,,n, 'J:K:ll n 'f'19,llP1'fiE-1'ilFI!: K {O!it9'1!:111i"l'lllt Kn, (J<Jjf;'il:,mtl.!l!U'l9':1! n
(J<J 1i iliJ lit Ii: 1.T /liill $*it (J<J :t Jr rill jf- .ll.19 91J Jl: ;'llff"" (J<J;li !iii
IK,i-K81, I =O
(1. 5. 30)
fit 1.1 xtfl;!l1!; K,,(J<J*fjjf :lij!!, Jl; 9' ,S.,!l\ K,onech" S '/it'}, tl!,lit!l\j~, !m J!!f<jiE :IJ!iii(L 5. 30 l
:ff :i;m ,m~ :Ii mm

(!,

'*'

5. 31)

lit t!i li'J 'ill' li5' 11: (J<J 1filiJ llt)I; II; ili l~ it li'J :t ;Ii rill
lli. l!! !\\ l'E ft~l!l it: , JC;< 1.T :J; ~!<J xtfl<Jli: 1'$ , 1'*l'iiEllU\ Jl!c :!< ~. i!il 11> ill'!<!! I:.iE Jl!,;t fl'
(fJ:J<Xtfit!l1!:, i!ll!:iiE 'Jl T il'ill'l<l:Jr ri 8<J :;'f{Ett.
'1Y iii ;!l i'i' 111! :Ir rill lit111 ""'ft l9t '11 lit\\\ il'ili '*1!!11: li'J :t :Ii iliJ -lit , Ntl i!f. ,<;:II> ill lifi: 'II< ll:lll 1'$!'>
1l XHfl !\\if'<!'.
K';i=

K.

K~

o
Ill i!#:lf'Jl:;l(;o< li'J !I* :l!fl<J'1xt J!\\!1 it,

(1. 5. 32)

o K.

;(EJZ;jiiflf 1 f ,D'"Y

JiE $(J<J ffl!j %>1:1.1

37

(!.

J.

5. 33)

s. 3. 3 -l!-r.JfoltE1l".lili<foi!liillitlill

JL fr .lili Ji)JIE lill'.!l' "11 1!I: il' !Iii flJ $ l'L fr ..lilillt ;jlj lli
D"'Y iE1' ,J!>i\J:Jtr~J!ll#'.'f'llflMlltil*'1> LI Jt~IJff\liJE Da<ey ;E$. fJ!lll'i'llti!*:fr~1JJllr~>
i ffi 2 ,.,n<,i!'f'l'lt:ll:JJ .muitnl'UllJ.J
ii{ 1'f jl!j "":;-: mim lli llti il' l'J atilt iJ: -1' $

(!. 5. 34)

lt'l' ,K, 1'11 K, 5}~rj,,J.Jfr ll!:t>!T'llti!* 11'1! 2 lli:li!fi~$ii<'l!llt;fl!$11'i~~ 'IO'li' 1J, .mH'1
-5! [liJ ,\\\ J:lltii'f' I fll 2 8'J !EJJ Pr fll p, 8'J 'l\l:{l[lil;;li;'!i 'l!f 1J Pc; i!'f '.'f' Jt'!i 'f 1J 'mti 1'f Pr~ p, ~ p,
1fxJ!ll:ll!~lltilli~fil'*~~1.Pr1U~~.

nl!<ci. 5. s>lli*:l:il>xtJ.J

,,

1=--'lp,
K,

V1=-~ZV'P2

(1. 5, 35)

i! -t-n!!l ~il'i# ;r;miii;llti il'l'l atlltil!J lli ~llti '!' :ll!11< 1f mlli
L 5. 4 Darcy J:Efftnl!i~

aJ "l!f ilif

* 11"
!)'

(J'J ~it <Ii ill ;m Jl! 1"!l' l\;;l!dl< JI! 1Lll:J;i .lilillJ> ti' '!' ~ '5111>' llti lli JI; !l!l: .~. l/i ill Dacey

*'

~ Jij ,\l,jf>"' _t * Da<Cy


'!' lli Ill. :\'iJ 1'1!ll1liJ 1lf jiJJ iJE JI;.

il'lll!Jt rjiJJ 4'r l'Ffil' Jll'. Fo JIEiiiJ:1f lt ~ti lli '9;;!1!!: 11.( R ~JI; llF VI( ;jlj
x T Dacey iE jf (J'J Jt !lfr, B Iii! ill i:J:i'f ct-$$ Ill ll!/!!L Whirnk"
(1986 JX1r '.'f'"f !!itftl llti j,j: Ill iltifll;\!;lll:11' T lt 11', Enc and Polisevski '' 1 ~1"f !Etftl lltiil'Jt 11' T
Dacey )l!jf, 1fil10ij !l;~$;li;~1fi<lli j)E 2 l\Hlili. rili fr mil'ifoi'*l'. lf.lii\ ill lliJt 11':!flt;,

"". I

!.

s.. 1

~!\J~'l'>'i!Alll!l!i

lt1!< D"'' ;E$(J'J 1'!:11il t(t (J'J l!!!!'lli<t'Fo!i:l111J 'll'li' !!!I!!?!!, IP aJ 11:12:11! lill (J'J ';!ill'\!' ~lilj iii
J;Jt (J'J $l'Lfr m(, if~ IIll Hagen-Poiwnillo llti;jlj (J'Jtltll', l!! l!\l ;!1"-!lill!.. '.'f'"f !!ililf'f Wi I!\ i'f' ,JJliiJ:
1!11'\!' (J'J Vi( :I: Q, .... !fi:IJj;ll Jl!' dp/dL ;ff lmr *.!\ ,
- - m-i~
811dL

Q1 -

(l, 5, 36)

Jt'f' ,r, ;li;'!i!ilJ'f '\"12 ooi ;li;r@;!ilJ'fll'l i!if)l. J'Ji' Ll 'fit 'f' Jll .\\\Jllll!' v~Q,/"" ~ - (ri/8) (dp/
dLJ,'IJJ!ll DF *.l\i\(!. 4. 4lll!~lltiJ!lill'.
V=-~;/Sdp
dL

(!.

5. 37)

38

~*~~*
lijl1, !liU!l lf!I '!l'fe 'f:!f llie!Ri!:
1

4'i1J; ill'$ K ~ ,O,i/ 8.t'il:~~ it iv Darcy XE' J11! llJ J!i'i\. 1i';ill'$ K

IE t~.
::!; Ji! IJ!~ JI! fl' iiI '!!;!IF ;lHL fr Jllt ,ll! ill lll i!! '8 !Ill '!I' 'fiof:,J!\ 4' !o!J lJ llJ , j;!( : !Ill '!I' Jll! iii: 1'E 11!\llt

llil!R iv A llJ flj i!<Z 9', iv lil Jl! <i;IJT,. J!l i'l:'fioil'::!J r, A'J: illl'\1'1''1!:iv N.(i ~ 1 , 2,. .., N) , .OO~ill'!Ji:
j;!( 1';i; fr l!lt A'! .Ii\ iJll lit :'.!I

(]. 5. 38)

1 '

~ - A

?fr J;.( iii' V[ili.!!l V f!I Jil'ill' $

K Jt~lfo)1' I!:

L; />.',rrr'f
""'

(1. 5. 39)

v~Q~~K<f.e
A
dL

Cl. 5. 40)

I ;8Nr'

K = - .-........'. ..:.
8 ~ 1'.t,rf

(!. 5. 41)

ilJ;Jll'$ K l:j fl l!!i(!!i'. lf!l '!l'B'. 'f:If llJ iJ!J f!l 'fJ$J ii! llJ Jli;fltl!Z IE It . ;;\ 9' , Jtil;J:: llJ 'I!: !I! 'FJ!l.11 f* lil
J'., llil 1liil:17Hlli1Htti!~ .1!1;1f ;t;' $if ill! !!lf!l It llil ~llil j\' .'i\ o. s. 41 l'i!! 'A , M'f 'f Wi llt i!<ill'I
ii$ fl fr Jlltfl'J ilt i!1J , 1i';ill'$ K I' Sj fr Jlltfl'J :tif tt ;ff~ , 'iii!( ii< fl'J :tl'11x ~ , ii[ 11 Jill iJ! , lilill' $ Mi

:re

*iii *'

fl l!!i(Jt f!l '5!lll'!l'fe11.JJfl


Jfl Miff ill! 1t f!l It llil il'J Jfl
~Ill llE, 1!11 J;.(JJ: ( L 5. 41) ,ttl!"'i'iJ'. lt!'J 'J!<JtJJ:,
1.

jjij .. ;J' Fo" {EJJ: (!. 5. 41 ) "' ih>l'lii.

s. 4. z El3 iiba "'1'11/f ll!!!Ul<

$1'Ew~ill'!~111ltl!<llli!lllit~m:!fmili~*~~lilllt~i!IJ:!fll!.1'E~~~@0JJ:
(!. 4. 31) 9' ,,_ q, ~ pV, Jll'."t l!lillt 1*Pfr'l\':llJ Jllt:lil:JJ F. 1''$~ ili i!IJ!li:91!!:!fll!;!J
a(pv)

;;;-+V (pvvl+V Cp8l-V

P~F

Cl.5.42,)

1t 9' ,6 cl! Krnnek" 5. Jt:lil: ;!I 8;,. pO 'liUR Vii i>f'J::E/i'lf'11J llJ ffi;IJ , P cl!JZ :IJ lldl, V P l\i;;i Jitf.!L
II< 1'! iJll i4' M'l\':li!J llJ ~Ith
tE .t JJ:"' *11Illill'!~11Vii1* llJ >l;@;l'i::!f ll!
"E+V(pv!~O
ilt

"'

p-+ Cpv V )v+ V (p-0)~ - V'v+pg


at

(!. 5.

42b)

X&'fi!I llt , lill't'F J;.( T-'!tl!,


llr "6 iiH/;l't lJ1 1i'; Vii .5J ti' ill'! iJll i*ili: i!IJ e<J ~11;1J fl ?fr lK ~ti , ill> llt 'I'~ 11 JJ .5J 1i';!If$ !!ZR It .
'rr i!lll:J!l;IE It .1'E'5!!1i'f ili:l!'I '/'ill
ilitt-.1:\, llif JI!;, 1l!ill'Ill VIK fl:'l\':!fm 0. 5. 42b l 9' 11J

"T"

:qt[ \! tl'

:!';ti::, Ii! Iii DF ~!\ 'i\ CL 4. 5), :If@(!. 5. 42b) lLJ&fl'J v llll' Ill V lli't'll', Jll'.~ !li;IJ .lJli'.!if
'V p ,

'f ii'o{Ej/j; llt :IJ 'l' 'I' , l!ti!IJ:!f@lZ '.!if JI<

39

1. 6

(!. 5, 43)

>'r$tF1!'Xf:lrl!! (!, 5. 43JtFTi.!l?Jililf11'. ,Beck( 1012 JIii tll , 111!! 9' .'f' Ji{'!il'lf ll' ball!!I:
lJ!f CV V )V. !:!! CfJU; -lJ![B'J l'fiE 1l:( li!Jt /11" 9' X1 'i!'iliJ ll<!&8'Hk!&ll! iili, )!j;i, 1'1!1!l'it!J'l.*('f1'
Nit 8'J 'll! fll ollli!t. '1l 'li:i'trll it!Jllat, 'II-Ji VI: fii:VI: illJ iEit!Jll J:ll!!l::;\721!, jfjjl\l'lilt iEit!Jll l:ll! !1:1'
J'J'I' (Jj; ,\\\;;r;.!!!.!:j 'G !ill'l!i' !l!:J:ll! !i:!!J'.;ff!lll! l!I l , Jl!ll.!!! l'J jl,, {'! '$' (V 'V ) V ll!f'f'jl,!/<J!s fll tlft
tti& i;\i' iJ Ii!E i'J ~e !Jett !flj) l'J 'lli:litn 'it 151 XJ 1''ll'll! !I: $ ;k: M'f 'W fil :fllJ llilfil !1l. fill 'f ff lilt iilJ
'lJ J!!-'1JJ!i;>J;/ll!!JG (V 'V JV Jllf 1!! 1\''f '!". i!J!.fll ?k~ffi T Jlf l'J ,
lf 'If - )\\ J!:-'1J ;\'<~. l!t;ll,,'kf iE!I! L 5. 2 ll' cjl j1!_TJ l'J Darey li!li!ili!ff l1l; B!J l'Jll!Jll:J:'1i!,
ll! !It ill illi at>: il1 ~ l!i tittt .fll IM! Viti& g; tE l'li*!i fVI: 1* vi: lJiJ 9' ~JI! Iii: f! ?rJJ fil Ill JW vi: 1* l.i!t
,\\\ 8',!i\ A uLli1;?iU 1~Jli(f :!!:-.Ii\ B ttltM:ll 'f''.J)'. iE!tEJ'l,'lf Ill IE Ill 1*'it~i111$1L11' l.i!t 9' tll 'f
l!l 1* H :f!<f llll. li1i :jf VI: 1*;;; ij/J. lit"' iJ I i!il VI: 1* Ill\.". illJ I: il1I .ii' It. i! t!J. Ill! ill iE ij/J :Ill: Ii !ll 9' 1l! .t
CV V JVJJJf JP.Ill :fitlll! .1JiM :Jl'L 11'!ltB'J JL!IJ(!l:!&:k. i!HL mJ(flr:k:kl!t '!' All:lt!!J lt:iEl'J $l'L1i'

lli\T. tll7flll~l'J~~.~lt$1L1i'lli\9'*~Ri!J:B'J~Vl:t!J.~lil:~~~B'J.~~'f'liT~fftE
if for R ~l'l'!'ll':m1 li!B'J ililM!. J'Ji VJx17 7'f.(i*JL11'!lt 9' l'JVl:ij/J '1'.'JJJ!Jt &111tttfl11"ltVl:~l'Z. :i;
~ 1E;;; ij/J tr Ii 9' ha J: (v , v )v l1Jj j'jj R llll :Iii Jm l:Ji!!!!!' 'f :n lJlf pV' 'lit pV" ( 'AC :IJ I!! L 5' 18 ) 'lit
(1,

5, 22).

xtf-ttll!llr l'J 'P'Wfill$ lilt. t.c1i;rntvi:ll!f. i'i.'11/1 !!! o. 5. 62 Jll'All:


p JV

'fat~-'Vp-KV+pg

(J,5,44)

Y' ;t, ffl Cpl;lJVId/ i~~1li!ftl1Jlj;i, i& i lifll iml? ;!;"J'il fl [12 l 9' 5ttff iJ.1'Jt!J,l'fi-;J" llf. #'!tlH
Jil!lf:l!i!ll pc, JV /di *f~~. ;It'/' ,c, jij;tall!J!~ ~!iii:. 7j;i,Jrf< (L 5, 63) 1.l:"i Ail:
JV

pc. 3t=-\lp-KV+pg

(1.5.45)

:IJ l'l 0 , 5. 45Ji!t :Iii 4t 'W :ili l$ Vi(iitij/J Ii Wl'J -tt Jfi 'it . Xl'!iJ 'SJ 1J. fill flll f 11' Ill\ lllH~ $ K !! Iii lib
Xef !. fill ;\'< tt 1i' Ill\ K :!! 2 fij)' ll\ JI ,
VJ 1: )\Ht xt 1F Ill :ili <)lo V1t 8'J -tt illlfi lilt 8'J , xf 'f Ii!. fil <)lo VI: , !!Ht\ J: 'it 9' J'i tfll ba ii! !It lJI! :;\J
~ ~Hit iilJ 1.r l'l it Ch
K(.
V=-'I/ p-pg)
fl

CL 5. 46)

Jl::lit:l!il!! J. 5. 3 l\'9':"!i<Vl:ii!JEl'J Darcy lE:i'l!(L 5. 26),


tll VJJ:lilt 1iT VJ# ill ,b\illl:lll:"f 1!!/I l!!tll !lt!l!.\\lli';VitJ;;iilJ/I I!!. :t JJJ!tE 'f ;W~ T l'f jij:tlfttt
7J .fll !'illllili!i'E}J , 1El'!i L 5, 2 11' 9' l>\!Jlj< Darcy Xi'. 1*lllffl i1l: 8!18'Jll!!l:J:'1i!ffil II! tll ' '11 ll!ill&:k
Bi ti( ~11J!fJllf ~'l [i@ ~jj! i'Jii!'1!, Ill ti; MfJli ;;t ltolilt ,Docoy li!i'l!1!\IJJJ!fF lllli!ii!l':iE,

L 6 ,i! tJitt/Jf;!
Jt ~ tt :IJ!i Ji! VI: 1* Ill\ l:<'f t!< 8'J ~'\it :J!<:t';j\ ~!I! !. 5 11' 9' J'Ji)j< 'E:; t!J,jl, Jilli '1llJ lilt;;; ;;I; l'J 1'llii' ff l'l.

L 6. 1

.lji. l'Jn!i* )#mi~ l.if;~tii.'i'-il

lt fll Ill 1!)(!'1!%!!.i *l\\H1!1t i!:"f IJlli! i$ h Jlt, :t!1il!& 'I' ff Ill< -1'J'l'lllJ Ii' a, !l(J'i' 11111 Ii' l'l ff
$ JL lill li'Jt Jilt. l'tlUIJ<t\!'. "'1. $ fL:ft l!ltli<lli Ii' JiJil>l-tll i!! f!ll'i'lllJ li'ilJ 9r'I! ill jg u. li'?fitlill u
J: ff 111<-1-ill5Gjg du. ;l;i'f l!<Aft:li rliJ jg n, i!ii'J: iJjf JG M En jj}ili.iJiOC :IJ V, r;!lkmllf r') Vl i!ii'J:
iJjf 5G du ilJ !'lt:llt :IJ pV ndo, I!,! ilif Jlili1lll:1'!'fitl u lllUIJ ili.!i'B'J .\ilJl!t:llt :IJ

~pV 11dt1

!il :Ii iii, 1'E ll'illJ tt< ll 'I' ff lll<-t-W5G dll, '11'f~~11\"1>1' 'l Iililil'I !l!:!li:llt fill~~.
dll Vl En l!lt:lltlll hUlt' h [a(p p) / Jt ]Ml. IEJ iliilll:1'l'i'!llJW (J i*I !'lt:l:J.11 Jloli' h

lt-'.ll:~ f'l!

f a(~el d(J
"

Jlt!'f. ilrl'i' !llJ Wl'l 'If lll< Cit: i J! ;ffi , :lt5!\\ll1 <IP ffta<t 1\1J l'l '111*-lli: W!ltr"!E <lll! ti'l!t l ilJ iiiW
tt<m i jg q. Jt :1:m [T_, J. ~tl fftatrJ l'l w5G dn F't <lll!ti'l!t) ilJ iii. wJlltt J9 qpdn, 11.1 ilif
fftat r'1 i*l ll! t-l'i'!llJW a mlit or J?t ;ffi f'!E <lli!ti' l!t Jli'Jili. Wllltt:IJ

'*'

Jqpdtl

'
*- J!'i l!lt:l:"fjjj)E 1" i'i' il!J j;f; ll r'J iJi[ wJllt:l:lll
:l:!i' f!li'fM:J}*' f''t ilJ !'lt:litli*i!iti'I! ill jg

o iii. If; ilJ iii.W1!1t :I: . RP

f ?,(~o) d(J
u

Jqpdll - ~pV ndu

Cl. 6. lJ

"

'?!: <J. s. 1l JIUl,!R?tl!i :\ ltJit!lttt:li!'i\.


;!IJ !!I il!;Ji'f 0'?!: , 'i\ n. 6. 1l 'l'B'J ill !f(j} >Y['J ft h

~pV ndu ""' J'V

pV

l!J:!lt B'Ji*fR?t, GP
(]. 6. 21

(pY)df)

"

f[ac~el + v <pVJ

qp Jan~

ci. 6. sJ

rlJ Tl'i' 1'J 1* (J ;li!df :!!: En ":!\!lb. liU1i ~it~ m~ !II: 1-WfR5t " J':l!! &: M'1' lli:;lll; !Jt!;( ii!i ~ n"' .
'f;!ikilllll'?tll'i"' i1Jit!lttt7i1'il
e(~p)

+ 'V

(pV)

qp

(1. 6. 4)

J:'il:ti JliAf J1)j 'I' 11!! <le l lll!Jt q X>t11!! f!l it: 5t %tl l&JE f1Hu ffi. f1i ~fl'$ JL fr lltl'~l!i l!'J 111' Jf! -fL mi\!lt
f{ijlJif 1!! Ji; , ffetl fiif V. lll '1'~ 'f'l!lil: :lrlll (!. 6. 4) :ll!:i~ ll!.:ti :If lit IJlt illJ ~~ tt7i1'i\ ilJ -l!!:Jf! '?!:
~tr"'
II!. :1111' mr. ,it ~tt:li"' n
<e:e.>. + v . cpv> ~ o
(J. 6. 5)

iii(''

*.

Jt

ilif X1'f :If llil!\ ;ti; 11' mt , a( Pe) I Jt ~ o, il'.ill:fl'7i1'ilit h


'V (pV) = qp

Xt'ffil!(lf."1>!1'mt,J'l.ili.#''l''Tffi!lli ,ep

p~'l!'~.Wtl'i\Cl.

(j.

6. 6)~1'J

6. 6)

41
(J.6.7)

(l.

\1 V=O

6. 8)

Cl. 6. 9)

*iii:*

J(~;J - '7.

[P;('lp - pg)]= pq

(!. 6. 10)

d(~,P)

[P;('lp-pg)]= O

(1. 6. lll

:tE JI; !!Lil'!' 9' ' tt tt X>t J!J! llt 11!:f Ji!,~~u C' ilii Ji!c~i!l1@; tt:tf lli! .!ff Darcy lit Ill Jl)(
i~
'i::i!illt v, 11ii *;if;ii!ffi:iJ p i,lli If p ll'J 51<'1\ll:.. ~ll:,( !. 5. 26 lf~All:. u. 6. 4) , mtl 1,iii;i';tt:tfW
ll'J ~ .l!! 1it Ill l!i P:

_ '7,

Xf T 71; lll!::f liT Hi !lii ii(#.: ii( illJ


'7

[~(-g)J=o

(!, 6. 12)

}. 6. 2 ll!l 7.1< jljj ~ ~ i1 l!il )# iii! mi l1E ~ ft T.i Ii


xor 'f lill 11c ll'i:lil :f llH\l! il'J !I(, lil r1iii o '!II w ?T~U !lltffelill :Iii '!II ,Jlll ll'J :1. Ji' Ill , !ll It!! '!II !It
C~lll 7. 1. 11\'J ,mU1iflillffi'!ll11c:lilll'Jiii;i';tt:!flli!?l'~U7'J
(!,

6. 13)

(!. 6. 14)

s +s.,=l
0

(l,

6. 15)

:tfjll (!. 6. 13 )ji!! ( !. 6. 14) ;tf!IJM ll'J q *ffilil! (j[ Jll!llt ,X>t 'Jtil\111% , q= o, X>l'f ,\';' 11!(, 1\11Ji! VJ 8 iil
l'Jt (i!?. l"F Dime 8 JjJj l'Jtlit llJj( llP i!l l'Jt ),
@!! ll:. U. 6. 13) 'Ill (I . 6. 14) ll'll:.ll'J il'l:lil !l(ii!l;tt:tf W:/E~ ll'ii~l!l .t:f :k:tf 1l!', l!l 'h:tf
9' P. 'Ill p. ;l!;lill'!ll 11c:tE!i!lll!* f'f r ll'Jlli If. !Jlt;li;5i'~o ll'J ilii .13. i!?.:f ;;JI; il(:iJ'J' 9'1~*L' ~' '.k:
:I;, jj-:tfi!ii. !i!lll!fil:!JU!\'lli: B TEilliLl:: 1ft!I !ill,~ll'J rt:tflJHWillmn &. Mclain, 1973 I , ?Jf VJ
liT~lli llt p D.11:111 !i!lr.! I* !!1!\l'Jt B !litffe. ~i't Cl. 2. 19 Jf'\:Alf l!! ( !. 6. 13l1'11 i L 6. 141 , iJ1J 7)( il'l
:Iii il(ii!I; ttli

m.,,."'

(1. 6. 10)

(1.6.17)

(!.

6. 18)

42
'\/ .

K,. 1
[I' .,Bw,

V' Pw

]+ KBw
q.

K1 at'('')
Bw

(1.6.19)

:Ii; 'I' ,K,, ~ K,/ K 1'11 K .. ~ K. i K :$t~Ll fl; }J i1l1;j[j1'1171<1B 11') 1BXl$il'i$, K

:llrfr !ii! 11') (!!i!Xf) $il'i


"'. "l l'J Jll !f !ll (!. 6. 18) fl!( J. 6. 19 )j1!'i'f ll<l!fi'I. i!illtf JC -1-ll!l tJ ll!f!llill -1-'ll 'II' :IJ p,
'lJJ 1'il ( fil!fl; 7. 1. 3 1' > , IP
p,=p.,-p"

so+s,..=l,

(1.6.20)

>Hf J:'l\ ft A>\ (1. 6. 181 ill (I. 6. 19) , Jf i'J Ill!;! 7. 1. 3 1' !JfiZl!IJ'J ';'II' J1 itll lill p,. - p, <s.) , !i!J R fl
jllj 1-*JiiJ 'll':!ll p. 1'11 ',ff,!; liJ ffl ~ "l 11'1 :1fJ*jj!frl)<f!,

i. 6 . 3

lHi "I: 1.1< *El ~ mt e~ ii ~ tt 1.i ~

n'f ;i; ill it< rm: 8'J ''" iil\tt!f!ll . I"111 iJt>* l"Z "t Ill>&-** m'1' 4ll:-# l!l.:$l- l'E 2 llil '!' 11'1 :$t 1P"&
:!i;!!Hatr!iJ ffJ 'll' ft:ltl" , "'"*Ill ~J:l lli! lt B'J!fl*' IP l'Elil ilii clki<f T Ell "f fill!\!1:$)-!it If; 11'1 !Jf file-' :IT)
Xi:'illl&t!* J9 Ii illl 1ml!Jffi"\ffiIll!1* J; '"I: i*, "f "? lll1tl!!5l- R"? lilt:: l'Eilll 1'11'1< 'I' il'Jlll lllf.!l, "\ i*
l'E iJli '1' 11') 1111! 1l IP lif lllf. !Ill'"( It R, B Ell>\< 1. 2. 71 !tf iE )(.,Ip Iii' lliJ: ~Tb\ iJli .Pi$! If; 11'1 '"( i*
it' 1!11' iJli 11'1 i*!Jt2 ct , !ill if ,)E)(. "( i* 171< 'I' 11'1111 lllf.!l!: R.. J:ltJ<lliJ:~ T 1).,1)( '1' iSIHJ 11'1 "( i*i*
W.1' '1< fl'HI' !J1 It .
J9 T "I Iii !Ill. 71<. "t.c-. lfl ~ tl il'Jil'li;tt!flfil, 'fl: flJ"?*iJIJli< 9'-1-J\'!iil: i* 11', i*J\'!lli f*f,q 9'
iJli ill Jj( 8'J !l( lit:$)' ~lj J';

' ""

B p"""

~ Bp
;,. ...,,

IJ'H

"

:!i;.p TtJ< " 'i'<ii'W-llclki<f TIJ'J i1i, ml ltif!fli'1*11' '!' Ell "t1'111111!'i:ir'J !lt:lt:$J-~1J J;

''

BP~"'

1
rH

'

IR,,, + 1'R
B

ill! .!llfll 7K*i !<Jil'lli:'i'f"IJ!filiJl iii ( J.

..

<. )

P"""

'

6. 16 )fll ( J. 6. I 7l'i'<ffi , gp xf:lCIJl(jfif> OJ"! Jlll,

- Iv"
Rm)= at'(if>,
Bm)

(1. 6. 21)

m = (o,w)

xt 'f "(;jlj !Ii ill: iii, ll'.:ili tt 51 mi 11'1!lt:!ll'll'1t J9


pp,
JTij

~ [ ?( ~:o + R;:w + It;) J

mt i1!' llli HJ i* 5t 11'1 !ltlit Ill lit j;


p,"'V.

[~.v.+~v.+~:v.]

P.lf t.i lt ~ !ll tll'IB "(ti fl'J it ~tt7r ll! J9


-'V,

>Hf

[lv,+
R.v,+ R..v.
]--"- [1( R,,,
+R,.s,
+-")
J
Bi
Bo
Bw . at
BQ
B..,,
B'i.

(]. 6, 22)

Duey ;)l 1'1!.":f ~J l:il'!;il;tt:Oll'!li-if@Jf(' , il'l:NHl\I , Xl'fiJIJ tilU J): ;jlj


.K
.14nBo

"7 [(

'

J- .1.".( if>,,)

~p
v m

K()l B,,

m -

(ow)

'

(!.

6. 23)

~
iE:lil!1 (!. 6. 24J 'i'. iE~J Ill Dacey ; llllf4fii!iil J*Jl!; m.fJ ll>t, l!J:;fl ~ )tt 'il-t IE 11 ITT
J.7

43

"*ti, @.'il'.'f'

i'J 1l !1J: i@i i!I'!' illt oli Xtll}i!I '!' 31': 'i!F\ 'If ;iJ ii o~ , P!i l'A lo 'If 1J 1!!:1' 'it .!l! llL '!k l$F 1: ,'1!i '!\'~ Jtl
i\1ll;'lf 1J ti! :f 1Jj)$, ,fl 11f:jlf jl'. ( L 6. 24 Jti'Jt!ITT '7 p ff< 3 llil~}:fr *IJ:EI ii ~p 1lf,
~:!l\1:17~

], 7

~f 'fill' Ill i#i lilE ,1i!i ;t< 11!!it:!!!:i!1rj!lj11'lililt ITT ~!!El'.l::lr 1!1 <Ifft It <l"ill 7iC Ill >jip g

il'J :Ir l'i! <il'J ll:"'f


mIE Ill ITT-~ 'l<J111Jfi 'il'. > M 'f <P i!l'i!! i#i lilt ,1!i'!\':>I< 11'1i!!Jll!T Ill lit !l!H~ !it ii llli Jl!::lr l'i! <llli ll:'il'
m;E ill> :h lit , illi'!:f T ll'l-""1l 9'ITT !ii .tJ"Fffi i~!il"l'illillll'llll?-.

1. 7. 1

11:1 :t.J .!_ ;fl) it 11:1.!. lil fillj

1i' Jt Jlli ~ Jrlll .'fa! it""~ "l'i!! lilE 1lti Jl!::irll! ITT -1"1 i!lillll 'Ill jp,
jill li!::: ;E 1'1! , Ji'l llli, ~, Lt !i\ Ill !lli, ~J& i"!i\"l' 9' ITT Foud" IE 11!,

*;J. ll'Jlli '!!!1'I

i!ii 'fl "" ljl-

iJ1t f.I; It,) Ji'l 111!


iJl 1* ITT Ji'I flt! Ji!: lilt f.I; 7l''f '1\ iE liilllti It . 7l''f 1''1ti1Lfl' Ill li'J flt! Jl!: Ll & 7l' i" I~ llll ITT flll ll! (t! Iii!)[
i"llli I;> ITT tl."1 # 11' Jilii!IITT Ji'I flll3'.'ll'ii!:lli7l''f !i\jjil'Jll!i. Ill :h7l'i" l'J fl' Ill flllfXtlll'J' , mliE
Jiliit fil li'J t!lil!' f "'11 'f ll!il.1'19:1l l<J1111Ji JI< , .lilfVJ l2f i!ii "It 1iJ VJ Ill ct
7t i"!il ;g; >ill ~1 lill Jlti!! m7l' 'f rri 'I' ii/I fill , il'l fill , lii! ;;JJ n~;f!I ~ r llt!t l!ll );!; ""'fill t 1lf 1!l Ill 1:
'f iJE lt i'J :lri!i'it il' ii JI< ~J !Ill M l!ll'.Jl( 'f "( 1*41-llll7' Lt Ji'I flt! ( lli tit fft !Ji Jl!: .lilf 'tl" Ji'I flt! , tit fft :h J/kg!
7f *U 'fa!' 'l"iilJflll e, ~ 3RT /2 ;~ii/Jflll e, ~RT ;lli!ii/Jll!i ,, ~RT,./ ' 1' -1), 11;9', T ,,Ji!:Jll ijij,\'1i[
fB!If, ::l!i 'I'>T v.B't ,ea =KI',
1. 7. 1. 1

*'

ITT 'litt!t e I~ Ill l .

11.\'fl:!jl:lil-iEl* i:t*1tt11.1
iE:I!! 1J 'l' lilf 'IE 9' , Jll 1it :ll\ll!1. -)!Ji Jlt ITT 'i!iJ Ifft illt 'l! l'J I[ l1it fl';:!) lilf 'iEXt~ , fl:;:!) Ill ;IJ :!jl: ~!JI .
fllf >i< ,l\ !IE, 51P!ililf'IEITT!ii1J 'I'"' lltfl~'!l!ITT'i!IJ !Ji illt l[Jii>i;;:!J J'fl'i' lll:~~. *!lt..5f >fJl!Z 1iJ ~fll:
fl' iE ti' .!Loli fl' Ill , ~e fli :I!! it!It lll: i!lt JiJ ?fJ'i'i!lt:i:Jl Jllt flil!! lill Jl!:lll llli il! -1''1!1J !It* lltlll: I[~ ITT Ji'I
llli:Jt it 'lt it -1' l!l:>L ffi !IE :fE ~11 Ji!. ti: li'J et ~1 :ttl!i!Ef 11;:I!! 1J "' ,\'l'.J: ltU :f Jll'.'lt it li'J :ti( ~>I<
t.i !!I 11 "l''l'ili;i; fllf fl<'I"~~. i'i mu F t.i'e'l"jj ~. !l!i 11"!'!!!-IE1Jli!i!!llli:lt*?itjill "'f fj[J.E 1Jli<E
'\'!\ 11"' '!'ITT cl<J!ll. Jllil>t 'la ,ii\ !lt.Jllt IK!ii 'I' Ji'l lltiITT 'ltlt ll:<l''f l'll'i' <r il\!IE f~J.!! ITT '11\t Q !!I;$!\
!It.it 1fl'i' .lilff1' ITT Jjj w, o) "l' l1it
1.

1. i. 2

(]. 7. !)
dE~8Q-8W

(I.

7. 2)

xt'f~1';Jt '11. d' ITT '!!'itl>tl'i!. l!t"iJ Ill SW, lll':l!!!t )fl 8Q l!!ii', 1': ill lli>:t:Ji!!il!:7l', ~8 Jl'l!'l;!t JI!

Fil 'f ii\ lltil>!i!'ltit dD xt Jlll'i'i!ltlil , mJ ew ~ p<112. r:ll\ ,i: <1. 1. 2l 'll::h
dE~8Q-pdl2

I.!! :h Lt'!; 'l '.El l1it !/P l:'i\x-1 J\l:i:fri!!tl;iiltf.l;ffil1"1iJ"l' Jll;

(l. 7. 3)

44
(L 7. 4)

9fl!! 1-!IT il5 !'!\ ;b 'l'I:, jj; ;i;i::!;, 1':Ji!!ii< .O\!/Cf1'Jl'!\'@'I:, Ill

H ""'"' .J!lli\L;I; J ii?.~;!;

H-E+prJ

iill:i$:Ji! fiL!!tl:~ 13-:11 lr. J'J t~I;!;, Ill

CL 7. 5)

"1"' ,.llL{l(;J; J /kg.>!: o. 1. sJ Ill 'f Ji!{f! r;tll:!ltllt 1iJ ii!,


h=e+p/p

(!. 7. 6)

dh-cl,+d <plp)-d,+ <pdp- pdpl IP'

CL 7. 7J

'1J!ll;;l:O. 7. 6), 1f

d(pel-<l[t(

h-1 I]-d(phJ-dp

JljJj [ilf-1- lt1t fi'J ii!.\!:, ii'ffit~ll.\;E S(;I; ii?. ffiict@9' .llllftlllt.. llit l*!l\!J: ff~ I
)lj

CL 7. 8)

!J:PJill! 11'11t .. ,

,,Ji!!iK,.J!lll!L;i; J/(kg Kl,~P


-

!s.)

(!.'I. 9)

Ct~ Id'[' p

Ell;;!: (L 7. 4 lfO cL 7. 6l, l:>l:ii]'illtliJ il!I;

,,-(;),+p[~( ~11-1;1,

(1. 7. lOa)

(],!.!Ob)

1. 1. i. 3

11.1:1iM=i1: l!ll m

l!llllilitli!leit t.i ""~ ili'il'I: <im p. T ~i 11--t-l'll; --t- J t '11!atf'iilllif !!t 'E'il'itat, lit lrd$
:t.J !!!ilIi , fill jj; M@ tii1If!11'1 4'1-ff.1'fl> !Ill#! R 11'1 1f [liJ ill' tr , llif1' xt !\ !IC fO >I' Ill; 'J f,jjj Jt 1': 11'1
ff{i) Jl'it, ITTJi!il' il9 il@jj; J'J Of ~tt!!, ill' ITTJ!it;J; ;J; l'iiJ'li!il!f. i!l fi;J'I. !11 !'!\ )J 'i'il@ll;IG<l:
1l1l {i!l'UJ' Ji! fl'J ' ii]' J9l il Ill fl {i!l!! !:!! 11'1 ~ :IJ 'l'i1@.
Ii\ ;b 'I" <ill::: ;!; li!!1~Jll: !ll -1') i1'i lii< -1-0 ;;J:iJUl'l -#\ii. l.!;IJ!, 1t I: ii]' i!1 b\ ~ i!ll !! 1* l'l ijlJ Jt
fifJli!kJl1!!1Jl*, f!!l'fttl '1 llilJtb\ Jl!1\1Jl*M' "1lilli!I\ Wl*, l'll;c1f\il. -1-1'!1:IJ11Lll!l'UJ'fttl flb\Jjl.
-!:M!lj);!llll.1t ;I;, #~El'f ?t Z. l'f Jt~""J'J 1lIll 1JJ , i!ifl'Xf ilrclil l"'E ffi'J'lt 1': J!i~rtJ
1'J T iii-ff.iii. JI Ii": :h~ !l!:::i:E li!!, ~ ffl 'l Il!!-1-fii f1'J ~;fil;""iit , >)<:'.,\Jjlllj. li!IEl1'J iii! Ill s JI!
ii< , Jjl.{tr:'.,\J l /K. lfl.{tr!lt:flt!IL{f (1') jjl!j;j; ;\]it iii!. )lj ' 1'i<ii\ , Ji!{iLJ'J JI (kg Kl. it iii!;!;~;\]
(1.7.11)

$'.lii)l-#!ll>l: (]. 7. OfO 0. 7. 6),!ktfl


d> _ 8q ~ de
T

+ ~d( _!_)T

d, ~ I~ I, ~ ,, di

l')I;

dh _ dp
T

Tp

(!. 7, 12J

.til?.ffi!kf'frE1J>l:<1. 1. 10J1'Jit

'Vs= c,

vT
T

(1. 7. 13)

i:!l j; "!'JI!:::) li! &J gj -!* ii*!lit ;!; , Xf 'f l>I fll {I !it

ds~ ~1

(1. 7. 14)

45
~ 'I' , "li<Jcifll :;!; 'f <Jc st ~1J xr 1"l 'f llJill:f!i 'l'llJil!l't ii ,BP '!' llJ ll! iii"' t i!l 11! I; .

Fouder ii:fl
{ ',ll;lll>!ll~H'J lliillL.t .Foudec .!l-t/i llHf: , Xt 'f Jo!J ~l 41- rliJ !Bl tt1i!if, ~ilfi :Ii;!'; !ti!!<~ l'l1 ;!';Ii:
( ~p $. {l[IJ;) fii]l'l1J1$.f!l fJij !R fFJ~ :I:) 9':1: q(, ,t) l:jfi!li: ~ Jt 17 T Jili.iE it. ill 'f q (r ,1) ill J!lil!i\jjj
rliJ 1~1ll.1r M, F!i VXlf
J. 7. J. 4

~l*-1!'11.\~

q(r,t)=-kVT

(1. 7.15)

ii: 'I' ,k ll< ;lJ f.f !i'IH'J 'l<il!\*'111 <i!l<AAlrl!< J , ii!;<.!;;!!!, Foud" ;E~. ;I; 'I' E.liiJ! Ii'! J;J "141 rliJ ftiJ ttJ'li
tt>ril!llr>i< k ilif !f. k H'!$.liln wJ<m' KJ. ,i:o. 7. 1sJ'.!ii!tltst:l:Jli'ii:n
q,.= --k a?l'x__ q,= --- k tr. q = -k 1L
(!. 7. 16)
dy
3z
r

k=

kJJ

kll

kll

k21

k:i

k~a

k31

k32

k:n

(!. 7. ]7)

(J. 7. 18)

"*

.Ej ill J. s. 3 11' '!' xr ~ill' i!<~i1'l A'J kl: .1111 ;i, I!< , ill' ;i:: w-1111Ilk11!-.Ej~
WJ lrl!Jr rliJ -l!I: .ffe~ il!l lr*
!IE Ji 1il -ftlll\Xif ifl !illl* lit, Ill" 3 1' *1f Jr r1iJ H'J AA\ ....Ljj; ~J ~-Ii"*, Ill k,, k,, k, ;i<i)< , 'f Jl!,4lf
Fourier ~$:1'!EJ:1J
(1. '7.19)

L 7. 2

~~ WJI l# IAU!ll

1.J ll ~ - it!!: l:t: i!

Ill :!I JriHl!:-1-11! lllt !IE:;!; "i! l'iiJ 18:li! r'! Ill I: "8'1ll! ifll i'i-!i!~ fl H'J '111 'i'tl! ltL I'll! lt :',\J JP. !!! ~t
1"1 r'I ill 9f!ll' 1'11111 lii-t-W lllt Ri YEi!l<"i! l'iiJ 18'.li!li'J AA I:, r'I i!illi\i!!!i"' t Ii'! Ii\ lit .Ej '11 !'rJ'l.11' !ll 'f W'
"'YE H'J Nt :ll;IJ f!i ;i< ilil nMilt B'J J:IJ 1*<z f!I ~ 'f W' ~\llf..!l- flll :txr B>t r;;i H'l 'l< It* . J'E 1' 'I' n!ti it
iliL'i'., iii T JlA r 1J!lfil: ,I l llltl;;f] llJ l~ ~'k 12 l '!'~ JIJAAil!tttlOfil ;ffl~!'1ill! 13l lift i*.!;i llll !$:2: lllJ
ftll liiJ Jtj;lj ~ l!illi\ 'I'~, 9[J T 1 (r .t) ~ T, (r, 1) ~ T (r, t) , ;It 'f , 'f j;F f fU ; ))- 1J Xf Ji\1 'f lift if ;ff!

Ill!$:'

1'E 1' 1'!' !Ii~ tm: '1' ril f-1'11! lllt!\YE.it'\'! i\iJ 11' ti\ r'l 1!" 'Ii !Ill 11' ifll l'l1 i* i!'l i!ilst ,ll. i!'l <!f 9'J Ii\ :iJ
'I' lilt#~ 'Im ti:: AAf!l li\.lJ> l!<~ 4!- :ffll iel O!l miXf J.S: fl!i l!ll st 11115' ~U i!!filill o/! ,
t. 7. 2. I

lill*i'~~f!llt;l;fl

'Im Ji!!ll 'litllil.I'! J'Eiilt~ 'I' ff !lk-1-J:i!WJ if .;i;if 1'!1 :h o.1't iiii1'!\ :',\J .'ii! mi 9fl!'-li ::tr rliJ Jll.
!!! t n . m~ Jll. !SLB>t li<f Pi ril 9rW bu AA <'Im il' ilOl'\i!l< Ii\ bu~ Jill r<t i!ilil!li!!! {ll!fi!WJ Ii' r'!lll butJ Ii\

46

-f
.

~-

q ndo

V qdll

"

V (k, VT)dll

(!.

7. 20)

"

(). 7. 2ll

tE>\Cl. 7. 20>'l'!il l i'':i'l"JcJl!diliT-/llil\JiCGau"HiU!l!.!1121-':i'%;ll!dil'f Foo'i" )Ef,11


( L 7. 15). q Ji!;li\ i!l"W il!'xJlb !iil'i'\'; Cl. 7. 21) 'l'tf>ft q, Jld'll!IJ f:1i:J\'!illllt11il .11'-f.llf;j:!Q !< i"''t il'J
~~:Ill:. Jlo: j!!jl!il:frflljtz fP hlL il!''f fi!I lit '1' J\'!illit fl!J pg fl\j t ili:fJUI , Jil:$'i!! fi!l 1*# ~ ilil!ll t'ltit
$, l;!J f;j:fr Jl!t$Jt1lt .!:> fl\j :!lti<!l!l.il!' Jl-il!i. ii! !ill f;j: 1l'i ill' fU ttlil:fr*U ;Jg p, fP c, ~U lji. {fl f;j:jj\ !ill f;j: ill\
ill' b\,\1;1- T, 'ff /iii!<! T !If ~li\fl\j ;Jg (pc>, CT-T,J it1i'it.$ f.t J(pc6T! .Iat, PJi Ll fi!I f;j: fr il!tfH :fr
jf5 il:;lt'J l!ll:l::lfll\ 1'J

f[~ (pci.\T), -

\7 (k, 'VT) - q, ]dtJ

""=

(1. 7. 22)

"

ill 'f l'll!IJ f;j: ll ;!JHE :I! i:;;l\'K iii . 7\'l'Hll IQili l&\il:ll. mu 111!1-!QJl-il!''f "'"' !E1ll1UHili l&ii!''f"'
'f :ll!t'll r.m 1*fr ll!t illt
il'J 1!ll ll::trll\ ;i,

*m"'

'V (k, VT) +q,=

~ (prb..'l'),

(1. 7, 23)

:ll'IJ!11.E cpc ), Ei it rlilTc* . lj''\'! rUJ ifLli:JG* if~i11lill! ~ lli1 o>.ii;,.l!I. ~ l&>ic fl' ,
k.
a""",,,,,,,,_
' (pc),

(L '/. 24)

~u fi!I i*1i' !Pl:i!ll::frJ!' :i\il'1 li'i:l:Hlll i. 1. 23 >::n

l (
1 iJT(r,t)
v , TCr.t)+kq,
r.t)=a-..:-

J'11:i\<J. 7. JOJ1j c,6T

6h,

"'

1llltt!1Ail:i\Cl. 7. 23J:J;Jilt

'V \k, VT) +q, '"at (p/:;h)

1. 7. 2. 2

(]. 7. 25)

(1. 7. 26)

~J!JI( op iii! f;j: il1J li'it1;!!!

I.IL lit llll:fr il'J li'i :l:Ji 1'!l!l! lti'.:< :!!: .,, _-'!i! , lliJ :i:rlr iii iii 'ill J'l l!IJ 1* r'l lli' lit iii .ii li'i :1:1!! li'iill.1!1
li'i ill pg fl\j , ;I'{ "' ' ill.1!1 fl'iiil!l lil'l'ii ;;Ii li'i Ell
11';ff'!, )ilf fl' fl'J il'hi! j>;< 1111 f;j: pg 1li' f;j: l!ll:fr iii ilt"ifl!i
0

"",j,

UT ~ill :l:t, J\'!lfrn&l'iJ ill ~f J'l.l'fl!li\l" a pg ilili\ lj'J>:< 1111i4'pglllll1\111! CJm A'.l'!lill ll!lil:it 'II Ii /ID i"'
'til'JBll'i~fPr-iitpgAll'it11tl'iJn~::<li'ill:!Q~)4il!ji:tJ'l.IDiliW:l:z
ill . 1i!iAJll r'l liHll!i"' 1:ilili\lt ""' o. 7. 20 >Jll CJ. 7. 21) J\Ht~I~, R illi*!:i\ 'Fr lif. ' i!l:1'.l f ~

"iJ. !<t pg.~. fl\jJl:<Jnt 1'1fl'J11'1.t>l' n

f ![P(~ +)]d'1

!iilii!li:t JI!. llif iii ill e~l!lltt l.!!.&f'I' Ill it rill llif r'lllll iii 1$.l:Bi.il J'!fllil:fl'J eh ZfP n

J.P( ~ + e) (v n)da + J.p(v n)du = J.P( ~ + h) (v n)dct


it"'. h ~' + p/ p ;Jg It I;';' ftp"' (1. 7. 6) Jjifffi 0' il':ili 1*Jl!t.<\\itll!. l::i\til/llil'J llf:IQ ilil&"T>l: f.Jfl\j

47

lil:ii!i lil:~ l!t "ll<i!l' Ill l*IR5t'!l<ii\ JJ

f,P(~

Ll7 [(~' +h)Pl']dil

+h)!vnlda-

CJ7 27l

!li! it J!j J:: ~"" . 1lJ111iilt:l*llltli!:1f!li(!)1'il '.fr%" :1;

L(~ (i

pu'

+ I") + 17

[P(

~ + h) ']-

17 Ckr 17T) - 91 Jan

- o

ilif ;It lilt 5t %":'lg

!l:P~ +pe)=-'V [pv(~

+1ij]+'V (kr\lT)+q.r

(1.7.28a)

M 1'iilt:l*l'E$fL:ft 1i{( 'I' !'J iilt: iJ1J. J!ill>lil J!!Jt!'J ll: It lil:illl1&1J' ACv' 12 l 'ff AR, Ah lil et. ilJ I!.(
t.!lllt:;f tt, fjlj !mJ'El!!Jl'f,llji.{;tll;fj (SI) cp , V,( 1!il!JtlJCit 1'C :'igfjlj, AR !g jg 2. 5RST - 718! ;kg. iJli it]
iE!iilt!i!\<, !g:'ig 646)/kg,IP L>h-646)/kg. ffii A(v'/2lii!i#t.1<10--10-'JJ/kg, '~V"i'E>l:
<1. 7. 28) 'l'llti' v' 12 :tD!~~IlliE!ZJlH!l:fi' lOJ/il r"'~P: l'E~iilt: 'I' ilJl!i('.!i ~
0

a
arll"I

J::"'

17 (pin-)- 17 (k;l7Tl +q,

Cl.7.28bJ

i
ml* 'I' 1'11 lilt l* 9' lill lil:1f !li a<J -!l'!lll i;t l'E '!l< l'i' ll!!ll it;.c ll!f :<1J!i mt l* .s; mt-t> .s i!'i a<J
l*'lltZ: lt:!J1<. o
mrx-t %ff! llliilt:i!.ll!f"t!tl:lt!(g'l!lft'lf ll'l ll<.
IU TM 1J'11" J<t"M.11111 cL 7. 2sl 'Ill <1. 7. 28 l HJ it ,\i !\: lill lit :tr!li l'E ~j;j ill iilt: 1'11 $ lil ~W:
'I' a'J Jil. l* 1i Ill

i. 7. 3

-> .

;tEi 5Jii 1*. ~F !l!Jl ii l# 5Jii ~ ng

a 75 ~

~lil iAi:1*4' 'If 1!il ~ Vltii!i 1itl'EJl!!!i!\7f '.Jt'lil 11251! l!'U1'J Ji!\ Jl! 9' 1ilill1J :i; T ill! Ill ;!; 1! <ll Ill "It lt
X~Vftl*{!'J il'it;l;!li (!. 7. 28lt\' Jl!:-f;jtiii ;Ii :;t;'Jil:tij)

.?..[p(l.,vi
+e)J~
dt
2

(.lv
,2

+e)?E
+p~
Jt +pv av
dt
Ct

(1
7 29)

*11 Ill ;!,1Hl1f!li ,J::'iJ: 9' ~llf Ill - '7 <pv l 11:'11', ffiit!? Ji illl1f ll1 o. s. 43 l .1'E:;f lt llt;l:J 'Ill 1\litt

ti'.lll1f ll. W6'1t!l:of"tJfHLl!lUfta~cl'd4'T .pav;ar liTJll-p(v '7 Jv-17 p~ -pl7 ( ; v' )- '7 p ii:
'l!','fjl;iJ:(!. 7. 291'!\':1;
a 1
,
1
l
1 I
ae
dt ztroi+,c.i)=-- zvi+e 'V(pv)--pvV'(zv1 --v'VP+Pa
1
1
(!. 7. 30)

Jli*1JlllP:O. 1. 6H~CJ. 1.

; (ipu~ + pe)

711!1'~1:>\'l'{!'J, 'I~

= -

~ v' + h J \/

ae;ar.11J'il:c1. 7. 30)ilJiJl:1"!1<

(pv) -- p.> 'V (

~ v 1 ) - - v \J p + pT ~
(]. 7. 31)

Eil'it CL 7. 121

dp~pdh pTd,, liTii> 17 p~pl7 h- pTl7',

~ ( ~ poi + pe) = -

'V

ftAO'tu. 7. 3!l ,mU1i'

[pv( ; rl + h) J+ pr( ~ + v vs)

iJ:'iJ:(!. 7. 3Z)1j(J. 7. 28al{!'J:fi"itl.fU'1f,a~11>

(!. 7. 32)

48
p_,1'(

,;: <1. 7. 33 >\'l:!i't~i!<

~ +v

\ls:'= 17 Ck \!T)

q1

ll. 7. 33)

Ji!Ll:JJ 1M<'1J fll 'illtt*1!1

A~T~:1r.mm:m11J~m

:!ill!,

m l'f 1Jll IE .'ii fl 'li' ct 1'I! 'I' lli f1'.!)'1t 1& 'J, ~ lit 1lT VJ 1ii IF A IE lli ct lll!. !l1 i<. c!. 7. 13 >
'7 ,~,, v.;:. Ii!Jk

Ti ;;_) , ~,,. ~Ll ;;!; c1. 1. ss l 11):,,-lit


(!.

it
mt.

7. 34)

7. 34) jl!,lilf J'l:"11~ ll1L


'It Ill fr'J llttlt:lrl!!.
:lrlll! (1. 7. 34 )jl\Jlj
fl '!':Iii! >Jtll!B'J 31;111'1:.' '!2fn ti!, J ~ J9'~fi ,l!J.Nlf!il tll 1l 1.'i!i1'JV!t
llt!il:lr lll! i! f'i .l!J.NlfA ff J<lll ll1l lilll IE i1'J 1ia Jift .!<: iJt .!ll ltr ti\ !ll S X!ll .l.nt1L li\ii" :!ill!! ~~ 'f lilll
IE i1'J 1t!J Jift '!I '11' ,19: iiJ llt!!fll Ill ill< Ill! ilr1]. ttt , ?fJ'l. f'ii!i.ilr* i1'J .'i! llt! fll iiJ llil!ii i*' 1 i1'J llt! ;'!'fl
!!l 'f
llt!ill'R!i!. JJli: lf>tllUB'J'.i)' Jt$. ;;!1-'li'{f::lj< Ill ,a )if( ~~iii lik
,;: ( !.

!iii

fn[~t Cpc"L:i.1'), -

mJ:. MJ [!! 1' ;;s: t-ll!I Jift '!I miir


jlf ol<J !ll ll!I )if( 11' ~ .!; !'1'!'il 1 ~

' llf

z "'1 i1'J

q,,.]dn

'V <k1"il1')

(1. 1. 35)

!11!i'tfl :11: lllll1l i1'J Eli ~ :1r m~ '!' ~l5 ;;!; 1:0-"" 1' '!!'-

*
i1'J

'!I;;!; ( I. 4. 23) ' Jl!:Fo Ji


(1. 7. 36)

t'i (pc,). '}gjjt ~. Jl!:Fo11> tll :lillll (!. 7. 34) ''e:~!ll 'f :f "f ffi!liliiii: JJl:ffi :iJ '.!)'{f::j['J'B'Jii[jjlj,
i!fJllif tll T Ii!! i1'J -f ilil 11t! ll:lrllll o. 7. 23 l mmt i:t> 111 i1'J -11' llll !ll::lrllll o. 7. 36 J JJli:
( 1. 1. 34 J lElilf 'Ii 31; lif 1F !ill I!!!$; ll1L at ~re= ci!f !111'> ilil*lli lit 11; ~~ 111i:1: 11 ;!I w
!ll .11!!

.!i

illl

ii' '11Cpc,l!fll!:!\11'$ k ! 1'1it~. ~ llJ '!U "1fll IR 'l'iiii: !fll IJ!l


!lfi1'J 'ii llU '!'fl Jl-7t~U 1'fll
~Vil ;.\lf!lJ , P1-', <!:!\ii[ It Jl!::K!ll: q1 [!! ifif lk1 !flt !:!\illll! il!'. q1 $'7t~U 2' Jl!lp, .v
ffl

1-

I ,k,

q,.!WJJflll!Cl. 7. 34lf!l<1. 7. 23ltr~u:,,-11t


JI'

;cpc,J, ii + C1X,l/V '7 JT ~ fok!'v'T + "''


(I -

?)(pc,),~~

(1-

f)k,7'1'

+ (] -

.)q,

c1. 1. 37)
(1. 7. 38)

~ L:Lt.=>l:c!llJm, #'7 .~'11 (f\',),. .~11'>1' k,. ,(;; llJ!:!>illll!il!'. q,. 'll' It a 1l! .ii; lllllt.l\~
( jjl, j\j: 11' Ill.!<:~) a, ))- %1J '}g
(pcp)I = ~({JCp)f

k, ~ "'
q, = ""1.1

mu l1!> "1tfl mt

1'

+
+

(! -

(1 - ~)(pc,),

.) }.

(1. 7. 39)

(1 - f.)q,

a = (pc")' ,

a, = _k,_

(pep)!

(pc,),

;\!/ l!ll Iii< mt i1'J lltl :llt:lrm


a if!:.
'Jt

+ (V 'il )T =

"'' 'il iT

+ _q,
(pc,),

(!. 7. 40)

L 8

41Jli ~;fl

49

iE:l .t;t ''" v i!~iilill!ll iii:lft\1 (1. 7. 34 l 'P v i!iili U:!JiAU!WI'.


:If Ill (1 . 7. 4 0) 9' i!r lJI! l'J ff fl)j lill B'J ~ l'l1 ~ .*-li i!r ff ~1' ii ft . {;' it!li\ I J11i ft J;J lJll! lJI! ;;Ji; !1jO
~ 1ll! ' lll 2 tififl; J;J Iii ilillli. ti it!lil I lJl!j<j: J;J IR llllli ;;Ji;Jlil llil:lt it$ lJI! di> 2 lJI! fl< J;J it.liJ!!Jll! , i!r J!!"ii!
I:! (pc, l / Fo 1'T !1'1fli ::l'i ,.l\i{!riiliU: l!!illl fl- !Ji 9' i*I :l'!\.!iJ l" 1l<Ji!Af'J :!Millz ifll ""''f lllllittl\ II .5J iilitli
llll I: ;ft! '

1. 7' 4 )Eb '"i. JJ< _ ~ ~~ "'ii~ mi ll\i Ii 7'J ~


ill! "'t t.K .=:ill 1e ~ llil ~iili B'J llli Ji :If ll1 '!:! !!l 'f !1'1 lkdlli Ill ;\'!\!* !!>~U i! il!li 1'\!lll it ll1 B'J ff~ fiiJ
m r i!1 moo u:;;.!i!\ fJ'J Mllt:lf mo. 1. 26>illl iili u:;;.!i!\ B'J llll 1::If wo . 1. 2sb) & !It !fr ili *ill'"
llll ~ iili fJ'J llll:ll::lf!ll, '.Ill 'fit ;!fj ~iili , 'I'{)('!\! olitIll fill!* illl iili U: !iJf .!i Jlll f'J 'i! lliJ f* !ll llfl)t !E ~"t
Jttiili f*i!J.ill l'Jffil jfU Jl <. (m-o, w ,g)
'.Ill 'f fill ill ' llll :I: :If! J;J
7 [ (J -s'lk, \7T]+ (1-s')q,~ ~ [ (J -s'JCpcJ,1']

CL 7. 41l

M'f ii1i U: ,>m :Ifl'i! o. 1. 28b l ;t;!fj :El' ili ,:fii

~ [j6(posaea + p.,s.,e., + p,s,e~)]


- - [\7 '(p,h.V,) + 7 '(p.h.V.I + \7 '(p,h,V,)] + 7 '[s'k17T] + MJ
(!. 7. 42)

I:!.!::lf!ll 9' , pg fill e-h- pl P ~ti!r ;!fj:fij'f'fill B'J~@., !'Jf VJ ~~ill!, "\fi!;oi(.O::ill)t ~U Jlj r~ o,
fl! w ~'". 141:!fillc1. 1. 4Dfl!<1. 1. 421illiln.111Illill!."\.7K.O::t 'lf;;!fj 'J\:ie ""'llil ~iili a<1 flll:I:
; :?<p.s"e"+p.,s.,e... +p1 s,e,) + (1-;) (pc,.),7']
~-

[7 (p,h,V,) + 7 (p.h.V.) + 7 (p,h,V,)] + 7 [k,\7T] + q,


(1. 7, 43s.)

;It '1', k,.q, Ill 'A; ( L 7. 39 )!(l tl; J!Xclf, 141 pg fill e J&Jll ill! il!O:tll1Jlili JJ 'tlllB'J1f""r U !i!!ii<, Jttl J:iJ:llJ
!&:El' Ji!;

iJt [(p..,,U, +p,.U.+p,/J,J+ 0 -1 Cpc,),T]

- - [\7 (p,h,V,) + 7 (p.,h,V.I + 7 (p,h,V,)] + 7 [k,\7T] +q,


CL 7. 43bl

Jrt\1{;' li! 3 "10- tl::l'i,tiili J!!, 1J<;t!P!!i ifll;;J\lJi!Jjf ;:1Ci!l::l'i J!!i !ll'I!.
1' '!!Elli<El'!!l it.J", X1Jrll1 n. 7. 43) fl!!J'f ff;-Jl!;l&JIL i!IJ!lil, 1' " fl! s. 9' '!ll!ollt Jl!"'l;;!fj B'J Iii !1'11li'
R, fl! R~, i.!iltlJi!l!, lli;Jl!jfU pg 7ri!ll'!'l'J ;;J\11\;li:, II( &ill~, lt'i' JltJ,\";llitf it fiilll!!. m. 'f llU!l, J.!
ll.Kt'f'ml--ti'JT.

1. 8

~tt::li:f'i!

lliri!li 3 1'?l- ~tl ll<l T i1t i!IJ :If Ill. Ji~tt:lf 111 fl! Bill: :If!lL 'tin I!!ill lE ~ ~l'f:IEifll iii i!IJ IB 'A:

50

'-"' l<d?"' !.$. i" ;;.

li'J 'lfill1m1'1!. .(,l,!li;;l: :If 1'! "IT< if Ill , Mr :ttrti illilt!\'.!!1!!ltll WJlf E: 111 iif Ill fill 1-::trfi!ii!!rn
tl:*.IP
~'+'7Cq.)~T.+I,
(1.8.1)
>!:op .q, ii!i!<if-!J!i! !ii;. fif 'f !!ltll. iilJ llfll l!ll ll'l'ti!i!ll ,q, 0-~Ll f':ii!! \l'f Ill'..!\'. f.!L 1*-1 li'Jiill :Ill:

fU f'l l!lllJIJllil.l!llz fU (JIU >I: 1. 7. 28) xi:: ( 1. 8. J) ;fr J!1 T. f\:'i!!ffi iii: Ej l'rl'I fill il'J :li:R. I. ft'iV
f'l lill 111 iC ~tiltlt li'J Iii "~ il iilJ :If fi!Ji!: 9'dl!: :If1l! ,ii!:ll;tt:If filf!l Ill I: :lf@:l!H>idt Jr fil , JJi it 5 1:lf fil. Cl f;J !!lt !\'.1'll ~ i!I Ji; ill i1: l'i lil fiil'!\'. il'J 111' JR; ffii ii>; , il/i & ii'J 'll' :lit fl 3 1-J! rt 5t :lit. p. p r:J. & ; .
~. ;i; fJli iil'!l::lf filill:tt FJJ , a ::trlll\'119' 'll'll li'J 1-1*1'..'Jl:ll:0- trlll\i'J '!''It!~~, if! 1+ J'ti!'?r:lf
"". Mr 1F '.!jl i!I 3'1"! ff! :IJU-1-l!ll :lt:lf1'!, i!!'ll'fl:'*ffl :IJUllilll!'. T ,,17r, if fl tt:ll.I '" tt: :li'i h .,,. ,
1'1!"1 ti mi!'?r !rl'l\.
;;l:;;:: l'l!;i; ff 1E il'J:lf jlj\ Ill f)) Bi' Ill !!lt li'J 1\ftt :f fill il'J !!lt 'If :f fill ii'J 1\ftt , QSI llif 11 :f fill il'J ;l:'"
xi:: lit ill li'li:!: !r@ll< 1' !! l'E :If"" . wtt J:r1!1 nJ 0-1' il'l !Ii -!IHI!"' :ll .;ir1-;R ;J;i'll: :lll:z IHJ li'J
>t, ap '!"~~ 11.1 JJ 'l"*ftnfil. ti;:i, :ff:?.i:i:lf fil, J.1-!l!J!dil!ll'i!J !!lt 5ti'~i!E ;;1; t!'l'EJIZ f'1 <E ai
ti! )ii: iii. Jj\'')(:Jll ~p 1' '1'-1*1011.1 j; "t*ftt :If tt , t); ::(pf1:jl,J Jr fi\!il< Vli:'.I!' 'fr :[I( 0 Jrtt ' i:!: :If fi!'lili:li!
Jili i !! Jl!t ;;; illJ l:'IO ljifll '1t fill :IJ'ttl!lElf 'I' 1if JIZ lil! 11'J , T i>l 0-MLl iili'1 i!!i#!Ji fil

L 8. 1

1;I; ~)'iii

li\l 'l II.I j; "l" :ff: ~ ii'J lil it'll' !ii;"<~ J: ft fl i"l t- , ii1l 1lt Ji! jjj IE j; p ifll l!l il!'. T , ffii 1' t:; (i'J 1R 0'1)'
!ii;, !mil!' Jl, 1L ~!!,JI/; II:. Ltll; h, 11.\ll!i l!li ~'it ~ ifll tt: Pl ill c ;!I. J4J ilJ'II.ii< .:!Ji!i"l 1-Jf:l:<i~ lltii'J
ill 1*I'.'
tE ll1r i>l JL ,, op ft ff] II' fg, 1r !~ i:t JL 1' mi li'J :ff: ~ :If 1'I! Jiil ll!: Ji< Ell i:k 0 Jr 1'! (I . 2. 9 ) "'

2.14liilt(L 2.151;1i!l1*:fl'Jl!tii'J:l;l(;!i.Jijlj\(L 3.18)


Ji!; (I, 3' 19) "' ' 1' 'E iii! iii Ill'. ' It f'l l!ll , It II; tt: !;!! ~ 1'J 'i!!ffi jg
(!.

2. IO)f))Jl'JL 2.13),"(Ji<(i'J1R~:lf1'1!<L

1. 8. 2 ;$: f!;J )'j ~

=(p,T),

e=e(p,T)

s ~ s(p,1')

h(p,T),

(1. 8. 2)

ill: Ji< il'J :if;:jtJ :If jlj\ {jl, fl:illt'.ll' "fr:ff;,';\i :If jlj\ ( fiil' t);illt'll' :If1'I!) llJ Jr 1'!11! iE Jl!t li'J 111111 Bi' lli ffii
i>lfl &!Y.mHi'<i!ll 'f W!!ltH'J f'l llfl!Ol!J. -ll!!ll!*, 4:l!J:lffil'li!Jll!H'J JI' '?l'.J!rli'<I* iillfl:\ilf itE;!IB w1 ;iJ
.z IHJil'J ;l:'j;'fi::' ii1l l:\!'fil!'.Jikjjj !<{~at IHJill!i:J:.!<fil. ilii1llu9llff fl: JICT!!l 1. 7. 1 l'op q Ji'.l:Jlr:\1\ill! I: \l!
Ill'. i:l: 1'\'iill ll 1if r:J. Ji!:Jl!t !ii; ii1l !ii; , 'lll fl:;!! fl: fl!; fl:ill! I: '.!i' ilff ~g illJ j; Jl!i '11' l\il. !ill ltil'J JI''?\'. ,
1<i1 if\ iii ii! i1i Ill il'J Ji! , J:k.l!lE!f ii! li'J ii!i 1: ;;r: i!! r&illi !* !!lt .<a $:m;;; illl iJ 1itll u1 !!ltt , w1:1tifll 1!ll :111:
H'14illl!E;!Jll~, llif 11ti1i 0-f ll.l;;;ii!J ?Ji'!I itlluv Jit, QSI 1mJi! tEi>l iE rliltl*!!lt .<aJ:uv;i; """ 9' mimif*
li'J iJ!i!il; 11"!Ji< op , JI[ 1'i0- 'f Ii\ iii iilJ '1 Ii!!l u1 iilJ l:ii1l lit 'iV lll!1' f'l Jii lli\ iJ !lG tlJ !\' ::IJ , ffii ijg iilJ iJ 'ii! ;!JI\
1' J!!l!'."' Ill'. QSI Jt , illi fil:ifll !$.tt fill !* "' li'J !\' j;. !tz '!!:*Iii ~Ji! :if;:jl,J :If1'I! , lil: fl: 1' 4' Ill i\lillliE 1'I! il'J
:If fil ( i. 2. 6Jilt 4' '11ililt 1* H<J4:l!J :If!!L i:!: Jlr-!11 J1J tll illilil 11! !\'.!f J!i il'J 4'il
xrr r-11!! e<i ='
!II iii:iill ;l:' ill'<\ '!if JJi>ii 11' '
:11; ix <!\ill 0-lli' lll:t); jg Fomier iE 1'I! il'J Hiii.i:If1'! <L 1. 1sJ -1-$:AA\* ilt!!l:r 4e 'l'-11! :ff: ;TI;

**.

J. 8

411~ #"1

---- ---

51

T 15-llf!:il-;/li: '15 '.lit :!I! :111: 'f ::f"1 '.>J ;/li:i.\5 lf !'I Ji!l :If il!!ll: illi1f !'IJl!l :If ill ill'. 11 , II.I :!I!!rt. ;i;; ill:111: I" fiJ
11 ii! !ll: , ]!["'ii; 'i)J #.\'!"if tt<I::;, JI: '.!);[Iii\ J: J;!(:ll\:i)-'f !-!\ill ijlJ 11'1 ~ i:\!li"' :il-'f!-!\ illi!IJ ill /l!: .!\jil!
ll!: i IE 1t ll!iill lil:bil !!'1 :it'!' Jl,1f $Ji'.illi 11'1 :fr r 'J".l:!J i!IJ ~1 111: l!! Iii: J;jl; 11 :il-'f Jl,lf tt m; iJ +r r'I""' i!IJ
~ :il-'f !iii #Liii iilJ 1l! il!i iX! 13:1$: !'I :fr'f 111' #$Ji'.;\: 11iilJ~i1!A;!ilt'1111il\l Iii: ii1l 11 ill !Ki!l:il'J :fr J-"li'
i' ~ 11 !'I iilJ ~ Jll'Alll ~!'I illiill g ' Jl;!I; "':!!\ iliiil! IK:il-i' 'I" !J iilJ ~ 11l11' il!JJCF ~ I jlij ii< ill lil::ilT '!" ;iJ 'llJ ~lll ;\: il!!ll'. 7t ;I;; X1 'f I0114< fl- !I'. ..lfHll lil:bil 7} T' 11 !ll lll Ji ti' J!l i!?.i"' ' fi!l 11' (1'J ~"' , i:!
lit 1l! AA\ Ii th iii ill IK ill fiJ fl!:il\l Iii: ii1l !)!. {)Li>/ li'i Jti Ui. ilif l!tJ: ffl'ii (lo)!-!\ lll:Jli:{~Ji!l Sj lill!ll'. $ !ftiiltIE It ,
J!l tr'l'Jl>rt'lltffilit:ll\:lfi'il ci. 1. 1s 1 . J!P illll.\:it>:ill:lf11!.
lE lf lJ!l i'F ;'J.1 ill! J\! (Fick 1ilS i$ a<J It 11i: :it>:i!J :If 111 :ll\ lll ~ /KJ;j\ :JiH+W !I'. a<J :il-i' Iii !ft ::f J'J c<J 51
ilil a<J , :iti'ili ll!J !'I !ii"' ,~ Jf 1<: il'J-llm ~ W!!I'. ill' Alli! .ill'. 1J' f1'J -f!J $Ji'.il' ii1l lli!ft 1J' fl<J -1)1~ ilf A AA
1l! /l:a<J-lliJ$Ji'.J> .lim Mi r'l 'f1"ltil! !!I'. ll'Jrli If BE 1!111) "J :It~$ cll<l!i5'tlit:ll\Jili :llliffi :Ill Ill'ill'.*
:!I! 5Jrli/l!:llilll!Ji11:i!:l!tt31';.l\ , Wl/l 8. s ll' fiJiffi, J7.;f<lll a ~ <Ptl'!illfuil>.
:It'!':: ~{I;! 11 lE fj 'l!!r !IF :'I; ~11!1 (Ohm) \Et tilt !'1111 liil r4! iffi I:5j r4! ~$If z In] il'J i!:l!tt 31';.l\ RP !i
rl!:it>:W :ff1'il , JiJi 1fJ7.; !l!i SI'; .l\ !!lit a<Jllfi;i;;;f iif ~it11!
lf EY. 'il Jll-;!J;Iii tll !'I ;/;;ITT ..tJiJi JlJ <iHIJ Jt 1'*ill 11111: ,:flitt 'f ~ ;E i$ , Fouri" ;E 1l! , Fick ;E
i.fll Ohm iEl!I<, lll!A'!iffi :!I! Sjf,I! ill'.iilti!:l!tt"R:.l\ ,:It .l\ tr:il-*tl ;'J.Ji\iIf, !;!;-It$, ltllt.l\ trffi r4! Ji$.
l1,: '!\! .fl JI,-@ fl:
!'I :ij;:j;\/ 1ll!il! :It '1' ' ..l\ tr
:!I! "1l !jg il!J :IJ ($ill ) 117<: tJ' 7"31'; 'Ii~ ..tl;!( !1
:ll\-i!l.Jli:fil .R lill<Et.l!ill'. i1!$Ji'.11'. 2 flii' 21. z flii' ITT J: Ji~!J iif f.!',llf ;fita<J *-i'i' r:>f flllJllUI.. -~
iJi .l\ tr M: 'il :ll\11'~ illi 1";!:;'lit tr ,ii!i :I: 51 $ !ftz f'l !'I* .l\ :ll\4F AA ttil'J Jt J!flf il'<E JlJi'iJllW!tr
ti' J!l fllJ.iJJl i!tili fl! l!ll Tlill ii< jg "1l !'I$ ll fl-Jili <Pllli ba r4! il!J :IJ Jf'iJl f!lllfl; F ' <I! illI i11i .Jiil~ F !E1l!
!Ii w: !Ii il!J il'J ill! il!J :IJ , ti. lllita !Ii 1*ill> ffi :IJ iif l!1 F 'E r4! !Ii . Jt J!f J fl' ilillf $If 'l Iilil !'I Jili:!lbm :111,
AA !ft t.11 !JI: 'l I il'J it!\ iili :II! ;IJI
fl'at l!i in re ill: !l!i -<Filr:lf1" lll:i'F
ill ll! ii!: <r tr"' J: w:1r 111:a<J11> 'ii: f<ffi il'J *ill:l': .11 M
i:\J> fj'li111 ;Ea<J 4 rt 'IE! jlj 'itl JP.;@"!''3; iffi 1lt~!>it ');Ji t'!Ii . M' );{ * w );' W.iffi 'lit* :'I; Pj ~:If 1" J\lt
PIE~ iE 1$ ill: i!:l!tt* .!< il'J ~ fllJ .l\ ~i!?.:ll\illl it 'klill!W >t !'I . l1il 7t /!< h!.11! #\ J: 1~ '!IJ t; ill. i'l:;;'; I'
;lg:ij;:i!J:lfi'illlll 'fli'!il;fl-!!I'. J.i< 'I'- ..t!'J"R:.li 'jijjt; {IJ)j)f!li' J l'J lt'kllll~ t~llll 1111 T-1!1'7.I< 'f J: ,J;!:@
:!t'E T :il-i' 7.1< 'f ..t(l'J J!11 ~ ~ lll jl; fiF J::l!< "'l!<iffi li:lll! #\Ill-It tll li'J
T li!I ~ il>li! 37: :it>:!!! :If!l1Jii' i'l'tr !'I;/',"f W- lll! 11!l!!;\::!I! :ll;!li tr Iiili! 3l:*!!J:lf!ii ~t ..'Ji li!3l:l!'J
"R: .l\ ll11'1 tr TJ1J W-l!I! ,
0 ~ liji'f'!l\!ttl!Ull! 4'!!J J;"!l1 !li::f !IU!m T' ;!! 1iF .l\ fl'J :l!l J'l< , '!':: t .'Ji lf 'Iii! tt ;!! !;f, .l\ '1' ~El
iii Ill\ 37:
illi:it>: !!J:!fW.EY. ~ $; llE :!I!
21 !Nil IJll fi'lll! ttJJ:lll! 4'W :If1":1!\W !!I'. !'I Rft Bi'E'l ,&!Ji .5J 11\ Ii< i!l' 'JG* " Mi'-1' Ii!! \Et ::f
@ mi :ll-i'fltt! Miit ii!Jill: i!1i1' 11\Ii< i!\' *ill. :it>:W :h" Ill 1!1! tt! 1i11
3 > "'1 IJll f!iJ ~1!JJ:l11! Jm "'*W:lf1"* r W!!Hit l>i' !'I :Jlt-31: l!1! ll'I :ll\ ;f 'JI' il'J Jltl i'Fli<'f' W1f

flij.

"iili

*,

z.

:'I.I*

!Ii"' .

1"J1,1fmJ:<-'l!'l!l!ll'IM'cll<~a<Jwll!~i'Ftt.jiq**rtt~a<J*~*wtt;r;i:i:~~~~a<J:1r/liJ,
ITTrJ ~tt ~"R:

:It t; ttJilii!?. 1!1!.,15- (<iJ fol ttfl<J

ff! 3ttlil\lll!;/;;!lifffiiJ:it>:ilJ:!fii iJi .tJ-Jii 11 'f !!llll'U!ll;l!J.'lf.


A!llJ'l'!ll!ttJJ:lll! 'f<t\J}j' 111;1!!C~'f:lltll'l::f 31:1J .li tr a<Ji'tr , tl!f~a<J R TBi'EY. fl<11!i! T'i!

4) ~3ttl.!'U!I!
S)

r 1$: tt Ill A'! 41- JliJ fl!Hi il'J ,1!1 mu Jl!.15- JliJ ;ii. ttiJ "R:i' ;11;-ttJili & rai fi!l tt a<rlt *'~ *'f

52

---

Ai. f-ll<S;. !-$.~flt

'"' .!\ ~. 1'.E >Fl'J1f lll 'I' it.!\~ it] :Ii!: f'lll l!Y iJ'< tli ,lfiljg, !Ill it] fS il:!ll (Buckingham l 11 lE 1!I! r \;,\

lilliE.

i. 9

ijt&!Jlf*~&~M:{Qlt:fr:Jiflli:.lt~M~flf

1!!fllif Jl 1' ' JlG ff] jt MU lit :i'.CT ill:< 1'.E $ l'L fr !!It "'lli iilJ it]
1f me ji iilJ1f lll, ;m !llitt1f Ill
l'l1 lll:ll:1f ll!i! 3 1'-';'fti!tt1f1ll 1 JZ lilf'li T 1f ir<J ~tt1f 1!1, Jiil :t't?.li1flli!l'll 'i'lll1flll. >1'1'flE
il:'"'1f 1llll*Jl:>liHIE , i~ 1; lit l!Y '.ll: :Ii!: lltJl:if!il>\' -11'1 it\ lli iiH!;!:5t Jrlll
<E -!ll!tl!t il1 f , li!l m"'ill: i* ir<J ill: iilJ wr;; 1if!il ii'! mtr'll' 1t 1~'1' . r !!HI' mum . <E ~ 1!1 Nd'f
Till iii 1f ll!JI!: Of &'II' ii'! >I' 'Pm f !t te 'I' 4!m i'JIHi;. Ill 1lll Da"y iE 1'11 Jl!:lll Ill f1'J JI' li'i' lll1f lli! )( i'J1
& 'F\Will\5lll! lEli!I (!. 2. 6) , 1': El l'l1 Darcy l1'J!j11f ;\)-j;j;, Ji)i!;,(J!J!LR!ll$1J Drucoy Jr!!!, ;i;!ll;tt1f
llll'll >li::?.li1f!i. <E*'ll il'JJl!Fo JLf \ll!ll! Ill "1J:11;-t:Jrm.
Jr lli! ill 'I' ii'! fill'.'llo It 1f Bi :i:I p, itil'. p l'l1 i!Jt v 1'.E JI; '"'lllf Ill. F , l'L lillt il'. >l'll Ji\5 il'. ti! !!I'll'
:Iii ll'U Jl!:l>tf '\j;j;Jtl ill:,& !l! 'ii JI! - Cp. Tl ~:ll!Fn#h'I< 'ii JI!,}., ill!!!*c' ii'! Jl!:lli~ ii'! Bi
:i:I p , JI' Ji it Jilt p fl'J ill lli: 5t Jr 1'll A 1f !:! !ll! ir<J Jf> xi: , Ill Jt JJG Ill lit ll'J ,\J< Ill f Bi p B'l ii ii;!: Jt
/fill.

J. 9. J. I

~rtQJ!.tt1)-Jlt11f~

X>tf 45-rlJ #tt1rm! ,!!11!11. liftli!llB'J:!f [Ii] fjj;Jli$1i'J :if [ii] lil::. Jltj K- (K,,K,. K,J , ;!im~
llil'l. !ll!~:fl *nll!ll!.llf1' 11 Jmr,
im=tt/JI!!, ac;pJ
CJ. 9. 1)
at +17 <pV)-pq
V -

~-

Darcy

:EJill,

K,ap
ax

V, --&81'
3y

(!. 9. 2)

I
ap
)
iV%= _ K
___!_1-+pg
l
#1 (}z

:t:l:ii!;/J!ll,

p- p,[l +c r<P- p,)]

(!. 9. 3)

;-;,[! +,,(p- p,) J

(!. 9. 4)

f/\"CL 9. 3)j"(l. 9. 4):jfj*'"J1ll


p= Po \l\[l + (c1+c;) (p- Pv) J+Occz)

(1. 9. 5)

l't '!' O(c' Jcil!ii<$1'l Billl1'\f<: 2 !It\;,\ _t ii'! ljf, ill 13 c' J, 11/f 2?1'.:J1:1':1'f il' Illl.tX11# 1l!'. (1'J J!

~~il'ffi~~'ttc,-c,+9,'fjjk1f
3(p/) _

at

3P

l'!lti{>;~'$;Jr1'!1'i::it! fl'J II! 2 J'.il( .1'.;1!! 11"lm 1l!'. 3 1'?tJlfl'J ~ 'tttil(.

a(~~.. )

-po

a~[ (l+c1-lP):"~]

(!. 9. 6)

-A rocj dt

l\iltte a( pV,l I ax,

53
(]. 9. 7)

(]. 9. 8)

(L 9. 9)

(2t.)'
ax;

'1/2

:'.CJ~

(L 9. 10)

+ c1A.P

Til'Jb ,Jflilf* a<K,/ l/az lJli .~U~


'(I

(pV) ~-

;l:; <1. 9. 6) ti1 ( 1. 9.

P[jJ_( K. ap) + jJ_( K, ap) + jJ_( K. ap) + Zp,g,, K. ap]<L 9. )1)


axax

d>ay

11l~.A~!il!1f1'< <1. 9. ll

Jzaz

Jz

# f (l. 9, 1) ;(;llijilI jl:J"l ft

P (! + ,,t,p lg

""Pq, WLJ1ll~'f !li:iJ ii!ilt P fiJ 2 !i'r1lilit:0-1f

jJ_I' K,
DP.)+ ay
jJ_( & ay
i!P)
ax
ax

+ jJ_(
K. i!P) + 2 ' K. i!p + ~ .L ;;p_
~ az
pg t a.z
q
,._, Jt

(1 9 12)
-

l:l:!re:Ji\ omlll1<'!i'll3 /JI! fiJ -l!'ill:tf f;L M: .R iii !ll 'f 4' tll /Jli: 1*11'lf RI il'J Jl'il'f o . 9. 101 W: Jl'il'f
l'E-!llifi'J I f'l &!! 'I' :llli't :ll: fiJ. l!!Jil': ll! tB , l:l: '!'ell! :l!H!l ~!Ii llli ~ lti& 1J''f l ll!l ~l!! ill!~
' v p>' liif v'p fl! It.~. "f Ll kllBlif, !iire1'iE lil T , 'l;i!j<..J:J:!iW ~*' J::l:!l!.;ffJFei
ll1l ~!l!Tillil'.!C, BP ;l:; o. 9. 12) 9' q~ o, 'i'lllf lli:.ti Ii'~ , # .13. /Jlf.J>i 'I' !li:iJ'l\'il:;f :kLl l'i:"f
Ll iJ, ~ l\i J!t liJ ?Z! r~ i!LJl''JG~ , J!J4!- fiiI Jlo t$ 'FL 11- mt 9' fiJ 3lill: 1lllit5}1f1!i!!IHI: ::1:1

a~( Kx ~)+~(Ky~)+!( K~ ~:I= ~Pl'1 t


M f #1 cl:] il-fiil Jlott1l-J!l ,K K, ,K, :fr ~U"'l' T-11!'1t. mu 1f ii:~
K a'_p + K <!_p + K iJ'.P. ~ '~ ap
~ ax!
)' ay:
az2
'l'r- Jt
,, 9. " 2

CL 9. 13)

CL 9. 14)

ISJ~'lit.Jfoltt1t Jlli

XI 'f !:'J ;cJ 41'- fiiJ li!l fJ; 11- mt , 3

J!f JI! K ii! ii:~ 11!' ft ,~1J 3

V1t 111lli::$1:Ir1!i! ( L 9.

12) lilf *:If! jJ J2f

31'::1:1
.

1ap(rt)

'V'p<r,t>+;:q<r,t)-x

at'

(!.

9, 15)

Jt9' ,, 'll(;r< 'eJiij ~ W-. ~Kl '11:~/ilt.!l, jfij


x~

;c,

'II<~ !li:iJltll!:!\ It (llfFltlli!\ ft) ;;11,-1)< Bi!\'lt.

<1. 9.16!

Jlll11'f.1Wilf 1f1'< (!. 9. 15 ).,, (), 7. 25) lt~


T ll!l Ji!, iW if I'll at~ Itt ;;11.#J 1'~ Itt IflC lJli , ]!Iiif:/El& ;l:;J: :Ii!* i:~ 11' ~) l!t:!i!lll. ,lll!1*3 lill:liilit

54

:fr 1f!l! Ji] lill f;j: fl'I ~ 1#"' 1f!l! ij(t1f!l! ttll!t jlfj 21 Jilt% fit- lll: fl'I ' ;!i'1I (ii) :If !!!ii! lij; )\) ~ ltt:tf !!!ii(
)l;!\#f il'll!!1f l!!. jj Vll: 'I' 11 Bi;!). Vll:!l!''l!I ij< Bi,!\ l& (l)Ji;Jtjtt .!\ l& ):fr!IJX'/ It'. T Iii! l*~i#"' :tfl!i '1'11
Ill ill: ~"''Ill ""Ill.!\ i& <u.<Jtil!: .1> i& i , 1111 'l\!1<, ~1 It'. r ~ '!\! <pc, )"
~&'f ;JG~(i[)iJi[ii!J ,q-0, :tf!l!lt!t

'i/ip(r,t)=

1 Jp(r,t)

at

(1. 9. 17)

~&'f ;f iif Bil;iiiJii f;j: , ii;:ll;:tf !l! )\) (L 6. 9 l , IP 'V v - O, "1'11' x& 'f ii[ Bil;ii!li:I$ fl'l 11' if. jj Vli:

!;J1f 'Pi at- o, 'f Ji!t:tf1'1ll:Jt!f1 '!f !f1Jtli:tf l!i,


V'p-o

(1.

9. l8l

, !;] ~J 1!-101 #ti fl' Jill 'I' fl'Jl#Vli: :tffit (!, 9. 14 l ;f;t[l1jl:J&:tf l!! U. 9. l 7) fl'I Jf5 P'.:, ~!Iii
J:: , R~ 11' 'l laJ 1t:I: (ii) 'ltJ'k
@'!lid~ Ill

X-x,Y-y /K~-/K,,Z-z JKJK,


mtl1f !l! <L 9. 14 l It)\)" !;ilj!U!i P'.: "!'J :Jr!l! ,

il'P. '!.P. if p _ ]J!i'


ax2 + aY2 + az2 - Xi ax

(J. 9. 19)

(l, g, 20)

(J. 9. 21)

'3-fo!ill:'l''E'f' fijl:iEll:~laH!l 'i' !M!!it'!t


!t Ii! 1f:it: 11'1 :Jrl!i t 1!-fo!iirdlf r {l1' J!l :tfiJ!ilil .W. , llll 1'! i!-fo!i;ll'. T' :it1i: Ill ll i!il. l!ll ttll W'l!l l!ltfil
i!il ol\ 'I' (ii) <il! Jli P: '.Ii tlHlo T ,
t. 9. 1. 3

1) Jjl1~!Jiijjl(z,y ,z) 'I' 19!!fil>;I:

'V ' p-

if:.P.
a.r + ifayp2 - ?!.P.
a:e

(1.9.22)

'1 ( VJ- a(pV,) + &(pV,) + J(pV,)


p

ax

Jy

dz

=pV V+V 'V ,o


ap

ap

(1.

ap

'V p= axe,+ 3ye,+ aze'


2)

(1. 9. 23)

9. 24)

(!. 9. 25)

!Ill ii~ !Jii.i\ (c , 8, z) 'I' !<J tl!it'!t


'V' _1-~(,"P)+l_ifp+!"
p r iJr (Jr
r 1 J{f ar

(1. 9. 26)

'1 (pVJ-1.~ (rpV.) + 1. a(pV,J +"<ev.,2


r 3r
r iXJ
az

(], 9. 27)

dh

1 Jh

Jh

~p~=e +~""e,+=e
v
ra8
az~

ar'

(!. 9. 28)

(1.

9. 29)

(1. 9. 30)

55
(1, 9. 31)

x=rcosO,
x = rsin11tosO,

1. 9. 2

y=rsin6',

z=z

y = .sin'jtSin6',

z= rcoscp

<L 9. 3Zl
(1. 9. 33)

l!2~~11J:~Wl11!~11J:

1: - '1"11" 1!'1!l T "1tt!4' ~lilt: 1* *lilt: !'J 1'! l:!I: .fr 11 , ii' il :Ii Iii JL Hi f < ill ;liiE ~ ~ 1113\>; vtr:
iiiJ !'! illl l:!l:.fr :Iii!! 4ii1-JX !l' !'! ni!illl*,; 'II - ~W lll! JIB;\\ llil :/f!'J pg 1'E""" f!l ill r to ii' !It 'If ::f I!!
~ill f<f'W lll! JIB;\\ Jilf ~ !'J Ai* !JI- l'f , 1fi!i[ !'J
::f flt! !jl IE , l!IG if ill 1': ;(;" 3G !tr~ 1-11 l!lP~ 111 ~ill
PJi\lli 'II! !'! ~ li! fl<! 11 , ~ ! ~ tll W: lilt.fr h'i!illW !ii. ID't !'! Wlll! !'Ji;\\ Jilf ~fl<! 1'e li! if<f'f JX;;, 1'eli!!k l'f
r;;, 111 ~ ill :If llil 'P !itlill~ittl'I! "ittJlrlf !\"e! D J'llllll i\\r!i ~ !'J "'-[ii] JR ;Ji;l'I! at ri JR 1'1 , 2)
fliJ l[J!jl;Jt!Jll l: Wlll! :lit !if Jilli Ii! !'J !kl'f. PP itll'r-!k l'f, 3l!Jflill11' !'Ji;\\ tE Wli1 Ht l<'J fl<! :\It ilt, NP W.lii
!kllf.
ilH'flftl: tl!:=llll'I! c:.llllilt:iiiJ!'J itll'r-.fr~U mil!!!ll c fll ill! ilii a 'It i.f.. ill! AA c Tif l!1 mJL llll5r
ll!lit , 1111 !zl1 'Ifi!ij Ill Jll !<J ill! AA flt Jilli'! Jifitl Jll ill! AA , ill! i!li t!1.'I m1L llll .frllllit tE Jit"'1'ell! il<i'f r .
illl Ill c J;,l; ii!! i!li ' "Jillit:'.lil-." Jjl;-;f, ,!!! , :J!rj~ (lllttlbl':Ri!:k!KllJ< '11!'1 lilt: liiJ fii) llli' ~ill!'! Jl!JC
~ i!!l~ !'! itll'r-!l'dlf .jj 11tlill:;!Ji!!lJ/!i!l<f'f. itlJll!kf'fjj 'lit :$!':'.lit 1!11' 3 ~-iii! ill:~ ;!li'I' tE ~ iilt:;/J 'l' 'P iii! 1lt Ji!r!fJ iE it! J'f 1: ffi;IJ Jil<J!: Jl I/;!'! !l<ilf , xt r =Ill 1'1l .:::'
Ill lilt:'lb* 1/ '.!ij lit

11t

m, w

w:"

(L 9. 34)
p(x Y ,:i: ,t) I.= I Cx, y ,z ,t) ~ tP<x. y, z ,t) I~= J (.x, y ,.t ,t)

:!!; 9' f (x, y .t) ill< .f<x, y, z .t) 5'!!fl ;E fl<! , t!!.ll!::I! B iii! ii!!!.

C1. 9. 35)

il'J !lU (l\!ltltl Jll t!fll', 'fllJ!iltlJlll1l!Ji!r

~~~J;,1;AI~*~z*~~iEffin!'Jt11%.~fl<J~~:ll!itlJllJ:llin*~~~.iil!*~~li!IE
llll'f, Xt'f '!Glllil.;l(Jtllil!Jitl;;iitl Jll Tif lff p~ p, Oilii.f. , :!!;'!' , p, 'lti.f.JtllJll@:!ta !E;IJ.

1'E1'!1:!1:5l- 1fllilJ!!!l~ 'P , Rill JffiJX~ltlJll !'1 fOJ li!i~!:t!l!Ot:ll!! <Didchlot l flilllli.
!111::.;il!i/l ~ i'I' it:l!lli1'Eitll'f J:!fJiEiil!l:!i<ffi;IJ '!''11'.!'1 !1'14'' ~'f =11tfll-='lll1'11f%:$l'
U:JJ lit
(). 9. 36)

V.(:c,y.z,t) l*=f(.z,y,z.t)

J1t ~l#=f(x,y.z,t)

(1. 9. 37)

J:l:!:t!lllJll !'! ~1*1'11f %Jl!"::f i!*it!Jll"', Ill! !JU, M


fll Mm l1Jt Ell iilt:i;I< llllit fl<! i!l Jll lJll.!lH!-:1!; J: Jil-" fl<! 1lJ l1l! ;1J 1'i W: l!Jl:Rlll: it fl<! ill! 111< 1'EJ:l:1'f

:!!; 'I' .f JI! E. iii! iii l&, n fl:Oil(Jll ilii!'J1"!1l1f fi'J.

56

111%r, jit <ti 'll.l~iwLCJ:J1'.jli:]![IJ1 Eli !ltlli l :tJ'i'.


:/iii llJUl-:lf l!!!'l lt 'I' , ft tfJ ffi!J;/; lJB!JJI'- Eli f\il fl!! fl::\!! illf!' 4' (Neumann l l'iiJ l!!l
1!!@' IE :I , "'1- ll'J 1'1~M jt Ill :cf fill 'I!: :lt'I< 7l< il't :ll;>'l:J'l.5' l'f !l!~tl lif fl!l:cf fill 1i1I tm =!Ill !IE llll 'I' Eli
:r: Jl!t *it! w. .tm !li 11 'I<"' :\!! !l! i!l. w. ,1lii tm ill mt iii lit w'I< "' mu Ill< 'J,ti& w. ,"'n1<
k ~ 1it '!Ji: NP ill ffi :IJ :tJ ii\"~ liHIJ $!! !l! it! J'I. 5' 14' '1!i flt 'f' ill mt iii '!Ji: :% ii\"~ Ji Eli ll! -!l! Jtl J'I.

*m

m=

m-

.crdt.

!fl:; !II ill J'l.i?< ff J;!; :Ii! Iii:/ JtlJ'I. J:: ~ !E IE :IJ <"ill! /JI'.* l lk :II; 11< '!Ji: f"1 ~f.Ull il: f"15' 14' , xt
T =!fljlF'!fttllJi; 'lif Jl-~IJ"'llll<
[ "!+hp l..J( ~f(.r,y,t)

(1. 9. 38)

[:l;: +hp J. ~f(x,y,z,t)

(1. 9. 39)

OT/

:/ iil~JJ-:lf !l! 'I'' ti!l!li1.J'l.5'14'f"1 flil f!!f!; :\!! W:f< <Robin) fiij l!!l.
J'l. llli ;?<ff .!Ill{ii ltiili.iilJ IK Jll1 R pg 1i Jl- J'I. i!if Eli i1I % 1!!Iii ;t l'L fr !It 4' ~ 1i jJ- J'l. llli , )'I.i!if
Wl ii~ Iii; Jl!i'I' <ffl l'L RIJUI!'. l Cf ;ttJ , !)( lk J!'I #'I' fill mt l* 8'J J'I. i!if , ll'J tm iJli ffl 7); f"1 J'I. jjjf , TW JJ- ~ij l!t fl
i>tlt.

JI! 1 1'111~ ill:1f JI! jjjf J\l'lif illJ IKl!i.JJ- JO; i!'!Jll>JJ- R, ffl R" :ll;lil; Jl!ii!'Jl-iJ :1J K, ffl K., j!\j 1IK llj\ 'l'mt illJ t' l"l ~#mt l* , :/ i.t #tll lll r ' 'ii! t-lili illJ Ill: lilt R 'I'lili Ill "111 ~ Jl- :!Jillif flt!ti\ it ;I;
J!'i 1-'f IK llj\ R, fll R, 'l':fr*U lit !!I 8'J i1"~Jl-1rll!, llif:lrll! cp fi'J !l''l!'li Of jJ- ~U Ill p, f!l p, ( >$. <!>,,
<1>,, , , , l 'l<if< , 'f!i!o!l''l!'tll.:11; \!'litl'EJ'f jjjj .tiHJl!WJi!. -!E !'Ji!~.llH'f. <l ;t, fill-l'Pmt 1*:/
:JCllti&" 7J; U1'1' 8'J 11;!4' F , f!i.1J !I' lit~ ,
(!. 9. 40)
p, - p, >$. <!>, ~ <!>,
:/EJ'l. l!l J::
X>)'f =!tt11%, lfl--il' jjjf i!'f1lil!li :lt!'J !Ill. Ji: ' !l';fll'1!', liltili"lf !EJ'J !'Jtll lliJ<!<'tli:i!~, RP
ap,

l'EJ'l.jjjf J::

ap,

a.-= as

(!. 9. 41)

'il ?r, i.!fli l'l-iili '!'JI; l'l!it: JJ-:/ii IK , ll<1f mt l*li!i tfJ "I~~, flil jjjf 13'"1:)'1. jjjf Eli iii :!I! <i!i lliJJ!i It lltmt
litl@"ililM'i!~, Rp1f
V"1=V.1

~ ~~?~~=~1 a::

:{Ejlmf_t

(1.9.42)

it"'*

ll! 2 l'P11lll I!! fr lit fl'J


Ji!,;!~ Eli ' ilifmt jj; "'" j!lj f'I mt j;jl:;If> Ill< jJ- J'I. jjjf ;.! 1- )'I. iii[ :Ii! ill
mt 1*lit iii\ !II.Ji\'; 8'J ~ill oj): 12: :h 41<! IJillli ,W:l!f tE $ lilJ i.:il!l 'I' Of Ill r-'11 :!Jiil Jill) ,
(1. 9. 4j)

Wt F(r,t) =r-rc(t) =O
(1. 9. 44)
:II; 'I' ,x~<(t):;;!i; t ~rJt)i'!Jii t fltllJ mt l*J'f ]Ii[!') It lif,{ftil'., ~p$fj 1. 4. 2 1' 'I' J!Ji;j;, Jill:Ej ti f'I )'I.
ilif Ill J;l:ilf ~ al!\\,\\\ lt1'!11r f9!. :/EJ!#fi!lllt T, l\olll1!"
F(x,t)=x-~(t) =0

dF=aF+vaF=O
dt
at
ax
"' "' ' v " v'

:Ii! mt j;jl: lit.\\\ J!i ill: '

mt

dF=dF+v JF=O
dt at
, ar

(1. 9. 45)

!. 9

... '"' ill. #. ~ ii. ;tc ;JI. j,li jf( i)-;j" >fill le Jt ~ "' it

57

t)!1! 1 #1i\'Jl'!i!ii;(, !Ill !!<.1!/.11/Pl'l!i' ;IJ .J'E JI' ilil F .t ii!:;!; Bi;!Jil;~;ftl iii;ii;~.
'llljfj5'\ f'I' ~t
fl!. i!;il); mt , fl!ll :fr::li@i'E&: (!It j1Jl !lt!id'f , 1Jl ilfl,Jk{'f jl!d:; Ji tTJ ilf!Bt
Ill t~ ,O.!! 'lltJfli: ,~ ol EL5!:ilt:tli!'1' 11'.Ji.~ 9' il'Jil. llf1' hi:

'f"

1'j'

:(:ER~

p(x,y,z;t=O)=F(x,y,z)

Jl; 9' F

'lOii' B Jill ID'l!1. ;I; 00 >\l.1i\';lfH1'1it!I!:, f!ll!lll~Jltll!lli!m\ilf! ffi;IJ

1.9.3

(1. 9. 46)

p,,

R~9~~~&*~~&KSfi~~

llir i!'i 1J' ll"1'F ili T 11mt1111lilt7.l- nW'if !It ili T ill i11Jll#t ft 1llJti fl!Jld'f 1f!l 1ll ilii >1d'f o:< tu
{(#t{'f ) ' 1'Eill> lilt j} "!' 9'" ti; .(\\!1-# 1111 il!t::li1'il 1'1 l!ii ' jg ii! 'fl'-$ !'J 7.)-llf lilf lt .(\\! 1'E 't 1111 il!t;)}
nWfli - !l'l:rli':J ll" l\3 Jl"g{j "":if 31c111111'i :fr:trwil'I lli* Ill '1!:

7.ii.l!a<J;}!I!
:tr 1!! 9' ili l'\! 8'J Jill ID !I!: I 1!iC ~ JI: l 8'J Jilt 71ii !ii"11111;; !I!: 8'J !ii" !I!: l\t jg ::Ii1!l fli flJt !I.I , x'f f' 'Ell ID !I!:
.. 9. 3. 1

1ll 1';8')

*
J'i- !ii"1'Fl1Cli\l:llti;!<tt !'i/f@l\t 1.l!;!<ttilillll:frn@,
i!.E

<Ip

Cfp

iJE

l'.( l'f\J 2 !i1"1illlll:fr::lil\\jg f!ll

ap

A a.r+B ():xJt +Cat! +a Jx +h Jt. +cp-f(.:i;,t)

(1. 9. 47)

*lll ID !I!:;;; pix .t l ,x ;Ill t !It I'! ~JI:. !l! tt:liiiP J1o 1J@ 9' jl- lJI! il'J !\ lt A , B " ... c ft :lit I'! ~:II:
x *n t il'J ID!l!:llii .':j p 3G5!i. 1rl!l 9''F1l"*'E!l ID!I!:.& 1'1111 i'l<!l!:!'JlJI! l't-1.11'1 Bl Jji[. frU1J@( L 9. 4 7)
9'!'1 J ix, tJ. 11i l'l wlJl!::f :'191!'. mtllll:1J1!ljg1~1f ~!'J. 111 RI wlJI! J1"1i', m1J l\t1JWJ11fll; !'I. 11i
1r Wxt 'f * lll ID !l!:!'i lit iii flJt 11' !I!: :!!!l<tt 8'J mu l\tlt<1JWjg itt 8'J , xr 111!! o. 9. 41)1lii s ,~
cNt A. s fl1 c ft cNt x , ifll P !'I iiii !I!: w;r; 11- P il'J iii 1'F~. 11i1111lll?t11@ ~ "' !l<ttn1!l :sue m!l<tt
:tr Wmtl l1.: ~ tJ ;1; wllt It jg ~~!l!tt 1I l1i!,
2 !il"illlll'l.l-1Jl!IJ:l:1' : !l!:!'i lE g, %51i!\ 1lf7.l-jg ' :kl!!, OJ I!.( :tr m<1. 9. 47 >jg~J la a~ B'
- <.4C, i!f :/E 18:1't R Ji1 Ji;,\\\ (x, " Jil'I IE a>o, Wtltl<n1!11'Elti.!\cN!1Jl illll!!iil'I 1i!f tE ,/,\ <x, "' >11!1 ft
a~ o, mlJ tt1J@:t it< .i:i :!lilt& ll!ill!!i !'I ,i!f tE .\\\ Cx, "') 11!1 IE -"< o, WIJ It }f l\\Jlo lRi fll l!!i !'I , i!f }J" l!l:tE
IK1't R Ji1PJflf4!- .i:i!!J il'I Ji! -"< o, mtl lt::lil!ltEIB:il'I. R P9 Jlolllf!IMI ll!l !'I ,,j\-!1!1111.
tEW.mt n"" 9'i8 llJ !'I 3"lll! :l!Jf W:::lii'illi< !!!\ 1"1'F ll!l11 m.JP. fo'l l1;~ !'I 11m;;;m l!ll ll!l1I Ill w
1J 1!1 ( L 9. 18) l$ jg ti 'I!- !lJIJi:lf i'il , ti 'I!- ti J!li::li1!l jlj bu J: ill( lC lJl!llthl: T Pois,iou :If@, ii fo'll1;@
llll J1o !Mi fll ll!l :tr !!I ,

lEMili"'llllilfi!llilE1!
!II iE -1'1J 1!l , ft flll Ill '.!\I~ !!t;;;ii!J !'I -M:'l!I! Iii! ilil ::f flll 1i11 ii!. AW i'J iii iili >lit Ill\ 'Ill fll lil1: i;tjg
1Z l 1J W i!fM Fli!ll!'J lt!i1J@bn .till$#ti'f ifll lll ilfl,Jki'f Fc , fllllll ii!. AW !'Iii<"1 >lit ;l> , ljiJ l1; 111
!'I clld4'l\t 1.lii!.l11* f'I', !it T IZ!i:1rl\\, JZ!lt T fflE !'Jllll!f<f'F, mtl l1;!i' !'I !l!:'l'~!!i!i"ll!iilt jg i
11111 fiil !!ii , o\ll. ll!! :;i; fill !'iii!.lllllif<i4' )i!lllll r'1 l!iillf it Ji 3 !!! ,
1) ft :;f lll Jiil ;!kl'!' ilf !lt1fi!1J'f;!k{'f8'J )Efl llil l!iil\t jg tllil! f'J l!iili< i'Jl!'i (c.u,hy) r~ Hli
2) ft :;rl!1j'\l;f,14' ifif !lt :;f"1) Jiil *"'!'I ii!.fl fiiJ !!ii l$ jg i!1{( fiiJ !!ii
3) !!!'.fl Jil .Jl!if< ft JZ :if 11.1 Ji;;!k{4' !'I lE flf'J !Mil$ jg /!i\ it fiiJ l!iili<"1l it! fl![ f\iJ !!ii
lE Milf'l lllillll ililE tt
& ~ iE mf\iJ !!ii il'J 1111111Z i!i:l!1 1'E !'I . lli! 1.1 't cNt li1I iil'I ~!!l!i:t W, 'fti.1mil'I1:ttt fill ot!;'! T
1. 9. 3, 2

*~5*~
X;Jfl<l\\11' ili111f 1lil!ili liJ 'liB'J ll! lll""l!t Jli1 jJ- JI. m!~ ~i Yf. ;:! 1-Ji!!J;'ZW:J;;Pit ~B'J. f*Ji!! B'JP!E -11.
Jlt Jir ii: fl :111 ll'J !iiE tt . j/Jj JI< lE ll'Hldti'J ii\!: 'J' '.lt it ft ~ IJill lE. i'J mli'J JI!! 1'.E Mi" :IE Ji.~ R 'I' 8'J llr
,J,11' it . till'! !I!iJ! Ill\ ~"" 1' iti!f1f l!U!f liJ 1'f D'J 4o/J lll!"" l'il fr~ lll l>ll lfilat Cl Jif f!llM iE:lil#dt l'i'
1E 'Ii' iilll: mlfii* " ,~~ >t- '"111< r~ m8'J .,,., lli iE 8'J
iE JI!! r01mB'J:l!IP!E -tt'<E El* 'f iE JI!! J1'dtJ<. lli lit "1 , m~ jj; iE fll1!il<it li'J IJ< ll<Jl!tiltiE 8'J
l'EllMilt.h 'l' 'I' , l!l :igi[;J; :If llilfrJ iE Ji!! ii< ft!i!Xti!I'. Ml 4o/Jlll!i'.tli ( WIt!! r. 'ioli!Jf;I: pg lil:INi
l!jl;ii'J J!I Vl1 ttli l li'J ~ 'l' f~ Jct; , I.ff Cl ti\lil< lE JI!! i'J Iii Jildf! l'li'J 411! l!ltt 1lil li'J 'l!t'i'lli!ll'I
58

59

Iii :it lit ill' J<.111 ii' fL fr !It il'1 /JI!: Ii& 'I' 1'!-1' !: r\il .\\\ J: il'J 1i'J '11111: :Im Bi;h , /JI!: i! ~J;J l'.i 8'! f;;J Ji;~ :tE
31< !\if, l'iiJ l!i 'I' - !Btil!IJ<. 4e Iii$ Ills iilL fllJ :Im Jt!llll!- ! llHT 1f , iili. Ii& 'I' !\\ it'J !li}J , /Jll:Jlt "JI' ll!: Mi at lliJ
ill OF !Iii'!!' lL II!.*- ill iili. ilJ :tE Ll r 'II' 'f 111f % 'I' t!i l.lll .i l t :Y< ill:lif 'I' A:;!] Jt!l i!IJ iii:~ fof Ill itiil /JI!: il'1
Jld'f , 2 ) tr Jt Ill!. :Jd1!l !l! "' t< mi ;i; '.It il'1 iili. 1:
11> tt"' K at rm t< Fo "l Ll R :;1J 111 /JI!: 11!. it
11 , 3 l t 'IH!l. !* 1i1 11il?fL1)' l!li 'I' , /JI!: A il!l"11 iili. tll il!l1'l :;!] iiUil O!''lt il'1 /JI!: t"11 ffi;IJ , iil<tt 1': at l'iil Ll
Fo ilJ l'1 f!'.(R:O'lill /Jll:J<.l!l]);il'J, lli.itiil/Jll:ll!l il'Jlilf Ji'.jill :Ji:~~ l\i <Jil, il [! J), F ilil lti!!:Jt #~
ll!! il'1 l\I: 'If i:'li! lll: . il'J Iiiii; lit /JI[

**.

}Lflll-!t ii!f iiblll ::::itiilf ~

2. 1

tf l!! L 9 l'i 9' B l';r.I UJI , tf J;J l!lilt!!Jl! <f'lil;i;lit/Jll: il! !ft 1!l'lftJlli/fi'<!ll llL ~'f-if!P!'fl/Jll:,
"!' ilil 1 ILlJ iili.:flll\J!Jf} fiiJ L'lilL, /f 1'1Ell:~44e '!t111J.I!!.

2. L

1 211 ii 211 tJ i1i!

'it :Y<litlii' '11 ~I ill W$ !g Wd>i /!!! il'i $ M1 <I' uJ !!.(RY, /JI!: i!lllli-!ll:ii tll lf'ri il'J Jlii!ll ,ff-#'.!
r~ l!iJi 'f'f l!if "!'fl/JI[. j!l;j)' !'It l\:!lC!J L, iltilil1'\:0'I A, fll!aill~Jli;IJ :;!] p" ~~lll'i!I: (IJll:lfj il!l l !E)J
1-1 p., ITTtl/fillflli11f.olki'f "l'.'l' Jl\l

4:_

(2.1.1)

dxz-0

!. 2)

p(x~o)~p.

(2,

p<x~L)-p.

(2. L 3)

'.It li'Jllf.14 ffi.:IJ ?t w,. iJlj 1$: I; (Jlltff~lll'llti"'I; )Q fllltiili.l!Jl v Jt ZIJ :;!]
p(x)~p ... (p,

..

1-x

p.ly;~p.+(p.-p.l-r;-

Q~,4K(pl-p.)

(2. L 4)
(2. L 5)

V=Q~K(p,-p.)

(2 I 6J

,,

iZ:'I< l!ll M'f lilit 8'1 "F ilil "!'fl/JI!: , :It!E;iJ !fr /JI!: llll /f "1 :!ildfl!tt?t ctn ,mt I; fl1 ii!Jl Ji!: .,,. il'i !til!Ii "1! Jl\llE
tt li'J 'It !Ii.

2. 1.

211imi~ln!

'I' l!i1% [iij/JI[ DJ Jt J'J i!!if'!>tllJfHt~


!I! 1 f*ll~Ji!: 1!1%ll!l l!!lf ltl7JC fll!lt li'l '11 c'- o if. Mn1'1'111f %Ill tt~ lff>* tt~Jr~. i
lil:$tl>\:(L 9. 26) ,jilJ!l'raJl!iilJ'.'l'~

60

d' d '
dr(
r a;) =O,

p(r=r,.)=p.,

(2. !. 8)

p,

(2. L 9)

p(r~R) ~

:J1: cp ,r. fll R jt~lj :Jg itiJ 'f"! fll f;l]Jlj lt!!il!'f"!; p. fll p.
1!11+ !fi}J :it :/ii'fll Vii: :lt:it%1J :Jg
p,-p.
p(r)=p.-

(2. L 1)

r.,<r<R

jt~lj :Jg it Ji'iiJli;IJ;fll i'fift)'!- ffi;!J

p,-p.

'

(R)lny:=Pw+ 'R)lnr.

In ~

'I'! JI,

(2. !. 10)

ln[-

rw

r..,

Q= 1trh Kr!:t=ZrrKh(p,-pw)

dr

tn(:.J

(2. J.11)

ll; op .h J!ol!l!lll ll!llL '>'\ c2. 1. 1ololl< I\! , !EJ:t l!lf< ri>t iil.xHll::it:/ii'. Mr'ti"'# ilif i'r. tE p-r 1Lt
Jli;IJ dJl jlj ft!. !Ii 4)[!t, .lJ l!JtJ:f):;\7" Jli "1'1112).", Ell;!: (2. L I!) ii) :<tJ , Vli:ll! .!;' f'l J'f:!J'!-!'J JE,.$:1
It, ill lii Jil!JlH~ # 1iif 'i'f< It {l!'J xttt~!i ~~,
'f 141 Ji!! J'1 !E;IJ 'f 141 Ji!! ill !E;IJ i'Eli!J "\ IE 7f ;it op J!o--t-;i;; :% li: 'li! iJ ;1; 'It .Jt!i lit Jll(Xt lli ,fl:\ A

'!'141 .ep

(2. !. 12)

Jf4f'i'\(2. L !OlftAJ:'i'\#*1'11'!1! r:,!J'f!l,$'.iifl<Jili;IJ


(p,-p.)

p.,,-p,-

tR-J (1+2~~ln~)

(2.1.13)

2ln r,

lfl 2 ""f#Wllk'li:l'll::kiti!ll! '1' {t!J- o #. xff iXf+tt\'% 1f1"fll P1 ift!l!-ollH'f iiJ Ll :ey ii!:
(2. ], 14)

(2. !. 15)

p(r) =C+ Zw:Khlnr

(2. I. 16)

J:iJ:cp .c Jlkff :ll':'iit'lt .r jl',J;i& .\\>: (x' y) :'E # ,\\>: iiz:ii (x, 'y,) iJ le)lll, ap
r= [ (x- xo)l +.Cy-yo)~]lli

(2. J.17)

(2. 1. 181

iX 1-<l!'tt C i"1 Ell .ll--till~!!<i'f~ Ji!, Pl:!Jl!;Lliii;J;i&j!;f'f r-=~ p- p, ft A ,J!I C ~rfflJt


.'#, !;.(Fo41i~lilJ ,fJl;'t~Ji!ill!l!-~i4T11!tt c 14f:>i~Ji!iJ'IH&fl.
'ltl>iiJ: .!lili\ L 4.4 l\''P'f ilii A\\!i!(lC) ')C;\,i: (1,4, 32' 34l;fll D"'Y jj!J4! v ~ -(~I~'
:sl: BP \ll lfJJ

61

<}z~_J:..!L~lf..!L
dr

(2 I 19)
'

K 2trr K 2trhr

l:;I:: 9' ,q Jik.ljl.fiLJJit!ll!!i!lilt:I: ,Q Ji! h ~l.t!ll!!i!lilL:lll:. ~TR.\ ill! q>o, R.\ l'C q<D. J::;l::ifl\ ?J- .<'.
epm;;:: c2. 1. 16 J"' c2. 1. 1s i i! -t!l!>i<JIJ ;JC!l.:k'l"ilii'I' .il:ll!! <IC J fii! lllB'Jil!i'i"!l!, t:x1'f'I" iliili!.
lli~lilt~ !il'iitllll. ;;:: c2. 1. 19 l'\I! f!/lliltli!i 9'8'1 !E:iJ f!il.t "ilfilll r Ill:& It. t1f llffi!Illi:iJ #I! I.ti~
! tE ;JC~ :l&l1!1li:!J #I! it !fj 'f"'

2. 1. 3

l'li ~ p'.jJ 111\ ml

~ J!!-1''!'1*JI!; 8'J iilllll:!i! j1J! 'Ill Y.1-1!1 'F Jlii, Jll! 'Ill ~J '1'1* ilii, ;Ill;'!''! J:J h tllltl:lik !ll!!i! JJ

It, Jli '!ll l!ll 1119' tl!!l!Oll!IHi'ilf l'/ilf l!ll?t J>'i''l"<J> r, 8'J liiJ t'i'l>Jt. lll!!ll'i'"*ll!f:li'dJl!itl!l. JI. , IP
~111' 71'1ll! ;lli;iiiHiUE J:J p,. WHI! i'iJlt iliJ 1iJ 'If ft Ji!JtJ!!; lol C. lilt
Ell 'ii: CI. 4. 33) Jilt (L 4. 35 l ft! Darcy IE 1$. i:ii~IJllltEJ:!;'i'1*. W~~
if'~_l'._g_

dr

(2.]. 20)

K2n?

:It 'I' ,r Ji!>Jt.C, !11llltli!J'i'1>Jt11< 'I' ff: :11'.B'J - ,#, 8'J ill. IJ\I , l: 'ii:!>\ :fr !it /:fl

p(r)~p

+-91.:(
x . . .!.r I~p ... !kc(
ZttK r..,
2ttK '--'I
r
h

(2.J.21)

Ell 'ii: (2. [. 21) 1iJ~11!W: I;


(2. !. 22)

(2. [. 23)

2, 1. 4 i!l 111 .t Ii :t.J 5} l'f'j .! ~ JI jij l!lJ ml lllJ


mi JI! l!llJI!; l!l.J'f J::lli:iJ 'f lik'll!' 'll<, ilii likl!J 1.t e 8'J if1! e Jill il!i 'll<. !!I'll: o. 9. 251 ;Ill; ilt Ill! r~ Ill
'""Ill:

Ji'.(
?.P.) +1~=0
r'dr r&r
.,.t.(J(f

(2. !. 24)

p(r.,O)=p,(0)

(2. !. 25)

p(R,OJ=p.(0)

(2.]. 26)

Ill :ll:!!HtAIJHfHl'J!i~iiE:1Jl!i! <2. L 24 l '1!'!11111!


lnr,

. rcosa0 1

r"sina8

:It 'I' , a JI, 1lt ~ Ill J:J 11i1!\lik!J<tt8'J , PJi !!.! Jill OJ Ill !ill.'ll<~ii' !\1
p(r,0) = c0 1nr

I;r"(a.,sinaO

~r-(c..sinaO

!., b,wsaf})

+ d.cosalJ)

(2. 1. 27)

;II; 9' ,,,.a,.b.,,.,d, ill>lik'lit'll<, 1:j r. oX.~, 'E in rl! l!l.J'folki'flil ~.


Jl -:1Jl!i , I& Jlil Fom;., !ill 't<l!fl:J\>; , l!J.J'f il!i 'ti( p. C8l ft! p, (Bl OJ'.&' litI& tl1% >\ Jzil 'f ,
p.,(8) =

2.: (W,.sinnO + W' ~cosn8)

(2. 1. 28)

62
p, ( {/) =
;(Eil,\!I; j,f,

:E (E.sinn8 + E ,cos1J8)
1

( 2. 1. 29)

r, ;( e- n !11:14!-"I" ill~ Jf. !Ii .Ill! Founier J)-jff lff Jll ffi.1J !l'i 'Iii: p Cr, Olflt e fl'J JWj l!ll!ii 'Iii:,

M:% Zn, l!SI llif n Jli;( lE ll! 'Ill:. ~If~ llE, El! l!1 !Hiid'!' <2. 1. 28 l *11 c2. 1. 29 J ap lff lil1I !ii f!1'
(2. L 27 l 'I' li'J 1lt 'Iii:. f liJlll< 2. L 27) :ii'IM! o I!! lE lll;'lll: ftWclf 5l-*tl!I( r ~ r. cfU R, E ill !i .LjiJ:
( 2. L 28 l c1U c2. J. 29l fl'J :ii' Jiii Ill .. , ~lit!it lll lilll IE 1it 'Ill: li'J Jl!i i':if llL
...

JWJ

2: (il'"sinn8 + W' .cosn8)


= colnr.,

+ b,.cosnfJ) +

L;~(a.sinnl'.l

~r;"(c.sinn8 + d~cosn8)

(2. J. 30)

2: (E,sinn8 + E' ,cosnO)


= c0 lnR

2.:R~(a.sinnO

+ b' cOS11.8) +
0

2:;R .. "(c~sinn8

+ d,,cosn8)

(2.1.31)

11!.ll'i Fouder ~'Ill:!!!! JI':, :if llH2. 1. 30) cfU ( 2. I. 31) jl!j l!1 sinnl! *11 eo,nO li'J JI\ '111: ffi Jl-*~ fll 'i!' , RP
1l
c~lnr,.+b 0 ::::W 1 0,

ao=O,

cnlnR+ho=E 1 o
0

a"~+c.r; =W.,

b.~+d.r;"=lt

(n~l)

a,,R"+c.R-"=E~,

h.R"+d,.R-"=E'.

(n~l)

El~

w10

' - IRI
In -

r,

'
(2. L 32l

(" =

iJ:(2.

!.

32) 'f' n:;,,J

E.r'; .... W.R

D.

E'.r:,- W',,R"
D.

,D.-R":-i:,
r,

ill Jt 1'f J\\, '1i'l!lJ'i.lii!i 'Iii: p.(0) *11 p.(8) B Jll, :it~'lll:ll7f il: 'I' , Jl\'111: W. , W'., E.. E', lit.Ji', B
Jll t1!, ffllj El! ii: ( 2. I. 32) lff ~~ii'll lillif!1' ( 2. I. 27) 'I'~ 'Ill:, 'f :11! [r.,R] Jlltfl'J JE;IJ l!IJ p(r, 8) lit
fe3::~r.

gJj 2. I 11!l!lJ'i.!fd'f';f;
-~O:o;;;;:tr

p,

p(R,8l- { O
j;.J;3jt

w:."'

0~0~1(

-,;;;8,;;;o

~ l1t fl'J lli.;IJ 5)-./fi '

1111 LJ:itli1J'l.t1!1i!i/Ji Fourier ~'Iii:, et J!\t?ilJ p<R. 8> fl;. 8 (!'J 'l) iii!!!:, ffeU1f
p(r..,,fJ) =W' ~= p.,
= p, +'!J::., ( sin&+ sin30
P (R 'f})2
:tr
3

+sin58
+ ..,)
5

63

E',=~,

E.=D(njjl!'f!:J

E.=;.;;'(nilj'fl[)

'/lli! ;!lfi\l:fi;All: (2. L 32JRP 111


R

p.lnR-p,ln-z
v~=
ln(R/r,.)
,

ao= 0 '
b.=O
{,d.=O a..=

{o
.

p./ 2-p.
co=Jn(R/r.,.)

{o

(n flll'f!:l
2p.r;(niJ'f{)
n1rD.

(n {l!'fj:l

llllltfi1l~!li:fHHl;lll

ll'J 2. l

(n~~)

c.""" 2p,r;.
n1tD
0

'ilfl!;J!!!J\'f!:f'tA.Ji#IC2. !. 27) .eFolll!liiJ!t,P


In .~

P.! In ..!'.. +.. p


p(r,fJ)=2

I",.

r+2P .L.:sinn&(r:,_r")

"'

R
In-

v,=-Kap= iJr

1(

nD"

(2. 1. 33)

r;.

r"

Kl p,2 - p.,.. I+2p.K:Lj.sinn0(r!;._r")


;arr ~ D"

rIn -R

r"

r;.

'
c2.1. 34l

Q--f'

rhv,<)6=

2nKh( p, - p )
2

l nR

(2. 1. 35)

r.

'illll: c2. 1. 35 >1' c2. 1. 11 l i'll lt:fJlf o!I tlJ , iE '1'1'1!!1Jlil i!ll'Lt'i!ldlf!liil p, 1'iE'il1' l!!I JliJ i!ll'I- J:

'l*l.f!EJJ ~ !Jiill'if il'J f'tt:li!:i'll lliJ il'J. IO\ Jlt!J!!lli. 'f .lliiiE ~JI iE7rl21'1-lilttt, mIii! J: '!*l.f!EJJ p,
!;:; iEl\!:1' l!!IJlil 9ritll'I-J: 'i*J.f !liil'{,;, l'tPJiillil'J i"':ll:li!:i'll l\!il il'J, ;t!J 1'l

Q,=2f~1J::s:'"")

(2. !. 36)

JI! !lt!f!l , 1lJ' JO( lit tlJ i!1 J'I- J:!J1jj 'I";t!J fl il'J ~!\ ' 8:i
Q __ hrf"" TJ,.dO _ ZtrKM,E' Q - W' Q) _ 2n:Kh (P,-

ln(R/r.)

P.. )

/ln(R/r.)

-..&_Rp.= 21tKhln r w +Pw

Jt <P -p.

* 1>. "~~ 1'l p, , 7ri!1J'I- J:!EJJ il'J 'l';t!JilX.


---------------~--

....

64

2. 2. 1 -M!l'.5.J'IJf
Xl'TJ;J ,'ltJtl!liPF i!!li\"5!1;i1:. "1J Ill ;!l[ 51' lii!i'!i:l!ll iio1! at 4'111! fiiJ Iii! :k JJill!1t . Ji Jtll! fll '1611-211.
' Iii 'Ii: B'i 5IJtli!R<il.

lflllt
xtT'f ilifli
mi ,1lJ

2. 2. ]. 1

;1:; iJ;

!;( 51 l11' 'iii 'Ii: <P (x , y)

(p(x Y) = -p(.x,y)

(2. 2.1)

lli!ll! Darcy 11! Iii< u. s. 21 J ml J!!l!':frlll; 1lJJil '!\' 1i1i '!i:e<J ili!.\l<'!i:'iVl< ~
iJIJ>
V.=-Jx'

iJIJ>
V,,=-Jy

jjJj Si ,;: ( !. 9' 18 ) ' 'f i!!li"' ii; mi :!f jl! :IJ

d'<P + a'<P = 0
ax~
ayt

(2. 2. 3)

Jlf miti;>l:'i't:!f1l! <1. 6. 9J , oJiJI l11'miili 'Ii: <x. y J 'ii! ;i;iilli Jil

V,~-~.
v)'

V,=':'
u.X

(2. 2. 4)

it 1-mi Pl! 'ttil 1i!' iJ!,l>f IF I!! ti! Ill Smi !ili 'tt . >!'. <2. 2. 4 J 9' ,IE ff! 4'Jl:A :IJl!t lE B'J ffi >l: <2. 2. 2 JfP

a'+if.i.=o

Jx2

J:V

(2. 2. 6)

liW ff 1f1l! (2. 2. 3J, (2. 2. sJ fll (2. 2. 6) e<J '!\' lili fl: <P(x, y )fP ilf.ili'!i: (x, y Jl>F Ji i!!i 1-:Jli!iil e<J il!lfP
rl!i'llt, l1i! ll! 211. 51' lii!i 'ttl!I! TI>; , !ill!,iil Cauchy Riemann il'd'i' e<J i!!i1-il!f fll iii Iii 1lJ !;( #l Jl1t -1-Jllillf !'J ll'

'.It !ili'I& w <l , ~ {EliJflti1>:"'1IKl!!it9' w<Jilt il!J:I. 4if .l!t!J1llif! ii! B'itH!i 'il''IJI',
W(z)=c;l:i+iip,

.z=x+iy

(2. 2, 7)

-1-1' ilif ll!.011H>li' ii! Jl.11-1-lif! lE B'J ;!i<;\l lii!i 'Ii: W <.J , llLt, -1-Jllillf B'J Jr'!\';;; 'Ii: w <zl iJ!,
lit ft~-1-'f illiIill;!I; !IL ' !'(JI,., !!I' 211. <;\\ riJi 'Ii:;$:~* 1Jl:1! tr c2. ?I; !if, :ft JC ill El ' it ti'-* ' llij!
'I' ill~~ ~mi fiiJ l!i. >!: ftRlt;J.;J<Ji 5l'iE 'Ile w <z) Jilti"i1-:Jli *1!"'1 JIH fll liO !& ~ ~ '.11;/iW le ill JI'!!< l'f
"'1 IBJ I!!
'Ii T ll'I\' liO 'tt w(z J Si ;!;'!I; llillif>lt tll ll<:IJ :fr ;/Jr ifil w <z J.!:; ill!!: :fr:lll: B'J Xe 1il !\T

(2. 2. 8)

65

d~~.:::),..,,_CV,,+i1l 1 )=-Ve'"
~ ;!} ~!f!i;![J!!t

;It"', v Jl!cJ!!lf !'Jl!i~~ii!,. ft!ltJ!!t !'J!r r5i , gp

(2.2.9)
tg=

v
v'
'

2. 2. 1. 2 l,f Bi!!!*1ll1!!!!;tl!:!I:iE'll:
x&'f 'f iii fllililB;iJlt: , OJ k'l liE ffJj 'li' Iii i1IG (IP 'li' il!'ii< l ; iJlt: ii< <IP il!1' .P i1IG );ill li iii A !!; !Iii J: ,il!1'

!!i!lt'llt IJ!tii< OJ :lt~tlJ< .it


r;P(,x,y) =c1

(2. 2. 10)

(x,y)-rz

(2. 2.

i!!ltilllilHt"l' jipJR, tr ;f; 'I" iii ill! ii< F Cx , y) =, !'J lJJ i11G 1r !lj}
F'' ~, (.:r- XG) + F' y (y- yo)= 0

(2. 2. 12)

;It 'I', F' .,

'lit F' ,,5)-JllJ''i!!ii<:::'lit~=1'E.\';\ M, (x,,

y,) !'Jiil:, IP ill! ilJ<J: f.r,(!'. -

JJ)

,Ii, !'Jl'J] ilJ<;!ij$ ;!}

aF
Jx

(2. 2. 13)

k--aF

ay
!!If ~l 'I" ilii 'I' ff ;f; - .Ii, M <x , y ! JU: ll!1' !I! iilG'llt !lt:IJ< B'J >lil>!' :St ~U ;!}
ill>

;;[

Jx

Jx

k1"""'-i)($

ki"""-&11

ay

(2. 2. 14)

ay

/t;!fj!J !P j .p 2J'1!'1 Caucny-Rie.,,.nn ~1\ (2. 2. 5) .il:BP:<Jtll!


k1 k =-<11>/Jx i>l>/ay=-1

iJll/ay

a<Ii/ax

(2. 2. 15)

Ell It ill t!J !Ii ii>: , x&'fl!J !It Ml Ill , iJlt: 1iJ 'I'$Iii ii<!JIO 'lit !It: ii<IJJ;;lll lilE )<'
2. 2. 1. 3

!!!M;1ilf!!#l!1Jtl~a

1'E JB;iJlt:f.7 "l' 'I' Jil! lit 1Jfl! !!JJ ii'! !r!!il 1'11 :ltl l'Hfd4' illlJl!ciilGi!t ii'! , :<Jt ll\!ii<tt!r!!il !'J -1- It'll! 11121
l!tll!!;f!J Jll !!;JJUl!i\l.l!, ~lli\l.l!OJ<l!iii ;!} 'i/!i !P, = !P, (x, y, z .t )'lit !P, = !!>, (x, y ,z ,t) 1J li\\tt'i\'Vc liil
lll:St:lr!!il L <IP!= o ii'! il!f1-1'11!11. ~at Ill !'J if.-ii<tt!llil'
cP=c1tfi1 +ci\P~

(2. 2. 16)

t!!.Jll L (!P) = 0 il'J-1"1\\'fi, ;It 'f, L ft!/tiei<ttlll:ltJ!I T, {llj Jm1J'*1! ( !. 9. I 7) cp


ififif!J
L(

ay'+az'-Xat

,, Jiil ,, }JfUtllt!llJ:. -ll!:M!, il!i !P, = !P, Cx. y ,z .t) ,; = !. 2 ... ., n ill< L( !P) ~ Oii'! n 1-1'11!11. ~U
(2. 2.17)

t!!Jl!c :!r!!il i'J f!ll ,Jll: lit 1111 ' rlt :ltl J'l'jj;,f'f'lll iE 1111<1 jj!j) T iilll Ji! :ltll'l'l'i: i'i' di:.!J!f ;t <2. 2. 17l ii'!
>!<:Jiii lJ l!i!JU.lt'i'J',
i/!i Eli'l!lf~(IJ;lj!Jl!'11t& ii'! Cl!.!!' L 9. 3 11') , ill] ~U!r! CL 9. 15) 'I' (I] q(r ,t) IA ;tJ!,4f 1'f

66
!I\~

>nlf Ill iii tB '' i'l'!I\ :In'< ui ff-!Hw .i;, mu'' i'l'!I\ :lrN B'J MOT'.!'< Ill;
tP= rlJo +ci 4>1 +c2ii

f1i

lf>u

(2. 2. 18)

~c/P1

(2. 2. 19)

.~1

(',( J:;l\l;lltll;'.ll' ii!il/lft iilil'f. XLl~ii!i 'i&t!!:l!dm Jt. llil 19 if ;t! i"i1"lil<i!\i1" VJJ:liHITii!i 'I& i'J iii
tt!!l il'illMJliMtfi B& JI:, Fli (',(if :ll!: li'i t-ll!;i!\i1' VJ J::JI! !!' il JI: B'J lilett!ll ifill li!\ft~llil'Pillt: i#J B'J
:!!: !!' ii!i 'IL
2. 2. l. 4 ltlifil<'lllil.!~l\th'1
il!tli1 li< Hit J:Jl! J::\J>ilbn Jil(!ll! li'J -#11\'!Jl:!l'.!IJ, fJi!! T ltillt: B'J ill 'IE 'I' .!l!t l!di'1~ :k J.ll
!(I: , 11\'~Ll JI; flll 'IE !1' <1!1 tF II\ iC !(ClJ! l li'J ~ :i!I 11

* l!lJI'. Mlli: iii:


l'i'

<

l1X: 1111 JllJ !'J 'f ill':!Kl!!: :!Ii!!' iJ!JI'. iW

JI' ) II!i4t #di ii< tJj 'il .I!. !'J t!Cil!! tt


!!l\ fi'Jltll!if IJ1!'J ?li:ij!: Jll\!ll!. t\!:11' L, "7it!Jl'. !'J B:Jit D 'l''ll' -il!JWiC '. 1'\'{ i:Klilt D (',( !'f
l'l' $:llt:i'!-il! i!l(iC "' or li!~li'i !!l11\iCif Jll;JEi B'J illt:jji!lil Ji!i!!JI'. z,, J::B<J ;r.f'f. m~ l"Fi!l(iC ,, Jl! ,
'f Ji!JI'. L, !'J\l!\I!. B:Jlt D 'I' jj[jjiB'JJlllt;l\l; Eb j!\j ill 11\iC!'J MilhnWIll;. Jil(fflLlJ: , J.ll ~#:Olli Jl)
V) iii lli !Ii Ji! if :I!: it1 Jl'.;r.{'f B'J J1 'f i'J:X& 'f :!( '1< !'J Ji! JI'. ,!if J'it tlJ il!if II\ iC ltt;l :!!: ;\; ,ii 'Ii!' R \il{';'f
rm lllt ii1 :ir- '111111 tt rm lllti!l JI'. tElt!! cit !It: 'l' lit Jl!lll: lil< 1$1Iii :ii:lil:fJ\!itJt! :ir- vi lk 1!!111'm:ir- ,
il' Jt<Jf 91: lli: lilelt! JI'. , ill: .i;- .i; (x y t) fE J: '-'!' 1iif (y > 0) !Ii Ji! iii lit ?l-:tf 11<

(2, 2. 20)

1(.r,0,t)=O

!'J m. it< .i;cx ,y ,t) .R'l'E y >o '-'!' iili"il' )E)( 'lll in llj l',{)'E )( -1- ~& y !'J if ii!i'i&' ap

(2.2.21)
(2. 2. 22)

<f>(x,y,t)=-4>(.r,-y,t)
jjjf Je 1'.'i>lii!l: ji[f!i'llJ T 'i<'f' iii y<O

.t. ~fl'i<t11f T 'i<'!' ]Tij y<O J: !'J ill/lf[ .i;(x 'y ,t) 1$1;1 J: 'i<'f'
]Tij y > 0 .t B& lli1 .i; (x , y ,t) !'J ;tj !!<it ii 'i&Jl!: # %il! f4t ii!i lli1 , ~p 'i; l!O' 11\iC.!;',II; \I! ftl!'J 5!i\ Ii'.;(!, xt iii'
*ff "lil'T"' lff IL l'lixl: (2. 2. 22) )E SC I'! 1lt iil'll:f1E'f'illi .tl'<J !Ii Ji!;l.r1'! (2. 2. 20), iElCI'.'< y- o !(I:
ai!l: ./Iii le .i; (x , O, tl - o , Eb 'f !\' i& I/If[ .i; xt x (Jg I f!li"lr 'i&Jilr y !'J if i& lli1 , xt y !'J l flit "'i&;l\l; y
!'J 1'! ilii Ji: , a
a4>(x ,y,t) _ ~ a4>(x, -y ,t)
(Ix

dx

'

a<P(:.r,;y,t) =
iJy

+ (}Z)(x, -y ,t)
11.Y

(2. 2. 23)

llil l!! o"'Y JE !!< mu "il'


V_,(.x,y,t)= -V.,(.x, -y.t),

~~ll)j 1: 'f i!'j1' 'i"'f ilifJ: !'J tn(~ I'!! ft:it19il!f4t,

ll,.(x,y,t)= t1''"(x, j!.t)

(2. 2. 24)

Eb (2, 2. 24) '1'! li! I A, 'iE y- o :llJ; Y, - o, a x

Ill! .!;' W: lile 1i:ii: Y Ill! .!;' !It: lile lit iL


ir'f .i; c,, y , t >t .r> o 'ii 'i< '!' iii'li Ji!JC Jl. t x - o :llt 19 :!Ii ;\'Ji! JI'. !'J Iii' JI' , 1lJ' ;i; 1E Ii'~ MJ::
Jal !'J itll: .
il!if 1.111!! Of !ll 'f <>PI ;m ~ o !'J 'f ill'7J< lli: lileit!JI'. tilt JI', ill Ii' y - o "7 l!l JI'. ,.i;cx , y .t I/Iii Ii :Of!il
( 2. 2. 20) 'ffl. 'E:lili Ji!!'JJt!J'f.'1ki'f"'

67
,)'li(x,O,t) ... Q

(2,

ax

z. 25)

:f1;[!'1'11!f l r, iE Jl -1- X'/ .Y lJ 11!1 il!i 'ltleJj;!!I; i!EJ!1:!1J k'!' ill, NP


(2. 2. 26)
;)f!(x.y,t) ... +iXZ)(x 1 -y,t)

i)f!(.c.y,t)

1P(x,-:>1,tl

ax

ax
'
a:>'
ay
ol'(x,y,t)J< iW/ay'I y=O ltl:i4;jjl;, ffi;l:;(Z. 2. 27)liS 2 ;l:;;fU Datcy )Eji!'OJ'!IJ
V~(.-.r.y,t)=Vx(.c,-y,t),

Vy(x,y,t>=-Vy(x,-y,t)

(2. 2. 27)

(2. 2. 2S)

ip 'IE y= o ltl:, v, ~ o. '.l't m~ x 11l!!l!llli'IJ1. 3l<llf.!!iit: lff 1'1!!f$(f1'1llilll'ta ilf1'l'~t1 "'1 It 1'111!1\l!fg(ll<
f'il~i!llt.

fl< l:Jl!x&7i1lil C2. 2. 20) J1!ffltii>:!'J , PPll!{ltlJl(!!l!X'/4'!11.:$!il'lili: i!!Jl!Jlilll ll'J, 11\'~rjJ;i! X'/ 'f
1\1:!;!ii'1lli', j!: ff] 1lJ \!,( !ll ;!['.i)'il!i l'J(f \!,( ltl:!!I!. X&T' \!,( x 1iJ! (y = 0) 1'] l'J)'f lJ il!ll!1'!, '1T IB:Jl< y > 0
8'J !l(j[!ft If: ;![Jll JJ W, (<) , .~1 :( y= 0 ltl:#'l~Jlll'J)'f 11!f (IC r'I y>O Jl< cp 1J ;!( Jll '9
W(z)=W1C~:)-W 1 Cz)

(2. 2. 29)

;;:; 9' ,w,(z) il!mx'I W, (z) I* z VJ ~f !'J 41- ;![l'J(Jfit:!\'111! ii![. 'f'llliiiE '11! , Bi 'f l'Ell:i!I! y= o l: z= z,
1&1!
W(z)=W,(c)-H' 1 CZ),

;:(y=o_t

(2. 2. 30)

Jil Iii , l'l:il!m ;![JI/ w<z l R 1! !fl l!ll. IP 1f


<l'=O

tEy=OJ:

(2.2.31)

Flf fl< l'E y = o t.111' IE iE Hi IP ill' Jll 11'1 l'l J'f ~dlf Bi 'f w, <z l 11'1 ill( iC {;I Ji " JJJ '! y > o 18: 9' . I&
W,< z) !'J'lil' ,\\\ Ui:lf ;, J;J {;I 'f y< o !l!;<I', NP y>O 1't <P*lii bn'lil' .\\\. 1lJ !ii. W, (z ll:i W, Cz) (!<Jilt.!\
illllt.iEJlf !!,( y = o 1' M>'F. 2'.!!tiiE '11! T;;:; <2. 2. 29 l !ii: :t: lJ .!! Jllii!i !'!<J111 JE iW!C :$:H\i*11 J'f iil ,fdlf
ll'Jlil.
f'il 1'11, J&'f 11 x 1iJ! (y = o) '9 )'f ilf (!<) flllli!fi'<. ~ y>o i!<'i'W!C!it iB 11'1 .!!Jl. n w, Czl mrJ '! y
~ oltl: 1'!'l'E ;i; i!'i J!(il.!J'f illdlf r ,;t;![Jll ii!i 'll>: !Y.

"

WCe)=lt' 1 (.c)+W 1(2)

(2, 2. 33)

t;J:!ft .~tE y= o JI! ill !:. ~ o. IP J'f ill y= o '.!( Jllitllili:lll. 1:5l:tE.iilli ta WiC :S:Hll.
:i'C!lz , '11; Ill J!Elill J'l: lmJ Jli! J'f ilf Clmitt ilf li!fi'<l l'E~lili::h 'it9' . 'i''ll'r!Y l< lmi%1f JI! Ji!!/4! 9'- D
illl L'lf !'J f'iJ ii . ~& f Ill. ;g; ~ill: 00 Jli! l'l JI! , .}:( l!li :ll!li! Hi fllilil'l'JJ'f , lfHll!& 'itl: !'J Iii. ill~ Ji\ 51" .IF. ~
~ liFW-.!\lfit'IE llll G" llll ll'J 4'12 R. ~u im P>J W' 'f .ii. ,, ltl:ll'JiWlC:i'Cli!l!t'IE rmi 7r R' 1. M:. Ji l!.!'1T
lmJ P>J iW lC f1'J ;![Jll JJ w, <z >, JllJ fl':f lmJ Jli! iE !liil.!J'f flt ill T , 1tl!'. Y; JJ

"

(2. 2. 34)
;s:J)!Jj< ~ii! 1'!

2. 2. I. 5

~!lll:!!l!li'!ilill:ll1Jftil!ft

l'E 'I' ilf111.'5 ;ill;lili: 9' JiY.ffl ;![~Iii 11111! I!.! r 1fil!z 111: ,
D it'f ~1li/ii! l!'ll'Jllli' ~ , Bi ill: ii' :h'li'9ill\R, Bill 11'1;![Jll!iiil!1J['lf;.!11' lll :l!:Jllii!i!&f!'J '*llll
lll iiO Jllll'J ?l-1\f , ll5l iil lll J!!E:h ?l-1\f ,:![Jll ii!i 'll>:f!'J a l!l>:li\ill: ii!i It ,:l llo ii!i !& lJ 1l'NXlit :t: Jli Ill'?t 1\f

---'-------------"'"'"

os'I'

z
*a
ilr. v- !'J
ii!iJtt

It iID ~iilf. '!' ~lil.lill -%!1'1t I\\, i! 11iilt .I\\ ff, (al !ltliii , VP ;jj
o .I\\ , <El!E,I\\ ~ iilf ~
{ '2'"1i: <!:!\ l}'l!':IJ l'l , ( bJiJili[,<li\ , VP i!!l!'.:0\1 JG'H:k!'J .I\\ , i!J!-f'l-1'/t Jlf .I\\ , tri!l'i .I! J: lli:~
fi!i irt !ll3':' (c) ;l<F.!!ll!ll Ill#.!. i!!I! !il'W.~ Ill);'' lilt~!!! JI! ffl.:;f:!ll)l: 'ill!J!t:0\1 JG'#:k' (d)ff iii( ''fif
m.~ ;,iilf !il!<EJtt!ll 3': . Jt'f:iilf !il!.ok'.l!'mh!iii, '111 f!J Pi ~i liltiJIJ!llr'iit fil !'l fi1Jf, x-t 'f ll<"" fBI l!i tl'tl'
11! Ll Jt nt*<"f 1-r.i li!fn iilf iliJ . f!lJ tlil '1'1Tlilt .'Jill .I! , jlj'll!J!!;;J<tt;t;JJa !ii0lllilt1T1i' tm.
2J M 'f !!! IC ,;i Jli ~ 1l !;l(Jil !Ill f!J l!ll Jlil iliJ'I. ilUilJ lciJ l!i , 11f Ll "11 !ll ill ff. li!(l!l1~ ;;!; ll! !Ii :0\1 iit 'I'
ilil ilL i9J 1111 l!i , )),, ilif ilf r; J![jj;'.lij tll ;Vt;,l ii' fl 'It, il!fl<l1: llJ!ll!I IS!i'!ll 'f (a)'li ;J( f!J Pl i!!ll'i .ill Ill~ lilc
Pl!!!/!:' Cb) n IBtn !RIB !Kl!! Pl!!!/[, (c) ie:IB"' ;Vt;tJ.!llmUIB:l!t !Kl!! Pl jl\(i['
3) 't'f *%!il!111.ll:~l!J.!lf.IB:l!tPirnVI(iliJ,11f uiiiii!i!ill 11:~itn'tA1l1ll 1!! ~mu iliJ'I. Pi rn
iffi: iliJ x.t 'fi! !*A 'fif Ill li!lt! .J'i' Pl (!<J iii. il/J , ilJ' ti' J:J ill jg( Iiilllll 1'11 ii' bu JJiUJ! Jl'll 14! tll 1' tE ~ ~ "f iiii
'!' !'l ,l li' t!i !tt. ~Fu jlj';i<J !ll lli. 'll:~:;tt i!!W llll 'I' llif J: rn :t >l' oo'lt,

2. 2. 2

Ill a ~ il1i llJli >.1< $ 111; M lA! il!l

~J - ,J '1'i ~ ttJl jjj 1' lll'iilf il'J .l1: >\' ei!i 'ltlllTif !1'.*-1' 'I' Wli!,i$ii/i lilt . ~ fll llJ Ll IA lit"" f.i! 11!

,!! l'I ei!i 'II. tll :Ji: Ji<'j;jf 'ii:'(;' (fl lif

ft"" 1i'1 Im: illJ

ljl'fjl<J$Jiilt:Ci'l!!>i<I$JiJlll
"!'Ji>:l 111 ill '11.:0\1
2. 2. 2. I

fl'J tm.illl.

*" 2. 2. n
<

(2. 2. 35)

W(z)=-Vo.t

.m~ ff l'I

wn ., f!llilt wn ,, *~'Jn
<P=-Vox,

=-Voy

(2. 2 ..'36)

v' = - -iJ<P
ay= 0

(2. 2. 37)

(2. 2. 38)
~ .!H# fl!i 'It f~'l!XR:! :k xy

4' 1lif J:l!t'Ffi''f x Jr Iii in 'Frr~ :lltm.iilJ Cli!lil>n:ll liltl, 11'5'\

(2. 2.1) ,;Vt;JEfJJt;/ffjg


(2.

tm.liil'l'lilt~Jl,"ffr'f x

z. 39)

Iii! !'J Jl'~, '1l'l'I !i<J!,"ffrf y 111!!'1 Ail!<,

2 2. 2. 2 :>tf!Nx'l"ilii'f'iliC
'tll> .!!: 'ii' ei!i 'It jg
W<.z-)=- q1l'Jn(z-zr),
2

f/(J l'ffi: ;;/), 4111( .ia Xo - Xo + iy, ~J !$, .ia z - x

zQ=x,+iyo

(2.2.40)

+ iy ff)~ liJ IE Jl\l :0\1 r, 8 5\1 .< l'J" :Ill; r ; + x Iii! (l<J !IC

ill m1111f"' .lilt


W(z)=-f;r[lnr+iO].

z-z 0 =rr)P

(2. 2. 41)

69

dW(z).

(2. 2, 42)

dz

r/J(r,8)=

\t'(r,0)=-f,rlnr,

V,.=l cos8,V,=
2'l':r

(2, 2. 43)

qtr0
2

isin&,V=~
2:rrr

(2. 2. 44)

2.1!'r

(2. 2. 45)

iJl::li!:JGm:k 'Fi!if 9'11'.'f R.\ "" if'J .ql.1-llf:ICil'Jlll\jjiJ. 1'11'~!.i!! 1'1.1\\ '" ;\/ llll ,G, fl'l ftiJ '"'Ill/ , llt!J!Jl!iilli
ii ll. Zo (i'J{l!fi;J liJ< ,q :liHJl!lCll!ll!' , iE .ff C'J llf: <it'A.11') flt .ff ;\/IC ('.f'11') , llJ :\J llf:j[ lll\"1 fli !\'Ii\
,l>\I iii! 'I!: lb M'l!:!fr ti: , Jjf Ll ill!ICX !!<M'l!:il'f g. "! ,-o. v-=.

!l!lllllltilb
:lt ~ ,![ >\' iili 'l!:Jit ;)ii; .if 'I!:;J- ~IJ ;\/

2. 2. 2. 3

W(z)=z~=~r"e 1 ' 0
n
n

~~~-~}=az"-i=ar-!eC-

IP=~r"coslJfJj

(2. 2. 45)
(2, 2. 47)

i)a

<f=~r"sinnO

(2. 2. 48)

x= ~ar"- cos(n-1 )0, v,.=ar"- 1sin(n-1)0


(2. z. 49)
ll:i.i!!!l!ifl !l!il!J, olf n= [, ;11;!11 lf".Eff :I: 'l!l! tfif'~ roJ , IP Iii' 180'ifl (!<] lllt ijlJ ' -a 1:.Jilllti!. ~n= 2'
N~ 'li'>\lli!<;li; x' - y' = '!t'l!:l!i- ~](ill!!&;, iJl!!J<jl, xy = Jit:ftt(i'J-~]( ii!!!!!. 8= O fll 8= n/Z 't 1"Z
'f /;= 0. :{Effl\A( dW (z) I dz= 0, t;!:;\Jilt ,g , J!\l*\11,*;!;!IEA\. Jjf Ll n 111.!ii ~!l!!l!ii iflil(i'J:i(lj"
IP nIn n>I Ji!I! ~ l!J ril 111! <t!IJ ill l ll'J lllt iilJ in< I ;Ii!; !I!~ if! !'f 111! <8 l!J l Iii llt iliJ , l111 l!!l 2. 2 P!i iii ,
\7

11111111
I

I
I

I
O

"" I I '

I O: I f
o

I I

'l!~ilf'"
....;J;;;.,n:=t.;a,,;h
i;"' ""
(di

\f)

-~---.,,,---------------~w-

2. 2. 3

Ill A ll!J 1.i $ >J< f!l1

J: - /]\ l'i jjf J'I. J JL l'f l!I: llif!~ ITT hf(ii!J 11'1 m'i;!Li\1;-@ ITT [ii] li!jbj Ill !I< to lil\!!1! i1! IT*' m.
2. 2. 3, I ?tl!l:k '!' flli 'I> f:ES f, CJ ;If 1':1 ll!i<ll
ii!36m:k'F JUi'li ff >i:$ 1:1 .;t uL'ii'.JJ-%11 Jl; ., ,,, .... ,... Ill' :!itJJ-~iJ,, q, ,,, .. ,q., 7'! :JC
Rl.:k'F w'1' ilr'f ,!,\ lilt :!It 7' q Jll.itil'J :t JJIC '1S Ii: 1' oi: c2. 2. 40) Jjlf~i'J x&Ii: oi:. ti! Jl!ill1m l!\.E'I!.
x& !lli<Emlilf J'l.lt'J [ii]llJ!, llJl!Ul"l tB J>;!(t!' fiiii: 7'

*,

I
lV(z) =- - '.'EqJn(.z - z,) = 211";~1

'
2_jq,(lnr,
2.tc ... l

+ iO,)

(2. 2. 50)

(2. 2. 51)

(2. 2. 52)

1"'

v ~ = + z... .::_.q, x-x,


,- '
" 1.. 1
r,

(2. 2. 53)

r~ =

(2. 2. 54)

(x-x,)'+ (y-y1 )',

Filiil>tif! J11'~f!1J
D ?ti!l:k'l'flli 'i' i\f lllll-ili-iCll!:iib ~ Jti: JCRI. ;le 'I'- ilif'li -1JI(- iC. ltlll!Jt 8'J il".X& i1Hll
~, !m l!!it 11.:ff!!ll!1!11JtttJ!klilt:!it;f1! '!'fiil'J - tl 'ti"'1t*11- tl !EA:lf, i!1i .!,\ i\iJ le~ ;lg 2d, 11i1 x ~lfr
i!1i ,\\\ i!~ :Ii iliJ , 111 j!ji !.!\,!,\ 1'E i&!i!!! 8'J 9' ,!,\ , JW 'If
W(z) = ,!iln z + d = !Ltn rz
2'1' z-d 211: r,
dW(x) __ V
dz "+

+ i !L(I)
2ir z

8:)

ir
__ !L(x-d_x+d) !L1l_l)
1
211'
rl
rl
+ 1 21'\ rf r~ y
Y

(2. 2. 55)
(2. 2. 56)

(2. 2. 5'/l
(x-d)'+yi

(x+d)i+

y' =c

(2.

z. 58)

J;l;;l!-~l!!llc<(f(d(J +cl /C! -cl ,oHj'fl:;/g

2d /CI(! -clfi'J-~illc' l!!ll Cc ;l!kff ,t\'Ri'Ii:), &


x Iii J: il'1 ~~ l!!ll ~ ffii lilt !11< :If fl! o o0~ 11!' f!:I>

d7
xz+;-d2
2

fl\l.Jkl;

IJ'l~

...fl'

xi+(y-d/c) 2 =d~(l-I/c')

{2 , 2. 59')

1lJ!h'.!ltil!lJl!;l!!ll c-'IE co ,diel'l'fl:I> d I 1- 17c' ITT l!!ll~, & y Iii J: it'J ~Iii l!!ll!Jl1, tm l!l 2. 3, ?Ji'ii'.
Ell l!: (2. 2. 56)lil!Jl:;ig
-:L[ x-d _x+d).
V,,-2;rr
rl '

71
(2. 2. 60)

Jil. fl.I , l!l Iii' IC j!!j ,\':\ 3i ta( B'J x Iii! lll:Jil! 1'! r ,r, El'J {i[Jll! rJ> ,P!f \;{ Eff :II; 1': ill[ 1'1(,j!j Itl!l !A. lil'!ilJ it: ;ig .,_ Vll'lll<

*
.
'lo i'"lf . 16/ll

'~ jf] jE;(g %<ill[ !:I( li): ::IJ Jll!JS! Jll( !:I( , Eli tl 1it 7)( 7f ;li: "' , 7Jc El'J"' .\\\Ill if<l!;!:l(Jll! l'eli'J iii

J::Jj It Jiii

;11;1'Vll'!:l(MlfJ!:~A.1o F# , ;ig~JB ~Jlil~"J)( ~"!Ill~, !In IE

2. 3h Jiliii<. it'1< "!J


1111" llH'1l "'1'1'l111i!! iiC ll1 jj< ~J" Jli' i!t" , :ff 1!11 fB ii' 7)( 7f .'!t.1'! 1'i 'I' . i'1!!14'ill!11ll #ti Ji! .!l!.JJc ,

!IJ " 3 'lt!l;*:lll!!lM illlllil l"-illi-iC 111ltii1J


(sJ IJJIJ>l't~\1!~['.f}:Jl4~*1~EE~

2) >Ellll:;\; '!"iii .Pi'li-taf !.I .i:illi ~>tM

<bJ

~i"""ll-tcl'lltiJ'V.lfiiti!I

o/l'J!'i 1'~ll!!lrll!Jl-Hil 'f ,\\\ Cd, oJ o11! c-d. oJ , N~

:JI:~ ii1l !& "'


W(:i:) = - !L[]n(z - d)
Zn-

dWd(<) --V,
z

+ ln(.z + d) - = - 3[lnr r + i(8 + 0.)]


"
2rr
1 2

+ w, -- 2q"tr (x-;
d +x
r,

-f;dl
+ i zq (.:,;
+ ri4)
r
r1
8

(2. 2. 61)

(2. z. 62J

1f

(2. 2. 63)
!1.._
2xy
,,P(x.y)=-,,,trarctg xi - yi - d'

(2.

v =-1.l!:x:-d+.x+d)
~

211:,

rf

r~

v ' --1(
.l'+.l')
2trrf rl

z. 6!)

'

(2. 2. 65)

Ill 1li1!1!'~ !i!:Ji!-l:> R!l lk ill! ii!:, l'ili'lll<;ll; 'I' C.t'L T


1"': .\\\ El'J J!l( ill! !:l(Jii; ' Jm 00 2' 4 1 z - 0 "1: 'Ir - !'ii
.\\\ >'l'l!ll'.\\\ , e 'l! ll<m\,\11 v, -v, ~ o. :t-t 'f
llllilli 1f :E ;(gftlJJ!. ti~ ,...+91: l!li .\11 , Jll'llJJ!! D"''Y
iEll! ';ItJ!lll!!Jl! llllt h '1'f 11!l'ili' :I; Ej'j!!jtf !E'!i!:t
r'J"" .l\ .

72
3J>e~;i;;''l"ilii<P!f1BJI!! e<:J-~~'"~ ~Ill

lilt jbl'g !JI. '_j( ll! tf~flf' I

1c e<:Jill!fJ.J ilt- x.

2 -~~~~-~~~
fl!! ;If ~f"' i!'i ;If rm ll! ii1f 1. 7'

!111! ::IJ d, 1p ,l\i[ i:\l'f-

z.=nl+id

n=0,=1,2, ..
(2. 2. 6GJ

q1!'1n{[.i + i(y- d)]


2
[r - i(y - d)][(x -1)

=-

+ l) + i(y [(x - nl) + i(J' [(r + n}) + i(y [Cx

+ i(y- d)][(.r -1) d)][(x + l) - i(y - d)}"

i(y-d)]

d)][(x - nl) - i(.y- d)]

d)][<x

+ nl)

i(y- d)J ... }

(2. 2. 67)

(2. 2. 68)

4' = ,JL!n[ch Z;rr(y - d)


4
I

cos Z;rr,r]

(2. 2. 69)
(2. 2. 70)

I$Jlltill!l:!iliiiC
t jf! 2. 2. 2 1' 9' B liJf l'E i:t JI cicJ ii1t 1'll R,\
lC 8'J iilt'ill, llll1H!Jm!ii(!!! , Ell "1: <2. 2. 35 l f1J
<2. 2. 40 l , Jiil:!!! jjj;!ii(,\\t {l! 1' iC R.\ , ]![ 0J ii1t '!'
fJ 1' x !111! , mHll JI 0J mt iilii:J: .\\\ iC 8'J ;!( '\'./ liil
2. 2.J. 2

~}J

W(.z)= ----V 0 z-+---qlnz


21!'

q>O

(2. 2. 71)
d\.ll(z)

-+1V =-l'"2;rr.z
+....:L...
dz= - l l~y

(2. 2. 72)

~arctg Z

(2. 2. 78)
(2. 2. '14)

73

P!i'llA 'l!.ll (!Zr Cq/2,V,. ol , ;J;i'ilr: Mi//l 00


.11 1': I!.( J>ri1'1 i'ilr: "< J!;J i'ilr: ffiJ Jill 11

2. 2. 4

z. 6 Pli'?l<,

00 'I' :)tlf<i&<l<?R <'1': I/A r'I il'1 i'ilr:illJ1J J!!A IC

llltlil~>.l<i'i!

i//l JI' 2. 2. 1 w 'I' FJi'XI> , 1i ;io i!ll 7t 13: ~


"l'i'ilr: MlJ !!!<' ->Elll!J'H!'id'f "f ll) Ill ll!fat!E
:>)(ij;l,
ll!llll.~H!ti!t-D#

2. 2. 4. l

JC"' *

i'l lf
]lj ill i!1 )It '!; ft l1! j[ !'I :If
.ll iiLlf !;J<B-i l!!Jlf :!1 d, ;;;y :)t:!J Wlf'l'til'ilL
ll .lilill:ll\'.1' il!'7JClilJl'I., mHtllt.l!: l'l 'l" fl'J ~
ti! fat# tll(l!ii Jt 1!1 ;!!; Jf il'1 l1! lm If ;i; i~ :ivJ'ttl
""iii! J'l. '1U' +j- ttl Iii] , "'; JI' 2. 2. 3. 1 2lli
**-'*
lii:i't !'I !IE Mttl i>J , f( '.1' it~ <'E il'J ;!!; Ill' i'ilr: M
I!! 2. 6 ll:~ilflliti't~iC!!lll'lilt
AJI{ r :ti'!''!"iii! jfij El 2l :Ii i!l.l!:il\!itl!l )It ,
~tllll:it!:ll\~~ il'1 , i! ;JI! 2. 2. 3. 1 z 1l ltJti'tfl'J i'ilr:Mttl liil , Jl;lif,i'ilr:Mi%'. 'F oli '!''!" iliL Jt'f leJlf
lliiHJ\!ititlJlt :i, d !'J ,11lC<1 i"'Jf 'Ii' 1111.lilill JI. iil::!I y ~,ti: Jl: c2. 2. 40 l i1'1 .I! l1!,'{Jl. nll!i!1

2'xi:C2. 2. 29)

,mtl1!1
W(.,) - - q ln(z - d)
2ff

+ q ln(z + d)
"

ft:! .txt !'Ill; llll a 1!I Jl. Lilli !II'

q
2d
a:i - ffJ = -ln -

"

2:rr

r.,'

2:ir(@. - (,p.,)
q -

Zd
ln-

<2. 2. 77)

~<l\tli!llli!JJ!le::!I h ,Q~qh "':>~ K Pi. Fii' ~J ll:!;l<il\!iti!l)lt ~)lf- Cl #i"'ll!:Y:I

_ZKh(p,-t..)
ln(2d/r,,)

Q~

(2

'

li:l'J<i!.1.'lf.fl'J lllill!Effi 1IJ Ji!! I'\' l!J 'f j!!j 51:'1" rr ll:~ lill - o Jf C!t~P "11 !llJ!l\ l:l:llt 'I' -

2 '8)
't

CJ 41'

<x.111!!$11'~~).

2. 2. 4. 2

lll~'l!Wllll~~-olfl,C.-#

i'lJ!i!llPl'{l;Jil R ,UIJlt.l!:l!!ffi!'JNP~~itl)lt, Pill --Oil{.,# j[ ('f:f'Jf) f!l'F z,-x,+iy",


:J7Hl!Jll Y.1 q. i!!!lll & ill!'l!'jj!3(;R( , ;J;~"J'lllit!tz rlll1 ?f R' ;;, ~ [!I wlt<:i'ilr:?'lil'1;!l!J\'ti!l~1.1
(2. 2. 79)

74

;~1 i'ilf'l'.@J\l.Jf

F 'k-Jilt#. , iiJll'K x

~iii:t iC .Ii: ,miJ'll

,, = ;, = x,=d, WI 00

2. 7 Ill ii\. ~ ffil J::'i\

Pfj\1(7') $;

= - JlJn

2it

dWCzJ. __ 1
dz

r'i r'i

2n:z-

____ ;Li
~

!L(
arctg _Y_ 2'1'
-x - d

+1
2irz

xd

2;rrl(x-d)i+.Y~

arctg

'

:J.' -

RZ Id

(2. 2. $0)

1
Rt/d
~

xRf/d
(x-R~/d)+y 2

'\

J::>\ll! I i''i;' 'i\ 9' , z, Jld!ll Pl iC .I.\_.,; !lJ 71\lii~ .I.\ il'J iji~, ill ll! 2 1-'!J' 'i\$; :11:Ji1dlil JJ Xf 1111 )liJ l:
it-.C(fj r,/,,=d/R. i'i5':tllill<BJ1ll
(2. 2. 83)

'l i!i~IJ Jl!!ll! )Jilt 'JJ h ,>P= K pl, Pli I;! 00% !i!.!E:il! Jli!- DilHAt!'J Fltl(J

Q =~
Ri-dt
In

(2. 2. 84)

r,,,R

j/JJ *#1' 111H,J1r , 1'..tit 9' , 1t d-o. mHll 1111 %iEffiilll'i' Jl!!ll!- o "'L!f !~ FtJ1
Q =ZKh(p,-p.)
ln(R/r,..)

<2 2 85)
'

~'i\ <2. 2. 85 l Ei >\ <2. 2. 84 l ~i lt"1 liJ J\I., 1'E 1'il liil ffi:lilT

, ii LJ1' Flt!ll Jri'l' 9' LJf il'J Flt, '1'i


iiLKel;'l!ll'fbl'ZZ r~ d/R<l!Z, Fl:iii!li1J'l' 4%, l'l~i&: (2. 2. 85)Ej(2. 2. 78);ftJ lt~WJliJ,
'1'i Jl'#:fJ\fff i!l J'i. !litifr !'J #l('i J 'l'iJ\!ii 00 'fbf:" Ell 1/ 2, mi Jl'~iJ\!iiltl l'i'!liti!t- D#Flt Ill il!i 'l'
I'll Jf0 i!\!i'tit! l'i' 9' L #Flit , @.;;;~1J tll l':!lkiix , Ji[ 1-~l'i: ll9! :fl '7< llllltilL Ill "131: FiJ; iJ\ !It ill J'i. %
:tk-!f! # 1F Ill!!'. il'J JL M%tt (][ ~ l!I; llD , jjij Jl!ft .f i!!i"' z [lij " Ji[1-!ilie !il! ttJl El! f iil J'i. %ttf.rj !ti
1' lff ilil 51 ii? fi'JFltii:lil:!lkl' x Ell
2. 2. 4. 3

"i&iil~P'l#fl<J!llfl<

m'f M;, l!Hl\iJ\!i'tit!J'i. *m; Ell eJC ill (1'1J jiU'ti'J JI!>~ eJC ill~ !l'l <np "2x ill) ,iitf'l>ifl tlti!l J'i.

3.2 'lb

75

lA~~fffSm
Pl 11' il'J Vii fiiJ l!l# RT ti' Ill iii1$ liC!l!! , ii!:itt lll ffi ftJ !'Ii Jl!:I/; tE ilt'filif 'l' if&$; VJ 3' Ill Dt\\\ 1'iJ rm C. J;.(
* rn II' 1'i! 'f 1 rtJ rm JliJ J: ll'J fill C. rm*~~ , !ll ::!1:!!;*1'0'1!:1'*111 lit f!ll:lkiilll l:E il'J ,Jt !!' ill!J.t'.!t tn !ii\l'I!
il'JJI!"' ( 2' 2. 50) - (2, 2' 53 ) jjJ "",.
Pli ~ ( !ll iii !EJJ ?t ;(p) , lilt ii ~ ( !ll illi Vii ill ?t ;(p ) J;.( .
i!l! It1'll Vii tt '
'lf 3' f!l:li\'.11\!liitlJ'I., ffi 'f J'i\%'1!:1' rn
!% Jli:ll!llClll lllJ il'J fill G rm*~~. Ill illi :!!; Jmii!:
~ Ji',ffi.~1911'ilfll!~, JAl'I! iil J: i}fJ!~llJ lltf!l 191 '!'f I n(n;;;, 1) , 11' ~1'iJ 2n, *'i3'fll 1'iJ ;f:j!j
J!(JilJ'I., !!dill %!1!itt, X;/ .'/<ill il'J Jl~'l!'.JileillllllJocll!:, !!l!ii!: J:, '1f :1Hft 'fill "!'?till !: , J!Ll f!l lll191
1'iJ 2 / n ( n ;:> 2 ) , 11' !l!UlJ' l'J Jil:fll! ~ti!, 1lJ J;.( Ji! 'Iii It , 'lf 11' 1' tE f!l 'f ?t !%!\ J: ' ii!; 1$ ftJ iii JI! Jl ~ 1'iJ fill
~, .~Ll '1< i!l 1Jl'!IP1'1'iJ n/ n (n;;;, I) , Xt 'f fill %1'l~ !11tJ'i\%li!itt ftJ fill C ~ JliJ J: il'J 11'~~, 1'J1~ 'i'1' i.!it
tll 'E ftJ .!!'. il1!1' Pli ltf~ .!li!l!lll:,
Cl !:ll! '!II T MT' Jii;<llllil! J!Ll if& >!ititl J'I. M1 i!i ~ t1 11' fiiJ Ill RT Cl ill!J.t iii1$ ll:\ B ll!Jili l'1J !E: 'f 9' i!'i
t1 'It 8'1 fiiJ l!l <M$ t1 11' "'1 !!'ill !!l ) , !It Iii il'J !!l Vii tt< JJ ! 'l' B ii 1'11 \R "T:IHJl:'!'i tll B il'J .!I'. '!\I Jill 'l!:1'1l
.!!'. Jl! Jl ,.IA i!ii ill .ti T :>J( l!JtiJ'I. "'1 Ill! , Jtil' ml T !!l ;l[ :l!' Pli ~!!: zj<e l! "I' iiiItiU jjl; Vii ftJ ttili! t , X'i 'f
lt B1l't;r 11; ltl J'l.1' ~mu il'J rou l!l .1" wu.i: l!f!!l 1* ill :l!' l't! 111 'll: Ill! llt oo 1ji f!'1 !:!l J'I. :!!:~ ~u il'J fill M
!It Fo !!l 11!1'!!:
r :Ii' !ll ill 'JI: l't! i.;:

"'jlf*

** .

*m.

w
w

2. 2. 5

I!! iii! 1l!I ~~If >.I< jl

*d'11'

ii':lJ; 1*1!! '1!'~11. lt tE 'f ]!if~ iU ~Vii "' ltJ !Y:lll

i*lll!l!Jit!ifllill<lll~Ma1!M$

2. 2. 5. I

*.il ,

1!1J i'i 1J' 11'1'\:ilHi'llJJ T ;11.'tt z~ x+iy .!fi ;l[~ il!i~ IV (z) ~<!>+ i :t illJ B'J
Wli '!" ilif ll< ,
'f ilif <x-y 'filif l J:il'J .\\\, ill'1l !Z:liiltM !Y: f' :l!:*'fllii <II>-> 'f ilifl:.~, ill1'1l !Z:liilt, -l&!il!
r~f(z)~<+i~

(2. 2. 86)

"2'**

! z 'f iii J:.\\\, ill'1l !Z:>!l:Xi' EY:1J 'l!'Jit!'f iii t 'f1ti J: Ri, !!!'1' rz:>!I;. i!ll t'f ilif fil! l!il itt ftJ x;t
!1'JJID'lcM. 7!>:1J11'.Ji'll!:ltii!: f(z):likl!'HJiPlitlt:ftlfil!if><ljl,11! 2, 2, 11\'), xt'fMll'l1iilil~:fl J=
a.~ l Ia<x Y l 9'0. 1'iJ T 1'1~1lilffl 'll:JY!1'1l i*ill ID'lcMil'JM;\l:, l'l:flrlt l\; T li!fl!'llli ffi ~ f Cz) il'J il'
~ il'J JL fiiJ :ll: )( ,
11u1111a11)],1'1:8.1<. im 1!1r p.lf}j;, 1- JJ it z 'f oo J: if :t: ~ciiitiJl!ill:.~ ,, il'J il!i !!! c nfil:
T I 'f jjjfJ: ,'kiilii:L\\\ lo~ f (z,) (1'J il!i < C' , iil ~~ df (zl I dz {E /,\\ z, il'J 111! !' (z,) ,LO, Jt!lllt
(2. 2. 87)

(2. 2. 88)

f3 =

axgf' (z~) = lim arg


a.~-o

(2. 2. 89)

WJ'.O

"""I'

ffi l:=>!:RJ 1'11 ::!1 tr i- '!if l]( !' Cz, l ;60, i'? mu Pl'l:!ll::fliilll )i! il'J111!. !ll ::!J--t-?t l'til'J1lil I!!
.it?t
T'i ?J-Jll;li! fl! Z'!ll, illi l:.z, ~ (zo +&,) - z, 1'J )jj ,\\\ Zo ;tj Zo +&o B'J ~:llt~!J< o"'" 1lfJ!l >o ;tj ,,

..

~.,,,....._

___________

..,

..

+'-lo ic'J 7' lit;!< ;J< , nrg6zo JI, x lrliiE fiU .') 'kllt &, ZJ'l fl'! Jl<ifl 0; "g'-\o Ji\ f lrlifl'J IE ,1'] .') 9' JI
6\, Z le] fl'! JI< ifl , e!; &, O, 9' lit &, fl'Jjf fiU ff~ JI, ill! !J! C i'E.;\\ zo fl'! tiJ !Ji :If r'J '6t, fl'Jjf fiU Jiitjl,
ill! !li c' 1):\( 1, ~ tJJ !liJni. *1141' z +rnr J: x lll!:1f 11.,, 1: +1iif J: ' lrli:1f r'l l!Z ;1; ,jfj fiil :1f "1 , mu ill
A< 2. 2 89 l i!! 'A ,1'E 'if iii: df/ dz :or; ;!;'ii' D'J .'1: .rill !Ji c tE .'1: z, fl'JW iJ!<lllt-1'3'J i +illf J: ill! iJI< C' :(E
.ii. \, fl'! J::U iJl<filil!atlt:l.f "1 IW!.V T -1-ifl Jl[ P~ >rgf' <z, ll5I ;!; I' (z)J I'!, z,, R1f -1-U'l. li!Olli
iii*.\\\ fl'! if :l!; J!!i *ill! !Ji z+JJ !JD fn Jl<ifj a !11ff3'J !:' '!" ITifJ: (JJ ;!; a, f>Ji (~ ill !JliJiffi ~ f (z) 'J!<;J< D'J
'!!' J1I! :(E ;I; 'if~ f' Cz >:f ;!; 1" fl'! .ii. ~ Mfl'J Iii JIHl!l'I' JI< llff '!!' J.. ill Jeli2' 11' il'J 'ii: II> 1ii< ;!; ill Ill :I\: J1I! ,
i2' 1"' D'JlllMW ~J 1% ifl~M,
~ llllllu<J IL i'Jll:~ TJ!ii ~O!l'ltii': 1l<'li:D'J1!! If' <z, l I M.JLi'J t. ilt, it c2. 2. 88 ! i!tli'd'i
&, ~e >o st "''' p&"' ;I; 'I' ' ;!l>3C'9;' 01' 111 , IP z +i!1 J:.JG '90' l) ii'! t<Jl[ Wl!MJIJ t 'I' i!1J:1$ '1!rT
p~ I/' <z, l I$. ill 'f If' <z> I.')!Jililt 6z ifj:lf loJ 3C1', li<ii!i:t.!\ z, fl'! ?Ji1! ill! !li ~ff 16' J'JJ'IHcll 151 r If' <z, l I i$!!iL
ill J;,( J:Jl-tli'1lT J;,( ill HJ !!iii': df-!lilili i!li: t~ J <z> :(E ;i;1'<~ !' <>er o fl'! .ii. .11tM<1J i 'I' i!f
J:: lt:ll JI< Ill fl'J:f '.il'i't'!U t<Jl[ l$!1!fl'JtH [jjJ 1'L &:!: , 11:11> z ~ z<ll 1!Z 1fit ~tt !!! , I' J ~ o fl'! .ii.
Ii' 1.J'll'~ il'J 1r,; ~,ii. , 1Ei! 1'1'.#. t JI< lll:f llll illl'I', l~!I! llSI r J'i'f, ll.:!l;li lili 'IJr;!l>ie !lil!lf !'J ,

1 II! 'll!!A Ill 'f !l~ill iJI!


tE J'f ii'I T 11t Ill "l'~ifll 11t ill ~Af B'ilil'1l: z IEf Tilif14f i.J '2til!ifl '.ll'~JCllM Ill r oJtjjif l' Iii lciJ l!!L
;!; Jt 'It J\;JiliE 'R , $!!- z 'f' illi' J:ftjtlJ'fll lili 'IJr"!'JIJ I; '!'ifil J: (JJJi'dJll ifll "1i iii:, Jll :: ,z .>f iii J: fl'! It
illi lit Q :if:~ Jill I "F i!ii J: 1Jl !iHI'Iii :ti Q
iJil '1Jiii!Jllll:B<J 'Jl!!A llflj!!j oJ' l\' Bi ,z '!" ilif 'I' 1)\' Ji 'Ii: <l>(x y) ifll Iii ffi ~ (x, y) II! JE I.~ 'Ii'!!'.'
WT 1fl'1. R 'E llJJi'dlOl*1! Pl! iii: ,'!\:3'J t~<+;~ +ill 51!** l't
2. 2. 5. 2

eltl!\Jlj f(x,ylifll

~=~(x, .v) ,

.x = x(~, '})

r;=r;<x,y)

y=y(~,17)

~(x,y)/flliJE Cm>ehy-R;em,nn

(2. 2. 90)

*l'f, "Tlll"l'~**
(2. 2. 91)

<;+<:~~;+,r,~ I~
1'~,tc2.

I*

(2. 2. 92)

2. 92H1'.A<2. 2. 91l .m;J1E1f


;f<l>+if<I> ~<
(}!2

:11f

(? ?

~ ~

93)

MiJl!lili fl 1&<x, y l t1!1f iiij fl' iii JI! , Eb Jt1ll li !'~! oz +ITifJ: fl'JiJll*11 lili '/&il'd1! Ill Jl'!I> r~ f(.,; !)";<1J
I; 4-' ilif 1: 1Jl ""ti! *11 lili 'IJ[
#iJl!B<l'll!!A 'It Jb z "F i!fJ: tJ f <' z,) #0 ii'! .ii. ,, ;!; 00 c' il'J 0]1!11 , "211tf!l '.il'~ti1'Et0);;
-i' il!i ll't 3C 'IT 01' il'J lli !I:( l'1 Jl[T , tE:I!' II>'!"i!f J: (JJ Ji!.-1-11, 00 , 2: Eb llflill X'I 1l> !&illJL jli)"' 51. ftJ N
ii>: Bf J![~lll Hi , ;1;11:, X'l'f z .!jl ITif J:il'J *f lli:I; Q, l!t C ;!; z .>f ilif J:ll! If 8-!i'dll'Pll rill!!( ,C J: I.I<
!Ji & tu !JijGJl-~IJ/ll d" *11 d, $!)): m~ ' +ITif J: 'ff M"" fi'Jil!'lf il'J:lll Pll rill!!( C' .c' J:l.!;!o!G.& t})""ft
)l-WIJ ffl d, fil dr ')!<)): C~ 00 2. 8), il!.Jl! Da<cy ~I'!<
0

77
Q =

fcv,ds = - fc r:;ds

(2. 2. 94)

'!l'li!Jff :{f I 'I' l!! .t.. l'ltl't <z. 2. 88 l IJ1$(7f( il'H'! IOJ 1~!11 tH filltl'fl d,- If' <z) Idn, d,_ IJ' <l Id,.
y

'

C'

0
~----->r

'

? '1'"1

~
~

--J

i>'lld,

.~

=-J

il<Pd,

(2 ..
2 95)

.~

i~_t::::l'ttli ltfifl ill Q' =Q, iZ.l<tiiE llJl T i!i!irl'l\'!l'; Till' :!l!:!'Jl''ll'tt.

11\ _t IJlJ:ll , )ff 1Ji! irl '.il'N! !!;Jill Ill;@~ ili. il'J .\!! llf '11 ill lJf'1[Y3 IP! tm r ,
tt 7t ,141 z 'I' l!! _t *11:!rllli'Jit!1ll:fiiJ !!iiiii' l!IJ 1Ji! irl '!\' !l';P.!I! lit llJ I 'I' l!! .t. *11 fii! Jii. A<J it! iliJiiJ l!i . tE
1 'l'ilii _tM 4> '11 il'Jit!Jllil\ l'l'~lt!l 1'51:, 'If ili. :!!!: 1''!\'.
!:!; IEf :{f I 'I' iii_tJlll!f!ifjltWf1f!ll:;J<: lli :!!'. lil'ffi <P<e Vl .!<, Vl.
l'f !ff !ii.'it!l';;iJ< Lil z 'l't!i _t i'J ;![~ W(<) '11 <PCx, y), (x, y) ,
ii!: Fo HP ill> IJI 111 ll'J 1:ll!I !Ii Ji!.
2. 2. s. 3

-!111I'll~111l ill< 1rl !!1!19!

~tE!ii.ti*lff~~i\IJJii.!'J'i!'N!**"'~~-@ili.illJ~l!li.

u '1111! !!!!IA
I= 1nz
<2. 2. 96l
f 'I' l!!_t f1il L ll!l r;J 'f Jf>IKJ$. il;J ~f j!; ~ ~it!JI'- !'J 'I'ilii1l' (<;]iii.'!\' Ji!; I 'I' ilii _t l!!% S: !$. j!lj ill:l ii<lli
(1'] 'l'mPf rrili., YU Im 2. 9, :{f 1 'l'i!ii _t j!; ~ll!'.:lil! lnR-lnr., if; il!'. Ojlj 2 (1'] lKJil
2) jjj llt!ll!!A
~ =

pexp(iZn'Z/l)

(2. Z. 97)

14f'J'm_t~~'lf:'l!:C'f'i!i_t[]l!]ri;JM~

1J' (1'] ili. ii1J, i1ll i'!l 2. I 0,


il! x

'

$j!;Jll:~IJ\!frit!Jllf1~ <P., 1t~~m; x

$]a d' tt lle1.t /, 1t1l\'11'A':fr~ti 1.7 '. '11 <I>


~~ ~!l';!i! Jl',:{f ?: 'I' j!j I:: []I!] 1l' j!; p.11! h'll'lle

ll!l L' "= pexp ( -Z<d/ll, '11'12 p., =p(2<1/J


exp(-2ird/l)rwo
3)

'
2,.. -~-~

'

z '1'"1

-''"l'

++-

_ i_ _+-:_i. '

lnr.,.

t"lnZ

lr.!ll!!A

-------------,._._.-._

tnR,

78
I~

z"'

f z 4" 1if _t 1!11 Jf Jfil!il '1' [ii] {'Jf~r:Jl'll< I T 1if t Iii l'1 {IH.'Jf e<; mt ijJ '!111 m2. 11 't~ z 'l"lif J:. ff
hREi<JmOO%i!1~1'1-Rh'i'ffe<Ji!i_t~~-1'~e<JJt,l'l"lif_Chl!IJ'i'

ti: p= R"' ,-fl.C.'ilE l= R~, Jt"*-1 p.,=rnR'1- 1r.,,.

'

'

'
t"' pmi:p(i2ml'.I/)

'l'-lfli
ZlJLdif

111 2. 11
2. 2. S. 4

o/ilii

Ill~ lt!!lii 'I' fill C 11 ~i!ll\llltllll >1i lC ;+

Schwarz-Christoffel~~

xt rll'fil'Jf ,it ~J Ill fltr ~" :Jl'~i!tlf ;Jzf!ij< ;mr~ Ill *1<'.h J3i1' e<J 31'1#!. fj!J P~ z 4" iii _t 11 $
it!Jf A<; ill ill [l:!>jl;, illi-11' Ill Schw,,z-Christoffol 'J\'.1#! ( Jilf >); S-C 'J\'.jlk) , rlllttlilf:iKf'l':Jl'J'), ,
S-C '.Jtjlk 0]'f z 'i"lll.J:. A<; $it!% l'Jllll IK llll~!Hh I 'I" Wi'J _t 'i''i"jjjj ,ji(;(,iJl<liL JJI(* iii$
ill% illl'f. _t. ;E i'J 5l'd4' n B. r I 'I" 1!f'!tll!J _t !fr) A'J !Id'!', Je z 1" iii _C$ it!% !14\1---1' lJij ,#, ~
~I 'lJ r 'I' w~ll!J _e 11 .\\\ i! -t~J!k e<J il!JL;l':h
z
[er - <11) .. "1 1 ~(, - o.i)-ii ... (~ - a")-" 1 ~]d' +cl
(2. 2. 99)

=cf

:it'!' ,c fU C, Ji!ril: 'llttt ,a, Ji!r z 'I" iii t.$ ii1%i<J i'I ftJ , z 'I" iii J:$ii1l!' A'J]ij.#, A, ~!th I .if iii
J: il'1 r :><lll_Cfl<J l1' Ji\'..!.\ a,, Ji1.til , 'l!'l!ll cz. z. 99 l !*.ii: a, k'1 &r I Ji!rf!il'tlf e<J .f.!I Jt'l!'J!k!i!rili!!!l !1 . :IE
~~t--1'" Xi1%fltiif iI:t:!ill-E"' '1' e~ 3 1-, ~liZ n- 3 1'ff ::!1111>R~~. h I i!!lit \~a, JtC'f f!il\
tlf Iii~ I<DA<; tll Jfl , .!ti z Jilji;t[ii .!.\ .'lo J1' ,l1: I '!" 1!T _t !'J!l'll!< a, !l!i.'t -1' rbrJ>'i' 1!11 ,
~~~Ill*'<$ i'J J!l!!I i!1%i~IJJllle% !'J:Jl'J'i!, iJ!J:e if: 'l'i!!f 1' lJi .Ii< e<; f#i!L r ;~ 1 , llil
!il i!!f -t m.li< e<J ~lit il1r r ~ 1/k. iii rJ:e* ml!il!! "12, mw'll'.st:;t=1< k'1 r.JB>t
z

~cf: ./f=1' d~f=f't'

(2. 2. loo)

l!Ji'llil!ll!R~, ~'!' ,k

lt:IJllil!!lilUJ-i'J1!! .k' ~ l -k' lt;i;lli l!ll!R5ti'Jff1!!, l!,~'!R7l-:IE \~ 1


fl'J fll}ll K 'ii!iK , >); h !11-!J:ic)l: lli 1!!11!151 <JI!. llitil< A lJ ,K (kl i'Jtt \11' 'ii: llJl!E. iii Jt nT W iiE '!il z
1" jjjj _t)e lB :Mi:Jt 5'! ZK,
:hTm'!llz'l"l!f_t-1-$Xi1%!1ll~M1-1if!'J_t'i'.ifm.rjjjj~m~l':e<J

/r'/f;'

.ifilif _C'i':JC~Jkllf Ii\((! %1KJ!l'IM11 I 'I'm _t. ym 'ill.\\\ A 1'l1 B {iL T ;~I A<; '.tr'
,:Im I'll 2. 12 . f'l 1Jil#'i' :JC~ ilk'lif IK!i;l;iif k'1 :jf ff {l-1' J]'i,,il !il r :lC9l z!'J =.ifl % , i!!f JliO !fl !'J
:jlf z

ff-=-1 +c t =iCf /1dk

z=Cj dt

r2

+c l =iCnrcsin~+c1

(2. 2. 101)

79
- - -2.2
- - -lA~~-f~Sm
---------------11il :B z~ a/2 A1!'i'f I~ 1,#i'i\(2. 2. !OD1f

~ + C1 ,
"

= iC

(2. 2. 102)

'

"'-!LJ:L.L:LLi.::.:,,,;.,r..L,qc.c.,. -<'.LL'.f..-4'~,,,;.,f..L-_,.
B

+-A

/J-

t .1f- jAf

(:, = O

t: =

iC =

. ,..

a/rr

(2. 2. 103)

" = sin
. -trz

-arcs1n~,

'

(2. 2. 104)

u if1 JK ~t-1 iilJ I 'I' ilif 8'J t 'I" 'I' ilif


2. 2. s. s !ll1lldll!ll!llillt:!l!,Lll'ilfilnlli$i!l:$

>\If z 'I' ilif 8'J

fli 'll'Jl/HilJlll<l:IH~: h. 'i"i-e :B R (!'J 1!111 ttiB:fl C. Bl T 15i11H'Ell!rf (!'Jiilt jjlj:l; $Ji!dli'it 'I' JnliJ ,
Iii J:J tE ~!!!'<I <Pill :fl C (!'J 11'1 r'1 <B~ l!ii]l[ 'f 1!111 tt1lb:lf r'1 l B'Jlll J!l!<!l'1Nilt'!:f (!'J iJlj 5 Cl1il r'1llll!
'I' 1iJ J:J tE ll! ]l[ 'f 1!111 tt Iii :If r'1 J: Ill< - ,N!ill tt .ill ft ,J, 1!111 tt 8'J Iii r'1 lilt~!!! , t!J. 1iJ ]l[Iii' Ill l'l t: 11!1 :Ill: ,
lll! :( lil! J'l: iff -f<f :IfII; , lll: :Ifll;lll :> i1ll r ,1$1 l'l C. tt 8'J i!'l JIM J!l Ill il Bi '.11 , ill 1!111 tt 'ii! mi i!'l Im oc l!ll
)till' )fl ll\il Bili!; <ii~ ,11: iiJe ~lilt flt' Bl DAD mt A ,jl; <!' ,Jli:iJ ;\! p,. '11; ;\! <Jl, , Bl CBC l!il?tlilt til ,
;It<!' .J:iJ p, '11; <J>,. ;it;RJtIJT.~:ei :f W7J<, a~ d!I>;an~ o. if1 mt ~'1i'Filif lltlilt. Bi 'f ~11'\:
1'E lJ! 111 P jlJf lil! J'l: ;It :ti 'I" 'l'f!f IFJ lilt ;jJJ , elf' J'i y Iii~- J,iiii: iii< J:l: lll tlJ,1f d!I>I an~ o, fil 1!1 2. 13,
ll! fir~ 7t m1!il fll 5!: ~

''=
:l{f Ill 2. 13a

iln~

(2. 2. 105)

<!''I" 1!111 JK~Q!ll~jf1J (" 'l"ilif <!' 8'J 'I" 3f.~.~Hl1 JK~, ml ,~ R ~1 !'I 'f \' ~ o, VP E Q!llM?/JJ

E'. z~o M8.'f i'

=,IP z 'Filif J:I.!: O Q!llt-/llJ i 'f illi J.::JG'1rl!!i. z~ Re""~1!1l'f1" ~ ; i.


IPA\ A,B jf~1JQ!11Jl1jjj i 'f'illiJ: A'.B', !l\1!12.13b.
11.t !if, 'ilf Ill 2. 13b <!' (!'J J: '!':JG~;!\ lil' IK~~!lt;;JJ l'''f' f!f (!'J J: 'i"'I' f!f, lj\l'!J 2. l 3c, JZ<Etl:
(2. 2. IOI)- <2. 2. 104 l E.l!lolil!J'l::i:I:, l\lf~'!l!!'J a lfi!/l!. '. 9P
!:'

arcsin(k~") .r =

sinit"

-- -------------....

(2. 2. 106)

80

:)!;9' ,k~cosa,a Jl;IJJ 2, 13a 9'fi'JL'..40D ;;l.,LBOC,


li!t!Ei l!J SC 'le~~~ l"fi'J J: '!"'!" lliiQJtlil'1J I 'I" llii J:

la* J[J;<, Iii. ll'I 2. 1.1d, 'le~ ;lg

p,

,)
i!'.!'"' 0

'"

'j
7'1

fj'
-

(cl

- ir/:'

4'1

/k

Pi

c,
- I

t"f[jjj

, C'

(b) ~'.lfllfii'

1[jjj

(a)

"

-K

()'

()

[)'

.. ""

'

Ilk

( d) t 'l'IO

Im i.13 illl*C!Ar.J if ;!II!<!l;ll! ill !ll!!A


(2. 2. 107)

(2, 2. 108)

i 'F llii J: jg :II'. 2K (k J /Iii K' ~ K (k' l fi'JJ!l:i!' J[~ fl:! b\ :fi' raJ ;IC f1'J 'F lliPI' 1i'ilt, :)l; 9' ,K <k J Tn
K' Ck! i!iiJ: k ~cos ell!\( iJi][ /11. ml!! 9' a fl!flilj(!)e f1'J, 111.Jli!JI! 2. !. 1 l\' 9' 'ii: (z. 1. 5J~)!Ii JI< f;
Elf~

Q ~K.4(p,-p,)
L
tEi' fijJ l!li 9'~ jlijf,~ .4 #. WH1!

(2. 2. 109l

hK (k') , \;: L - 2K (k), i"tA J:'i\:jf ii :r;;orJ ~ J: lilf 11: .R ~ J!j T

iilt: jjl; {!<J-

81

KhK<k')
Q=k<k)<p,-p,!

111.ll!li! f~[l'J !lf.t Q ,J!i'i ll!'. , <lGKlt h l2A & ill

(2.2.110)

!Tl .if ~lfll l!l 1lhHl!ift ill ffJ ~(~>, ~J!l' lli 1 C.

~11Jli\il!t$ K }J

K -

._Q/'._ ,/; (k)

- h(p 1

2. 3

p~)

(2.2.111)

K(k 1 )

1J,Ji'B1tii:IJ1i

Mf liii!R 1~ k fJ'J flllll!'ll! 'P $:It :liJ 11!!, <Ei11'1Tli!l<ifi Zl:l!1 ut, ilJ' 5} !I/, l!J Til'f #11\' i}l, -1'1'11\' lJL
:!ti!' lW1t 'I); ffJ 18: l!ji; tt; llf 1'flll11l. ll! ffJ l!!f lll!l1~ $ , .1l :it11 'I' 1- r:l # 'l': i!l !Ill ffJ 111' 1*l Jill i5i ::k: 'f :it
l!f 4' !'t ffJ Ill l*I f~:t l -1'111\' ilLJl!o#
:ilitE lili 113
;j(Ji! ',II ffJ l!ll
ll!I ' ll'liJf ""~tr f'i' tr ilt ifii Fu f'i'1flJL iii{E ll'l jjjf JL 1l' 'I' lil1 '1E '
1itr -f+1i\' llL lit Jild'Jillll ,JJt lit "'1 llJ , ff!i i9: J'ri!l WJl!ol!\!ltl!l!lll Ji!l l.ll !J !l! '1i' I'/. , # ~ 1111<Ii1' , V
,,; IJlf. il/1 "!lt BJ' ff lili:l!o= !fl ff'! tEill 113 ff '.itnv .\' wi~t llt ilJ'~Ml'i'i'Eil:l'P '1 llf nv mftii. ii! 1l! m
2. L 41\'fnilf 'l;;!li !!!. M'f# ffJ !":!It ilif 1'! f!JI\: lic'f *li!J'l.:fillJt Iii! 'I' fn'f It ffi}J , jf:f'l!f ;Jt );\:
ii:!W l:ffi:IJJl!,J;J 01 fJ'J, ftflll'J l!J i>Y.!ll !!!! 2. 2. 3 1l' 'I' it buW-ll' B'J Iii JlL 1' 3' P1Hi1 ill>\: <2. 2. 52 >lli
n<, '1'.'ill!l!!ll!!l ::i, h. mo11

!If*

* *ill *

"'*

p(:r,y) = (:

+ Z~h ~Qilnr)

(2. 3.1)

Jt'I' ,r, J<iff!! ; r:J lfi!zllt (x,. y,) l1ti l$J "- (x, Y) ffJ li'E ilif, iii ll!1' iJI[ illJ [[1"'ill: ill 'I!' lit 't'fo;, :% R ffJ
l!!J , ',!; !iJiJjj(J'! JI\: 'IE lliJ C' Ji< J/; U Jf J:, jif >\: ( 2. 3. I) !Pi Jj; "- fJIJlt5J' ~IJ Jllt{Ei!J.jljtftt ff!! J r:l }f ;If fft
(x,. y,) J: , ,ijLJ J\ffiiJ 5J' ti:%

(2. 3. 2)

p, = (:'

+- 2:/kxQ1lnrl

+ z!:kh

L:'Q,lnr,!

(2. 3, 3)

lJJ!, r.,:lli'iJ<ff!! i U ;lf'1J ff!! j r:l #fn IE!J!! , >\: (2. 3. 2) :fill ( 2. 3. 3)
Ji<tJi'dlfJlJVJ 11' lW "'1 Im fJ'J 1J!i;zjl: 3< <\ oJ: ill JttoJ: UJ:Jt 11Hl-1' lf !":II!: . # 5t !ff lf 1"1 'f tit lliJ l'!l. T l!!f ilf
l'CJL l'i' 1i ~'Ii! 11 ffJ tf Jj; '
;Jt 1l'!J<:fill ~ l: -ll!'i\'.if, :f

i ~j

2' 3' 1 ilJ1 =Ft ifll 11!1 0 :It


Jffiil 'f !lt'lt J\'::i!!llllc!Em jf fll'J!i, t9: lf i!<i *t l'J !J :'.!I r., i!'ilf toJIE!:'.!7 d, ill 1'i!'i a )f Ji!l f:il
Jl!o'~;lil 11'1 , 1!!:1!~' t- H: 11! 1- J! !J<r!il', Jili 1; J!!i r:l 1tll'J if11\Hli:IJ p, ttl ;lil, ill r IKl!ji;#fi,, R ill
141

+ 21fKh Inrw

Q~ Ind

J 21(Kh

Pw

p.,,

1J'I
0
= ";Q,ld+
t.. + 21tKh
2ttKh nrw

p,

c; + ~hlnR + 2:J-!hlnR

(2. 3. lJ

--------------------
82
2 ~(2. 3. 5)

81 <': <2. 3. sl ii! Jal , mt lit Q,, Q, 11['1tfi'1 IE Jill d fl'J i!ilJJ, jjjj~1J,, i!Jl\ l'i # 1"1 'f J:ltfl'J l:lJli!!ff,. 1'E
fill ffi!ll! fl'J #< l'f r, "! l!lll Jl3 Ji<llii!IJ'i'. <F '"' a# 8~ i"'lii:il: <2. i. 1l)t It, ti e'Ff l'll:/f "1' a #;I!;
1'E 'i' t[,::\J ~'ft) 11111 Jl3 Ji; !!iiilJ'i'. ~J li!lr.! '/' , tb T 11'# !11'11! tl>:Jl\Jir d<~R, ill ilifi! 1-@!!il'.#fi! H:

1j

"~fl'J J!IJ'i'.#tl! R ;k 111 $,

!11, ttJldJI., i!,~ ;\!Jt J;f 11 # fl'Jif !{i(ll!LiJ ;I!; l!lll ili11'R

!Ki,!;:1;' fl'J !J!JJ,

ilil l'Jl\ rrR' , tl:Jl!! i'll t1##1"1'ftt8~!1; !IL

#!{l;\!lifttj ~.( lt if!: 1E1ill3 lJI! ,\\\.t 4 t1 #fl'J tillll3, ill T X~f):~l'll "i"1!J!f, J;f O#!'J #Ii\; ffifJ fll
i"'lii: i>ii~t!!'!i', .l'xl!Dftll!
Q1=Q2=Qi=Q4=

R'

Ill ilil J;f o # fl'J 1f!1it iJ'iiit 'i'tl! :% /2d', rm

Z1iKh(p,-p.,)
ln(R/( .lfr,.d 3 ))

(2. 3. 6)

o #it l't -Jl:il '!;lilt 1' #'I' g, :% < /2 r,d' l '" fl'J

~#.

2. 3. 2

nD*l=flltLD:tl=

X1'f1E 1Ti!i 4 1- !II j!.- n fl 'f> Jl!XE 1l' - o # fl'J 3i o # l'J Kl! .!!.\ .& '!ii l[1111'; 3 IT 3 "1J 1P !Bi it]
;/L#l'J Kl!';' !:-1J' 'll'lllif l' fill
l'E:li # ;\ i'I! 'I' , 9f ilii [I!! o #fl'J #ii!: EEJJl'll i"'Jllffi '!ii, ill 'I' 91:- o # l' l"J , 81 /il!I <2. 3. 2ll'll
<2. 3. 3 1ii]"!' 1H s 1- /i .!rm ll!1i 1!i\!fl
p, ~ C + .&:h[Q,ln( /Tr,d')
2

+ Q,lo(d/

p. -

C+ z.&:h [4Q,ln(d/ /2) + Q,lnr,]

p.

C + z:Xh (4Q1inR + Q~lnR)

/TJ]

I I
I

d
Qi = 2rrKh
pil (p, - p.,,)ln 72;~

(2. 3. 8)

'
d
Q, ~ ZKh
,,A (p, - p,)[nl
r,c
/"""-"
, 4 v 2 r.,

(2. 3. 9)

,/2R
d
R
d
Ll.=41n -~In --+ln ~Jn--'"=d
./Zr..
r.,, 4 fir,.
Qs =In( 4
Q,

(2. 3. 7)

;;-rwl

tn( ~d )
fir.,,

l _

ln4

In(

d__ )

./Zr.,.

(2. 3. 10)

(2. 3. 11)

83

E!i JtPT 'il ,;(Ei!;:f'i'it& Tl'(X'. ff J:- rJ' 11" ll'iiil'J'f !It, liil Jl.if ff tf ilii i'!l r::11f xt 'I' 9l: r::11f 8'J'f
J1L E!i 'f 'I' 9<# FJf J'.l:EIJ il!Jll, .J1; F:ll:131f llll i'!l rJ 11'#! It. i!IJ;-il'JJI BTE!i JJl
d 1c. ~ 500 .mti \*i!;l;J;-:iB~ ;\T 22 %

I~ 2 r,.) il17f

ln(d/

i! -tfi' ltt'P ;\1--tll!{;!:l!l l!l 'f f!--t :fl %1: 'l!.fi'lf.'; '1 ;.

Jl."
(2. 3. 12)

l'.EJL!i' ~ii!, 'I' , lll 'f:it!J;tt, lEJiifi 4 1-!If .?.\1:11' 8'J i"'JIJ;\Dl!! "!' lll Q, !/J!if , lEJiifi 4 1-itl
"',?,\J:jf !'J F'lit1ll!!1:1!l'l'l Ill Q,
"'9<- (J 1t!'J F'lllll Q, il<!i\. 'llf :>ltl41f fil 'flit~ OfoJ , g
'll!li!lil!:F:ll: It f!lJ Q, Q, Q, !!!;~ T ;\I Jt g 1!!'.1tf1Jil'i<2. 3. 3>9 1-Jil'i'I' il'J 3 -t. IP

*"' '

p, ~ C

+ z;[hCQ,!n(8

p. ~ C

+ z;f;\:i;[Q,ln(Sd') + Q,!n(4r,d') + Q,lnd]

p., = C

+ Zit~'.'h[Q1ln(4d') + Q lnd + Q~lnr,.]

./Tr.d')

+ Q)n(Sd') + Q,ln( ,/Td)]


(2. 3. 13)

lll lil l:Jilll!ll PTlM'tf1 !tf!lJ


QI I

Q, :

Q~= [ D~ +Dln 2~13 -(ln2) 2 J; [D 2 +Dln 2~'?. +In


:

/Tin

[D ~Dln2 / +ln21n200-(ln5) 2 ]
1

7 2

(2. 3.14)

.11;9' ,D~ ln(d/r.). 'it1tl'fi. d J;;jflj.Cf;I. r, Z lt;\T 800, mti Q, ' Q, Q,~ 1. oo ' o. 819 o. 615.
d Ir. JJ 200 .mtl Q, Q, Q, ~ !. oo o. 778 o. 533. lll JtPT.'11 ,JE:tfi!i 4 1'1'!.\!il:1ftr;Flit
lil: ,Iii, '119<'11' F':!iblli1', Hf.il:1t l'fi.iJ;l;rJ' jjj ~Jl'~1Jt,

2. 3. 3

llll!il.tt:t=m

ff ;\T.::: 111f, i'!l r::I 1f Xti~eJ!J il'JjjlU' , JJl!{EliJf J'!# n 11 jff.g ;i ?)- ;/fi {E ;:% R, l!ll Jli1 J:il'J
.jf ~f <R,<<RJ Ell 'f Xt!J;fi, 1'\f jf~i 'If ll\'i!E.fJ ofll F':ll:til.tll ;\\I, Ell /i'lll <2. 3. 3) ofll ( 2. 3. 2lJ1:1
!It tf1 '
Pw = C

+ 2~h (lnr.,. +

p, = C

:2: 1lnr, 1)

(2. 3.15l

+ ;::hlnR

(2. 3. 16)

2Kht.p/

Q, _
In

(2. 3.17)

R!Si----r.,. ---- ,._


~In ( 2sin :~)
1

~ii! (Ii) .bl. '-E F flll.fJ (l!.i T 11! !$ F llll l 1'J


2 1tKht:ip~':

Q<>,,,,, nQi =

[ In Rr

+ l1n
!:__. n r..,

"!'%1:lf.'t!.il'JM~Jl!< lnR ~;!; 1:'1::trlli"t Pl !'J:ll:.

,,,,.--...

2:

mtr) J

CZ. 3. 18)

1_
In(' 2sin
n ,,.~ 1
n

Ell l!AJ: it& BT l!.i if t: , !il'tl''lfIt 'I' .jf~J!I $ ,

---------------~~-

..............................

84
2 "
;!!J:![ 'fJ'itt.!!!ll;I;:, IP 4it Cl '!till F:l:lll'.J>. '*ll: $llJ-il!1'!/ll'Jiill 8'J F:l:JllhD'f' Ji! J;( jl!;il! llfl

ta 8'J ~*. >X 1'!1iiB~1r u J:JL1J'l! i'Jtil'lf>i!llil! ~:>z:B'J.


2. 3. 4

;Ii;~ :l":.1.~ft\~J&?Fllf!tl!itJltt~

i!tr jjjf JL 1J' '\! J'Ji!til': El'J til'if! .Jt fj\ iii Ji! J'I- 11'$ Ji1d!!ll if! 8'J ff -!I! roJ Ill! ii!~ J!l ]:i:J<jft J'I- f;\J
Jiu ;(tlil1il!ll'.11il 8'J l1J> !II 'I' ':ff A'!JL t1 'lti'J JJ\i/E. i!!1tie::llf I. 'lj':;!;jfti:J<Jll'!T<I! :llf d. 'ltll::lll n, :In IE
2. 14. l!Hl!l!i!i*l!Ull!, ;(!;( x 1lli ~ x11$111i iii fll.lllJ:Ji!11! -J'f %1J,'ltil+. 'll'~'lt F:li:llf Q,, Yltl!'I!
i*JfF:l::11-Q,. Siit c2. 3. D, ~JJ\iltili ffif15t11i"i ~
0

111 "

p(x y)

p.

14

t'1

le I'll ~fltl&illlUf!ilf!J,;1!'111

!~ 4/J{h ~ Q,.ln [ ~~:::::1~~t~,YY+~~; J

--

(2. 3. 19)

'll'4!J< o !f'ltll1' ffifl ill'll' :ll1 p.. mu iili::fll: Q, air- itiillil!


p, - p. -

4~h ( 2Q,ln ;~ + 2.;'Q.ln[ 1 + l'(m4~ J)' J)


j=O,J,2 ... ,n-1

(2.3.20)

.Jt cp,jtol!l '} J:-lli'i!:ii<M m IA o ll) n-1 o!'-fll ,ill'a m- j. ;\' m~ J, S1 it (2. 3. 20):\z:RP !;'; ili
Ei'il:C2. 2. 781i'\lll'lfl<J!li!l<. IP
Qo = 21CKhD.p/
ln(2d/r,.)

(2. 3. 21)

Jfr n-2.:1rmc2. 3. 20J!'l';ili


2ttKhD.p/
ln(2d/r.. ) + ~ ln(l +441 / /1 )

(2. 3. 22)

J:it5ti!F 'I' 8'J Ii! 2 J!ll ft:i!!4tlll]:!i 1'il'ft\';. lli! ilii'll' di1-1 ,d/r. - 400 'm~Wljf ~it 'I' 4!j, t1 4t8'J !"'
llll R:ff li'41'Fflll8'! 89 %, Wl4til!!:ll!:ll<ili U /ll1J, l iX 1'11!1!:'1!1-.
Khln[( ~') 1( l+

1~') ]t>p/

(2. 3. 23)

(2. 3. 24)

85

ill' d I l ~ 1 ,d/'. ~ 400' .mrJ lij l!J >I: ( 2. 3. 21) 'i!<if; li'J !jl.jf F"fll!.lll It, Q, IP Q, Ji! 86 %, Q, Ji! 79 % ,
Q, ~ Q, >Q, Ji!. MJi! ll! r 9' ~'if ~~J l'i ;ti 1f li'J 'f !Jt IJil!i: , it!l: 1f .R Si! U -1' Jr "1 8'J 'f !Jt ,

"'iJll RI 'I' Ii>:cJ>tf-t-n fiil J:: ( il'J Jm " $/r rliJ >rti -1'1f tte.i:JL1''1" iTB<J #tte ?li'~ll! , a Jt
tt~ l'i< JI< fl'J II' 'Iii J:kr!'f fill 1]1! !It, l\:1' ~ !ltilJ Ill i!ifilt!'J -1-"'R>! 1f tt~.i; IL t"'R>! Jttti!l'!Plf 1\:
II' !il, M~l'F 1f tte 9' jf fj(.I;) !<;'If~ 8'J 'ilHllHIJF(E,jffi I! r1tttc:lf f(iJ 'l!ll"'ltli"' Jilt~ 12 l'J1t>J<i1J
J'I. mum li\ B<J!O JF,!(.l;Ji! "'R>l !f ttr tf 1~$ '!I; W> ti!'ifi 'f'it!J'l. l!<n<tl!Y' .RI!!'~ 1f ~cl'illtl :vii: 1f '11>1 it'J
lilt ijlJ , ii! l\:Jl!Bi }J cit :iii $1: ~t 111 '.II: , 1f fl'J r" :Ill: 'fl MJi!I ~ , ml x>f :;1;:$ Ii: 1f ml'' it!J'I. !'J 110 '~Ji! i~ J Ai ,
IJi Ll , l'E Ll r :!tlli 'I', ll! ((Jiil:!J!Ji!Jt II' .j!j ~Ai"'~ !'f~c, ll1f 00't'.ffll1f ~ llih ;!Hll i'iJ li'J,
0

2. 4. 1

:7E llR :;I;: Jill If! q:i !Ii -

*"' .

:I=!= 1i1F

*'

ii<* ell' x ll!li!.l d


1f iem ~Ill 1'fl. ii< , ::Ii T x>t xm 1t~cll'l !Eh 7t illfi 11!i?f" B<JJm
i, mm.\\\ JC 1-t'li'Jt'if , ~ll!JJ!'x>t Et r1tB<Jlli :!II: liltr"f!ll. ~r~ tr Ii'! ,11< !It. ~ ~1u: ll! Ill l'Elfl
2. 2. 31\' 9' e ""lilf l'ttt, ;It 'i!' Jiiiifj( <l>(.x, y) l!J 5'i:. ( 2. 2. 69 l !ii ili .lil tl' IP~ K p/ , q ~Q!h, RP ff.. :h

%*1::1.J

- -9L
p(x,y)-C+
11'Khln [ch 211'( J!,''''d)
/
4

cos -z;rx
1

(2. 4.1)

'l~>i: ( 2.

4. ll Ji!ff ,1!:$1'1tl1\! ~ !1!1111 il'J tli4'5C~. lE!IltX ll\l.!ttlll 9' 4'!f !11'0>1: <2. L lG l lik'li;ll\l.
:;l;:Jl!!ll!{1:;t$ 01f1\!l!.!11'1i'J1!i:;f>:5Gf;:-*!', I'll Jlt'lf 1''~ X>f '(;JJD t.( JF!illlilflt,
;i: <2. 4, D 'fl. flll. ~ !l'<!lti'l ~ ffi!>lf"f Ill r il:il!iR, e
h 2rr:(y-d)
c
l
~ff.. !ll li'J 7t :i\i Jiit 00 2. 1 s fa!f ii\ , '.lk 1iF

g'.f',T -C

cos,-.

(2

.4.

2)

t , ill' lJ4f >I:< 2. 4. 2) 'I' ti'l!l lJ'i 1'f 1t ,\\\ flttili: fl; i'll.'lic Mlf 1tml<
il'liflit 1J' :11 .l1.BP11! ill tE .l':\JliJ rm~ ffi!llJi! ll!I. mi 211 y,,,.zy-d) 11-= ffi!J!jj;J!< 'fl 1111. '!!;
liFJ: 1'E y 1f "1JI,\ 1f !9 'if iii! Ji!:,~ /li!J!;t11!i:i\' J:Ji!J)( 'F!ll T , ! Jtl'EIE 2. 1s '1'11! , $11ltl'E1f

86

fl'J Ill< iitr..


T ilii liil': fil'l'1i 'f y !111111 riiJ fi'J lE 11 % ;/If , iE i\:l!i1 i!'l l'F JI,~ fi'J !Ji.JI , -1! fil l!lii'f 11' t\ l'UI!
J: ~) !E11% :nY. i1ll 00 2. 16 9' JI; i!l!Jili'il; , Jfl-!lfJi!iti!'l fr ll*l'!l 9' ."1: fi'Jill riiJ 1UIU:fi'J !E115t ;/If, Pn
oo 2. 16 9' ml!.l</iiim. oo 9'l!i1 Q1<1 Kh - z,. :t: nn ill.!lt Ii' JiJ P, - pl 2';;". ill llHr tB ,
-----

5
4
.1

--

---

,.,

~ ~

'

~ ~
~

I
I

'

..

'-

.,
""2.0-!.6 -L2 -O.R -0.4

'- '!Httl
~

1)

--

I- I-

.O

0.4

0.8

1.2

..--

yll

-'-

2.0

l.6

Ill ' 16 ffl'l'fi''f y IO;IJ"1!!!Bi:t.J>Hli (d- 0 ,Jll Q/ Kh~ ,,,


iE!'ifr~f.IEJll:k!~-1':11lR 1 1'17r. :!<i!I! s, !l!i!1!11til- ,JSoJ'<m!E11 :;J;W.J:'l x ?C'l::, np

ill' lE m!Id<'!" m.
2 l 1'EJll fr~f.llRJll ;ki~ -1-fr I!! t P,J ?f, lE }J p- y illi 1!.i<:f!l!l:l!.i< ,oJ'< a)l 8S .'1111!l!'.!lf11t'ti , l!
.c; fr~'~ Ill. tt;:i; Ill! ic fl'1 "" ll!:f!-lii: li'J llil mJ :;i; J: ! ~r. ilJ 1L1 t1' ;n;;:i; fl'1 i!li!it l1l !:!: ll!

**

2.4.2 ~~m~~n-nM
'!l!<E 3'11! JG "1 l\:l!i i!l!!Ellil12 lll! ~llI-1'3C '1i'.# ~f. , 11' ~e JI: ltl i!I! ifi Jll J1 d , fr IE J.1 t l!Ul'lli
il!!il\'!ll! , ;([el iiilll!~t>i<fi'J tl:ll.t 1f -~'l-fr~f., $"txJ: 12. 3. 19 l ;f!1 <2. 4. D , iit tB II1J 5r ;/If ;\J
Zn-(y -

d)

2rrx

ch cos ..., ...


p(x,y) - p + (Jcftn
....L ..
4rrKh ch 21t'Cy + d) - c o 211'.x
s/

(2. 4. 3)

Pall! 2. 4. 1 11' .ll:li'i Jilf J. <E :;i; mJ: -!lettJI: Jf-~r. !"' li!! D'J'll! l'~~.t; llll<EJilf i'i'U?: fi'J:OC!cl!iJt
!it J1l ii! D'J 'll! ll'!l't!llo;l!;-li!t fi'J Ill JiJ fl fl\ ll'tl12~ , l!'.i iii II 11 %;/If~ 'f fr tif~ Ill! ;i; l'!:f! M13: D'J JI(
il\!l\J1l!il!;\J x ~ !lie! y- o !lf-llr:~ !Ei!I!. ill. y- 2d iit:'f Jll:i!li IIl'I\. '1'1i'f y !111111 riiJ !E;IJ>l:iiri11l 00 2. 17 !'If if,. 00 9' ~lll!~t !'\)' 'fJi!i'fr ,\\( li'J :OClll!, !l!i!l!Xt !;)' 'f iiliiti!!i Jf:i!lll! 9' ,"1: fl'J l!illl!fi'J
lli11%:nY, i$ill19'~~ p,-10 ,Q/ Kh-2, ill 00'1! tB ,:(E y/l> L 5 el ~C ,lli;IJ~j\lf:Of~. jfij{E y/
t < o. s'll: , II 11 llll Ill'. ;\J 1lt !ill
Tilii l1ii': i\:f'i %\It D'J 11~ llll11, IP M'f !\! fli:ll!! Ii'!!!!!'. mJ a.!\! tl: !"':Iii: F~ J; ~i ff.fl '1i.
p, - p., 11! >l: ( 2. 4. 3) , lliJ 11' Ill; ff.;/J p. ~t l'Y: T .<I x- nl .y- d +r. !ll:fi'J!E ;IJ , fr il."t )f,j]J dr.,

87

I I
I I

IO

I
I

1#1'11!
;lilt

'

6
p

"

2
OO

0.2

0.4

0.6 0.8

LO

L2

J.4

1.6

LS

2.0

_yll

i!ljgl/2!U!l>'l#~t ll y

l!l 2. 11

( d=I, P,= 10 ,Q/Kh=

z,. Pi>"" pf (Q./ Khl

+ zn-Khln

Pw - p.

l1tlir'1lli:IJlHll

I )"'"
$
-,

21td
>h-,-

_ ZrrK!lp/
Zrrd

q -

(2. 4. 4)

(2. 4. 5)

'h-,-

ln~-

sh ~~
11i1 ;Jg r .!l l , 2d/l

Ji 1lt:liHl'l:lcr I , IP 'If
' b 'Irr,.,
_ . , ,1fr.,
_
l
l

Z'ltd 1 'd/I
' h -~-e
l
2

Q- Z"Kh(p,-p.)/
leid!I

(2. 4. 6)

ln - ..-
2nr,

Jtt'il: -'J>l: <2. !. 1D x~ lt'i!' ~ ;it JiJ 11\!l';ill!J!. lllll 4'1'! R- a;z, le""'ll'l 9' c'it i"'ll:Ji!:-!& fl'J. ill
l:'il:il!lf~ffijJ D,

;lg
D - p, - p., =
'

_f!_1n(-'-e2Ka:1)
ZirK Z;rr,.

(2. 4, 7l

'il: (2. 4. sl;, 1i!i!il\!ftill!i!l!lti!i'lii1tFlit Q, >!: <2. 2. 1sl i'll It iiJ l'J 1i' ill JtiilJ 'f i'it ll'Jllior.J '11i di
t~ l.d/r. ~400,jl!

Q/Q, ~ 0. 641.

~M~~~#m~~m
.l!il tEliil': 1l:!i!1J!i!ftJi!!i!f!itili~ Jt~e11!fi. :it 'I'. Jll 1 Jie c'i!i' m!J!.lii l l!litl.!i!'h d, Jfl 2 fie

2.4.3

...

-----..--.- ..----------
.....

88

CJ;\\ l'Hl-lltiii;lt'J l le~l!illY:I d,. iJ\iititl !ill .t ffi;IJ p. Y:J'll! ~ , IJ!1'1t~e 9' 'IH!!Y:J 1. i!?J- jjij!+11f
11', JI! 1 i+ilfM!i!oxtJEtteJiJ . JI! 2 1+MJ1>i1;7 ll!~rJilL
il>tlE~rU ~p jllj ~eJHl'J !ill!ti!tr Fo X1 IE' !& y 4\11 'IJ! ii IJ!~r9' 1'11' " ' i!l'.l!l 1 ftF 9'"" Q ;If
ti<J ?":Iii: ;lJ Q, . l!l 2 ft' 11' 9' Iii' o :1t !'l ?" tt Y:J Q, mu fl
Q, I
p(x,y)=p.+4;rKh 11

+ Qi

In

4trKh

2;rr{ v-di)
211".:<.'
ch ........
~.................. cos
I
l
Zn(y+di)
2;rrx
ch ...........,........... cos y

ch 21f(y-d,)
l
h 211'(y+dz)
c
l

2irx
cos -l-

(2. 4. 8)

211",T

cos -1-

.l)t l!! 1 lirJf D'J 11' 111; ffi;IJ , Q ili<E.t>t 9' , <i> x - n1, y-d, -r.. 'ii< 2 tirclf tl'J;lf Ill: Hi ::IJ <El::>i: 9',

IP ii[. {llxf'Fltitl!l 1 lltx>ll!l 2 ~rfl'J ;m:r~l&J;\1', iif jtlj J1l.li!! l!Vie p. ~ Pn IP


il:'fi: ( 2. 4. 8) 9' :/:i!iitE " (0 ,d, -,, ) Ill (0.d, - r.) .bill "l', '1; Jl!JIJ (d, , d, ,{) ?>r. , :T l~.l)t i~
<?

x~ nl, y~ d, -.

(2, 4. 9)

iE .Rilf!Jl'Lf.~ S _i,)l'f Al!! I ~r:lt 'I' ~i lllllt -'iill'A i!!i~rclf 1lli ll!lll ;t It, ~'"J iii\~ 1-S 11iJll:llilllJ
:l!l 2 ~rjf 9' !'Ji'Jlt !I; Ejjllj tie4Hlt :lilll ;t It' RP
S -

Q,

- Ql +Qi -

m>1:c2. 4.

91:T!lli:l!'Wli:1'.ll~.

+ Qi/Ql

'

Q,

QI+ Q! - 1

+ Q1/0i

(2. 4. 10)

WIJY!ll& d~t.llr.~264D,MIJ1lls~z1s,

3':1i~F JU

o-

I j

~~ i!!i~e!1' 11tr Fo !'J Ui'.ll!::ii Ill J(lj!.

1-s~1/3

!& .v !illlli'i'.ll!l l ~e9'- r:J !1'W M.Jf! 2 ~FM:lt


J!!ill D'J 9' ,Ii, li'i'.l , Wtl fl-llf i!''i\ <2. 4. 8) 9' il'J l!l 2 J1J! iitii!t-r IP"T, Ill ifiif!

2. 5 ii.>l<ftM ;lf;t!t""4'

89

-------
-- - - --- --(d, -d,) lt:f !!1&1)', 51: !11~~'911 il'Jiilt::ft ltl>XfiE ~~'911 il'J iilt::l lt!it!l!:l'f ~ i."1~U. JHi<ii!Jf'i, .R

~(d, -d,) I t'.f 1J'r o. 1 , ::'.1\'il'J ilit'!i!!it1'M!ii 1 %,

ffl J;l :::1'l'il'Jil!:tl:1l:!'ZJVJ' l'i':ktll lilJ R :,;

ii?!< 1!tJ1il:?EiJll IKil'J5t1'Pl!l ~ 1' lilJ rfil t:,


~j\'jjli, ' ~ ff] 'I J;l jJo IJj "'- ~~*"" $ ~~* il'J !fl ;,l; liliilt: '

2. 5. 1 51

;\'/;Jli,ll! lf:J!Ejijj il'J illl :It l!HJIJ :It*<& ll!i& 1ll: IA 2o t!!: !a 30 '1t ~!l!E , rizl1!! *Ill tt 7t :IT :Jt

*Jg

J111:1"l;:ff :0:,
=/j;*iJll (!lil !. L 4 c\'ll, Fl ITTr'fll lif t!l lfi!i! *Ill J:tl'!>tt ?ft, ~~IJJ!;;kf!i iJll EBfE
:i:K::tf llif llll 111 T Jilt lJJ il'J ~ !l1. 3o'it f!! i!H1ii:k :ftil'J ill !ti!! Ji\!1, !m ill~ lfl Itm:liHl"ll ill !ti!!
ll:!ll:. J3: "'ll:!lii1il'Jill<A:(Ji!il't!li "{l(ili!ll 'f1!l!!Yil'J*f!*R'!'. r!ii :(f ~!Ji!ttlll! 9' !!\!ft'il'J R '!' iE~
1'ltJI: ii1'! 9' "lllll fli ~'Ii: , R tEJi iiHr'J !Wlll 9' ;t lil\iE T Jf'i , lliJ Jltilt!ll r 4l- f>i' T> l1lJ R t
iE -1' illl IE 9' , J'!i- l1' lil\ l'I< 1'Plit jo F 'If 1'11 tt 71< 11'
~!ilt*~*~il'J'lf~.!mITTrm~.iElll!~~lll!'i'J3:f>i'1!'
~"l!llJGil!<'lf~il'Jlll!i!;.l!il.

:/Elli 2. 4.11\''l'jj>lJ!i:I:,
>l:C2. 4. l)Ji;ff;l!:$1''1f~el"111liil'Jlilt;;\s:*', lli1''1fl'il*'
jJ'f il'J Bi;IJ Jl-1'1!1l)' ill" (2. " 1) '!\\'iii il'J ~'* lf ffi;i:J il'J :lit
illli!Xtr;;JUU llif1'. ~>!:CZ. 4. 1) Jil!l!>i:l:l!il 9'. y il!ltJ!:Jil,"lt
lll~~'lf 'i'il'J-p '!f. l!i y !illirtJiili-P 'lfil'JIB~Ji!i b,!m
00 2. 18 'J1tl>!: (2. 4. l)Ji!,"l!flj Jitil'J lii<'f ll:!'Z?J('.11j Jilt

1'

't'1

'

p(x y)=C+ ...~ ln[ch ?1r(,:t=!'.f~--cos ?1r(x-b)]


'
4trKh
l
i

(2. 5. ll

:( :.Eill< 'If /OJ 9'1'f '!GA!! $1' 'lf~F, 1'11' '1!'~~1'f 1't1" IE il'J ~'Ii: Q. d ,b 1U

t, lf il'JJi!itf A'lf, lf il'J Ji;


ili 'If. P!f liA tE'if 4!-ili~e'lf il'J!lf":i11ff ll< Ill at &f !J'c !Alli'. ~J .!E!&~:0:111'. IA ~!!!J: ?l'!Ji,
JE lll il'l ;;Ji: "11 !itJi!i JI(' J;l ~ 'f T il!I Mfl: il'J *~~Jilt M-lfl na .J3: ff ui-.if *~~Jm :Ill ffi.1J t 1!t ~ii! '.ll 1!1
,
il'J ,1;1, 1'11 J!'i&>lt il'J ' .i{ilt-'1!' ffl'*ll! ~-;li;J'ltl! lll :<11

it ;t 4"I iE~'li: ,?.& Fo <!: 1lJ 11i ili i<: c2. s. D Ji;>!: il'J i11!i ;;is:

lW, Trlri 11'!~ JL#lf JI;~:@:.'%.il'J 'If~
0
0
0
0
0
0

........
'


2d 0

II!"..

*lJ'f.

, 0

.'' .'

'

'
'''
' 0

'
:
'

2. 5. 2

M JE~~1'1 il'J!E?J<'lf ~tl!;l:li:!!tillltt?I< 'If I"!, e


T

X!iE~~91JillJ)l7J<#li',jj

Ai!J-jo~'lf-tt?J<'ll'Y:ffl'ftil'J~m'lfl"J,

!m IE 2. 19 m7J1. ill 'f X>l*ii tEittl!;ll!il:at R ~!ill 00


9' JI!~ ffl!I:! iii il'J iii 5" BP 1lJ', 13: 1'iii ;t;llt it!!:! 7lli1'
'lf~il'J~ft.ll!!it"l~~;li;~~~~J:T~P!E?I<

l>flE~~~!iil*#llll
01tlk1r

e>FJ;

'1!'1'f-~iilt::ft~A~JitnNil'J-P~~'lf.
~T'.11iiliJ3:l'P'lfl"Jil'Jffi;i:Jj)o$ ft.8ili:i:K

--.....-------------

,,,

90

1'41' l"l !'J11'11iEttti!!.

ll( m

O'J fl~'!'!(' lll x !iili O'J"I'~~' rf;J .t ~JJE loll' j\J :ff\ .wa IP. m;:jf
d-2md,
b=O
d-(2m+1)d, b=O

+Q:
-Q:

iill.iil1'<!:<2. s. llJ!i<(2. 4. llillfi!lt"11IP11'


p(:r,y)=-C

Q
I 21l'_v
+ 4,trKhln
ch-- 1

co..~

211".:r .

1)"' ...9?.1n[(
ch .?.'.!'.~J!..:::l ..!fUI) - cos Zl'l!"x)
4trKh
I h 2tr(y + md)
Zrrx)
\c
-cos- J
/

Jil.!.f\ '11

m-=, )t/~!&'1'!1 it'J-MJ!l!Mi'f = .1'1Y:l!L 19 Jlt, l!fM!&ttillfi 'Jc'.!l'. ii ;i!:l!lJ


( -- 1 )"'in [ (ch Z1!'( v -~ Md) - cos z;x) J[(ch Z1t(y j md) - cos 27.:L') J

"""1.11

1)"'ln

= (-

+ (- l)"'ln[e-T!(ei!p! + e-~ + e!? + e-'

, 21l"x
md)
2l'l'x) J
h 2;rr(y -l md) cos 211'.x -ch Zrr(y +
l
cos+ 4cos1- - 4c
1
1
W, w-1' #'1'!1J!I!. man< 2. s. 2i "f &1' h't

(2. 5. 3)

=C-t Q ln(ch 211'Y _cosZrrx)

p(.x,y)

(2.5.2)

4'1rKh

Qp ~(

L.J --- 1) In
41!'Kh .. ~1

l ,

ch ~~<,.y_+ md) - cos ~1


l
l

4[ ch 21'( v - md) - cos 2irx


I

,_,.;;1

(2. 5. 4)

'.I\' J liE an it 1'!&'l'!1 Jll<i& ~it'! :t; T >!< 1ll !f f!<l 'f' ii* 4f .!;' 'E 1" 4f z "11 !'!ff~ . fl l!f !ilf 'll.!l!lill '1' 7"
pg y !iili.t!'J::i:i!f. X1itllifrx~o, rll'i!:<2. 5. 4l111
p(O,,y)=

4;1(h1n[ 2shz( ;J:) J

oo

+41t'Kh~(-1)
M'fltJ!(Jf. tl

y-dr. ftA'i!: (2.

p(O,d

16h'["(yl"4)}h'["(yimci)J

ln

r,.) = 411',khinl 2sh 1

--fy~,.

..

41t-kh 2j, ( -

(2. 5. 5)

s. sHl!

I~di l

16sh

Q=

M'f'EJ"'4f, ii;

1 )"In

'

bl
Q

(m -

16,

trr,. h 21(d
-, , -l-

471'J;hln -~-::;;;m--l)trd_Li (m
lfil1

e4"""'11

+ 1)1!'d
I

(2. 5. 6)

fl:A'i!:<2. 5. 5J1ll
(2. 5. 7)

91

shl ( 1rdj.

!:::..p=- Q In ____ \____?__

2Kh

sh'i ")sh( 2dj


l .'

1,

, l

'

h
~
Q '\1 l-Jl"I
2rrKh,;;:-;'
n

(m.-l)n:d h (m+l)trd

'

(2. 5. 8)

l'['m'J'(d')
& l
l '

Ill 1' tE ~ ~ r~lli!i 9' ,d / l ::r; .'j,cp l / 4. IJf !?.('it ( 2. 5. 8) !!Hl(J)lf R i!lljij! !llltJ.lf.,. ik~rw J;j llJllH1'.
il!: IF 5Ii!il ltiilt!i! R fr o. 1% , 'f :li!:JJ: c2. 5. sl llJ'.EJ ~

sh' j' JTd) sh 3nd


l
l
p~21rKh l'l'rrrw) l'(21rd'i
Sl
/
Sl
j ,I

6. _ ___91:._l 0

(2

)
,5,9

,J: Jill Mill lti kli .!f\:li!:tE il!iil!!l!i'li'l!Ufll!lt~~'li'ill' B'J iffl:lt KI ffl:;lfi llC lti 4Rf'f r
141 t1J lti Ill Jit '":!koii!t r-1 "'Iii kli *fl 'Ii! g1J. 1l:li!: trJ-i!!ii&tr! ::r;11~ll!!a<J'*l"I;1g1t "<1f >t
rill -~'If rJi!! 4f IE::f' lill lti filif ;lfl It , IJfilla~ lxt'.lt;\ .!J'k!l!il:kli
'lil'i!'l!i:, wft fl ll>t~,,;: 11:&
flt 'il<l1<e9!f!xtil!1ll1R1'f g.. ill:fil fr:& f'l 11<$ !E JC 1' !JR l?J f.t7)(4f J:J ! i"' 41'0'1 EE::!l! t;p. mJI::
<2. &. 9l1l! Joi .iE ~13'u i.1'7.K 1+ f<iJ it'J fr:& flt 11<$ ;!)
lil!Bli,IH~ Lii

*''

%;

z'
2Jr

KhD.p =

Sl

ln

sh'(~-) sh'( z;d)

Q1,1.

211:

Kh6.p = 'lfld - Zin( 2sh

1l 1!1 li'J :li!:>I: ( 2.

{2. 5. 10)

rrd h-l
31rd
Ts

5. 11 ) XI !\' T 1l !<!:lell! ;lg d +

1!';,..)

(2. 5. 11)

21 In ( - -1 ) Iii~!\!: J![~ lJ!( l'U it l<i\; 11:1!1'1!'. Z lllJ !'I


:rr
2'ltr"'

K~~p flL lf ~IE )SJ, 8'J ~ 2 liJ! f\'.l'i!l.l'Afl~LJ1" tlJ fl~


z rllJ <r .~ ii'.~ 09111 :lit iS: 1-111 lit :Ii! m1*! 1!i # m91
i!illl'J. ~~ d~l 1\!'%' ff~ 1"1!<$.!J d 09 *~frQ 00
2. 21 9' i!li !fl: I IJfif. ,

2. 5. 3

ii ~ 'it ti= liliiPID ~fl! !fl ~J ti=~

:Ji-"" JI::* Iii! 8'J 1'>-tll ~f ifll lij'.-!l\ ji)J ;t\J Jl\

ff:*

# l'U ct F # ffl lllJ {ff}') , Jilt 00 2. 2o !!Ii if; j; trif' 11


4&'f-C'EF4f9'b11ifMW
~ i.illif ft :Ii! tt :Ji 4 7C lll! il'J x~ ill !!JL 4f i'<l 51' lll! Ji!: itl
*1'J2d!'J.iEtf%.~~~~iliiS:~'!fliil!'JW
liE'li:U'L i&t n j; Y'J'li:, !?.( y $ j;"Yll , [Ii] ti n>o 1lif

~--------------- ....

92

r'l ;It n< 0'

m :0\1 ~~~!ltimr' ~~]ii j'l;f[


+Q, (Zoo .Zmd), [ (2n+ l)d, (2m+ l)d] ,b~O
-Q: (2nd, (2rn+ l)d) 1 [(Zn+ 1 )d ,2md] ,b= 0

:0\1 f'i! !ll. ~ i&iil1 , JI< 3'i 'f x ~At jj( (l'] Ji'~~ JlltXt!t!l 1'1:1'1'. , fr >\if 3"if (l'] :'E i"' Ji' "1l ii 71< fr Ill< it ,l'l' i.'i ff
~ ba , "16 l\if Bi :!J :fr ;/li'"f nit

(2. 5. 12)

-~ SlL1
Zn:Kh n

th' -11: th -311'1 cthatr


2
2

,hi ;; I

+ ...9E... ~ (-

l)"'lncth1( m1l'1 th (m - l);rth

(m

+ l)ir

21rKh:f'::1
ZJ
2
2
J:i'\'1', E4' ch("'./2dl ~ 1.
Ell 'f J: 'II:'!' ,!ll. ~ im M D.p (l'] 91 il!V1' 'f o. 1% , lilt 1lJ l'l lit 4;; 1;15! iii 111 '!lJ
l:J.p =-

~( lnsh ;-; + 0.1674,J

(2. 5. 13)

(2. 5. 14)

?.<Iii' ffl 'h (l'] 13 'l!'ltl~'!'l9l; ,}, ii!' .. Foil! 3i.\\ii'\11;1j(Ji' i"l (l']i!'i& f!i 1!<"1
-5lE_ -

n
Khl!.p - ln(d/r,) - 0. 6190

Jll'.JI< r. ~ 7. 62cm, ffi jl'. (2. 5. 15) !4t ti: K~p -d #i .l\!lll ill 2. 21 cp Jiii !JI< ll Jili;f,,
l"I Jl!i ti< n.srxt lE~i;JJfr I"! Jl!i ti< 1 JL'f %;@:'!'-ff, i!! Jir Foft 4%-6 %

(2. 5. 15)

o. 8

'

0. 7

ID

-"'.. 0 6
KOp

'
"~

'

0.

0. 4

o. 3 0

I
300

200

I00

400

soo

!i::>K#-!!f1oi"'#liilif.~ (m)

""'

'!' ~ i:t'1<# [IQ I! ~'11'.f!' ~i!l(d ~ l)

Ill 2. 21

7!<ft ~e 1: r ft Y.:'li' ~e JlJ ill. ft it'! fi'l li': :f

. ty .

JiH!l :tl:XJ JE ilii Jl!dil:!Lx '11 T iRf i!t - !Ji lilf


'IE3< '11~FJlJ if f'l,
;l:~F"1J if l"l 1' d = t/2 litll' T .s; J::li3
:li,l.Clf f'l JlHll "'1 it'! Tilif liif~ d#t/2 lt'Jtt;l: ~if f'l d~"m K lt'J :li ~if
lifi o
l!R~ Iii<* ll!I.!\.\\\ .t;-1:r iflt1t ..r !fill
"i y 111! JlJ ii i:J: 'lo F ft ~e IE 1:1 d if IE 1:1 l
!1111'!12. 22/Jiii< ' ;(1$(!1'.~1'"' \lt'it'J !E:i:J

ld-----.-.r
0

~*""'-....,...,_...__..

'

II

o ot\ o ooc
0

2rrx)
1- C0..'1-1-

Q
p(x,y) = 4trKhln
ch 2"V

2n-xl [

2ir.rl

2:rr(J' - Zmd)
h 21r(y
2md)
Q "''
I
cos - 1c
l
- cos - 14[ch
4irKh ~In _.,___ __.._ _ _ __..ece0""'1_ __.._ _ _ __.._.,

..,

Q .,.,
4 [ ch
- 4trKh
In

2Jr(y - Zmd - d)

Z::

+ cos-2x]
[ h 211'(J' + 2md + d) +
2x]
c
l
cos-1

e4-'d\1mj-lJI/

.,~u

(2. 5. 16)

!t A if.!:; 1: F 1t 2. l"iiJ it'! !E'll! 1:1


b.p

p(l/2,d

r.) - p(O,r.)

>h'( )oh'(~)
- ZrrKh sh'( ';')sh'( 27d)sh( 4;d)
-

Qp

In

""

2rrKh:Sin
.. ~2

--

,., .....

ch

(2m - l)rrd bl (2m


l

2mrrd

(2.5.17)

+ l)rrd

c
i
2(m l)<d

sh lsh ---------'"
1

....--------------~

2n

~.~.:.t,~{~1.~.~~.l. ~!~J. . . . ..

(2. 5. 18)

Khb.p =Jn .........

l
s1

("'j
l sh'(2rrd)
L sh4rrd
l

XI 'f d 11~ 1 !9 :t: '<'!ii111ll' , J:Jl: it'151: <2. 5. 1ll ll! 2. 5. 2 l\'fll ll! 2. 5. 3 11' lttll.i!! 'R , lllt 7
d I l <I E1'!111% (1'!!0 Ji:!li\'ll:if l"I) k:-1j[,1i:!'<!l:I !JI! li'El'J ~.!!;IJ :f '.\t~!llEl'J I!' o!J,

~~~*ifl"l~ll'l2.1sg;r..~8M~ll'~*if~~l"#~m~E1'!Mll'WZE
~lj , i;lJI!~ *#:Ii\~ l"if El'J Mill',!&.~?"# il1t l:i\tJ"'fllj;ll!dt If< if i'J i!'i ill'. (JJ k:-1 m 1"! ;f, tif

l&. ni!tffi ;;11 J&. 'f:li\ iiJJ'!i T Y'J #11'1'. lil<&i!tJIHr


?til'i'
+ZQ,

(nl.2mdl;

i )1.i 3m+; )d]


[,u,
[( n+ i )1,( (3m+ i )d J
[( n+

-Q,

-Q,

(3m+ J)d],

[,/,(3m+2)d]1
[(n+;)i.(3m+;)d]

ll'I 2. 23 '!' E1'1 j7'; :I!!% :li\~1'11:'il!'l'i; El'Jif iJ l(tjG,


Ji!~W !~/Yid, Mll-1'iffill'.!ltUii'i:l!E;iJJl-lli
1y

95

(2. 5. 21)

96

(2. 5. 22)

-9L.--,7T~~

(2. 5. 24)

Khtlp - 3ln( r.,, -1. 7073

$!il<jj;'f ll'J 2. 21 9' ~'1.1< I '1 Ll11 l!J ,"f;; "1 $iii<
I f\1 I IL 'f 'Ffi. i!!Jti#1'$tl:li,\\it\: # l"lilii 1!J 32 %.ilif ttlfiE ~r'1J jf I"! !<J {#1'j>$ill; 1lj 39 %
1'1 lli ! ;@'., k'1 .tir ll'J 2. 21 9' 3 ilk$ !:JH1'1 l:tti:;&li'f s 1- *!l!Jll.1' .jfj !El Ell !f I!! d C!Jo i"' !f
l!J !E?J<'lf EIJ l!!JIP , ffiillt:/!' ;!)' Jl!:~!<f'# 1"19' # 11ii!l! OC EIJ ~~tl. 'l'I' l'O :l!l lti , "'!''If l"I B'J 'If11iiil! !t:lt
J!I( r , - 7. 62om, 5': (2. 5. 24lli!lWJlft K:p -d

~IJ1J'
X11E~f91J

Jil;-1-dl]liill{-P#
li,\\\ !f 1"1 hJ'-1- d' illi!J1-P Jf
t:,\\(jjlJ 1!$0.866d' ir!i!J1-P)I'
11i1 Jit. l1'f ll'I 2. 21 9' J!'1. d ~1 tll'll'. Jltri!'ll'f' 'If l*l 'If !Ii!l'mi!l'. ffii-t .\\\ # 11 #!!! !l<illi llJ 15 % k'1 i\li
llJ 15 %B'J 'If !Ii!l<J!'l.14 illi Iii 32% - 39 %f1'J1felfl fll "1'$ .1ijj; 1ti !::.\\\'If l"I f1'J tltl!!!tL J!l. ;t, "'llt!-t
11 'If!!! !lt .l!f:li.\\i i!'lil!
'II' ..t
1"19' l!!tlC;li\Fw\!l'!<J L 015
ill:i'f. t .\\\'il: if l"I
9'#f1-i-1:1!tttlli 7G!<J fll 1'1' 1~ 1:t:li,\\\5':7f 1"11'11 xt lE~r'1J l"l:lt~tlilli Iii s1 %;fll 38 % i'li'f lllm
tll -t ,\\\,;: if l"I Ell tltili!tt
!$< Vl .t:Jtl'f''lf lI Yr,~ 1f l1ll ,\\\'il:'lf 1"1, J!l. -t ,\\\ t!:'!f l"l VJ &lE. J!l.Jt,.l.\,J:ft I"! "I', Jt:lt!lf (1'J 1ili

IA\ *

* ocm

IA\* '*

m.

:<fi:n1*"1 .tl$.jfj flll ,J:l:ll!!itOFJll'--JlJ "I! T

2' 5' 5 E: Jj( j:f: jj'jJ (I'S) Ii It jjl), lit ~


.t iliiX1 ii' 71< 'If l"l lfl :'!5 iii !it !<J JE;IJ :5t ;/fi 1'111' i!l: i#li'f' $ti' lK 'il'Jll 1'11 l!!!lll'lll !I: !it OC H; 1'll flll EIJ
iliil'lilkiif' T iltfr T !If ~J!l!. Tir!i fl' IBtE 20 ti:!: le 30 "f.1-\:Eliiltfr EIJ -l!!Jr.llitll:. mm OJ $)1' .iJ mIi! m*11 !lit"!'mm m*~ oo .iJ 1!ll mm 1'tl1iJc '1:5t1J ~t: w1 ;;Ullfll m!!!! utllil mm utll:ffli &
j!!j /~.!\ii!' -t-;!:ll;[ij J!ljlf

.
l'!!<J .l\lil.

1< JJ lllU~!~mi!!!!~~ I Jl -1'-:ll!lll ll<i1lllllmi llil EIJ ,j\ liltF

111:tm*m~!!!!~~.li!llillitll:ill!#:li!m*W1ii'l-~.1.J!!!filii!lll'~<~~w,llilflll!!!!!!m:li!

mt $ill!i1it1L:ir!!!!<Jim' ii!J) Ill OF !El ilJ.R. 't ffllll'fi !'Jlitll:, J:!:"4f tElll 7. s 11' 9'tf lill ~it. l:tJ!l iii:
ll::li!!li x~ '*~ flll .iJ !!!i?:ii!Jll' ttz fiilEJriltfiEIJ ~ ttlll;x~ 1:t lltll:. tEmt
'I' 9' l!I: #Ill EIJ :li!PJr
i~" *ti! ttlll", l!l Jll(llll *ii!-5! i:tltl-*ii!k'l1'1! i'l ilJ 1* ~tilill'!!l~IWJ .1.JJ!l!Jlllit. EIJ iilifil!l'ttfll 'l'tl!ii'
ttat. mui!'l-t-*mz fill t<Eli'~t !Y'-K* J:l:i!:'l 1;1<Ettlt.1-*lil9' lll'frlltll:. ~!'ill!xt~tt ii,J!r

wn

z. 6

Jf<.1!llt.f

97

ill Wl,fl ~lit !'J 1<f1'L ;(;:1J, 11' lilJ ;J; It ltl li\~l>t l't<'E W. it iij; !ill: 'I' !'J l"l'!ll
xt'fiij;vltl:J 'l' !'J '1! 1tltl1''!1'1f af'il!tli' ,ii !ll '1!1!1111'llll<1" '1! 1!i'!'Jl!i:t '1! itllll!i<llt, 2> !ll '1!
Ill iJ ll! lliG '1! lli-'1! '11' FJ !IHl'J 1"1111t '1! It !ll l!i<lll:, 3!1'11'fiE'ltlIt11.('liili'. i!!IUll'lll: fr!ll l!~ It Jll
l!l<W:.
l!~'1!1tlll~'frjj;WJl!.&~~l!lt~~illi.l*illl.M%~1Cl!ltilli.'ltl!'J~:itnm1'&~'1lm

illl.l:i .\!' '1! fr l!lt!'J ~:itn:t!lZ: lliJ'lf<'El!!t!l !'J ~1~ it !l!'1::~ iij;!ill:Jlt.11- Da<cy ii! jJfl
V =- K\7<1",

<I"= p(x,y,z)/

(2. 5. 25)

~ i!l iij; !ill:"' l' 'l EEllli !ill: l* ~ illi. B'l it~tt nl'lll!:
v (K\7<1") - 0

(2. 5. 26)

(2.

i=-u\7V
\7 C'VVJ - 0
i Ji!: '1! illi.!li'Jlilll.Jll; CA/cm'l ;q Jl!:1" '1!11-l!lti'l'J '1!-<i'll!

s. 27)

(2. 5. 28)
'cm - 'l , V Ji\

A (2. 5. 27 lf!l ( 2. 5. 28) 9'


en'1l Bi ( '1l ! ' .!'(<{!):ii:*!')
ill I!.( l: 4f 'J!;ilJ' II.( Ill ill !lllP., lt:;!;iif illi.1'~:5 '1l illi.i'l'J '1tlt!ll!I!: ;t llii ll'<'Eri'J M1'1>'1::~ , %l'L
fr l!ltM !Y: 'f1" >!!fr !II' iij;i!lj! K Xf a 'f '1! 1l<ll! iij;illi.J!Jf v xt !l!' 'f >ll illi.illl. JI U; illi. l* ! <I" Xf
JN. 'f '1l ! V Jil1 VJ:lr '1! It 111 'Iii Ii' 'I' '1l ! l'KJ!t !'1 Jt f<iJ lt>i:!t>!ll i.!!l'I' i'ld'f1' Ill' It Ill !'1 ~ illi. l'KJ!t B'J Jl
1"Tif'>l:!t'f~ :ltll'l' ld'f~il:.I Cl.i1J!I 1. 6. 2 l\'l , !JllJilll.M '1l ~~l!Uli!li'll!Hl! 1l' >!! l'KJ!t9' !'J '1l~:it<ii v <x.
y, l , ~p 'l>Jtll!iij; illi.IKJ!t cp !'Jilli. #'~:fr 111 Ill (x, y ,.) , lldlilli! Ill .. !Eil<>!ll illi.!i!<B'J ;t 111, II.( J>l.7J:
'lliillli*B'l 1!1.'11:... Jzol!>%l'l.fr J\l! JIH> 1o1 li'tt!'J ilT m 1o1 Jtta1"' <l!tt*'f*fr 1t m. x~'f =:.!!!
*illi.!'J ~~ !l( , !1!'!!'1111:11: <I! itlll'l!lW: 'I' '!Iii IKJ!t1'!-,\\\ !'1 >!!~, Lllllil !IHM JlUll >ll 111. ~r'f =!!! *
illi. ill '1! 1t lll ,mu lili 11t m"' >1i
rt1
1tl!O!li 'II: i'l'J ct '.!J'1!il{'ff;l. lii , I l .IL 1"!% 1' ml!!!! *1l il:.I !'J lfl!K<tt*'f lfi!J Jl!t !'J 'It lm , 2Jff. lm 9'
Jill,1; '1! 1!11111'. ,7J(!ll< 11!; <I! 1l' $ B'J CuSO, ~la ' 3)-1-11< ffi '1! li!'t ,!\l 'f mm i.!! l'I' %: {'f *'1 illi.I!: il'd'f !'J
>l!~~IJll:ll:>l!~:it111 .\!'>l!jliJl!:!flill~~l*~Jl!t!'JJt.il]'!fl~~tt~!'J-~~~-~1"'1!

*.

1l

~~J1t.milT~lll~*fll~~~tt<~J1t!'J~'1l~*t6!*"'~1:~~-~lfl1J<~.

f!J Ill '1!11'llllt1" >111!<, >I! !ill:lilirt1"1* '1lJai'l'I IKJ!t!l!:M!il'. 'f !EA7J:7J<)il!!'J IKJ!t. >11 !ill:lilb':t
~-1111 ill '15- ii !'J '1l ~ :IH!I! JI: ill ..!El!J<>!ll illi. lilii Ji:(!<J ~fl!!!:!< III 2. 24 Ji\ !ll '1! 1!1111'1l!i<Il!11l!il'71:><
7C7.l<'ll!rtl!'J lllft.~ ft , m'I's l!J<ft?il< :f fill ati<lJ !'J 7.l<)il!iltri*. :It 'I' <l Ji 3i#P:il'71:><;;;, Cbl
JH:;\\'J!;!E7J<Jll. :1t. A1'>. l'KJ!t!i!-7.l<'!lil\l::ffj!JJi:i;B'J l'Kl!!:. ~p ~IJflW":IE !iii l'K". ill IIlilJ' J!\ , 3i.di>!;
!tr<! 7J:'lliill!JU'1 "1 .~ ill1'\ ill 7s%l!\; -t.di'il: !tr<! JI! :1"'1' 7J:~Rilii1'\!'1"1.~.ilii1'\B'J 78 %li1. [!f xtr
1E ff~ilJJf r<! !'Jtil:ll'll:fl!!~ 57% , tt<E III**"' ill . III 2. 25 Ji!-ffl 1l' '1!ji ut:li!i\ill !'J ..ffi!!J\>!llilli.
!!J\00. ;t'I', <al!i!-3i.di'il:!E7J:#'r<!Jll.7C!'J 1;;, m <bJll!!-t.di:ti:Jf r<!JEt;il1%Jll.:iC!'11/6, IIl'I'
'11:':\ll>J' ~ llilil<l:Ji}J fl!!!'J s :fr 'II:, Ii.( !1'71: 'it Hi }J ~ I oo 1-><ill, 'tF 'it llifJ fl!!Y;~, III cp !II!
!!J\Ji!-illi.!!J\ ' illi JI, Iii"' illi. 'ill fl rl;J '

2. 6 7k!ll!~*
# 11' &lill !'J 7.l<'llil!!: $ Jl!.lii !EA7J: ~Hf jij!JJ :It it F # !'J at~ , 7.1< !>I: ilii 1'R 1' # l'J .i!! ill1'\ !'J It

..

~-- -----------~

..........

'

..

s,~~~~*n.~~~tt*mh~~wiJffi~?t~m*ttN*
~~~~~~m*ttMHffl%**~*~1#m~~~~~w~~1J~~.

_A

--:. -

.'

\\

iJ

';.

. .

...

.. -~ .:-

(a)li.~.it*li.!4t:Jttt:l

1/4

(b)-t;,.i:l:t*!i.14t:Jttt:l 1/6

m1H W~fi~-~~~~*#N~G~~~~
i.t1J*ijl[.$1JWJJl!~JM~ ~~it:rorf: ltl'a~tt! Darcy

lE1$ El3 ffi.h5.tlJ~B>Jt1fifm'. .~

ffltt~m~$**~~~F#m~1J~oo.~=~~~~OO~$A
t1J*~~~~~*~1Jfi~.~~*~W~~~ -~#~$~!JOO~<~I~~*- o
tt7k#1Jm:1t). ep ~>Jttf7J<ftiti~1Js7.t t:t .-ill.~;J!lk~* Tilif?tJJ1JlifftE*#:JFl'lli:t*
#~iJ7j(l}g.$.

2. 6. i

~.iE n~91J#!XjJDJt~~ ~1J<~1~J&

*~~Im~iJKYW%.~M~#W~B':JftKattA#~~~#~~iJ

JIM,l!J 2.19 B':J y

'1l~f+~z-. ~m Darcy

~F.ii.ifm'.:(y~~MtJ5.t:I:~

1El*ffim I. 4.1 "'PJW~B':J DF *~5:tdAtf*

99
(2. 6. !)

(2. 6. 2)

(2. 6. 4)
~uxi:cz.

6.

3Jl\f~!lt

= #,2hfob

ll'Q

'

1(KJ/l)
""

dY

(2, 6. 5)

Y+2Y(Y-l)f.:j(-l)[Y-oh'(m~dlr'

'

'1lf d/Z;;, I I 2' mac'!; _t>!:;!att 9' JI! 2 Ji:,)!; I;( E ii-ti!! 'Mij(l!j' fs] ' IJf ij Iii!lllt!iH&1J. f Jbt (2. 6. 5)
lllHt:!J

ch~(- rr;)y
-

#'hJ'h'<N/I)

t--

.Q '

dY

(2. 6.

<h'("f)in<

(267)

Y[Y +oh'( 1d) 2J

6)

.l: 'i!:lRlt 111 ill tt A 11<:U l1i !I: i"' if .!Jf 111! l1t fl!) '1

t- 2 ~h,oh'(~)- 2 [oh'("f)tnoh("f)

l'filt1'11t1'1J !\ld"if flll J:ji 5Giii!J1 A-2ld 9'1l<:lt8'Jiii!J1 A. J;\ZJl!dA11<:.~. j<j:jl( Qt ll!i Ll # , RP
Qt

A. - l>h
fliLl1l<:lli!i~$

A.!A-(Qt/#)l2ld jg

A.
A= n:d[

(1
d)

T chi T -2

'it ( 2. 6.

(2. 6. 8)

9) ~!It A.IA-d/l

J[h'("d)t
c
T nch"d
T~o. 5932sh'("dj']
T

Jiil ~Jlll Ill 2. 26 <t'illl ~ I l!fm. lhi di z;;, 1. 5 l!j' ' 11: (2.
A,../A=l

(2. 6. 9)

6. 9) or Mit;!J

O. 441 l/d

(2. 6. 10)

RP mi dll Iii;\;, 1E1l<:~'l<J'li:ll< Jiil ~;\l!jj!jjj Im. lhi di1-1 at ,A.IA- o. 57, lg$. tl;W.!i\ )f!-lll:,
Rmm~n~m~~~*~~~
X1rJm 00 2. 22 J'liiji B'J~ll!ft~;lJ!t 11<: Jf fllj , :)f;{'i;,\!!ftJ:jijtjlJl 1!19' !li!~fli iii , fil ~*1f iii::t1'f
.fl' ;Ill Fol itJ Jf . J'li Ll
IJt !:le RP !t Aif .ey i"' ill if 9' L' itJ lt!:l<l' jlj'..!g fil t1'*1f-li!: , ~ ffiJ Jg! tt:!I'. B1

2.s.2

Jt

----------------------

''"

I 0

o.

t::~

'

A.,IA
0.6

0.4
0 2
0 0.4

o.s

1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0


dll

Ill 2.26 Il*iliillt$ .C


v

I l><lIE~~>IJ,

Cn l l'Eltl~~>JJ

=v,,tosa+v~sina= - ~[~cos+ ~tsina J

~ -t [~~ 11+l<<ilff' + ~~ li+~i72JY l


_
-

["P.+2ddp_]

~ /1 +Hdll)' ax

CZ

I ay

.. 6. 11

""' 'lli;IJ pc, 'y) Ell" ( 2. 5. 16) !fl ti:,, r;l.i\. !!'A/Jlt1*.f'1tA*!'li1J:\t'tF*I' l!filii fl'1 Gtl<J ;<;

t=-1J1

+4( ~ 1)if: ~~;.


1

X=

(2.6.12)

Jflf xt <2. 6. 11) li't ili fi'Ji&ll!'. v 1-l:A (2. 6. 12) 1!\?t Z. ~hi! A.IA-dil Iii! Ji< irn [!J 2. 26 <jJ Iii! Ji< 1
fi!iii<. Eil 00 it ili 'lll:r ~\f M~)J (I<] Jio(<;j nr ~ ,l!J:Wif ( 'lllf! 2. 5. 3 l\') 'FJi ~ 7)(ijEi&ll''li:~!f (i<Jti
OJi;JW:k, tf~Hl<Mr dll~2 m'Jf!.
xt r n.I,\>\: # l"J , Eil oo 2. 20 nr Jill Jil:l!/Jltl!l<.!\f Y !iill:ill'. -it. 1->l: c2. s. 12 i xt ,. llit {l!-ij<fi*i'iJ:
.r~O,fl\!I!! Da<ey )1$'il)1~

v,

..

~-ti~) ,~ 4~h(th~ cth~)


+ ..5L. i:: '- l)" th "'Y .... md) + th (y + md) I
4 rf>dh.,=
Zd
2d
.

+ __g_ f. (- 1)"'(' cth rr(y -

md) + cth JT(y +


2d
2d
t>l: 'i'i!>lfifl'J!l!r i'fJJfi, #fF'll!:l:itl!k, 4- Y -ch (rryl d l .OOH~

4 t/>dh ::::'i

1* ill

v = .......9.... sh

'

Z<feih

'.:2' [1- f
d Y'-1

2rh1t'

chztr~-Yt

2ch21l'

chz2rrYi

md))

12. 6. 13)

(2, 6. 14)

Jt\;>\:f-l:A<Z. 6. 3lf!\5tZilt
(2. 6. 15)

A.,/ A = 0. 7226

(2. 6. 16)

101

2. 6. 4 t hi ii: # lil)l] llSJ 7.1< ~IB& ill


Jt r--t.\\\ fl:if fiil rll oo 2. 23 ilJ 9i!IJ!lil Vli!Jet!!l;' Y 'lll!:i:ii !fl: (z. s. 19 Jll! ii< !'1 ffi nm 'll'.
~t y ".!tilt~'i&JHt x~o .11HSJ1:<2. 6. DilJi!l

- - .l.lh
_g_ cth tryl

Vy -

'f'V

R LJ
~ [ th ncy ~ 3md) + th lf'(y + s11u1) J
c
I
c
l

,/.lh

"

"'w1

+ ~h~ [th '!~..Y...=..ef./; -:::...3 m'!/;.~ + th !~.Y...:f' ef:![...9.~':!.2 J


2

+ .._

.z; [th ~(y -

5d/2 - 3md) +th

n(y

2</>lhf:'o
l
tl:JI: 'I' , .R 111!-0i! M m ~ o 8~4l"l1!, jfff.'i!'llti':l!l!
Y =ch

+ 5d/2 + 3md)

(2.6.17)

?.?.':.Y.

(2. 6. 18)

(Z.6.19)

t =

#.I"
o. 3201 Q

(2. 6. 20)

Ill jg;';Jt!Jf'if fiil Ii' 5l0!'1 llil fJH'! ./31 /2 .~. {J'J 7]<. i llilll't 1'o 2Qt//>h, Jli VJ -t .\\\\':if fiil {J'J1)( !IK%1:
$1!
A../A

i:!; -t\liJtll!

2. 6. 5

o. 740

z. s. 5 11'Jlilt 'i! ll:!f! Si !li!!H~ 111: s% ,

(2. 6. 21>

i:!>Jih!l 'f if fiil J1i. 5i; 'l'lll.&\\ll' '"1 lfrl;L

)!7.f<#lil)l]llSJ-1!!'.}'!l}t

'i 'f i '.11< Jf !lt BIJl'illl WI.Ji )il:*ffl , llJ ffii ~tl1'.11<if fiil il'J fflottJ!rrlii\ itJl'!litu It~ Jlof[:i:
-!if ;@:JC il'1 , SI l!l l:)t!li ilJ l!l 1411 l!l T JL.\\\!liib
D*ll'lli~JCil'1'.11<~%1:*l;'ff.lllt~~J:il'1mn~4x~.~J<olll~ffin~l;'VlitQ

lilt lE It , 'E Till ~ti !EA lJltWrll l!A if l JJ l!s !EI" if )Jii'IO il'1 at !ill , @tE iii! lE '.11< ffli Jlii lR fit i:!>1' ff fJ 'I>
l!l'm 4'; T , ?!f l!l A./ A xfE'l>x~. i!1-!li!!HE!& aR '.11<1llli)l-il'J Jl,1'JJ!iikt!!"5 fE'l>x~.

'

---- __________ _...... ..........

.....

, ...

'

102

Ji.i:i:tll -t; Al. Jf i"I iJ 7):!lfljffUl'liJ l! ~) Jl,{oJ R TJG*, Jm ;<'\I 2. 6. 16) "11 cz. 6. 2ll !iii 5J<.
N 7):!lll!l'z ${\C m'it I"! iJ J1fiif lfi:tl: !Rii. llilxt if~F9llfu3( fl\ ~FJ11 'it fl'l 'I' . 7):~R~ $1l' RT d I l :fl
ll!lll' d/l iJ tt W.l!lt it 4f 3l'l1!#1Jli~ 1k~lii& ll' /iii!;.( llC~!il! 'II' l"l'lf -ii il'J 1'! /lil'L
3) l'f li,\\\ :f'IH:; .\\\ l'tlf 1"11'. ~nm 00 2. 24 P!ifi JIJ il'J. if Jl> ~;! i!l:tl:!E i1l1 J:L Jm J!!'l' *lli<ill
~ ftll!li . is: ;t; 13:Jl!I 'I' "'1 i111 #1!1\'1' HHIE. IE llCl!!l!il!#l"lil'J 1'! /lil'tA fll14 liU IE llt, l'f B !&%~ il'J 'II'
i"l 'I' ,1f lt~~ Ji!!3( 1"'*fl'-!i!'tt7./< jf i<ilflE i11! 13: 11'! (!IJ!!:ilt'E'!I! it , ffil iii!)!.. !l'd~l!!ll#\ ?E i11113:il'J ili
1!1#1;\:Y,!lil1J,, J!I' flil l1t il!!i7.l<!ll!i& $. lltl!;( ill:l!til'Jii'ilfH!!. iiE n T :!. - !Iii
4) "'"'1 il'Jl:t
l"Jf[ 'l'Jlll ll'J:fii& f~1!<$. fti 1!<$Ji!!/L fl'l.!E"1P.~14il'J f' I; ( li<l!.l -t-111'~
ffil 'f!ltil!' Kh/ ) !E"1&a!! T IJil~'ltil'J ljj t. ~ .'i&'ilt:<l!IJltl!itil'J 4f i"I c!J""1i il'J f(i 1!<$. J!l 2. s 1'
'l'lill ni!I! a~ ,4:: .\\\'it'll' i"I il'J-1'11lo$5t~IJ ttli.l'!:xt # l"I ta J!l~!il! 11' liiJ ii! LB 31 %tu 38 % 1I! jj(J,(
:!. - .\\\ 'l'ljji!iJI Ji!'m:ll: if l'llil'J l?U Yil'tfill ll'il'J Jf 131 ilC RP -li.iftilif ,tt!t il'J ~ >llill'f. 'l'fi\J #Ill
.P !'Ii 1!' r"l !/<ft il'I 1' lit!i! 'I'-!!' lJ , -t:." xi: if'. ft <jE "l!1 ll' >1'111 .R 1i li .\\\ >'\ jjl(J!l !l<!il! il'J =.cit
z=. l'f iJHt 2li ~71' ~Ji''"' ut .1ll!~t1'l '1J4\'i#l!t !!I "i'ill il> l?U ct<i!l'ff z~!1!l'5t1JT.
5) l'f V"J:5t1JT 'I', Ji!li!if!ii! i'IW. .!ff lit illl llilt1iltll.ffi fill:!. -J11Ht ii! OJ!. !&lltl!! 'Ji , ifn JI!:!!'!!\
jl!j i'!lt il!' l'fill , i!Ml' 1Jii4 ili il'J'lf .J:: ft 1!<'*1"117Jcillli&$,t1'Fiil # i"I iii .ffilt
VJ lt;l!,;E li1I iJ.
ffil !'Ii 111 il'J !!'\ ltilt li!.;l!,1~ !l:iili !); ~ il'J , ljj 1111JEI1'I l: il'Jl/111!1!
2)

*.

**

*Ii\

103

4: ~fr !B oJ( !!1> fl;;!) ii; tm: 1'! 111:-it ;If llH1'J i!'l l'f >Jll\ ;If II. -it Jlli 'l\< :It II."11 !fl '1-1!'~11.
1r Jll; 'l)< :It 11.Jllt!ll!l!!<tt 1lii I\!:" :Jjll\ (1'J -fol :t Ill ;If Iii ,1\f ~IJ ;ll!;xt ,. !! llS:Jil:llH!!Jli ti: lil'fV !!It
lil' ff<J 1f Jf5 ~ !!! Jl! ;\l ll'il!i ill: l'f ;Q 11.Jti:l'I! i'f 1X fiil 11!.X: Q if-1-it! Ni'kl'f ;\7" i'f 11: tll'J!i" :t ;If f!I! ,
~t '' i'f lX it!N i'ki'f roJ Ill , ilJ -it WI ;\1 !1.1' /!ll JP. fiil llll!!1T >J<:!ll! '8 ;ii!; Jl::ii< 1111 !E Jt!Ni'k i'f ff<J *l'ifl , ti\
s ~!fl !ll:noll!Oll!!i! ili ;;>;:@1\f!ll! li'1 !l!tttllii:', ~~IJ li!!ll! roJ Ill 11'Jil'I. 1f!ll!r;t:t U'i iii ;\l:ii<:ltJ!l' :ti\!:
7t if l'<it! fli roJ Ill 11'Jti'{iE fli, *i'{iE lfi ltt"11ll!'I!<. :if;::il!{Efl'lll ?l' llli:il'lilli li'J iltl'< 'I' , 51 ili T ;/l'f\t
!fl 11'1 IR 7t 'll' ~ xt , ip iE 1!'~"11 !li.1!' ~. ii;; t\t;\71'JIll IR )t'.Jt ~II. >J<: ll 1' i'f lk 11'Jj/; mi 111:-it jj 11\lliHJ!i

T1fn11'J~~.~~~;l7~~1f*l1'l**ooltt~~-1'B~l1'l~~.~w;l7!!1li~nlli~il'I*
mi Iii )t ;If l'<fTTl*JJ !'1 llliilli
IR )t 1!' ~ ll.1l!,Jlltil'I !JI tt 1'! l\!:j} ;If !'I ti' ~IJ Jllt 1i!' ,f. '!!(;If II\ B<i-1'1' 1f ~ !'J "11 llll (1'J ;Iii!. t: JI<
ren1'11'J:1t-~21!'t#!ill.~ltt.~*~ooltt!'J!fljf1!'~.;s~ilJ~~~nl'l~~1!'lia<J1'ltt

iiiPI!' ;IfII\ lt!ill. llP'V JI> it llli JilJ jj\ Jl-1" '!'kre 'ii. 1'1 'i!' :It ~J 2 !it"" lttbl, ~mi l\!:?t 1rl'< 'I'* j!i! ' Tm lt;\7
MJ\:J!< lilii ltt!'J 1 !l)f*Jt ;If 1', 4'llt:E'llf1i'ffi4'rf<i'!l\ll!! (1'J Fo\>ciec 'JI:!!<. Webcc ll'~"1l Hankel ?J'
~ , t: fIJ ff<J BE ll' 'l'kitiEJllt ct! -it Jlli 1!':1111. <t> 51 ili l1'J {E !\;ill fiJiltie ll'J JI;' mi l'l !!J! 'I' ill :t it;\7!!<tt1ii
l\!:f};Ql!l, i\!i i'tltt:trl'<. ~ ~ 1!':1:;\7 r;t i''l l:ll :il':lt;\7 !1tJ1 li'111'~ lfiltt. !!~ 1'Jl'~l!i ll'J l!Pli
Jrll\JiliXt !il(1'J ii'_ifl I'~ I!, {If )\j Bi.Jl'1!i! ilJ:ii<1'!1 }ll(ii'_li) liiJ l!JI! (1'J !!.
4:llttEF*~~"1liefilff<JllliilliL.~ll;'IJt~111:-it:lrll\tE4'r#it!Nffe#T!'J!l0itlt"1l*
*It, JAW 1; !fl -it ~?i!ltll."11 IR jf Jl'~/!i: :ii< ll1lf mi 1'! l\!:)t :tr 1' !1iJ\ T -'ii!!!! ill: li<i "11 F II! l1'J

:tr/!i:.

3. L 1

!1<$:l!ll~

~in- -1'1'!! lfL ~' ~ ili f'il Ill}.. 'f J\<:iJi. ~ ff~% ~;a: !ltl!i: 11'1 ;!1;4:11! ;t . i!1: ff iz: !ii o,,;;,,,:; 1,
!'J -!11'Fff 1Jt illJ, ;(E x ~ o;iti;;\l l\I -!l\it!N ,;( x ~ L !11: ;l7--i!lll1'Ji'f lkit!N, llil!'il!I L 9 11' J'Ji>t

'.l\l ili it"> lf!.1,;~ mi l1'J !Ell' 1\JlllJmT,


(3, !. 1)

p(x,t)

ap
[ I t1x

I,, ... ~=

+hp]

~~L

2)

(3,

~0

(3, 1. 3)

p(:c,t) 1,~v = F(x)

1; T :ii<i!tlill:1' f'iJ Ill. !\;flli!!!E!lt:IJ 1i1ii ltt p Cx ,t) ilJ ili'ff 'J!::lljf Jlli, NP

(3. 1. 4)
p(x, t) ~ X Cx)T(t)

-- ----------------...........
....

J,

"

ret:

104
1~A:lf!l!<3.

1.1 li~
1

d~X(..r)

X(x)

dxi

dT(t)

(3. l. 5)
di
Jlt 7ill! 1':!Lii! fU1'i! i\lJ '!!':Ii x fl'J Pli'l!1. :ti J!I,R Jl:Rti'iil'l!'t!: t fl'J iili 'l!1, l!lif!i:l<'!f Jl:JIZ:;Z mH: iiJi
l'l i21 ~~ "'f 181-1it!il[, J! 'IL'll /P J/lffi. f!lf :lfll! <3. !. 5J1t1911JIZ\!!" t :!fill, -1' :lfll!Jl:
=

XT<t)

(3. 1. 6)

1'(t) = e-xfi

(3, 1. /)

5>\!!"iti'!ff17< {i![Jl: 1' t '1t ill1'f 1fll ll1'1; SZ<i'Jffil. fll Jl: c3. L 7l 'II H: , fcll 1''if"ill:>l! ~ x
~- 1'.LE ifJ , it< - P' ~~fl! 111 "i r-=at T er i-o. ffii l'lii:'.itill:. :!l-1' Jf!I! Lll>tJ!Il'H1"14';;;

it7Ti'il cs.

dt:;x~1.')

+ 132X(,r)

(3. 1. 8)

X(i:) l,,~o = 0

[1

(3. l, 9)

~: + hX J~=L =

(3. 1. 10)

J!I 1" ;lH'f C3. L 9J ./11 ( 3. J. 1oJ Jl: ffi (3. 1. 2J ./11 (3. !. 3) 1'> IJ; 8'J , J! 1' llli ll!J f'l Ill! (3. J. 8J C3. L 10) f!F1'!l'liE{i![ lriJ Ni!!. J!Ji!! fcli :IJJ!I )',if< j'f '1)!)$! [ 12: il'Jf911,R.ft l'r!t JI[ $'1!1 p 111..Jili!!:!!!!f ii!B'J
{i![p- p.Cm - I 2... ) iZ @jt ~:il;~B'JiJ!!l'I' 1'~liEil .l!li!!iJ f'Jlj{l'Jf911 X (p., x l Iii' :'i.li*liil llli 8'J
~liEtil!lllt. Ol'ii':ill Tl! !!!!!!fliEil!flt!l'liE iii '1!1. 1Rlli!1\\f1lt~1!\!111, ill JEJ1 p<x. 'JJl.ffTJirJ lf3'lt
w

pCx.t)

L:c.. ~Y<t1.,,x)e-xP!;

(3. 1. 11)

)ll.f, 'l!1 ' ffi W liLliH'f ./11 !l'liEJii!i'l!18'J iEX'.'t!Jjill ii!, :'ii Jit fJl llliiE iJl -!Ji!lt!l'liE {i![ fiij 11!1 StmmLiouville lfiJ ll!ifl'J iE'll'tt,

3. ]. 2 Sturm-Liouville

fq) I! S\J iE~ !1

i>: i"i lilt tt fl'J !l'liE {i![ Ill! llli ill Ll T-:IJ !!i! flt J!I J'1. ii'< j!f ;I! 1i\

d: [

p(x) d~~x) t [q(x)+ilw(.x) ](,\,x) =


A,

d~A,.x)_!-A 2 (A,.x)=O,

0,

a<x<b

(3. 1. 12)

.r=a

(3. l. 13)

:r:=b

(3.].]4)

.T

B 1 d~~x)

+B~(,\,x)=O,

Jt 9' , A, ,A, ,B, , B, 1'9<111" '1!11J'$'1!1 A;J[;j(o,


Jii!i~,

t13'.JO<Ca,b)fl

p(x)>O.w(x)>O.

], [ I/;( A,.?.:) ]

Jii~ pCx) , q (x) ,w(x l VJ]>t dp/ dx t\j :'IJJ!tj;fl'J

1'i\!!Jii!i!il![,jt

d [ p(:x) d(A,.rl]
d.:r
dx

+ q(.x)(..\,x)

mrJ x~ rff l!l:l!!"1'1\l'tiEii!i ~ . -< .\. .x !flt . ~ U.,,, J J'f 1'! cs.

L[.J
L[,]

"'<

i.

(3. 1. 15)

121 "l"ff IJll;

+ .\.w(xl.

- 0

(3. L 16)

+ l.,w(x).

- 0

(3.1.17)

~ Ll J:C:j'(; !Jzll'! t1 " ./11 "" Jt>ltl llll. 'Ill!

l 05

(3.]. 18)
~&,i: ( 3. !.

18) 8'J J\1i't!b\ x -a :ITJ x - b nrrr!R6l-, ;fiJ JI! ill !lj\gjl('f <3. !. 131 'f1l (3. L 14) , xl:~itlm

6)-;lg~. p)f (!.I~

.,
J

(3. !. 19)

Cl. - !,. ) w(x)..dx - 0


0

(3. !. 20)

J:w(x)(A,,, 1 x)tp(A,,,x)dx = 0
j;\ (3. 1. 20 )-iiE l'lj:J

3. L 3

-r S~urin~ Liou ville fiij lM1i ~*f-OE.Ji llttl: !R fij (a, b) pg m''tx wCx) JE5C"

flas!~lt:rt

ii!:<lJI T !.\' liEei'i'!tf!'l .iE~tt \!.!$. 1!\il'J liil ii1"31illll ii'.-ll!!iff :S: c3. 1. 11 l 9' f!'l~ ii'..!l'lt, .!j' ll!!/rll!C3. J.12);jlllt. 'ltrlilt8'Jfiij$-1li!J!IJ/r1li!C3. J. 8JME'i'f p(x)-w(x)-),q(x)-0 8'J
l.\'i!!d'llfll'. l'i ilif .iE'll:l'Hlsll: C3. 1. 20 >9' !ltii! tt w ex 1I+ ::f J!! '.El tl1 np lff1' (3. 1. 11J9' 1'!'1f oo
~ x <P x Jllli Ji!.\!.! r ~ l\
(3. !.

N<P.J -

f:cxcP xJ]'dx

21J

cs. 1. 221

fl:n AAJ lil it'!R6l- ~fiij l>l:l'i!i!li. ;,\/Till Ji!.!'<~ ' ll! 1 iV~'IJJMr'kf'F C3. L 4l f~J-..< 3. J. 11 l111

F(x)

I;c14 X(j.9.,.,x)

(3,].

23)

lll 2 iV!llJl:'f f:xcp,,x)dx t'Plll:itJ:iJ:J!lfill,:fiJ!lliJ:<3. L 21Jf!'l!liJILJl:NP111tl1


c.,

f'

I
N({;/,,,)
~X(/3.,,.x)F(x)dx

(3, J. 24)

ilfl\'lt c. 8'J{i![C3. J. 241ftA.C3. 1. 11),jJ!iffB'Jil!Jtixl:


""' ~,;,
xlf'xc"
'lFC x ')d x '
p( x,t ) -- ,f,je
"' X<P
N(fJ.,)
,.,.,,;;:.
0

(3 . 1, 251

2: fl\-* .1115t ~ '!l'tl.!< ll'ii~ <tit~ fit 1rw.lit it 1,"' F!f lilf ~ r<il R!! 8'J !.\' liEw n ,!l'liEii!l ;Iii 1"
'It 8'J i'!R!!. rw JL 'll'lit!i\xt::F ll'! !'l 1*: iJIJ IK iJIJ:/E::i: 1"111'1~fT-*9'
wttfll 'lt m.

3. 2. 1

"*iE;;;

:Jl'.llSJ5J'll(

1l ltX1C:!jl$'i*:i'lt6)- !f W. :/E JiI !!J ~ lffi .Ii; 9' nrtJ'l\':1: 6J- ~, X1'f J6 jl( fit iJ1J , :If W.ilt'i\' /:I( i!'J
:lrW<L ' 17l1lii!!I~~~9''.Elt!H1crf,

~-------------~

............

106

if.p + if.p
ay1

dx'

+ if.p ~
azt

) ilt
X at

(3. 2. I)

i&t !EJJ iili illt ilf ii! rr ''.lit?t )II; , :It Jl ,,i:mi r ,
p(:r:,y,tt;,t) = X(x)Y(y)Z(z)T(t)

i~AJl'.(3.

(3. 2. 2)

2. DB)f!l.-fJitl 41-:tff'1

+ XA~T(t)

dl'(t)
dt

(3. 2. 3)

+ aZX(x)

= 0

(3. 2. 4)

---dy:i_____ -+- p, y (,}')

= 0

(3. 2. 5)

+ riz(z"i

= 0

(3. 2. 6)

).I

(3. 2. 7)

di:x~x)
d 1Y(y)

d'Z(z)
dz 2

+ j1' + y2

(i

:tfl'i! o. z. 3>tti! lltrOO !'! ltli:i18'J (3. 1. 6l , :ltffl ~


1'(t) = e-ii~, = e-i(..1+~+r1J,

iii! :tfll! (3.

(3. 2. 8)

z. 4> ( 3. 2. sl A1f 1ltr 00 il!lil!J i:t 8'J ( 3. i. s18'J Jllixt , .!!.11!1ill:>!!'?t7*1:tfll!8'J 111:11!~ l!l iE

lt iili illt .jijj #< ll': willt 'If lilt jjii IB: J>,'iX1 Jil;i-5! [;;J 'Jt ti; J!1f Al 8'J , ~Hll !I' 8'J?t )II; 1lt tt ~ - .l< 71J )II; 11!; 8'J
! iiEii , :tt ilf 11l l 1J i 4to11i\l111 !it ill . :ll' :J;!;i->e r'1 ~ tti!xAl ri: !$; mu ?t l*I 11t 'lti!i!~ 11'! , ;i;
ffl 1l) ffl IJl JH~ tlL l'li ill ft ill: Ill'~ l!l .iE lt j1l1
Iii tt ~ Jf l'i! <3. 2. 4 l $li l1'J il!i4'11\1.
t V.( r 11'Jlilf 'IE 9' . l'lifll1!ft tU i'l-f'ililf. ~ IKl>,'i/liEiii 1l) llli11'J/iiEiili illt, /iii' 1i1i1'1l /ti tt ,!f J'J
JI,\ Ill ajJ fi'J 'Ii< ljl , Ll fl! 'f Ji: Ill

3. 2. 2

*lt

fij 11.M 1&l!l e~

~ ii'it Mi

mL - J' 11' flt in oii'illJ , t1l: l!l Ol'. tr- .w: 9'. -Iii ft'I :OO!llilf. iilror ?J- 1l! !It~ -t-!fHi<1!*iiE iii. roi
llli.mili!li!fn-1tlilf.~1J~iiE1iroJ~A1l~~~%lilfn1lAl~""'-!llilf.~.
ill: 1'E ~J>,'i o,;;;x.;;L f'l 'ii1'11!iii'!"i!if '!"fi/llclilf.. WJ Ml ffi;IJ Jl-;(f; }J F(x) , J!!ill!lil!sll! c-.!!';ll'l)(

i;!l JI! Jlfd'f , ~r >E !!'I roJ 11.!il') '!i ii<


ifp

1 ap

axi=x

[ -1, aap
x

O<x<J,,

at'

+ h p(.x,t)]
1

,,..~

[t2 ~~ + h1P(X,t) ];:=L =


l>(x,t)

L~o

= F(:r),

o,

(3. 2. 9)

t> 0

(3. 2. 10)

(3.2.11)

Q,

0~

:r ~

(3. 2. 12.>

ill: 1- [OJ JI!)! St mm Liooville i'] llliffJ-1-f!if l/l1\'lif! , Br p(x) ~w (x) - l ,q(.r) - O, -13', ;1;/iiE
iii illt X <fi. ,x )J'/,.iE;l)'l1'J , :Jl; Iii ell (3. !. 25) 'li<ii< , l!l .-o at, p(x ,t) 11~ 'f W!lilw 'It F(x) ~1')
iifriJ!. 00 ~;!: (3. !. 25) fU WMlil'i'f ( 3. 2. 12 J")ll!
(3. 2.13)

107

!fit\ Jl!d3: 1'1 ( 0, L) Pl'lf )E 5l !') ff ii: iiiii ~ F (x) !111'/i liE jJIJ'l l!li !') ~ 1iE iiiii ~ X (fi. , x) 'il iii !') ;lf; ~
ti'.. 1l) tl liE'Jl <Churchill, 1963), .Rlif ili~ FCx)f!l dF ldx {Ekl:~<O,L) pg;tl!l;rt?J-ll!i!~, A
(3. 2. 13) Jjf;!!iii!'Ja~apTI){E (O.L) pg F(x)i!l!;:!'Jif}-.di x <&~T FCc) 'RP ;il:(3. 2. 13)$:
Jr, ~ Jt, ;il:(3. 2. 13) ~!IFJ:ilH!l T ii 1't'f 13:~ ( 0 ,L l pg !'J-1-1'1\?J-:i\:J!l!~t, J;l:l!!:Ji!.A. ff]~;m,
Ef;fll!li Fourier ;i:~i
IE'll'tl!

p(fi tl - f:X<fi.,xlp(x,tldx

l:Z'Jl'tl!

X<fi.,xlp(x,tl - ~ N<P.) p(fi x)

(3.

,z:,

2. 14)

(3. 2.15)

ti' j\] i!i''ll' :I. ill: 1'!!15}'Jl'~t~'f Fri Oif IL11' 'I' !IJ !!1?l-:i\:N<~ :;Jt m~!lt;lr1'i!Ji!f! Ill fi<J ,
rill lE 1-lll!!:i: ~I ti; - "' !l\5r:il:ti! xL ~Iii\ J: ill:Ji!if<>l<P!i\lllt If! .I: 'lli pg W:
;ral'E Iii! M**ll!!ltlilf J'l)Em r~ll!l <s. 2. 9>~ (3. 2. 12 > mp<.x .t J - x <.x)T <l5rlil'll::lli'l
!Ii ll!ill
lJ; '1' .t

z- .

(3. 2. 16)

(3.2.17)
(3. 2. 18)
[ I, ddX
X

"'llif tt <3. ]. 2s >if> tt !'J ll' t1; ~ !ii<tli

+ h,X] x-L -

(3.

2.19)

*.!In $11 s. 1. s 11 mill. rllii !'J if %-;11''ll! !ii tll 1<i'iiE iiiii

~. 1<i'1iEflfl!lil:~~rfll*!i!!Jt:;J:.
11 il!OliEliilil: j)jlfJ!i!il!lJA\,{E:\!!!f.;lid'fC3. 2.18)fiJ(3. 2.19l'f4' H,-h,ft,.H,~h,/l,,
~H:!t J'H!id'f 1lJ''.!l'

mt

(3. 2. 20)
[ - X'. + H,X.].~o - 0
(3. 2. 21)
[X'. + H,X.J.~, = O
p'ltr P.Jll , ;lr!ll c3. 2. 171 fi<Jli!!Jl:fijl:J! c:.ill !Ell; iii ~f~'9<ll; iiii ~. 4X.. (x) = A..sin/1.. x+ B...cos{J.. x
ill i:!t!f.!f<('f (3. 2. 20 ! fl! (3. 2. 211 'A; ti; !t'l!c A. - H,.B. -P., fi!i l;l W.M'!iE flfiill!!! !'J1<i'1iEPli~;l1'

X.,(x)-/),.cosff.,x+H1 sin/3,.,x

(3. 2. 22)

2lil!l'!iEll ill'i\<3. 2. 20)-(3. 2. 22)1ilJRiPJ'l;l)Et1;1<\'1iEfl . Ji!T7ll:l.flllff'Jl!!

1V(fJw.)

J:x;(x)d:.t- =-

kf:x,,.X".,dx

(3. 2. 24l

Mt\<3. 2. 241t''iliff5}lill!RJ}.Jt:f;'i\:<3. 2. 22!ft1',l'il5}!1ill<!ittll


1

N<P.!-("'+ffi>(L+
f",,,
1

(3. 2. 25)

H,

/Jl..+H~

)+H

; J:Jilt M Jlli!J Jll el:% ill

:=:"' i!J l'f il<i'f111'% mii llJ iJ<J tlf liE!ii ~le tllliE ii!i'lll i11 'lt . !!* li'lltl\ ,'!

NBllJKffilml'fA~XE&"'m1';1'm~1J<Ja.1nllJ7MT~fl
(3. 2. I 7) {E x - O 1'll x- L !!tlt! l'f il'd'f 9 "'-'Fffil m-; l' iii tllliElii!i 'lt. tllliEUl.1'1ll\l:'lt. '!I; fil: , Ill

it" ,

rrll<J!OitPTillll:C3. 2. 22), (3. 2. 23)jill(3. 2. 25J~liUlJ: H, !li< H, "T~li<5t~:k


illJlt11L 'I'll! 3 'Ill ilirr lf-t-rt: +, 1: llif -1-JJHl'liE iii 'ltii<J
l'llif -1-J,;tlfliE fl[ p. llf
IJlll)Eii<J 3:2,ll;'il:, !ill I fr'!' p. IJflilll!Eit'Jcle,ll;"Jj!,Jl!jflgfi!!il(3. 2. 23). '!<~ H, -H, -H .<-pL,
B~ llL, WUfilli!it'Jit'WJ ill z~crgt' 1'll z~ [<'! B B/'112 11-l'E ~ Kl'i![m,, (m+ ])"] ,m ~ 0,
I , ... lll<:l.r.i<fflil! llJ il! 2 :l':lll 5 rr IJ<Jtll1iEfll p. !! ill "'!l*'lYit'J Jl!;Hgfiji RP /JtanP-c !li< PctgP
- cffl t!L i!l 'l'!ill 6 ft it'11'fliE {l[ ill ,;np.L~ OWI IJj , ip P. ~=IL ,m~ O, I , 2,. ... ill ll;Eftit'J
tll1iE {l[ ii. Cf it fl,~ 0.
2 JW!il 9

3.1

d'X

~"J;ftdx' +P'X(x)~O,O<x<L.'!l'~l'lillJl.!lifl'"F!!

1'flflltlt X (#~ .x l .1'~1'.l (J,.


11'

i'I YI

'}

'
..
5

,\\

II

[-X'+H,X},.o=O

1'$fiEii~ XC{l,.,x)V.t~

1* "

(I(

X,. = {1.,cosfJ,.x+ H 1sinf1,.x

p L=fJ.,(H1+H2l

t~n '" ~ {?~

[ -X' +H,.A"JT~a=O

X.,=cos~-(L-x)

X'l, .. 1=Q

f],.\anf/,.L=H1

[ -X' +H1XJ~-o-=O

)(.. =~111/J.,(L= .i)

.Xl~-L=O

{!... ctg{l... L= - 111

i~Mo=O

H 1Hi

X,.=co~f!,.:c

[X'+H,X]x-L=O

ll!!U'J~l!l

. !Ii ii! I! ;') :tr "

[X'+H,X]x-L=(J

X'

~j'Qll; N (/1.,)

{1.. tan/3ml=Hi

llN<P.>

I-Ii

(fJ.\.+H!ll L+ftt+Hi, +H,

Pi +-Hl
+HI) t H1

J,(fJ~

.&;.+HI

LCP~+l-l\)+11 1

Pl.+H!
L+({i%+H!J+H,

-
Xl,-o=O

X.,=sin{J.,_;i:

[X'+!f,XJ,-L=O

{1.,ctgf1,.L= =Hi

ill+Hl
L+(PL+lli)+liz

.. ........... ........................................................................ ...


6

X'

l,~o=O

X,. =cos(J.,:r..

X'

'1.~o=O

sin{J.,L=l

X'

l~~o""O

X .. =~0$/).,x

Xl~wr=O

cos{J.,L"""O

Xl~ff,=O

x.,-9,nfJ.,,z

X' lx-L ..-Q

co/J.,L= 0

.x1,~,=o

x.,""'sin#~x

.X'l.tl==O

sin/).,,L=O

T'~<f

'

r
2

1
11.,.,,.olir<J<f
P~=o)

109

giJ 3. 1 il!ffff l'HKJl/I; O<x<L "'1 -ilMe j!;l,;;\tillr:, IRJl/l;l'!iliffl )\] ;filf7J<l!ll'>, 1'JM! lli.!J )\]
F (x), jj\Jj( JR Ji/I; i'l !li.!J :it lP pCr, t) (i<) :J!<J;!;)'\,

i.l: 1" r~ Ill! 1111 'f 1!< 3. l 9' l!! 6 fi "'1 till$, l1ll Jtt ff 1'l' 1iE Jl!i ~ x. ~ coofi,x, !il' 1iE 1il
P.~=I L, m~ o.1,2, "' 1lil~~1ilil~)\J 2/ L(M p,,,CO), l/ L(M p,- OJ, fi.l:!i'i l!HtAJ'\
(3.1. 25),fl!!li.!J:itlli

WI

(3. 2. 26)

3.

z. 3

*~PH!Zfle'il-tliiltilb

M'f JI! Ji! )\] >P 'JC flli! IR Jl/I; o<x< = 'I' (I<) ~P ~. 11111! iJlr:
!ii 9' 1'J i!il !li.!J ;lg F 1x J , ;It Ii! lfl fiij Ill!"! '.!ii .ll\C

rf.t._l'!J:
ax1 -Xdt'
[

l1

~$

-Ill! (l<J li\

="' ;'\' 11'. ill!'> ii\ f'f ,JI!

""<=,t>O

~ + h1P ],.=o =

(3. 2. 28)

O~x<=

(3.2.29)

0,

p(x,t=O)=F(x),

(3. 2. 27)

>

Ej l: 1J 1\' ~fl'( ' #Zill: '.Jl::llt:iJ- iii! "J i!f lJt filJ iii l;t T (t) (I<) !I\<)\]
T(t) = e-i

(3. 2. 30)

ilif 'i' ll!J'l!':llti!i lt X CP, xJ!il.@ 1''111'l'1IE1Jl[ i\l l!i!!,

~;; + fJlX(x)
[ - l 1 dd..X\.
~Hi =h1/l1,:tt.TtiEW~

O~x<=

= O,

+ h,X(x)J

O,

>

(3. 2. 31)
(3.

z. 32)

;;U

X j;
X(/i~:c) =

ficos/3x

+ H sin{3x
1

~ l'F J: 'j~'lf .11' ll!liili!iiElflll: (3. 2. 32) !!Ii Ji!/rlli! (3. 2. 31) "1l Jt!l'hl'<:f'f ( 3. 2. 32)

(3. 2. 33)

J;\C"' !ill ilillli

tll , J: - Jo 1\'~f 'f ff flli!B:J!t(l<J il!Ei;O, Ell 'l' l'!iliffll!ll'>il\i4"'1flli!1111 , flr !if.iii~ 9' "'1 P Rft i'f llR lllll!it
(I<) Jit;l;ll:{i[. !P j;fjif jlL flll'Ei! >P 'JC'1! 1?.(Jl/l;mrnt<r J!l'i> x ~ L JIJ:l!ll'>il\ i4"'1 llo!l!IJ '~~ p "f Jll(.11. 0
J'IJ M "'1 fl' :It c'Jl;'lloil!. ll!i#l!'IM P"'1 'llI-t->P 'it IRJ>ilill'ff t:Jrn. 1!1,~Jl!o l!Hrlit ili !Ii :I:! iii~ P

(x, t) (l<J

-IB!J!'I
p(x,t) =

f=,_,c(/3)e- ir'XC{J,x)d/3
1

(3. 2. 34)

i:i 1-lfllllJi! /rlli!-l!l l!ll'>il\i'f. ilif ;ll;9'5"9iiU\~ ,cJll! fl! '1l Mlil\i'fll! Ji!, f'1liilil\ ('f C3. 2. 29 l
f1:AJl:C3. 2. 34J,!ftili

Fix)~ r_/<P>X<P,xldP

(3. 2. 35)

111)!: T' J~ X IP ,x )dx ~ ~ Cficofix + H, inPx )dx fF !!l l'E J:Jl: l'll ill, :flj l1l flriif 1\ tt!'J JE.l(ft
'if4"1il:~

110

(3. 2. 36)

1 r~ F<xJX(P,x)dx
c(Pl - N(P5.,
~;:!'.(3.

(3. 2. 371

2. 37li~liil (3. 2. 35) .ji~il\'-"

F(x)

J;., o\"M~5l[f~./Cx')X(fi,x')dx' ]dfi

(3. 2. 38)

it< '-":l!:tE 13: lttJ Co,= l pg l! liZ5UIJ if :It iii!i 'Ii( F(x l Ill *"1iEil! rJ Ill ll'J *" iE iii!i 'Ii( X Cfi, x) ~ff, ll'J Ye
ii\ 'it. R 1ll! FC<l fll dF I dx tE 13: 1'1 co.= l pg;! l:Jiil'< Jt lll:it!ll;, Jt lll:li:'*tli'iBtEl\:iJ 11/f J!,(.tl'li.iJLl'J
il!JE51., l!lJt IF(x J Idx #tE, Ji!~ 'ii: (3. 2. 38 JttllltJ'L l!l Jt, 'il:: <3. 2. 28)-.; ~.t!B' ill T Ji!:if'f
13:Jlll;<o, = J ~J ffJ ~1-m Jt'll:AJ1, n ~Jll!IJ<J Foud" 'Jl:Jll ,

J:

iE'.l\:#1

p(fi,tl -

liUJl'A

P(x,t) -

J~~ 0 X<fi,xJp(.t.t)dx

"
I

(3. 2. 39)

X(p,x)~

(3. 2. 40)

,., N(fi) p<fi,tJdfi

!mtEliilli;!l;*li!l:Jilil!J'!:JEl!'i'l'iiJll!(3. 2. 27)-(3. 2. 29),~~1iEiii!i'!i(C3. 2. 33J1~AC3. 2. 36) ,IQ


Jt Z ~ill lll l!i: N ( p) IJ<J fllJ !jj(
1

(3. 2. 41)

P' + H1
ilif~ l!"ill Im J>I !&!: (3. 2. 37 Jf\:A c3. 2. 34J;Jic11!it<l'illl!!il'Jf!'i'
N(fi) ~

p(x,t) -

J~_,,~<P' ~~~~J[f~ F(x')X(p,x')dx' ]cifi

(3, 2. 42)

*" 1iEil! 'Ii( ( 3. 2. 33)' i\i:'!i('?I; (3. 2. 41) fllf!'i''i!: (3, 2. 42) tt;ll;:Elff l'iiJ ll!! (3. 2. 27) - ( 3. 2. 29) ll'J ii!:
llll ll'f'!f.
~~Jl!l, llJ Ll 111 ill x- o kt;!; l!\~~fll l!l=~1f 1Xi!J.J1l>1H'f1i1'%1l'J ~ iE iiN !&fll i\i:!li1. i!;i;
0 JlHiJ 'l'E!li! 3. 2 'I' , :/i' T 1'if UE oo !,!!: X <~, x l f!l lll '!i(IJ<J Jll l!i: I/ N <Pl , BP ll) Ell l'\ (3. 2. 42) >l" 111 JlJf
11 IJ<J Jl!f1'f
ii: 3, 2 lt;f

JJ:ti!;f +P

X(x)

'l'l'Jitl~!!ilf~l<tfiliilll

"~
1

'
3

x=O

il.t!l!i!-:ftff'

[-X' +H1XJ~Q=O

}('

l.~~=O

Xl~~o=O

=O,O<x<=,:i!J..'.l ~ 3 '41

X<P.xl"'11illll N(#)

~lifiiitt

XI P, .->;)

~"p_,.-+H:sin#x

1/N({I)

?.

7 {J1+!1f

cr:w{l.r

..!.

~infix

.?..

'

'

1ll 3. 2 1i!l! '{<JC Ri ;k ll!lfil! x ~ o kt ::\1 Jl'i!IHJ\ ~i!J. J1l ,ii! f.f!E;IJ ;.<i p.. W-111 Jl!l!ll IE i1 ;.<i p.
~ p,- F(x), lil:JtfE;IJJt<'lf p(x,t), Jfitl(; F(x) - p,-1it'!i(ll'J1i\')!i,

Ill

p(z,i)~p,-p,ed( ~I
:11;9', ed(zl ~ ),:

3. z. 4

I: "
1

du

v 4Xt1

JiHi!'1:1ii~Ji<;;l:M;$,(Jt, Oi',~li{ A:l,

~ ~rr1c ii 1c ~~ W. l:l:i l# ;ni

*
T -!fl 11 m13:111'1!1 '1' 3Gm JK !ll 3G ll!!it
ll'J o/!iliE'" . l!;!iE
m: Fu lilf "'a;:
ilHiiJ l!!li!t
L 1 l'i 'I' Yii, 3G 1lit:1il'Jfill'J jfjj:Jt:IJ"1J1!1i'!Xll'J !m ll\lllJ'f Jl<l'ftli!i!o
tE

i~
l'jfl; T ~CTl!!

9.

1i'tti<l m1J nr illri!'i '1' ll'll'J 11;


3. 2. 4. 1

im: jjlJ

{J!['lfl

~~

*.

= !il=!i"PI! Iii l!&lllf.ill

X&'J' "'illilrm'I! fi;J JK!ll, fllJ ftl1 o<;x,;;;;a, o,;;y.;), o.;;,.;,. il'!ll'f JI' 3. 2. 1 l'f ll'Jl(:;ii;, Jt ll!'Je
lit fl'J Iii JI! , Jt lit 3 1' ltlFIH& JK Ill fl'J 1'/!iEii! riil ll!i. l'l;n@ EIJ n@ <3. 2. 4l - <3. z. 6! lit LU 1'illl
J'f.*-f'fll!iftt a<J , m~ 3 -t-n 1o1 ll'J rliEliii ~, o/!i!iEill. fllm:ti:i;r;r E1J ol'! s. 1 -it LU
x c".xi , Y
<P., y) ,Z (Y.,zl , ffif Tttl tll 'it< 3. 2. 8) !lit LU Fo-14:::".!fl fi] 1118'1 lillil'!ll'f 'it (3. 2. 2) '1

*"'

,
) ..., ~' ~ ~' -x(;T.e'.+'iJ X(a,..,x)Y(j3",y)Z(Y,,z)
P( x,;,z,t - L..J.::..., L.Je .,
N(u )N(" )N(Y)
m=l "=1 I=)

f f" f=

"'

fl"

Ji

00

x~u

y~O

F(x' ,y' ,z')X(a,,.,x')Y(j3",y')Z(Y1,z')dx1 dy'dz' (3, z. 44)

,~u

:JI; 9' , F <x l Ji!ofll it'1!E.iJJt1ll' ,

'i'?CAbll\!f!IKl!&iJll:iil:J
X'.I 'f 'I' 3G m!I< 1i!'18: :Ill f;lJ WI- o.;x< = . o<;y.;b ll'J .::ill !J[ iJiJ , Jt ll! '.!!' t ll'J Iii JI! JIM'f iiE Iii ~ X
Ca. x l 111i Jl'c $11! lllJ riil I!!< 3. 2. 31 l , ii\f !!;!iE Iii li: Y (/l., y) 111i Jl'c ff! iiE {I[ riil Ill .'.I! ii:! 'f t 3. 2. 17 J <3. 2. 19 l t; fll1iJ Jt~U EIJ 'f< 3. 2 1'll 3. 1 Jll'LUtl! Jillll'J X <a .x) , l IN (a) Ll & Y <P. ,y l , P. ii!,!/N
J. 2. 4. 2

<P. J llbn!'.1<11!1!1llllllil ll'Jiltit:'it


p(x,y,t) = ~ {""' e-t('""ll!,l X(a_~3.2.~-~-!.
,.., 1 J.~n

N(a)N(p.,.)

u:.J;_,X(a,x')Y(p.,y')FCx' ,y')d/dy' }a

(3. 2. 45)

:)l;'f' , F<x Y )Ji!;'!" i!Ll:: 8'J Wim Jli:i:J )-};ffi".


!llUllK
ilJ ~; t !~>!' 1iJ IM !II '1 t' LU , --t-11' l1l'" ll iii lilcll! ll'J !l'l lif il!l J!ji. .II!!!!! 11'-t- -!Ill~ It;!;~ V1! !Ill
ll'J ii! m!it LU i! R Jl'.l<t it Ll l' JI< f'f ,
3. 2. 4. 3

1) 1Ji'.Jt/J@~1f!);:ll'J I

--------------.. . '

112

2) itl Ii' /Rf'f'J!,frl'): a<J ;


3) ill AfLE:iJ J!,lit't( C:)i;!ifl'ld1'fJBJ!,~ l , 11ti!f J!,J!1-'i! 1"1 'il' lit Ei'J !ifi'jjl , IP flJ '1fl Ell :ti FCx. y,
z)UJ'~~
F(x,y,z) = F 1 (:x)J.':(y)F 3 (:t)

(3, 2. 46)

:<; ~ J:: , :JC ii: x& cc.!f< 1'i< =!I< ii '1! 1'!<5C '1! iR ~ R ~ xt 4il'-:lf l'J 11 !1f 1iE Ell :ti li1 :ti cL~ ll. !1f 1iE
{l[J Jl.11" JE W:n rtJW ~&;1'd4' .Jiil. iii\'E ff] A<J jjljjlJltJ!,oJ: (3. 2. 44) .lit (3. 2. 45 l iKil! littiFZJJ Newman 1!@!Rll!U11!.
3. 2. 5

~~l!li)[~~~~~mt

rm.

Xt r il'IJl\it:a<J !11 '1J. :lflli:il&ieffl'): a<J!W (1. 9. 15 l Elim , oJ: o/ ,q (, .t) I Atl;fiie frl'): !II Jt
ll!! '.!!;:it!!; 'It IM'i' ff l'l: n!!1;;;; :or; ~a lltr oo mi a<i "'ff ii':n !!111~ :If1'l!' i!!Jl& , -1' ''ff tt ie Iii'.~
riil llli"l' ~; 5t!M'l!Z -t <efrlX ~ l"l l!!iolll-1' fr11' ielii'.11> l'iilllli. ?t ~'li!Hr'1'fM' l{!;Fn :ilf '11: na
r ooit lit i1! rr"' illl ?t llf i1 lit fl< in lll lilf ie fr l'l: Iii'.~ lit i9J
:fl' ill! !l;!';i*lll! Iii :If!!1 (!. 9. 15 ) ' :/fWl Ii!.~~ !11 a<J lllt ?t:If!!1 ii

ill!*.

:ffi ill i :If!!1c3. 2. 47) A'J Jl!itlf'i!!# 1'Jt:A'J if~iif fM' p. Lx, y ,zl '5-l!l l'Zff !'): llll:5t IP ti! 1ll'Jll.Wi:lf1"1
Jl!li;! p,Cx,y,zl;tfU ,'i!JKi-!ifitlflll/JEtf-1'*,l\, i!lf
p(:i;,_y,z) =- P8 (x,y ,z) + p. (x ,y,z),
IK4t R pg
1'1:An!!1<3. 2. 47J,mH4
\fipg(x,y,z)+'V'ip. (x,_y,z)+

q(x,y,z)=O

(3. 2. 48)

![~ R ~

(3. 2. 49)

ll5l i1 p, JlHiI1ll'&Wf 1f!!1A<J19", RP v 'p,~ o, F.li il 1::,1:'.ll;Jl!:


\lip. (:rjy,z)+

~ q(x,y.z)=O.

Jt:Jf!!il "i Iiit:lr!!il C3. 2. 47J%'1:-lll fill Ell Jt1l! t; !Iii ,'1:!1:/f lll!lil~i!f lit:lf!!il (3. 2. 47la<JIM'1iJ' Ell
jj;::lf!!1 A<J if-!l'fllll' lR 1'Z t!'J fr l'l: Jf 1"1 !'1 Ji! i8'i;t olll !l!Jil\. Jil I'll p, Mllll !i!.A<J it! 31'-i!H't or !Ill 'i!' J!Z ie
fr vz a<i &.ff <X:lf 1"1,@ "Tm :5tll!! 'i!'tli<
1"1 Wll'J Ta<i ffil !\!ilit:ll&ttnilil c3. 2. 4n if-11\'IM'
p 1':1-liJllliB:/f At1'"f 11llf'1L 13(11' ffl 89:1! q~ 11':ti q, A'JTI!l!B, Hi:!t!l'll;!z-f,t;l1!o-q,x' I
2A. J3: ii) l!l lr!S'11;A jj' 1'l ( 3. 2. 47)ilil 1N '@: '!! lll:iiL jlJI JI! Mlr:l!i 11 l)fj;l;t-'l'! !'ill 'i!' tillllll I !Ji: ft
7} 1iT, W~ -'1jj;:'i!'Jia<J :ll::lf Jil\JE tL, RP Xt q- q,x, p. ;t .. J!,-q,x' I 6A, l!J lit;!i!Jil!, iii q ~ q,x, m1J p.

*ltlf.

Z-jg q 0x"+z /(n +]) Cn +2),l,


:fl'il~~~;!ii61lll!

<'Ell;!!lt Y $!1<1llll!i!>i~ lit liJ !\!i l:J M, lit "T VJ i1!-tl'>J< 18'i$ !11' ffl'):
1e ~:Ji: ifli lit ilJt it :!J!!I , < i:l:~ R VJ
(
) lilp(x,y,z,t)
V ' P(:r:,y,z,t_1+1
~q .1',y,z = X
at
(3. 2. 50)

n!!il 9' 1e'11'1X~ E; atflil :JC~, 1 l!(lCl!i!l!'..'f'!l!n& ffiJ :!l'lt. x& r- il1'i'ifll>, <I! ilJ1iJ vJ re l':?l-111! l!Z
JL-tili! $ a<i ffiJl!i. JJ:JS ~ fiiP~r~lllia<i --tllll"l' 111 it ill!:!l'Jl:!i<'1'1M'. i!t:lflli c3. 2. so) 1*1' i:J r
itl J'f Ji'd4' WmAfl #d'i'

113
3. 2 1i ,q; 11:# ,j\ 'f l*~ lt i'
---------------

[ l,

~ + h,p]
'

, = 1.2, .. ,}l

= f,(x,.y,z),

(3.2.51)

11.Jr.,,J:

lirro

p(x,y,z,t)

[[~ R

F(x,y,z)

J1i'

(3. 2. 52)

:it 'I' ,N Ji!.ill l'Ht'J 'll: , al cm, JI.Ill' JI! ilif r, i'fl!;i&:lf riiJ ft'J .\l<'ll:, l!t llliif ITT fl; Ll r:lf l!<?tl!I< JJll;Jt1'
"111! 11' ft'J f'l m,
-Ji!!l!l p., (x, y ,z) ;E Sl.ft'J-!I! (j~ O, J , 2,. .. ,N) 1C. ;lr()(li!.iO; CITT rili s $'if,) l'iiJ Iii. :::'.Jik!!l
p. Cx. Y,, ") iE SI. ft'J:lf tt <J;,l r!ii h 'l!t;f, l "~"' lllJ m,
p.,(x,y ,z)!i!! r'1J4>1ftt~;!;fii]l@lft'JJl'1'

Jv

p,;(x,y,z)

1 ~:' +
l;

+ li~j

o,

q(x,y,.z) =

h,p,! = li11f1<x,.y,z)

IK~R P1

(3. 2. 53)

3'-W S; _t

(3. 2. 54)

:it 'I', i ~ 1, 2, ... ,N, j ~ J, 2, ... ,N, 8,,Ji!! Kronecker 1'1.\J', 1 4lf 1''f 1"1!@!9 'ff -1'1!!J'l-c1'it
c;~ j>Jl!!<r.:1r1:1:90.

p, <x, y ,z .tl!i!< rJi'U :lrtti>'lt'1> lllJ !@! 90 Ji'1,


(3. 2.
!,

ap.
i)n,

J'I-ilif S, J:

h,p~ = 0

55)

(3. 2. 56)

p,(x,y,z,t) I,~~= F(x,y,z)

2jp.i(x,y,z)

,.,

ffl 1't !tit A S'J:lf $ :f '1!liE an, J:lt WJ 1- Ill* lllJ mft'J l!I< !II: !Jo ilil

(3. 2. 52l90Ji'1, 1

(3. 2. 57)

*tt JI! JW lllJ m<3. 2.

.. *,

so>

p(x,y.z,t) =

L:P, (.r.y,z) + ph(.r,_y,z.t)


,
1

(3. 2. 58)

J: 5.hl ili ft'J 111! 11' lllJ ll!i J<JJ "!Ill ?t 7111!: :1: 1,1;
t!l ::1; -!!! 4> tt :it ;i5; r,1 m<3. 2. 53 >!fl
o. 2. 54) 'I' 90111 t-'f f'l !@!,:)tip :lfli:Ji!Jll ffei'f llJ 1-'l'191i' -1'. ill:!J\:f'l Rll1'EJ$;1J' fil!l-llil?t B
!i!l!l<i'!< T . ilif:lrli: ;,~;;; r~m <3. 2. 55 >- (3. 2. s1> :it:lf 1lilfll ill J1!.;fdtl!IHi;:1rl!: 90 ~!J\: r'1 l!i
<El!l 3. 2. 3 'fi 'I' 0 i'F T i.1'!1lililf rl'lf lil!1!<1!1iF #!lJ '!':,
::/; T iJ! "11 'Erft'J Ai*E'llll , rilif lil-;I: 1'\J. i!itii' ll[Jijt D<;;x,;;;L ft'J 'I' ilif 'l'i'i'!iit illJ, 1!7Jlil!E;iJ ;!;
F Cr) , l!l itl'iJ t>O st, fr !lit !)till. i*$\i"' 1' 1*19. !iit I: '"' x~ O;:t;l!,;FJ!t1.kli!JI! ,x~ L ;:J:iJilj#;E
$. p., Jlt:;j(ffi;iJ)t;/Ji
JlJ Ill 11''1'.i!it p, ~ 0, t!l ::l;il'i p,0 iif Jt& t.p~ p(x ,t) - p, i!!ff\tll:, 'f;IJ'sif<l'iiJ Rllft'J /Ejjoj,1'
it 'Of El JJI(;
Ji,(

J.P.j

a:c "'""

~o,

>

o,

>

0) = F(.;r),

O <x<I~

p(:r,t) l~fil{, =

pCx,t =

!JIJ'l l@ll!f 5tl!I' Ji!. -1' Ill p, (x) 'll!7J\ ft'J iF :If/)(II! :\li ~ IJIE '

(3, 2. 59)

114

(3. 2. 60)

O-<..:::x<L,t>O

ap,I

a.r 1.. filo

=o,

p11 (x,t = O) = F(x) -

11iJl'l!C3. 2. 60)ifll(3. 2.

(3. 2. 61)

P11l .. fil., = O
p,(x) = F* (.1')

6DB'Jf!jl-~tl:ti

x'
L'

(3. 2. 62)
(3. 2. 63)

F'*(x)=F(x)-~~Li( 1-f:)
{3 .. = (2m2i,1>rr.

m=0,1,2,

f l"i i":l<H!Jm * , Ji' X1 =It 9'!!1?till1'i'il1:ll' Fo RP 11J. f'i l'l! ( 3. 2. s9JB<J 1!11'
p(x,t) =

~~L 2 ( 1 -1:) + i~e-Xll!. 1 cos{?.,.r1 f:F(x 1 )cos;J..,x'dx'


-

'...q~ L;
" (- l)"'e-ze!. -cosfi..,x
1
f,). ..... o
ff':.,

(3. 2. 64)

3. 3. 1 'll:ell5J
ill\ 1'EX1 JllltHJ; l>i<'!i "'B<J =:lilil'!Ho!lt7l' ;lrl!iiillff'!!'lt7l'Iii' Xf'f ;lGl!(!lf. ;j/J, J'ii:lrl!ii (1, 9. 17)
'ill (1. 9. 26) 'llJtt;J; fi' .!' '!' ~:l!l!ii or:ey lit
a.'1'+1"+1.~+~-1.:Jf
2
1
8r

rJr

~~Xat

(3. 3. 1)

xi: '!' p= p (r , o.z , tl , 1tl\';\11: p 1'f J!!1J!ln FB<J '!!':I! 7l' 1\1 ,
p(r,9,z,t) = T(t)[T(r,8,z)

(3. 3. 2)

ttAH!ii (3. 3. D mull!

l.[
if'U + l_ iV + 1. if'U + il'U)' =
U(H.2.
rdr
az
,.i~

J_ dT(x) =-A'

(3. 3. 3)

(3. 3. 4)

'tl'dt

r:li\Hl'i! <s. s. u :it lit!U rl"ii" 111!! ,


d'l~;t)

+ XA'T (t) =

115

ifU
i)r 2

I iU
r Jr

nl!! <3, 3. s) 01< ;<J Hdmho\t, nl!!,

+l

ifU
,..i afP

+ ifU

''U _ 0

azl

(3. 3. 5)

jlj:1!1; U 1lfHrfilmril'J-ll'li* J*f,

U(r,0,z) -

(3. 3. 6)

R(r)9(0)Z(,)

1'tAnl!!(3. 3. 5)Jlil!J

_1_( d'R
Rdri

+ 1_ dR) + l_ 1_ d~~ + ]_ dtz + ,1i =


r 2 8d&l

rdr

Zdz2

(3. 3.

7)

'111! if<n!IJltJ'.L. !llli.t15-1' l'l 'll::!ltll'J il lll1*~tl "l''f 'lit!ll1. IP


1 d1z

Zdz2=-r2

(3. 3. 8)

l(. d'R + _!_rdr


dRJ' + _!_ _!_ d'!l __ P'
r1'Jd0Jl

(3. 3. 9)

Rdr~

'-fi'+Y'

11uitHr rr 11: t ?t l*f ,nm <3. 3. 'i 1lf?t 111 J1J

1 d2 8

(3.

Bdli'=-"

l(d'R
+ lr dR)-"
R d,-1
dr
r

=-

P'

3. 10)

(3. 3. Jl)

'1l: JJt '.!!::It ?t Jl!lll li' . ?t 71! l'i 15- 11!'111: 7} nil! 11'.1 illi* l!l<;VtJ /:lj ~u r ,

~;!+VB=

O,

~~ + ; ~~- + (~2 - ~ )R. =


d'Z
dzl

+ PZ = Q,

d~it) + XA2T(t)

O,

O,

sinw9,cos..O

(3. 3. 12)

J,(/3r),lv',(/3r)

(3. 3. 13)

sinYz,cosYz

(3. 3.141

e-x;i,

(3. 3. 15)

'

nil! (3. 3. 13) 01<1'1 ' l!it JiU\i'IF CBes..,I) n!, 'E il'Jf!'I J, (fir Jill! N, Cfirl?tg1j;<Jjf!-,,.ilfljf! =~
l!ft Jl !f;!J( il!li1 ( )\\l!fiii!' Bl), 11; 'f > jf 'f'i!J. fttf ?)' Jl!'lit!li1 ' Z 'f. n! (3. 3. I) 11'.i '!t~!M' ill ; l:
15-?t Jl!n!ll'J illi:it<lil<;j!j!lli! l!l!i'i jlj:JtJ4tn~/:lj illn@C3. 1. 13).!;n! C3. 1. 12 J;j!j It nr l!l :fi:
/:lj, J!1rcli'3J<riill:oll Stunn-Liouville lliJJ!~&
p(x) =r,q(x) = -V /r,w(x) =r,A=/3 2 ,f/J=&

11'.i f!'!ll11\\'lffo }j}( l!l ;ti; !l' fiE il !111JI.if'II!'1'I( r 11'.i iE 51:. tt . l1P 'it c3. !. 19 J Ji!; o. 1. 2ol J!JT ;if; ilif nW
(3. 3. 12 JC3. 3. 14 >Jfll (3. 3. J 5 >tE !!' 3. 2 1'1 'I' Bil\'!lilf l'lit. ff!J!'l '1'1'111'.i Jill Sl!llJfll ii!Jl!.J!'dtll'.i ~
Ill! ,:)1;~!iEil!li1, j\l;!!{ l!l& *liEllfilf ffi '11! 3. I l!lt 3. 2 J![~Jil' /:lj ilSI ti;, 4'l'f il'Jk/i fiiJ J!~Jl;ljlf l'l
Jl !fi!J( :Ifi"il c3. 3. 13 l & 11; l!J JI!. *14' 11'.i !l'fiE11! f'l J! lilJ et 'l I /:lj <'ii' !!Ut'.ll:Jll!Xt

3. 3. 2 !T.!111.111.lil!lSl~fiEilfqjll
$ tElilfl't Ji! !oi!f<:lf ! (3. J. 13) tE1!-1'1'1' fl'l ii!Jl!.*itrtE a<;;r<;;b, O<:;;r<;;b ,a<;;;r<=;fll O
<r< =4 1'I SJii il'Jl*fiEiltfOJ B&;tl;;\fl;J(:ll'J !Jl?t'.ll:Jll!xt

...

--------------"'""' .... -

116

a~r~b

!&!Iii

~JI! lll=!l!J!IJ'il5kl4 l\fliEill fil Jl!i'.SJ Jill

(w~JR- o,
'
r

d'R.11 + l dR. +
dr

r dr

~r ~~~'+H 1 R,=O,

l ~~"+H2R,=O,

(3. 3. 16)

r=a

(3.3.17)

(3. 3. 18)

*n

(3.3.19)

:lnl i!1r Jjlf JJ! ,it l'iiJ Jl!i 11to'liE1iii 'Ill: Jl.:ff I!{ T lE ~ tt
f:rR,(/3.,,r)R,(P.,r)dr

{~(p.,)

rrt

m = n

J:rRE(/3.,.,r)dr

}i(/3.,) =

!#;ii;! r

!ii! 3. L 3 "1l' 9' lJ: ( 3. !. 23) , cj!f Eli ;!:J p }( -'i r

,fl7 t

(3. 3. 20)

1f'Rll. 1JJ jt; ill 'Ill: jg F V l , ffltl 1f

FCrJ ~

'IJ,.R,<P.,r)

(3. 3. 211

J'

(3. 3. 22)

c,,. = N(/3
1 .. ) ~rR,(/3... r)F(r)dr

f J:;J: ft AC 3. 3. 21) 1lJJ41l!ii' jjijlij: F(r I i'J 'Rli\3'\


F(r)

jj R~~{J'~)f~r'R,(/3.,,r1 )F'(r1 )dr'


.. -1

"'

a<r<:.b

(3.3.23)

"

Iii 'Iii: F(r l 1lJ1i!n!!J:J't, x1 F(r J tE B'.Jl)I; a<;;r<;;b P!i J!;J< 11'1 ,Ri'f-'i!!f! 3. 2. 2

'11' 9' M F (x) i'J Jf ;J<

1'1l liil. lffl Jlt, ,i: C3. a. 23 I !Ii tl1 T ri:;;; Ca ,b J l*J iii 1' l!iifJtll-'i!<l*xt, ft:l'71f mw'b" 'Jl'l*,

iE:!e~:PCf3.,,t)
""""' <r,t J
LX-:;i..m:P

f:~.rR,(,B,.,r)p(r,t)dr

~ R.<P.,rl"
=;::.::
N(/J.,) p(,,,,.,,t)

(3. 3. 24)
(3. 3. 25)

tE 'l Illt--t fl\ 5t 'i!< l* x< l'l Fc , ~ Ill ml i:t!k !IE!ll! Oll:lill nit %'iiE ill fiJ 18l 1J 1 iiE ilii 'Ill: , 1\1' iiE ill fl1
1":'111:, lffl :;ig:Jrli (3. 3. 16Jli'J11;:.js:Jll;ll; J, <P.r J"11 N.<P. J Ill J![J;!1-l:AIJ11lJ l'l ill' AT'1J Iii '111:111
li\:lf1'! (3. 3. 16) ;fU J!IJI'. ;l;/t (3. 3. 17) , RP
R,(fi_,r) ~ .4.J,(fi,r) - B.N,<iJ.r)
(3. 3. 26)
A,"" P.N',<P.bl
B,

"" i!.J' ,(iJ.b)

+ H,N,(iJ.bJ
+ H,J,(iJ.b)

(3, 3. 27)
(3. 3. 28)

(3. 3. 29)

117
(3. 3. 30)

"'P .J' ,(fJ.a) - HJ,CP.a)


D,(fJ.) ~ f!.N' .<f!.a) - H,N,CP.al
f!i\'!iEii<i'l'!il'J'l!J!.ifi:<3. 3. 26lf\:A(3. 3. 20l~Pi4ffi'I'! N<f!.l'h

(3.3.31)

C,(fJ.)

(3. 3. 32)

N(fJ.) - f'.r[A,J,<P.r) - B,N,(fi.r)]'d


=

A;f:rJ;(/)..,r)dr

+ B~J:rN;<ft..r)dr
(3, 3. 33)

- 2A,B,J:rJ(fi'.,r)N,(j).,r)dr

'ilJ Ill ~!>ii: B 0 3'I:: (B7. 5l x1 J:3'1::J!rr1'!\:5ti!t;ll', }I' )jiJ Ill: 'F Lil !lli' 8; li'i 'I'! B'J AA Wf 11!i (Wron,kiJ cl:'

*fi:<Bs. D,
J,(fir)N' ,(fir) - N,(fJr)J',(fJr) - -}
~er

(3. 3. 35)

,r

N(/J.,) =

p~c;

2 c;( H~ + P! - ~) - B~( H1

t {J! -

~)

(3. 3. 36)

;t C3. s. 26 l. cs. s. so J"11 <:i. s. 36) lltl!r!i\'!iEiJ!!fiijl'J! <3. 3. 16 l- C3. s. 18 l J'Jixt i!ZB'11\l'iiEi1Hi1, Ii\'
!iE Jio!ll ffi 'l'!il'J f;lJ'I'!. .;!; 'I', .4.,B,,C,, D. :lt~O ill 3'1:: (3, 3. 27), ( 3. 3. 28), ( 3. 3. 31 J .C 3. 3. 32) !fl
ili . Xt'F '1J- f'!> T Ii'! il'J lt! J'Hfd'f i!l it ,Jll '.lf>il'l il'J :IJ'I* i!l:Jl!i::tllJ( H, H, .. 'F"<l' El:= . i'if l:l ill ~lJ ,jjj J;\Z
B'J !i\'!iE li!i 'I'!, Ii\' liE iEi fl1 IE 'I'! l:ll: lii!lli l1U'U 1' SO! 3. 3 ill 'I' Jf! 2 J'lJ l!r l"i lli! B'J i!J.J'I. 51d'f JI! 3 J'lJ B'J
JI! 1 1Tli'<!i\'!iEli'i 'I'! R.(f!. ,r J , JI! 2 rril!m!i\'iiE 1E!l!r1*:1J''!lltl'1 JEil<, xt':FlilixtltB'J ffi;IJ :fr <'ii. IP
ffi;IJ "i 8 'JC!<:'tllflf! , 5''!1!4- ,~ 0, ;;!; 3. 3 li'J 1'filftJll, JI! 4 }'lj ;li;ffi ft B'J{;lJ ft ,:)t '!' , A, B, F, f\l F,
:fr~U'h

', /"'mb
' )'

B~I-j,,-

F\ = Hj
O<;;c<;;b

l&lill

+ fi!,A,

~ J!:t l!IJJ!! l'[Jljt .r~b

F' 2

= H~

+ fJ~B

(3. 3. 37)

1J::i;J ll!=:'.lf>lt!J'!.4ft{'f, 1*!!'1iEil!!fiiJ ll!llij' ili Jin T,

d~~+; ~~+(~-~)R,=O, O~r<b

{ ~~"+HR,= o,

(3. 3. 38)
(3. 3. 39)

"il!'llM FJiilti'J !liii:.t ,F(r J!Willi .IEB'1:*3'1::J{!if~ 'l!; (3. 3. 23 >'I' a #!II< o &p nT, llil mi1f

;c, RP.,r)f'
" a.. ,r )F(r )d r
F(r) = ~
N(!J.,) 0 r~...,(I"

....

,--.-----------------..----
..

(3. 3. 40)

118

3.3

fl#-158~~'+ ~ ~~+( /P~ ~) R,-o,a<,r<-.b

~~~~~~~m~~~,~~IE~ft,~IE~~~ft
Jl'~

----------- ---------------------------------------- -----

'
3

R.<p., ,r)
~IEflt p. !Ji/ill!l1'!!1
~-iiF.iiilt

l'lll-JHfo
-

B.,\l,({1~r)

[ -R (r)+H1RJ.-.=O

R.= A.J,(/3.,r) -

[R (r)+H1RJ.-1=0

t\,(p.,)C,({J.,)- B,<jJ,.)D.({i.,) = O

[ -R' (rl+HiRJ,~.=O

&=N' ,({1..t;)J,({J..r )-J' ,(fJ.,b)J>.',(fJ,.rl

/((r=h>=O

C,N' ,(j3.,b)-D,J' ,({J,.b) =O

[-JI.' (rl+H1RJ,-.=O

R. = )1!, ( /J.,b )J, (fJ.,r) - J ,(p.,h) N,({J.. r)

R(r=b)=O

C.N,.(jJ..b)- D,J,(j!..b) =O

R'(r=a)=O

R.=M,({J,.r ) - B,N,CjJ,,.r)

[R' (rl+H,RJ,_, ... 0

A..J' ,({J.,al- R.N' ,(/J.,a) =0

Jl.(.,=a) =O

R,= A..l,(/J.,r ) - B,.N,({J.,r)

[JI.' (r >+ H2RJ,_,=O

A.J,(ftma)- 8,};',(/3.,r;) =0

! R,=N' ,(f1,../J)J,({:J,.r)-J' ,({J.,./, )]i,(fJ.,r)

R'(r=a)=O
R'(r=/J)=O

J' ,({J,.a)N' ,(jJ.,b) ... J' ,(fJ.,b)N' ,(/J,.a) =O

R!(r=a) ... Q

R. = N, ({/.,b )J, (fi,.r) --~ J ,(ft.,b) N,(/J.,r)

R(r=b)=O

J' ,(fJ,.a)N,< fJ,.h)-J,lft.,b)}i' ,(P,.a) =O

R(r=a)=O

R,= N' ,(fJ..IJ)J,({J,,.r >-J' ,({J.,l;i)N,({J,.,r J

R!C.-=6l=O

J. (/1.,a) ]'{' .({J.,b) -J' ,({J.,b) 1>1. (/].. al = 0

R(r=a)=O

I fl_,=N,(/1,..b)J,({J..r)-J,(/?.,b)N,({J,.r)

'

R<r-b>-o

J, C{J,.")J; ,({1,.h l - J,({1.,1: N ,({J.,a) = o

Xlt'f:l:t~t!J~,

1/l:i({J,.)

/!ICI
'2 C~F1-B'!F1

m.ci
C';B-F 1 J~ZC{1.,b)

"'z c:
"'

M,c.:J
F 1 J~(/>~b)

e~JIC/J,.a)

2 FiJ't({i,,,a)

AB!

Pf,,J!(f!..a)

T"" FiJ~(/3,.a)

"'

{f!,,J'IC/3..a)

T"' llJ'; (fJ.,u) ~-AJ':(fJ.,I))

'

fn.J1C{J ...a>

"'

fn.fl.({J.,al

T J'1<P..a>

AJt({J..b)

Tfil~<fl,.(l>-J' ~<fJ.,b>
-~

......f!.~J1(ft.,.a_)_

2 J!(/1,.a)-Ji({!,.bJ

~- O, Jll~ Po"" O t!i.:11!~1'~1iE {l, ,ftJ Jlit\J ~fif Mi ~:II! Ro ({Jo.r> -1. ffil lit tt'11/N (/Jo l

=Zl<bi-ai>.

~&K<O,b)~X"fr~F<l~m41.2.27F(z)~
l"1 'f ;,,'10 ill'T Ll IH!-1-ll1:5l'Jl'N!M, !*:<: }JlHlil Honkel !!'NI,

iE~~: P<f1,..,t)

= J:rR,(i.1,,.,r)p(r,t)dr

-""" P("' ) = ~
""R,(p.,.) l
&,,:,,,,
N<P.l P<r.,t

(3. 3. 41)

3. 3. 42

JlJ! :J'E!tll>: lt<1\\'liEi1!f'lMI11'HiEl!i'l'l:, WlliEilH1l lil:'l'l:. *l'liEl!i 'l'l R.<P. ,r l $'.:ii! J, <P. "l f1l
N,(~. ,.) ~~tt!ll it, X~'f~lffif']Mj r= oJti;J.EjJ !Y:11#R'!i1!, n~ R.<p r= 0 l !Y:::l>#Ri! {i[, ill
N ,c,) E = OJttii! 'f Ji'; Ai! :le ,1i'I: '.1' flll1'! l'li N, <~. ,r l Jjlj ;;< cltilt 1* lJI: ]I !!!: !lHJ! 11 ~ , '}';,, Jjl( 11\' liE
., 'l'l:::I>

=J,(P. J
'II!~ 1-f!if~ lilill.J1' Jr<f'f (3. 3. 39 l , mH~liEil! ~- B:;,, T?IJJ!llilll::!i1ll IEill.
R.<~. ,r)

P.J' .<~.b) +HJ.<P.bl =O

(3.

;J,

43)

(3. 3. 44)

!19

J'.(fi.bl=[ddJ.(,)J
r

l'll dlll;ll,:~'iitl&, J3. 'I! >;>-1/2 (Wa"on 1966).

(3.3.45)

,-P.,b

ili!~11fliEli!i l&iJ iE'Jl:f. ffi:ll: N(fi.) jg


(3. 3. 46)

N({3m) = f:rR!(,8,,.,r)dr

;!1JJllm_.. B7. 5 !R5i'i~,J:. t>l:PJ'El'lllt

N<P.) - ~[)Ji +

:.b' JJ;(fi.b)

1-

(3. 3. 47)

xt'F , - b '11: jg lfl ::::~Jr o.: it! J'1. !J\-14' i1I' ir>, ~u ,i: (3. 3. 391 op H = o. 111 liE li!i l& OJ Ell >!:
(3. 3. 43 >*ii'. ilil11iliE11i p. Ji!illli JE fl'J:lf j!!jg ,J: (3. 3. 44) opif: H = O, R~ il'liE fl[ fi. ;11,:Ll T:lfl!!
8'J iEili!
.J' .<P.b > -

(3. 3. 48)

Ell >1:<3. 3. 47)il: H-0 ,j!}l'[l!j(

N<P.l - ~ ( 1 -

p;b,) Jo<P.bl

(3. 3. 49)

xt'F ,_ o Til'J!!., p, - o l!!;i!,:-1-il'liE111'.. JZet


Ro(flor) = 11

(XJ P~ = 0)

N(/3,,) = b1 /2

(3. 3.50)

xt'f ,_ b '11:::\1$1! i#!Jrtx it!J'1.!J\-('fi11'J!!. , PT i,\.jg ;;J: <3. 3. 39) op !I =,fl!. R, (,=bl - o.
il'liEli!i l& Ol Eil ;;1;(3. 3. 43 HIVi'i. !->!'. C3. 3. 44) !ii Ll H 1')fll.1liEiii. P. ;II,: Ll T:lfl!!li'JiEil<
(3. 3. 51)

N(fi.) -

r=b

f'tJiCfi.,)dr - 2J':Cfi.b)
b'

(3. 3. 52)

'11: 3 l'!'f' i'j itLJ'1.ili-1'f fl'Ji!'liE li!il& R,(fi.r). i;'liE iii. . j'll/p;l!j( fl'Jj!ljl!j( I/ N (fi.HlJ'F'i! 3. 4.
~ J, 4 fllt~~fl~'.&
+,(/31 -~)
R.=o.ot;;;,r<b
d r+l.1.
r ?~:
dr
,.t.
1''1' Fol;/l.I! Ill!* "F IMf liEi!llll ... liE !l *1;\1111
il''t
1

,.-... 115t1:

l'll'l-11<1'1'
R'.+HR,=O

!llll'~ll<

J.({J.,.r)

!llll'!.il . Jli

l!N</J.. 1

"',. !11'lli
{J,.J',({J.,b)+

-'-

HJ,CP,.bl=O

J';((j..b)

IP.
f,2.(Hi+p.,)-v'

R! ,=()

J,(/J.,.,)

J',(/J,.,b)=G

2
IP.
JtcfJ,,.hl vM.~vJ

.I

R,-0

J,({J,.r>

J,({),.b)""(J

b2J 1:c{)..11)

a<r<= lll:l;l M 'fl! I'!' 36Ill!:k13:~, Ill! 'F ftli';$x~$t\Y J!!. , IP ,_ 0, ;il;i;'liEili. raJ l!liiJ
"'! J!Y.

120

Pr! iiJ P}f >, xt 'f :t '~

?~~~ + ; d~~o + /PRo


-R'v

0,

a<,.<=

(3. 3, $3)

r=a

(3,3,54-i

llR~-o,

*IKJ!ltll %li'J, pll!;l:!;il:


!!it

ill;))- ;/ff li'1 , Iii J!!l lj' JI! 3.

2. 3 Ti '1' J1! 1' F <x l 'I< ;t!; P;

( 3. 2. 38l!l:'Mli'11fi!', 15[11! F<r)


F'(r)

J;~o /3~~~~;r) [J7=ar R,({i,r' )F(r' )dr


1

]dP

(3, 3. 55)

.Jl; cF, 'WfJE!l;j 'l!l Ro flll['l!l N (/3) !fl lll:'f r~a ,;J;iftJ'h'k{'f ll'J!l:'lt! :ilf 1'Efci ilif !it lL fll 'il: (3.

BJ 51 ill 1'1!\5} 'i!'i'I! Xt. ~p <:t'1.!) Wob" '!!'i'I!


iE5t~iP(/1,t) = J:.rRo(/1,r)p(r,t)dr

"""

tx..:cZ:tz iP(r,t) =

3. 55 J

(3, 3. 56)

f"

fl"'o PR,,<P,rJN(/3) p(,8,r)d/3

(3. 3, 571

!1!1'Eitii> 't 'f r~ a !ti: :!J !II" !l:'ift!lhliid'ffllf % li'1 'W1iEiili ll'Hti ill!&. 41" R, <(!r l !! .J,, <P >fl:
N,, <Pr l li'1 lil!1i!l!it. ,I& Fu rb i!!J!.;f,i'f (3. 3, 50 )!! ill .ll;.l\!1!1. ;j':J1l;)j< i'll!;;1iE iili'lk R,, 'f;
R~(/3 ,r) = [/3N1 (/)a)+ HN0 <(ia) ]Jo (/3r) -[{:IJ 1 (/la) +HJ,.(/3a) JN,!( /Jr)

(3, 3. SB)

:jlf R, <P .r1{~A 0'<\

[/IJ, (j3a)+HJ,(Pal ]' +[f!N,((!a)+ HN, <Pa)]'

CS. 3. 50)

it 'f r ~a !ti: :!J JI!:::.!!' lliG Jll-!l:'iliJ!.41'<1'ftlf Ill. PJ ft !l:' Ml:it (l<) lilf l'L

lt~llll!li JI! !'11 'f

N({i)
~ 3. 5,

fl'"!

r=a ill'.

!lftiEiliLtt R,(p ,r)

i!J.Jl'JH'f

1/Nl./3)
{[fJJ1 (/1.i) +HJo(/la) ] 1

R 0 =J0 ({Jr)[fJN, ({Ja)+HNo(/la)]

~R'(a)+HR=O

R' (a) =O

Ro=N1(jfa)Jo({ir)-J1 (/Ja)No(/Jr)

[Jl(j9a)+N1(f/a)J-'

R(a)=O

Ro=No<Pa)Jo(/h-)-Jo({la lNo(/lr">

[Jiji({iaJ+N3Cfia\]-

~ No({Jr)[fJJ1 ({1a)+HJ~(/)a)

+[fiN,(/la)+HNQ1)3a)]) " 1

o,;;,,;; =Ii! lit 1'E l!ll tt fil Iii< .I\ 'I' lilf 'IE 111!1" :1G '1i! ::k 18: J1il
d'R,
I dR,
drz +-;:dr--1 .. ( 1~m

<!iif :!!: !l;j !l!1 F(r) 1" r


'W !iE Ji!j 'l!l .J.( ~r ) 'fl. 'if; 'faJ

V' 'j R,=0,


;r

(l<) ~~~Pl 'If l'L Jl. IQ))'

~ Jtl 1f 1'1

~
O>qr<=

( 3. 3. 61 )

I~ F (r )dr !fl~~l&Jlit m~ F (r) 1lJJll >:?- 1I2 it)

r..

F(rl =

121

17PJ.<Prl [f~.. H

J.CPc')F(r')dr' ]dP

(3. 3. 62)

tE l: >!: 'f .Jil /7 F(r li-\:'li\' F (r), J!1Jjlj.

F<r'l
fll J:>J:iiJiJ f l!I'~ t

3. 3. 3

f~ PJ.<Prl[f. r'J.<Pr'JF(r')dr']dP
p~v
"="

(3. 3. 63)

J!(~};!!'~X't, ~11 (Ji;~ )lfankel ;!!'~,

j[;!)'~,p(,9,t)

Jii.;!)'~,p(r,tl

...

f~ rJ,(pr)p(r.t)dr

(3. 3. 64)
(3, 3. 65)

19JJ{lrJp(.B,t)dP

2JS i!il ! iCiJ in!

ti' i!f Ji'. J lt'i'. tr. 'I' li'J 1*iJE11! 1;1Ill!#iJIi.ltJ1'\'f'J!(5l"il:~M 1'! Ji'f, iiJ !ll :lt llll'!t:ltl! i<f!lf IE
h5l.~lJIKR4!:lttrWm~o3i;ll'J00%~~~*1
'I\' 2 'Ii! i!f 'I\'. a<;;r<;;b a<;;r< = j!ljl<i' lli~li'Jii!( ;IJ,
a<;;r<;;b Li! l;t911 ii!ti:IJ ~I!\! -lit!'%. ii{ j!ljlillJ>J ;!} jfj .C:!l'! :i\'IJ::i!J. l'll!ld'f. J!tl )it !1' r"l l!li iiJ

1' lft

~
?. - l f!E
ar + lrat--xa-
ap

Jr

+ H1P =

?j/: + H,p =

b,t > 0

(3. 3. 66)

r = a,t

>

(3. 3. 67)

r = b,t

>O

(3. 3. 68)

a< r

O,

01

<

a~r~b

p(r,t=O)=Jt'(r),

(3.3.69)

:ll' l~Eil::lt li'Jlli*~ Ji'! 3. 2. 1 'ii''!' J!Jflt, at i\iJ 'l( :ltli'J Iii!& flJ !\/ T Ct l =exp C X/l!.t J , m"i'. l\iJ :lt:lt
iii 'l'i'.R ff R<r J. fll '>": (3. 3. 7J- (3. s. 1o) iiJ~, MJ:!l4'11l !li-iil'Jf, r= ,= o, = p. Ill ~J <:! liJ'il'.lll
fl'J li!i!& R, CP. ,r) ;fiHXF~iJEil! fi;J Ill! ~J f!if
d'R,
+ _J_dR,
+P'R
(3. 3. 70)
0
dr1
rdr
.. ~-,
=

dR,
- cl;:-+ H 1 R~

dR,

(I;:-+ H 2RQ

lffl JE;IJ

<>:

(3. 3. 71)

r=b

(3. 3. 72)

a<r<b

(3. 3. 73)

r =

O,

O,

p(r ,, J li'J )t,;,;1 ::\r


~

ptr,t)
1'Jlllmilil~l'f<3.

~c,.,e-x!..'R.<,B,,,,r),

3. 69lmtlf!l

.
F(r) = 'L;c.,R 0 (/1.,,r),

x~ J:xt i!'J itl f1' Ill :I> r

a~r<b

(3. 3. 74)

f:rR, (p.,, Jdr , 'f if'J Ill IE3Ctt 0. 3. 19 J)it ti1 *!& c., l'f{-\:A>l: O. 3. 73l

~Ji'f\4

---------..

"'----~--..

----~.

122

P ( r,t ) = ~

R,(fi.,r)
-<~f' 'R (a ')F( r ')d'r
N({i.,) e " ~' 0 /<'m1r

(3. 3. 75)

,IJ;'f>tifliEil!i'lir R,(fi.,x)1'U/!J& 1/N<fi.Ji!Jci!! 3. 3 ll'l 1 ff)jl( ,_o !li'lli .1


R 0 ({J.,.,r) = AoJo(/J.,r) - BoNo(fl,.r)

(3. 3. 76)

1
rr<
p~c~
l~(J:5 = 2 C~ - B~F1

(3. 3. 77)

(3. 3. 78)

+ H2No(/1,,,b),
Bo= {3,,,J'o(f3"'b) + H2Jo(/J,,.b),

Ao= /9.. N'o(/J.,h)

Co= /3,,.J' oC/3,.,(1) - H1Ja(fJ..,a)


Do= {J.,N' a(/3,.a) - H,No(/3.,.a),
~-M+m.

c1.1.1a>

~-ffl+m

a<;;,<oo ll! l!il!'iJ~iilJ tE :lC~;;\:J!!!Jii! 9'f1lilt! ffi:iJ 7} '11:'1; F (r),


:lrl'i:it!JI'- ~it' ;I; li!ll'l l"l l'!!'l''.!;1 $;

~ - --~-- ?.P.
ari + l.rJr-XJt'

- ifp

- ~ + H1P =

a< r

< =,t >

t> 0 fl1 ,_a Jli::'l\Jlil=-#!

(3. 3. 80)

r =a

Q,

p(r,t '= 0) = F(r),

a< r

(3. 3, 81)

<=

(3. 3. 82)

n7t R< ;1c i:i: 1;1; , PJib! ;i;: 5t '1ii1'J EE :iJ i1'J J\l 'Em: 1'
p(r,t) =

F(r) -

f~,.,c(jl)e-tfR 0 (j3,r)d(i

f",_,
f

(3. 3. 84)

c(fi)R,(fi,r)dfi

OfiJ Ill 1o/liE il!i tt R, <fi, 'la~ JE3'i:tt1'0 l\l:'!;I' N <fil i1'J !i[)l'A; <3.
c(/3) = N

(3. 3, 83)

~/3) ~wr

3. 59 l , 1l]' !if lli .l\ '!:I'

R0 ( fJ ,r' )F (r' )dr'

(3. 3. 85)

Jtt>\; f~A (3. 3. 83 Ji4 EE:iJ i1'J %3':!1'1

p(r ,t) f:~" N~fJ) e- xfl, R


=

0(

fJ, r)

[f7~~r' R (/3, r

)F'

(r )dr1 ]d/1
1

(3. 3. 86)

;I; 'l>f!'liEii!i'lir R, <P, r) flJ l\l:tt N <Pl rJJ ci!! 3. 5 'I> ll! 1 1911: lli
R,(fi,r) - [fiN,(fia)

+ H,N,(fia)]J,({Jr)

- [fiJ,(fia)

+ HJ

(fia)'N 0 (fir)

(3. 3. 81)
N<fi) - [(3J,(fia)

+ H,J,(fia)]' + [PN,(fia) + H,N,(fia)]'

(3. 3. 88)

O<;;r.;:b, o<;;,<= lll:Jli\itJ D1 ijlJ 'T Ill ''E#!il'lfl'J;t;'!l;;j(lli Bi ]Jj} '1f, ltif X1'f 'f'i"J iri Jll Jl'~{4, R Ji\t3J<1'l'iiEru 'Ii:. l\l:tt1'0 fi'iiE !ill>f'Jl:i'il i>l'l'< 9':f i"J iJ'JfJ ff:ltif El.
,11;1':~~

123

3. 3. 4

j<i~f;ji~C!J=~i#in!

Xi f =!lifit: iliJ. Jt /11!'.l!'JI!: il'J!li JI! .1'\-1-'.!l:ll: ii1!i 'li'.i1'J1:i!!U!l Jl!i;js:lfl;f;J Ill (3. 3. 12) - ( 3. 3. 14)
i1'J Jr>"' ;ii;'* m: ii!i 'II'. '* m:11v111 m; 'II'.~ or fll 'ii! 3. 1 - 3. s li: Ill "E: m;!ll ~ "-' Fo l'l'~ Jm ap ill=!!!
( )'J Ji!$!!!) 1'1 l'i!ifl'J jtfi':lfl. ;js:1J' l\"Wf J'E'.!l:ll:;!J (r .z .t) il!1(r.8,t)1"i1'!'1il'J!i e<JJ\'ll( f5l l'l!.

)\)'* r 1:i l"1 ;!J>FJ!i !Kilt a<;;r<;;:b ,, l"1 :tJ:lf fllil !Kilt O<;;z<;;, ffl =!t!i

!II:~ (r, z, t) 91JillillJ

W:illl ,f!J lil l.li.fJ Jt-;ffi :ti F(r ,z) R jfift II'!lf & FillJ'f ~Jl!'?f< .till)';:ti Jll:C:!il:illl'>li'd'f. *iE
!fl rai l'i!i 1SJ Ill :illrf ,

rlp+~(}E+'!..f.=.l?J!.
1
2

a<r<b,O<z<c,t>O

(3.3.89)

p(r=a)=O,p(r=b)=O,

t>O

(3. 3. 90)

ilpl
az ,-o ~o.["P+HP]
az

t>O

(3. 3. 91)

a<r<b,O<.t<c

(3.3.92)

ar

m-

az

at '

.~,

~o.

p(r,t=O)=F(r,2),

?t Jl!'.ll::lll:il'J!li Jl!ill'llJ:illl'>\ ca. 3. 13) - (3. 3. 151 i1'J1i!!! .;It 9' ,,~ o'' ~ P' + r' ;ii; lflJT~rJ:;\1 R,
(/).., ,r) ,Z (r~, z):fJ:l e-x<I! +c;),, f.Jf !;;.\ :j:(:,7t ~-~ley ,$;

--

p(r,2,t) = ~ 2:c..,.Rn(P'.. ,r)Z(Y ,z)e-i'p;_+,;),

(3. 3. 93)

.. -1 .-1

1'J!llf!Jlil!fd'f(3. 3. 92lf~
(3. 3. 90

J:rR 0 (/3.. ,r )dr,

(3. 3. 95)

fF }lj 1'1--tt. #1'1 !!l ;ii; jJl"f. 'Tii! Ill* Jj!j:


c.... =

N(fi.. JN(Y")f._.f:_ rR"(,8,.,r)Z(r,,z)F(r,z)drdz

(3. 3. 96)

!-.t'i'\ ft A (3. 3. 93) Nil ill &;t; ii!i'l'!:fl'J%'i':lfl


P( r,z,t )

~ ~ R0 ({3,,.,r)Z(Y.,z) -xcll!,+7!>i
N((3.. )N(Y,) e

~::::

f',,_J'

r' RoCP r'JZ(Y,,ilF(r' .i)dz'dr'

(3. 3. 97)

.:-~

'<\ 9' , ~liEii!i 'Ii'. R, <P., r), !ll;'ll'. N (fi);fll~liElli I'. ill 'ii! 3. 3 JI! 9 j'J"' ,~ o lit Ill , NP

R, <p., r) - N, <P.b )J, <P.r l -J, <P.b )N (fi.r)

(3. 3. 98)

1
tr2
j3~J~(/3,..a)
N({3,..)- 2 J~(f/,,.a)-J~(/3.,.b)

(3. 3. 99)

J,CP.a1N.<P.bl J,(fi.b)N,<P.a>-o
'*iil'ii!i 'Ii'. z cr.,x) 011:'11'. N (Y,) ili1 ~liEill r. flJ ;I; 3. I lll 4 tilt tU >/if ;I;"'

(3. 3.1001

x 0x 0L ili1 P. j}~ill!!<:

~Z,z,cfl'.IY.,!!P

________________

....

124

r;+11 2

(3.3.101)

zc(~ +Hi)+ H

NCr.) =

(3. 3. 102)

lll Cr, e, t l 9'l iJl!f;IJ TE lil!'J'E'!l'lit :1J (,, 8, t) !'JiiliJJJ at, llt'.ll' lit ojjjjlf fl"l'lf f'itl!O! , D iiP
llJ!!1' l!ll II IP 0<0<2' il:x\ITT !Ir ili e8'J i"!IJl'.!fti'i'. R lif !it ili !LIJ Ji!Jlil Jill;/'] 2. !'I Jlil Jill ill 'iii'.
2J Iii' & lllll} llfil II IP o<0<0,<2' il: !if !it ili o~ 0 fll o~o, jJ: A'JJ!IJ\'.Jk"f J:l:Hl.R IJlli'. ll! 1 f'itll
6!, ~ J!. IIJ!it a<r<b ..TE r-a fll ,~ b J(),!,\j j(;lfj~,!!<J!IJl.Jkf'f, ;1; ii! llil' Ii'! Iii oT'!'J Ill\
311!

0
r ~+l"t'+l~-l"t'
m-2
r Ur
r' (}()I X at' a "-..,r <'o, 0<0~ ~,,rr.t

'

p(r=a)=O,p(r=b),

t>O
a<r<b,o~e,:;;;;,2tt

. r(r,8,t=O) =F(r,6),

3 31
(,
, 03 l
(3.3.104)

(3.3.10.5)

X'.i'ril: f'i!il'ifi . l} JI!; '!l' :It A'J !~ !1< ;1; l} JI!; fl'J :If Ill 1'11111 f>Z A'J ill <i' Jiii' Ill A (3. 3. 12 J, ( 3. 3. 13 l fll
( 3. 3. 15 ) !it ili ' ;1; l\: 3.t flll ll]' "'I Ji!:
(3. 3. 106)

;fijfflJkj'i'c3. 3. JOSJ"fil

I; I; (A,sin>IJ + B.,cos'8)R,(#" ,r)

F(r,0) ~

(3. 3. 107J

(3.3.108)

/1 (0)

f,,sin v&d0
3

2.:: (A,sinll61 + B,cos!lfJ)

f"

= 1t',

I,,

(3. 3. 109)

co.'> 2 v8d6' = :rr

sin~i.#de

= o,

A,=~
1

"

f''.f

f''

~ cos~.,Odo

(0)sin).18d0,

li

(11 = 0)

(3. 3.110)

= 0,1,2,3,

~f'. !,<0)co.;"8<10,

B.= lf''f1(8)d8,
*'AC3. 3. !lllf-\:AC3. 3.109){1!

21r

'1'

>-J,2,3, ...
V=O

(3.3.111)

125
0

2ir
(3. 3. 112)

5':<3. 3. 11211')(3. 3.

!09lo!ll~t~JfilT'1J5':(3.

A,sinllB + B,cosv&

3. !DSJ:t'ili>!llli'

= -I

({! )cos11(8 - (! )dO'

(3.3.113)

f, (0) N ((3. l ~ f <OJJ!) Ji!dlil Jill J; 2a ill li!i 'Ill:, WJ ff

[,4.,,sinJJO + B.,,,cosv~]N(/i.,) -

Q,1,2,3,"

II=

_tj\j!(f iftjj! ~" N ((3. J'if ttl!:!lJ

f" f

1-f'' f~
n:

frl

ll'~o "''""

f"

f(ff)cos11(0 - ff)dff

lf=
0

r 1 R.,.(/3.,,r 1 )cosv(B- f!)F(r 1 ,(J)dr 1d(!

(3. 3.114)

1%>\:C3. 3. 1!4l1tA<3. 3. 1061 .~Fa14ffiflil!'l!1

_ _1_f,f,R.C(3.,,)
-,,;.
'1f LJ LJ N(~ ) e

P< r, e,t )-

.. -1 ~o

. Jll'-oJ,.,_.
~ r"

..

r'R,({3.,,r 1 )cos1'(8-f!)F(r',ff)dr'dlf'

j\ 9' !lliiEli!i'lll: R. CP. ,'l , i\1:'1!1 N ((3. l !<.( ll. !e1iE fl[ (3.

(3. 3. 115)

Eil ii! 'lll:ill ii! 51.Ji<tn ltrl'f ~i'f ill !I! 'l2lli ii!,

Eil ill l'Hki'f <3. 3. 104 Jll. a<;;,,;;b, !\'1!<!11' 3. 3 Ji; g ff, "Ti'
R/(3. ,, ) ~N. ((3.b )J, ((3.,) -J, ((3.b) N, cp.,)

fi!Ji ((3.a)

rr'

N<P.1-2 J:<P.aJ-J!<f3.J,I

(3. 3. 116)

(3.3.117)

ilil *'11iE fl[ (3. Jl!: ~Ff .li1!1! ill iE1ll


J.<(3.a)N.<P.bl-J,((3.b)N,((3.al~O

(3. 3. 118)

;<i'f i!fl 2 ~ti!'JBP~ o~lfe;;;0,<2a ill ml:fr llll>ll' B:Ji<ill l!L illJ , ilf !II ii'. o~ o tn e~ o, !It il'i Ji>!
ill ltrl'f ~ i'f, alltil! 11!;$}II! li!i 'Ill: 13(0) Flfl/ll JE ill llllt?t:tf@ <3. 3. Io Jtn ltrl'f ~i'f ill Ill: I' 1iE ii'! f6J

Ii!. 'if 1.:;t;!llftE li!i'lll:, !111iEilitn i\l:'lll:>!:llllur w!II' 3. 1 ll! IH ,:;t;$'1'ul'illit'1'l'l''ff;\J; T , i'l ~ax-1 ,
i$1:11Hll B:>.< <a ,b J .;1;;;, FolliJltli!
- f, f, R,(p.,,)13(>.8) _,;,
(
)
Pr, 0.t .... L..J

.. ~1

..J
"~o

N(ti )N(11) e

..

'"'"'

f'.'_J:./ R.<P. ,r' )13("8' JFCr ,O' JJdO' dr

(3. 3. 119)

;It 9' , F (' , OJ Ji! f1J !ti! ffi fl Jl- l\i ,

1111111: T '!!' 111 J; <.- " ,t l 'Ill c, ,o, t l i"i !Ji iil'. liil l<l J!l , ~ '!!' 1111:1 <' ,o.z .t J ill l!L ;;iJ f6J Ii!1B ilti!l! YJ ill!
11117'
!lll.il!l'1 l(I 3. 2. 4 11'9' P.Jf f"litli'J l:i!I *"'~ 9'!111.lRlll ill11lf* lil<lll! l'E l!lllt~l'.t'F ,;\"' l8J !'f jj\i
JI! , l);~_t, Eil I/ls': (3. 3. 97) .'!Jl: (3. 3. 119) 'l'Jtt' /:lj , ;J'f;J Mili!i 'jj( F(,, z) ~ F, (r l F, (z l >J. F(,,
8) ~ F, <r JF, C8) .JIH"'a !!II:: i1! ill Ill lit Jl!, j!!j !>1' ~jfl Ml Ii! :fr~~ Ill /:lj l!1 Iii o!ll !Ill. ill!i'i!IL

----Ml--------------""'''''

~e$)5};i]"

3.4.l

9. I 7l ffi C!. 9. 29) !fr Ill.. .1ll! l'E '!ii l:IH!ll l' ,

J!I; ;J2 !:ii !19' !'J ~lilt Ill :)t 111i El tll 5" <!.

1-1-(s1n i!P.)if+1.'!.e+-1-:f.e+Jrr 3r
rtsin 2ip afP
risinip (kp
9' (}tp
1

ilP.

(3 4 !)

X at

'

;II; 9' 0 Jll:Jl'j rlJ Iii ;Jl:jf rliJ f!l , l'E xy -'f i!Y .tki\ x l!il:lti. ~Jll:ilii 1~ if! ;JI: i!l11'.1l fll .:I!: z 1!11 !; Jl)lfil Iii 9'
r 111!fl'J ;IC Ill '-1 T i .t:'i'l:cl:'I Jllt>l!ilil 4\.(!'J ll'lf: .'JI ;!Ji fl'! Cl 'l\':lt -oo'P 'fJll:111'i' ( 3. 4. l)j\'
jg

:t.e
+
arZ

ilP. + r~(l -I

r Jr

il'p

2 ) afJ'

+ _!_
.'!.[c1 r 2 d

'J "PJ~ _!_ ap

i'l' ~ l'iJ .t 'i'l:li'l!! !!'! 2 'ii! !'I .f: '111Jll: 2/ r, J! 'I'Ji!: lll fl] !'If ll!\ :!le !'I 313 3't

C3 4 2l

X '1t

*SIl1! kif ff! 11J 51':It

'

'

(3. 4. 3)
~ljjfjlj\(3.

4.

a2W

2)'.!l'::<J

art +

r1a\V
a; -

lW

+ rt(l

i1W

i) (;1Ji

+ ,.11

J[

d (1 -

/ff)

JW]

a """

xJdW
a

(3. 4, 4)

Jl!l l'E 't1f1i (3. 4. 4)J1!jj' '.l\'.Jl?t~. iil?t ~ Jf35'Cjg


W(r,0,,t) = T(t)R(r){i)((})M()

(3. 4. 5)

JW1rli! cs. 4. 4H} ~Jftl!,( F !l.l 1itll'H}1r1ll\

d'R2
dr

d~~tl

+ XWTCt)

di~~O)

+ mi8(0) =

- 0

(3. 4. 6)

(3. 4. 7)

+ _!_rdr
dR + [P'-- I+!)' !]R- 0
2 r

(3. 4. 8)

d[(I - ,) -dMJ
+ [n(n + 1) d

-mt- M -

1-,t

(3. 4. 9)

;II; 9' , P,m ffi n Jll:111:J!Ll&!:JLB'I. 1f1'1 (3. 4. 6) ffi ( 3. 4. 7) B i~ll!\1.1\o 111ll\ (3. 4. 8 )Ji!: (nc-1 /2) flit
!'.I JJ! 11! IF1f1i, ;11; 1111;1!; J,, ,,, CPr l ffi N . ,,. <Prl 1,1; 1)111! iJ; ii1i '1119'.I flit ' :f ::<J'lt'lltlll;'!l1at, N, <Ar l
ilT !!l J ., (Jr H"t 'II'. 111"! ( 3. 4. 9) ~ j\/ ii 'ill JllJiJ; lill<Legender' s ass,~iated) lll?t jf ji, 1': 8') 1111
p: () fll Q: () Jt~tl ~jg n flit rn 17'!!'-#;ffi Jf! =#iii 'ill ll!JiJ; ;'JI! iili '!11, l'lf Ll 111'1 ( 3. 4. 6) -

(3. 4. 9)B'Jil!i>l"1111!S#l.111ll''
7'(t):

r1:1(0)'

R(c),

M(J,

3. 4. 2

e -xtl
sinrn8 1 cosrnfJ

J "+ u~ (Ar) , N.+ 11" (Ar) ~ J --112 (Ar)

(3. 4.10)

P,() ,Q:()

fl.I i'..t 111.i ll '!D i!J il Blii I:

l::it'ltJl?l-Jll!B'J!lillL 11!l!c3. 4. 6l - c3. 4. B>.&;II; il!i>i"MJ:tJ :!!: ~ {8 l'lf f,\l!!; B'J , R 1i111i

127

c3. 4. 9 l Ji lt111:'1< fi P: < l ,Q:' ( J iltrilif It ltl\:;i:J: , l!i! tE t'li llPlif1/' !iL
1't:It;, Ji'l'f "1Ji'lli);f11Jl'i. RP !Efl p 'ff J\ll loJ I!! o;JC'X;, Jt Jiii i'J1i Jf!:tnlll<3. 4. 7l :;i; iJJ l!i! ,llii:lr
1"il ( 3' 4 9) 'it J; 'll-JJli fl'J 1!11 it i'!l :Ir 1"il

a~[ Cl

i)

~~]+ n(n +

l)M = O

(3. 4. 11)

Jit:J!:Jl!iil! 3, 1. 21\'9' Surrm-Liouville ]f1"il(3. !. 12 )Ji'l'f p() = 1- ' ,q()= 1,w() = 1,A=
n ( n+ 1 ) fl'J -f'!!tll!*ti!f % , Jt /Iii 1it lj( n (n + 1) Jl!it!l1'iE@' (n 'f IU Jl!ij !Iii lj(Jll<Jt lj() , f:5I ::\1 ~ Ji! z $
'ff llJt j;j:B; "'1 fl'J ~ Jli , RP l'l?J!' 'it 111!1! ::\1 o-, Jili ; fl'J ?!!''it j\l; l!il ::\1 + 1- - l. 111\'l (3. 4. l D fl'] i1
P, ()fll Q. ()?}~IJji); J; n !Ji'il!-#1"1! 1f!=#!:\11JitllJ iilin, il! tf = 1 ; Q,(l if'll'f :JC'!)', fi)f
IU ll< llF Q. \ l 1it ff ll< llF ll!: J'i.
1l' n J; iEl!!n, ITTLJ:\l!Jit llJ iilin~ ::\1 lil!Jit i'!lil''il!:i!:, 'B flJJl!i
Po()=l.

Pi()=z<32 -l).

P1()=.

Cn+ l)P.+ 1 (),...... (2n+ l)P.() +nP._ 1 () = 0

1l' n ::\J"l!!n.mLJ:/i

_ I-

P~()-F

n,n+l1l1

L=.EJ
-_ ""
2

(3, 4. 12)

+v

re.

+k
ft(-1) (kJ)~r(n-k+l)

IL=.l!J.
2

(3, 4. 13)
;(Ell[ lllJ-1 <;;.;;+I

ii! >cft'J '1Jit l!Ji!'TJl!>\Jl.:/j' iE~tf

I'

P,()P,.()d -

n-:;&.n1

fND,

-1

(3. 4. 14)

n = n'

(n),

(3. 4. 15)

(3, L 12nff p() = 1- ' ,q() =

-m' /(I -

'), W() -1.A=nCn+ 1)fi<Jtf!lfiti!f%, ;(EJ3:Jil(

-1 <;:;,,,,;;1 ,Q:'(J :;i; iJJ l!i!. m lll.iEl!!ti:, mH~Hlll!lliJ:ll! iilitt P: (J 'T J!l l!llit lllill ti:l'.151\J!~T,
f":(11) = ( - 1)"'(1

# Jl. lE Ill 1'1 -

g),.12

d"'~;~)

(3, 4. 16)

1<;:;,,,,;;+1 , Ji>1!ll!llit \'!! ill'tt P:' (J Jl.1! l!A TlE~!'t


O,

J'_,P:()P';.()d =

2
2n

(n

1 (n

+ m)!
m)

"' n'
(:l.

n = n'

4. 17)

J '

5' 9', n .n' , m !l!il!i 0 ll'J iEl!!ti:, l m<;:;n,


P:' <) ri<J-llltl'<!Jt:i!:'f J!l :a: cs. " 131 Yr!E.i<ri<J mn F 1'!51\!nlT,
f":()- I'(l 1

m)(~+~)"'12F(-n,n+1.1-m,1

),

<11-l<Z)
(3.4.18)
ltj<fil !'ii ~ 9' ltli>: tltJ; .IV\>; fi<J iii' i\IJ tiY% il'll l!! J!I ~Jlil!J itII! iili ft . T Jllf /l!l 'f iJf '!itltJ>J lllP'I< i'J

~--.....-------------""'"''

128

3 . 4. 3

ll 1' J.lli ~ I& Ila: il'9 J.lli xt ~ mi l\b

IJ.Ct xf ;jl "i'. Iii' ,ij( 9' 11'17t Iii 'l1' lit ii' T ~!l{Jl' tli ff Ill !IL ;!J 'I' 9' . Ill lit1' ilii f; lti?: 11'1 liiJ llI }jii 1*
xffl:viJ;IJ!ll$ , ur >i 'lt'li!: ;;i c, ,, '8<i lilt ;jl) liiJ l'l!, 1!1J!m Ji! 2. 1. 3 1' l!lilt<t!B riiJ l. lilt lilf i'E;J;" ~it
111% , VJ &jj(il!.ft !It 9' M.llJti!i"1;'11!ili~l'L ~ Ml!!il:i<J!IL ;jl) , !J J> <tMl!<iJJ: i!IJ. *'J' 1\'lilf J'C IKJ
o<;;c<;;b fl!JJ>' ~ riiJ 1!"2111l Jj! il'J !'1 'Jl;ll!'lt'J!l!lif ft Ill: Ji! 3. 2. 2 1'9' j>J'ii:i:l:!'Jlf Ri! [KliJl~!jl lilt i!IJ.
'1'<f115til' Jt<t+rtli. ttii': ~ar ~ JIHiiJ Ill,

+ l_

. l_ ~(1p)

ari

( ) _ l_ ap

(3. 4, 19)

Aqr -Xdt.'

~+lip=
f',
;Jr

r=b,t>O

p(r,t = 0) = F(r),

r:::;;;;b

(3, 4, 20)
(3.4.21J

1'1Tre:nlfilc3. 4. 191111 1 J1Jl" ll!;lil ill J!(! Jff i'I::, 1if W!mr 13J 'Jl;l:'Jl;J!k, IP 9
J'1l(r 1t) ""'rp(r,t)

J1W

+ ~ q(r)

~ 3:,

(3, 4. 22)

O<r<h,t>O

(3. 4, 23)

r=O.t>O

(3. 4, 24)

r=b,t>O

(3. 4, 25)

I W<r,t) = O,

'

t.\l(r,t=O)=rF(r),

r~b

utt~mliill!!iif !ll~~""-W.*'l'lilf~i:l:!'l~~*ff*m.

riliiltli:J'f !l: raim . iJt'l'tr:!\J b !'lli<lff !Kl!I"' 1!Jiil Bin 5t"1"' F c, 1, ~ b


l'?Jkf'f ':ltll\''1!.jj!l!Y ~J
l_ ii'(rt! _ J. ap
0
r

~X3t'

dr 2

Jp+Hp=O,

1:Cr.t

r = b,t

>0

= O) = F(r),

!ll~~>l:<3. 4. 22)x11*ltt'l'1ltllY*ff'Jl;~
ifW

x1 7it'

WCr,t) = 0 1

'.;"+(H

!'I:"' Ji!~ !!ff;Ji


(3. 4. 2'1 I
(3. 4. 28)
(3. 4. 29)

.mm;

JW

::Jr1 =

(3.4.26)

~)w~o

l-Jl(r,t=O)=rF(r),

b,t > 0

(3. 4. 29)

r=O,t>O

(3. 4. 30)

>0

(3. 4. 3])

0 <: r

<

r L-~

b,t

O~r~b

(3.4.32)

il 1' Iii] Ii!! .'j'j!l 3. 2. 2 1' pJi'JiiHUtJ'li!li!if!l lilJ ':Ifii 1': (fj !!HiEiliil!lt' *1/!iEil!f!l IB !Ii' 1if EE* 3. I Ji' 5
ff l!f ili ;:jt ili w(t ,f) 111 Fu j!j'.
(3. 4. 22 )*'J!klll:!lih p(c,t) 'JllFoilf

liJ"

(3. 4, 33)

129
H, -H - lib

(3. 4. 34)
(3. 4, 35)

1-i!:>f<i!J.fl. 'l'f r-b kt1(fi!J):Ji!J'i-, ~p (dpldr) ,- O, mtli\ (3. 4. 31J 'f> H- O, it 5)-f<)!;
li'i ll'J i\'1iE11HiiJ 1!i R<P. l - r fll.Jl!: 1'!1'1, x;J'@: T' P. - o. x& 7lkf'1'111lB , !E)J pCr, t 1ll'Jf!il''fl:J!:Z
$:!J-JW
(3.4.36)

3. 4. 4 !B 111Hllt ~ I&

mllSJ ll.IC~~ ~ iA! ~

lllllilfl'!:IR.111 a;;;r;;;b (1-)iJIL;tJ, ii!: r-a f!l r-b ktjgJl!.=c"il'Jt/.JV.!llf'f,mtl1'1fl1':1'11!iBJ

"ff JIZ

+ l_q(r)
).

l_ t:f(rp)
r

iJr2

l_ ap
X i1t '

ap

a< r

< b,t > 0

:=:::::

1;::.:~~./,.
lp(r,t=O)=F(r),

(3. 4. 37)
(3. 4. 38)

(3. 4, 39)

a1i{,r-r;;;,b

(3. 4. 40)

a<r<h,t>O

(3. 4. 41)

Ill ~N!'fl: (3. 4. 22) X;J' ti\Jllfi;lf'N!!i'i , 11> )!;!Jl['iij ill!,


i>1W

1 a\V

a,-i +;:q<r)=y31

aw
- 7fr

I) W
+ (H +Ci,
1

=a1.1 ,

~+(Hii)W-bf3 ,

r = a.,t

(3.

4. 42)

r-b,t>O

(3.4.43)

<_ b

(3. 4. 44)

a~

H-'(r,t = 0) = rF(r)

>

i!ll' (j<Jl'iij lll!BJ Ill lil 3. 2 l'i Pliilf l'!:ll'JnlliJ!fi)j<!JI, l!f If; W Cr.t) (.'..( Fo RP !lJ p Cr.t) - W Cr.t l Ir,
T11if !il~ 1f !!( raJ /!j!i. Ill tr :.\i5!'tlliiit II; !E)J 5t 1f;. iit1lltiilJ IR.111 a;;;r<;;b, t1J#; ffi}J jg F Ir)
iE r-a *~ r-b kt jgJl!'='"il'1f!XJi!!'l-!ilf'f. l[ 1' 'iij l!i!l!: nllil (3. 4. 37) - (3. 4. 40)" (3. 4. 41)
-(3. 4. 44)9' q-O ,f, - O f!l J;- O ll'Ji\'1*111%, X1fl[f'i'i\'1*tif il>.1~'1H'l lllll! 3. 2. 2 1''1'
Jilii!fi1l'J :trlli >!<lll .Jtll!JE~t r c!!if\:jjjl!l!ll'J x RP BJ. ~
(3. 4, 45)

~e-zf.. RJ>,~~p;)fo

p(r,t) ""_l_
r M)

"'

~-

r' F(r 1 )R(j3.,,r')dr1

(3. 4. 46)

;1>9', i\'1iEiii 'I!: RIP. ,rl, iilliE fl! p. fill!'!!: N CPl ai ;I; 3. I 'ltlil 1 fil!f ii>, llil jg;/; 3. 1 ll'J lK.111
1; o<x<L, Jilik'.l'll!f\:*liii'F .~
,,

______________ ___
,

130
(3. 4. 47)

x=r-a
'F!i!~iiEil !It

R(fi., r), lil:!ll: N (fi. l fU ~liEJl! (1. fiJiill' JE f!'Jl!i!ili!::lrl'Ht~IJ 1'J


R(jl,,.,r) = {3,,,c0${1.,,(r - a)+ H.sinfJ,.(r

N<fi.J ~ (fi' + HD[Cb , (b-

tan""'

(3. 4. 48)

b)

2
a)+

H,/<(1; +HD]+ H,

)-P.<H.+H,)

a -

(3.4.49)
(3. 4, 50)

/l~-H.H~

'l'ill7J<il2 .JI. "ll r ~a ifll r ~ b J<t!!J ;lg ;f ~J!<J!l J'I-, ttp H, ~ H, ~ o. xt Ti!l'i1'\'!1'11il Jf>, Po
~

oIP.Ji!-1' ~liE fil. "E Elf MJ;\1 f1'J 'iii ;<;


(3. 4. 51)

np 11\'il: (3.

' 46 J '!' J;\ZJJU J:J:l'. -'iii. ~ ~ [iiJ et 1' ;!( <3. 4. 48 l - (3. 4.

so1 'I' JI)( H. ~ 1/a,

Hb= - lib.

3. 5 tR7t~~n;--Aitit~
;$: i'l!tr JL 1':ft !B T JI< j:jl!J/l11li: 1Ali lit:l} ::lriffilil'J ?l- llli '.l\':1:1!1. "E xtT 3'f lX 1"1 lill ~ Ill 4' :t::lr fl! ii!
xtr::frl!l ;fll i!1 l'hl"1'f *11 Ji!<e if r;;: il'J 11il% it 111 ilil*!i! 1':n fl! Mi ;;, Jlt Fllii JL 1'1{f!Ci~ 5t '.it~

111. "t "7:;f;'.IW7ttlijill 'fliJil cif IXjill


jil1 i'll m: il'J 11#1.

3. 5. 1

'"*"'

:n@i, ll!i5jill '" !lii!i ~jj\[ 1\iJ l!!l$l! !I\ T f'i !it, 91: ll!

~ :S.1 'll: '1 xt (!'jJ j!l;j ll!i

~ Ill ~5} 'll: J!i!ll1Jjt !W 1Alillbl-:trl11 il'J '):;!@Ji! ;(E 1' li'll XE il'J fil Iii\~ '!'

iE li'J !IOllJ 13:~ RP il! !It


f1'J XE5<.~11il 1ll T i!J\Jif ili ~ f1'J ll1 Jt :D;jl)i M IP.lilt Ji! '.it jl)i jil1 !ii. '.it ii! ~iii f1'J;;; , J:l'.J!21J( 5t '!\:ii! x<J";(E
!!tr Jl 1' fr l1l Jt llli '.it ft 111 il'J i1 111 '1' B ~ iJ I ti\ 1' li ill fil !if, l\ 'I' , ffi !It XE 5<. ~ ;lg o<x < L jil1
o<x<=111Jf,"f ,Jl;jP,>J-'l)'ll!~'f?l-itl1!11'i!ii;i\:(3. 2.14), (3. 2.15)jil1(3. 2. 39),(3. 2. 40), ;;'
i!ll Jl'fil Iii\ <jl , ffi ill: Ji! )(.#j( ;lg a<r<i'.;b , o,,;;r,,;;b ,a< r<= 1'I! O<r< = 1jlfjf, r ,:)l;jj1 )t '!f: jl)i J& Jt ~lj
;1g 'i'<ii;;!( o. 3. 24, 25 >, (3. 3. 41 , 42) C3. 3. s 6, s 7) fU C3. 3. 64, 65) i:!;@'.itll!:lt &FJi1!r~ iiEil!
'!'!:. m: !ll:fll tl'liEil!li rll jo) 'l'<J!t ti\ it:.~. 'f11! 3. 6 'I'. itl!l il!lJIE!&;igllf iil!. itlll 11! 3. 6 ~1, ->E:ll"5t
iii$< 5t ~ nl!IPJi X'f lii'fJ 1\1' 1iEill (ill II! il'J ~ l!l! ~ ;lg,( il'fil Iii\ !\ fll 3*!11. Iii\ .!'\ '!' :/! "'2 5t ~ :trl!I il'J
1\f liEilM Ill! e lli:it~lifll !ll lic .!\ 'l'f!'J11f liE fil.1\iJ Ill!. ~iiEil r<illll! i'fJ ~l!l!&:fJ! .5J 'lit 3. 1-11! 3. s
lli mll'J 1f l!ljill i'< 'I' J:t!J'i.#d'f il'J ~l!l! i'!l -l!c . R 'll' !" 1frtl< !! J;!; J\<.i'll iii:~ Ill IP, ?l-'.itll! '>l:!O:- > 4'1
it $jj\[ 1IO 11\!:?l-:!r1litlt1' '' 11tllf tti lll 0-5tll! il'J Iii JllAli itJli\ :tr@ 'I' :l>t'i! faJ 'It lit f1'J 2 flit lil' !It 'ili'.it
lll:'ll:l'I! il !ll:JV!, J,!. 1lif ~lt;~!'il'J::lrffl.11! it ;lg ffij) 'i!'.l'l!ffi '!'!: pMll<t 1"1 t )jt lil' f1'J I flit 11ti11i:Jt 1riffil,
111 11t n 5t !Ii 11<1a 'l!P> !It tli mJi!. vi lillH'f f1'1 ffi :tJ '.ll: jl)i il! n "P !li 111 !ii. 'J)'jl)i i~ ffi :tJ 5tw.

"*

131

JI''<

"'""

1!
I!

iiil!ift~XJC

o::;;;xo;;;:L

p(x,t)""

,.

.......... ....

"

..,

p(x,t)

J'...YR.({J,.,r'>p(Y ,r).V'
i; N(fJ > P,
R,,(fJ~,r)p< .,,t)

.. -1

,._~

o"'~h
p(r,t) =

Ii

'
-

'

"

P</3.t)
a~r<=

X({J,.r)~

JO

~~3.2

..,

f;:

N<P..

WeOOr ~~

N,

cp.. , r).
N,I. ll''I!
R.

R,((J,r')p(r' ,t)dr'

PR.<I,>
N({J) p< I ,t)d{J

f''..,rJ.<P.r>p<r

pc~,t>

f"",_, pJ,({J,rlP<fJ,t)d{J

p. JI; 1!!

3.'

-.....

P<P,t> =
=

~m_

;ffm_ Hankel~~

~ R,,(j1.,,r)- p
> p( ,e)

R,(fJ,.,r),

r'R,((J,.,r'lp(r',t)dr'

""f"'y

p(r,t) =

o,,;;;r<"'<'

Fouri11:t i'E.~~:i:

..

P<fl.,,t) = f,

..,.

p,. :ft: !ii!

3. l

,,,_

p(r,t) =

Ill

N,

iL 1/dl: "ll>

p( .,,t)

s=X({1,x'Jp(x',t)d.t'
= s=
,_, X({J,tl"JJTPf P(fi,t)d{J

a~~h

X(fi,.,x),

ffllli Fourier

f: X<f1,.,:c)p
N(/1.,)

/>(p,t) =

o.;;;;x<=

P<fJ.. ,t)

'

,_,X(/1,.,'1/)p(x' ,t)dx'

tt

-~----

Ii

'

- r
P<P.. ,t) =

;If

"!OJ;!I<

ll'll>i'll "'" ll>l!!Jli;:

R.C/1.x):fll N

7(.Jla Weber~-

~~

3.5

,1)dr'

jCJll Hankel '.l;f!

Ji J!! f.I ili ,jj\ ~;;Ii' 3, 6 JWplj i'>~Jl-:'.l(J!l!~.j" :illb\;'f V; i'J l!iili $( "i' ili A'J off .fi11\'{JE '1j 'l!i'., i1l:'l!i'.
1'U 1'IJ IJE fli EE ;;Ii' 3, 1-;;!! 3, 5 !'J ffl @Ji!;- ;;Ii' 9' JI: ili , fil:lll)3:@~:7)-'l\'~ ~f Jit:ill l!lLil: tf tE A'J tE
jl! s. 2. 2 1!J 9' Ii' !!!!ll! '9! >< J! IJflill li: !'J il!i 'l!t'.lk ;II; 1 Wt"I' 'l!t'. :fE ;II; ii! 51. A'J Ill'. fill f'l iAH!i! ill< Jl- ~ nl!li ,
2:!\Ii'!\'i!I! X~!Ult l'r. miil\: JIH'f :IE 'iii !fl Wf ltiii: A'J ~ lliillll iii: fiiJ Iii 9' -l!l!;lJ lltl 1111iJ! ffil mi , 1\1. llT lil
~il\: ~Jl-ll'J!ll Jll 'f i'> fl: *If A'J ll!:Jl-!rl!i , :f 'I< 1': :lll;<r V; AA 1" l'f V; A'J , Ill i!i AA ~i fl i!i , J1 J!'l\'
~ lil Fo !rl!i 111ii'4& ffl!Mr , i'i' ~~ 1J!.llt lit 'If 1! 51. T Tllif fl'!B 'l!'~ (l'J lil Ji<

s.5.2

~~~w~~~~~~~~

~T~'9!!ll~Jl-5ti!l!~*ffl~~1rl!iA'l-ill!W,m.~<E~*~r~ffll'l~.

'iJ ' p(r,t)

ap
l; Oni

1
+ Tq(r,t)

X ap
at

= 1

(3. 5. !)

+ h p(r,t) --1,(r;,t),

(3. 5, 2)

IB:J!l:Rf'l
(3.5.3)
J , 2, "' ,N ,N :Ill IKJ!I: R il;!!i\;l!IJ'l.c!Jr<#!'J 1''1!1'., d/Jn. !/i!JF

p(r,t=O) =F(r),

;II; 9' ,r= (x.y .z) lit (r, 0 ,z) ~~, i =

--------------____...

... -.-~---

Iii J'I. iJil S. Prllt ~II r'J B'J <l'fL lE $ fiil 11!! B'J JflX lill y}f;,:fr Ji! "l' :!lFw 11! WJm T ~ liE i& lliJ 11!!
IZlllt R i*J
C3. 5. 4)
. V'<PCr) + /l'CrJ = O,
{

t,';t +h,= O,

ill.J'I. s. .t

(3. 5. 5)

""(/l. r)
,;:; cs. s. 2>(./1..l - rn. 5. sHp/1,i ilJlil'<Eill.J'I. s. J: 1i11 Jl Q( T ~*,;:;
.(r)

~~- = f_,,,i;:,) f,Cr,,t)

(3. 5. 6)

(3. 5. 7)

1ll<E Jll Ji!$ r0Jl1!!3'f1Xllll :frf;,")' :!17} lt11!l: !'J~fiE Ni'.11" . lii!lii!i:a<J i!H}lt&
pC/l.,tJ = J/Cfl.,r)p(r,t)dV

~t7.r1'1 (3. 5. 1) m;tj\l!lfr'J!'ll!!' 1 m;'l! fF Jll ll'.

TL

,>.dV' ;j1J Ill

ill*

(3.
jjI)!I!. tcill.l!l l

s. SJ

lJJl'J!'ll!! Fn ')

'Jiff JU,

f,.V'pdV

f,pv'.dv +

tL.(

~ - p ~)ds,

C3 5. 9J

"'lil<JJ*l'liElil!i!I!" . 1;11 Jl/f l'l\ ( 3. 5. 4} , 1:fl

f,pv'.di =-!F..f,P<P.av -- P!P<Jl.,tl


~jl'. (3. 5. 10} fll (3. 5. 7 J:fr~IJftAs\: ( 3.

f <P. V'pdV

=-

c3. 5.1oi

s. 9} , 141f1'!C3. 5. 1);1Ci1J.Jil 1 lJJl'J!'lli! !'J<li Ji<f.I

/J!p(jl.,r)

i'.;f .i'"J f,(r;JdS,

Jl

(3. 5.11)

S,

]jjj/fl!;l (3. 5. I} !il jfi!'l'li"l'&!'J<liJl<f.I


(3. 5. 12)

q(fi .t)

f,.q(r ,t)dV

(3.5.13)

pC/l.,tl - J,.p(r,t)dV

(3. 5. 14)

<II t:l .t41- lJJl ~) ll' ll!! !ii Ji'!. AlFa 1l1 :tf
dp(jl
dt .t)

(3. 5. 1) ll'& Fa El-i 1f 1'1 J.t

'"
+ J-',..XP(l-',,.,t)

M,(r,,t) =

WWW

"

{,I "

(3. 5. 15)

:::,.":"lf!ill.J'l.51<f'f

(3, 5. 16a)

x- " . + XL.i
'"I

Tq(,..,.. ,t)

"'i.') f,(r,,t),

.M.(r;,t) dS 1

s,

Jml1':1'!Jil-#!it!J'l.5f<f'f,/,=O,h,o;"O, "'Jl!l'JJ . llf.Q!/f!iC3. 5. 5)R1f


1 ap.(r,)
-,,-~ h, ""

.p.(r,)

(3. 5. 16b}

133
llil'11lii!!i:i'f (3. " 3l !!Ut'Jl'Jl\fl'J Iii!1!11
P</3.,,t

= 0)

= FC/3,,.)

[Rlf.,,(r)F(r)dV

(3,5.17)

/iii J;( fh ll{ :tr !ll ( 3. s. u - c3. s. 3i !it lli fl'J l1! 1l 1'''1lllii:;;M1R :it'll' mFn Iii: 1' rn lit t11: :it fl !ll
C3. 5. l5l,fll!JJAft~H'fC3. 5.11Jfll!llt~i11'!1liWUlf'iilllli. fh'>'tO. s. 9l-<3. 5. llliiJ'9i\,lli!'JIE!'Jl1!
J!.!!i:i'f t 1R :it'll' milt Ill 'I' i:. Ill: 11& i& J!!A 'll' m!Ei !'! n 1'1 "' r

3. 5. 3

i'i;;ll5JM

i:;; lR ?t'Jl'm vJ IEi !'! fl 1'l (3. s. l s) !Ii 1 'friil<tt lit t11: :it:tr!ll
'll' j)j !* iii' :51'! j\)

~~ + p(t)y =

jj! l!ll lit I\!: Jt n!llJll! Jt '!' !'! lit ti

(3. 5. 18)

q(t)

.v(t) = e-fp(Jd[Jq(t)eJrldtdt

+CJ

(3. 5. 19l

JG"' ,

tE nII! (3. 5. 15 ) 'I' , Ii!! Oil' :It !Ii p, i!Ei!: JI;!!! t ' :II; t' ill j!lj J)lj lj' I!! '.it :It
111 l'oi 'f nIll l 3. s. 18J
'I' !'J q Ct J , /l. !!:~"!;. ilill! i' El'! lit~ C iiJ' fb WAft J!i:i'f <3. 5. 17) IE t!U\7 FCP. 1 )\Ii ITT nl'I
<3. s.1s1twMJJ:i'f<J. s.1nri'Jll!J\7
P<fi.,,,t)

e~xP!,'{F<P.. ) + J:= 0etP!.'[ Iqcp.,,r)

+ x~L.M.<r;,t)dS,]cic)

(3. 5. 20)

l'ii !%" 3. 6mJt 'll'm (3. s. s) El'! &'.It mJ\7


p (r,t)

.P<P. ,r1-c"1-'mit l

(3. 5. 21)

~ N({J.,) P

!ll l:>l:M (3. s. 2ol J!!fi ti :ll: ~ Rl:!Ei iiBin liB ti: J\7
p(r,t)

t, ~/l'.)) e-<f. (f.;c;;.

,r' )F(r' )dV'

+ ~ J:_~exP!.r [Ji;'(;9,,, ,r' )q(r1 , r )dV Jdr


1

+ ;([~oerll!.r ~

.5, 1\-f,

(r',, r )dS,dr}

(3. 5.

2.2)

:II; 'I'.., N cp.J f1I fi. l'/i1'/i!iE Ul l'J 11!! ( 3. s. 4) ,fll ( 3. 5. 5) Ell 'i!< 3. 1-'i!< 3. 5 ii'J f It iil'it 11' ill ,
M, Cr ot) ilii't>l: (3. 5. 16) ffi 1'1i!iEiil~ ;'Cfi r) f1I W!iliiltt f.Crot l!it ill ,

fh ll!,i; <' s. 221 or ITT ti ill ,!En ?t'i!iiilli: p<r" 1ffi 3 llllJtll!Jl!;. il'i!<l!llcti::tem"l''l'1' fl 3
tJ(, lf! 1 tJ( j~'i!< ffi W!il Jlin F(r) X>j' Bin :it 'i!iEi'r J!tikl:, lf! 2 tJ( f\:'i!<lJl[lr: q (r ,t) Ei'rfi'tEJlt Jli:IJ :$)'
;ffi'El'JJ!tikl:, lf! 3 JJllf~'i!<' ffi 'fl1!J!.!J:#,~Jl'Uz tt, RP fh f.Cr, ,t l M!En Jt;ffi'El'r l"-ikl:. X>J''f 'f.lltm: iilJ
:tr 1'! !Ii* it El'! ~ 'I' :f ill l'1! lf! 2 lJll iii' n lli ,fll J1! J!. ~ ff \Ill !!: i> 11z fl'J m~ ~ R ;;r ~ J9!. ll! ,i:
(3, 5. 22) '!'fl'; li! 1 lJll *ri>F l:it!!ili! 3. J, 3 11' '!' X>J' Jl'!X'.Tilf ii' 8J :it /lll'Jt:l:lii1' tJj El'Jli! (3. !. 25),
il ~JJll'J'111i:"l !lit

f,cc(r,r .1JF<r'Jdv
G( r,r ' ,t )

>14fill: i'i'<JiJl: 9' fl<J t

E!;

"""'.PCfi.,r)
~
N(fJ,..) e _,,.."'('
,., ,,,,.,r")

~!lit t-r, ~JiH'l;flJ.iEJil 4

s. 22J t!! OJ Jfll111*ilil&i'<m J1


p(x.t)

ca. s. 23J

JRG(r,r' ,t)F(r')dll

lll:lf4f!!!ili'lA'J jj\;jjc (Green) ilil&,

(3 , 5, 24 )
T'Jl!lll'I~ (3.

rJ:.. J
11

G(r,r' ,t - r)q(r1 ,r)dVdr


(3. 5. 25)

a m

3. s. 4
i'ii t'.i! 1t
Ell ~ c3. s. 22l l'li!!t tti A<J Jl'iJiHill lili A<J filJlt11111 Ell !11.l&Jfi ~!if llJ t: 1'E Ji!; lliJ 111i .c.t l: 'Ii' at o!f:f
-l!l:tlli:!l'i !11.l& 1'E :ltiillil~li1( ,\\\ l: ::f-l!l: tJli: !l'i li'J ll\! :tc EE Gibb, { 19 tit 1C .ii<,/,\. ~!Ji 1ll tfj , Fo JiE fl'
;t }Ji!f l'!iWim!:tc <Gibb', 1899) , {E~ilf.:iJ'I' 1'. ill:!!! liiJ llli.\\\il lit tti ml 1'E ii!J'!. l:, t!! OJ llll tfj ml:/
"lllli ~ill. A<J !JJ j!ft at~J
"1 l'!iWi m!:tc OJ~ ljm r ,i!l'-)t llt:l't; Ii A'J Jili l& f (x l il.t ii< Foutier !11. l& ii< ;It'(;; !11.l& , !11. l&EIJ
llll?l-fll }fl s. "'"' 'jm W,}t~IJ~ llJ f (x ) - x fll s. - x A<J 11 Jfi m!OJ r.( ... flj ':/EJWI.!! fiij llli ,\\\ !11: WI oil'
1e lit !tlli ,ill.1'E lliJ 111iJil. A<J ~J!ll s. - x li'J l'I 111< tti ml J!if '1J !ii:&' l!ll?Hfll "Ji l& n 11k11f. ill! J!Eill!:k ,J!ifillJ
ill!J!Eill!Jlllli iliJ llli ,,\\ i!'!ill: 1'P lli il:lit!i 111<.lf\ Ji!: :f oJ fill Joij f cx >- x i'J 11 JB-l!c ill::t :li!rJiliil!I ;!; l'liWi
mi~.

Ell 'f fi':/Ei'f l'liWil!e.~ fil' ill Ill !!<l&i'<ffi A<J 111111! llf llll .f iii\' Ji'j:JJ. J'!.lki't ii< mMl lld't o!t.!l :tE JlJ
l&\li. lt:IJ!it tl1 Ji!:Fo!li!I! atJ'E l'i<J llli Jil. ~'lli llJ ll\!1M:ki#!:ll'. 1'! T J'l:H~ Ell l!ll'liJ!lfl!e.~il!llltfl<J l:itlll
l!I iii lit Pf m?t~l!llt A<J w, /i!r~t ~ 1' 'it :ir iZ! l'f 1rHt A<J ll15t 1Jl!nr1Til!t 'ii 'Ii' llf liJ i!! ti< xt I!!> & riil
llli Jil. A<J Ji!; t ii<!& 1JI! JlJ 12: A<J "I ffl Jfi >\ 'f r1 '!!'ft ll J'Erllii lf4f 'IfI! A1* A<J liJJ l
3. 5. 5

~51~J!l!l!ml>.l<iJtt;ll

;re lf4! mil\5t 'll' ~111JJt11111ill ill. ili!llt ?tJrl! i'J !If tl7 ll! ia !ll !zU r ,
l)

!!<ll!7rl! EIJ JI!' >\fl! Jili l& li'J JE50!tll;i!tii!d!l li'Jll15t'll'~X>t o llili 'lit lij Elli'< 3. 6 li:llroi'

tfj '

2l JlJ itIi\ Jt 'll'~~Xt/f l!fll JE li!l!f< i'f~ 1J1! JIJ:j'f 'Jl'~ 'll'l91Fo !!\ /f I! 9' )(j" '! liiJ 'Jl' :II; i'J .,'!!:
1JI! 'Jl' l/t'Jl' 191 oo l& p1JI! l'J at ~tlli: T i!IJ'f !1<!4' , f!l iliHtlllt Xf T ilf i"l 'll' :II; 8'J I !iti1!<tt lit Wl:Jt ;!; !IL
a) JJt 11111ill'll mifl !!<it "1 ~tt 11r llt?l-:ntt!it t11 'll'l91m ~ m J> <P , )
4l !llfll Ii'. A<J Jli.'ll'tt>l4f 'll'~ Ii! l& p<P. "l 'll'Jil: lli:t.J 5t :Iii ili l& p <r "l
5) iii' l!iif A'J!l<l&Jfi ~.'If"" JI' l'liJ!lf ll\!~ !zU *'If ll 1'Pml ~OJ xt 'it iE 11111!1<1'1' A<J ll15t 1JI! !!!
5t l!ll IJ15t J;l!jj'illl:>j ii< oil' Ill !11.l& A<J "I ffl Jfi ,i: fl:'!!' 11111'ii;9' I!!> ll. liiJ llli Jil. a<! Jil;1-!!<l&

135

fij Pli 18: ~ Bli-tm 5nl fdJ


Etltit JC 11 mIK Jjji; o~~L (J'J-!li mt ;;iJ 'l Ji< Jllrf -Rll:tt fl') )E f! l'iiJ II ,

3. 6. l

a.xi+

~ li ~ + h1P
l2

i!p h1P =
at:+

_ _iap

x 8t.

O<.x<L,t>O

(3. 6. ])

= .f1(t).

x=O,t>O

(3. 6. 2)

f~(t),

x = L,t

>o

(3. 6. 3)

O~x::;;,;L

(3. 6. 4)

;:q(:r:,t)

p(:c,t = O) = F(x),

3. 5 ,. J!JI"" 'jf! I jj> !!If~ ilt1'9. jt '!111* x~ ' ap :ii.ll mJl!H!l (J'J !R :5t'!11l!M11 fii.'!11 Ill\ iii'!11 !ll\X1 (J'J
li!iffl '!!! l"'ilil'.i: ittl~ 3. 6 J!Jl:llJ (J'J I*! 11'" X1-it A!l1 '\ Jiill:!i. Ji't'f ;;jl: 'iiJ !W!i!li!iffl '11! 3. 6 9'jf! l fi'(J'J !R
;ff!. ll! jf!

:5t'!l11*x1. Ip
(3, 6. 5)

p(x,t)

;c' X(p.,x)-

~ ~

N(p.) p(fi.,t)

(3. 6. 6)

:)t;9',X<fi.,tJ,fi. JfO N(fi.J/!1Jfi.C3. 6. ll*1l!J:!li'-il'1'4'C3. 6. 2)$(3. 6. 3J1f/Xl!ll5}J!Jljfjjl;(J'J

1\1/liEU!l.'"1IJ(J'J1\1/liEii!i !l!t, 1\1/liEU!!Jfll i1i:!l!t. tt !(!~ 3. 6 9' (J'J ~tt. 12: ffl!i! ill '11! 3. I >I' iii , ill: 'f A
1* J!l it<~ '!'(J'J !II ffii Iii 1,,1,, i., Jfll h, :Y'l'cl!(J'Jflt ill iii ii!, ~Plltlll:'f i!liii!ll!J!.~d'I' Ir) ~!!II. .~
Z ~liE ii!i !l!t X <P. x) !! sinfi.x ,c<;sfi.x ii<='\!t(J'J i;l;li!ll1t, Jjf 1'! !l(jt '.J!'!ll\ (3. 6, 5) i;F l\FIH!
Fourier iE,~5t~#!:.

jf! 2 il'!!:it1roe1<a. 6. DJflliEl!illd4'0. 6. 2>-<s. 6. 4)tt5'J:<3. s. s>(J'JJ!i5'1:1l!l!Jllrr!R:5t

'!11 Ill\ ' '!11 I* fl') ilio"!!


dp(fi.,t)

-d-t-

,,+ X'"'~P<fi,.,,t)
=

-p<fi.,t
M;(fa.,t)

X- a
Tq(,.,.,,t)

~OJ~ F<fi.> -

( - 1 ) i - , - IX'("
/"'"" ,X =
1';

a
,,
]
+ X[ Mi(,.,~,t)
+ M i(f-1.,,t)

f',X<fi.,,'>F<x'>dx'
itJ )j()
J t

"'"'""""''~
~Jt.l;'ll'">F( rf'

>f7

(3. 6. 7)
(3. 6. 8)

(3.6.9)

(j~!,2)

1Jj!i! (3. G. 7) /!;X:r~!ll\ iilj !IJt p (;) I !fi'iiJ!li11tll!:)t1Jfi.l'J iJJii!!fi!I R!!, 1!1l'!i! Iii 'lit'.l'J:'!i1 !i!i'/<;l< tU

----..-

~---..,------------

136

D XCfi.,x)
.. "''(f'x,o
')F(. .x'Jd:c '
l'l'(fJ,,,) e
o
p.,,.x

p(x,t)

+ ~J:_ 0 erl..[f:X(/3,..x 1 )q(x 1 ,r)dx' Jdr

+ xf'

'""

et~~[M,(j3,,..-r)

+M

(,B.,,r)]<lr)

(3. 6. 10)

:Y;Pi\_t , ~tol:iiT 83 ff :!10 >t 8'J C3. s. 22 JJl:!lP~ ili :!IT hOl!tHli!f!l.iliLI'. , i!c!l. # Mll:I!! 'IH;f, ~ '!'
ilf IB:J;l;!ili ii1J l'iiJ ll!l IF T Jl,{lf;Jil!Jil', t C3. 6. Io J '!' i'J JI! I J'.ilii1l:Jitlf 1i: ffll?Hl.Jf!l., 1;i A (3. !. 2.s J ii
""~01'1 '
3. 6. 2

jlij' ~ IZ l'l'i iJffi illJ f!1 9~ 5.1 jj! 1.i Jn

-"~T~A(l.6.!0l&Rffttau&~_tiiTili~ttl'Jffi

iii. iiT I:.( 1%5': '!' :i& ' l'J i!lJt J'.iliRfi?J-llll<.q ?J-, .M. ii1i !ii ili 1' Jtf!l.ll' 5': l'J f!l. , A C3. G. lo l Fri JJ.f J'.ili

?l'lllltR!t

l
-.... /3!

I "'"[q(fi.,c) + ,
e

1_11 ('
p,,,r 1

,\

+1\1
. ; ('
l"mT

>]

- [q(fiA,O) + M,<fi.,Ol + M,(il ol]


- J:=o ei~~[-1d/J(/3.,,, r) + dM 1 (/3,,,, r) + dJ\f:.(f'.. , r) J}

(3. $. 11)

f A cs. 6. 11 li'.'.A (3. 6. !OJ, PTflll'.EI $;


N~!

+ p~(x,t)

p(x,t) ,-.-.-.- ~p, 1 (x,t)


1 00 1

V~i

~p,(1'.t'>

"' X<fi.,xl [' q(fi.,I)


A./1;., + ~

A.JCx,t) = ~

(3. 6. 12)

,=O

lV(J',..)

1 "l ,

u, 1 /F,,,J~, ,(fJ.,,t)

Dni

(3. 6. 13)

:r\hfl ,S1,:I: Kronecker~~ i= l. 2 ;j=O .1,2,


) - ~ X(fi.,xl
~. N(fj,,,) e

p~ ( x,t -

-<<.[f'"=~ X<'/".. ,:r')F( :r::')d x '

- i;ca., o<~;,; 01
"l=l

t)

p_, ( x, -

= ~ XC{3.,,x) --x~.r

:=;

1>.i'(/3,,,)

+a.,1M.cfi. o>>]

"'

e .. J,=,e

xf..c

(J ..

:![0:
qc{3,.,r)
dr ~1 ,\f'~

$} ll! ~l I, .tl 3 1'ill! tjlf!!i'>t ST~LJ+!lzilr ~l!l!:ll! SC


I ) Pi (x ,t l JI, r71JllE!l!i5 fi1J l!!!l'Jf!!i',

(3. 6.14)

137
(3. 6. 15)

'l"'X<P o)[,l)<>J q(p.,t)+s


IM(' )JI
Af1!
fl!
t'mt f

- l, a:r ~ NC/1,,.)

li

f""X<P. ol[,p.,t)
, IM<' i]Ir=v11
'/()
'-'oJ
).{3'!,. +"1'/3! I /",,.ot
! t

-thl\.~ ]\,'({:J.,.)

it

a("'
X<P L![,
~ N(fJ.. )

a;r.:

Uni

-;;<pA/1!
o + , ff!"!
1,1 <" l])
,.,.,,t
U21

i ~ X<P.,Ll[,
q<P)./3!
.tl
+ h~\~
N({J,,,)
Vw

;It 'I' 1- o, 1 , 2 .q Bi>!: <3.

(3. 5. ]7)

, IM<" lJI
+<Ji,
/3! ~ /-'.,,t

r= , f ~(t l
<Jf;

<3, 6, 18 J

s. 13) ,Ii!;<.. {Jlt11!1t0 rOJ I!!! 'I' , l'lf'l tJiH\; :ti 41::!i! 11 lJi! fl').

P.o

<x .tl

!" nl!l 'I' ~mi'. iC J'.IJi @'i':l!lli!I J'Hliit!'J :ti J'f 1X rOJ I!!! fl'J ilJI! p,. 'Ill p,,N; 1J Wl' ~ iJ'.iC J'.IJi{!!it! Ji'Hfdt
R ff ~-t- :!!< 4F l'f lX fl'J l:k #ti11ffl' fl'J M l:k Jlli llJl!!'J Tlrl!\!R:!t:1t Ill
21 p,<x.t!!" r"1JJ'f1X<P~ilil'11!!!il'JM
<1-Pn
1 ap.
(3. 6. 19)
0 < x < J.,,,t > 0
ax~ =x~'

-it

l2

Jp.

a.x + h1PA =

ap,

ar + h1P

x=l),t

0,

(3. 6. 20)

(3. 6. 21)

O~x~L

(3,6.22)

x .... L,t

O,

..'

ph(x,t=O)=F(x)-L;p,1(x,t=O),

l:kllln@'llli!IJ'il*i'F:l!d>\ f~I!!! (3. 6. !) l!0.2"/lliltil> fri] ll!!fl'Jill!Jlt t - 0 fl')~ JI>.

(3.

>

6. 4) fl'Jl'flX l!ll:!t. {!l. '1llil*i'Hi\lil\'1l !ti!*i'F FCr)

3J p,cx.051VXF~flbl'11!!!:/f~,

.1 a4!1(x,r,t)

#lb1(x,r,t) _
Jx

- l1
l2

iJIJ>
a;:_+
h1fl>; =

O,

a.:+ h2r1>; = o,
0) =

111 !lb fliJ l!!!Jl: c@:;l!l'f K fl') , ;It 9' , r


(x, r .t) l!AFw, p, (x ,, ) ilJ ITT T~i!\,!';;l<tI

(3, 6. 24-)

x=L,t>O

(3. 6. 25)
(3, 6. 26)

I'

,~n

;I!~ JI , ;,; 1' ~!lb fliJ I!!! 1~ 'i'l' Jili 3Jt f!1f ,
1

acli;(:r,r
,t -------------~

r)

(Jr'

(i= 1.2;j = 0,1.2)

_,

>0

= 0,t

p,,,

~ '!' ,j - 0 , I , 2 ,

pi ( x , t) =

(3. 6. 23)

iJIJ>

rfl;(x,t =

< L,t> 0

0 <x

at'

= rd r

>I>,

(3. 6. 27)

<'

___ ___________
,.....

J1 tlJ

(3. 6. 28)

138

ii.ll!!Wi il!t~ Ill , 1!il$til'lli\ -f'll!l iCl!il!!!'. q (x) l!A&!!.!J'hii<l'Hil !/ll( f,<x) .91' llt l\iJ t X.*, mti IP, <x >
llFl!illtf'i\J' x* w'f'i!:<3. 6. z7J<f>l!f!QiJi!/& 4>/.rJxflltf'i\J'lt:lt r "1llil1l''l&Jillli!Q?t,'f!l. p,
(x ,tJ ~ o, Tilii tt xf J! !!'!:It!;' llt1'1 t 1'*(!<) -!lltfi!l!l>llil!<>tlif 'l'l. J!lf 5!: (3. 6. 28) 9' r ~lit r' , t ~
lit t- r, j!j){f r' Jl<1j<!/ll(l!.( Ji1 !!it r' ~r ill' Ill
<4l,(x,r' ,t - r) I ~ ~ X([J,,.,x) -i~~(i-n
dr'

>'=-

L.i

., .. 1

N( a ) e
l"m

(3. 6. 29)

J:~ 0ez(, fr[a. qc~Pi,r) + kM (/].,,r)


1

]dr

(3. 6. 30)

ii. lE Jl.'i!: <3. 6. 15 J(!<)!ii Jll, 1E1 i!ii liE '1Jl T 5!: <3. 6. 27J(!<) lE lill!l'E,
II!Jl!f J:l ?t ffi "1 l!A i!! Ill l!.( T !iiii: ,-1-11 liilolll !!1!'1-!li: # .9 1'1 'f JI' IX (!<) J!: \Ill roI l!!I"1 l!A ?l'Nf
lit 3 -t-;i:;t,ir.i (!<) rJl!!I **~ti*". ~;z= -t-i!'l111talit!l.Jl\1'1 l!!I (!<}Nf. JS-"' -t ;i:r.i '1!.(!<J r~ im

lik'
ll :Ir OF* >p!atJ~. l!ll'f.!li:llf1l -1-o<i<e .lf?X (!<) 111!1(1! roJll!J. Jm'i!: (3. 6. 16)- <3. 6. 18J
?,If ff<;

z J :Ir lll\ flJ !!1J'ilJI<!If3\l :Jtil< JI' IX(!<) .R Jl.1/J JI# !li:ilf Ill ba '!!:it(!<) f'ilJ lli, Jm 5!: <3. 6. 19 J (3. 6. 22)/!11;;<,

Jiliii:Jl<Nf-1-:lrlii!fl! i:!ll'l-!li:llf.l;J 1'13\'IX(!<J 411! l!h l'iiJ llil. Nf l!l 'E:: (!<}Nf IP, <x, r, t) l!AFo , j!j r!!
5!: <3. 6. 27J!if ill J<!i\Jll,(!<J l'ilJlm.
IP. !:ii "JiNf ii..::O 1- lciJ llilil lit 'II' l:t ll:~ ;;J<J:!IJ!: \I\' lciJ l!li'll' Ir il!it$ 1\i' ~ti Jl\M'F l!l{lJI! q flJ Ji! l'lJlt llf f, .91' Df 11il t U(!<Jffl'J!i.411! l!hfiill!ll ::i; IH)lll Jt!lfJl<Nf i!fri!'l 1'-llll
/!Ii,
~1 3. 3 1'1 T i!l'-:$!4'fll lt~llllR%'1t~:1i~"1Nfolll?l-Nf:lrl.!i ,l'.l<'J'1;1JmT. iitil'.Nf r~
3l

l'iil

II!';/;

O<x<L,t>o
x = O,t

~=f1 (t)

>0

(3, 6. 31)

x=L.t>O

p(x,t"-'0)=0,

o~.r~[,

J) il!:JllJR?J-5!'.~1.!i"1ill!E:IJ p(x.t)

2) il!:ltil:: f, (t) =at (!<}1\i'l!<tf % , ;!<; 9' a likllt !/ll(


3) il!:lll ?l'Nf :lfji;;Jj(Nf f, (t) =aL li!f Jl' (!<) !E:iJ p(r .t)
Ill J )j$f JR{ 05!: (3. 6. J 0) , )lil :(E q(x ,t) =O ,F (x) ~ 0, f, (t) ~ 0, l!lf l!.( Ill !Q?J-5(~1.!;Jj(Nf (!<J
!l;Jll,;t,)

139

i] X(,8.,,x)etil!{xf'
e~!l!M:(r)dr/
N(/.,,)
,_o

p(.x,t) =

....

ill.ill J!!ill!!J!J.J'l-#<i'f !f!i!-11\'ll\, Ji''l!! 3. l Ji'! 7 ff ii


X=cosj3,,,x,

J3.,.=(Zm-1)11'/2L1

J1,;;i: (3. 6. 9) '1<111 M, ({I., r) = ('.sin(l.IJ, J Ji!i l!J,


(3, 6. 32)

'f.,..., _

p(x,t)

=at+ ;Xcx~

Lt)+

(2m - l)

2L

tr

x21'ij (- l)"'te.. r~ cost,.x


..

~1

s>if'J Ill?Hl!<lill1:fr lit s 1'1tlf"1 lliilltIii


ill'f q(x ,t l = o, P!f l!J, i= o11\'if>'l' ti! lm. Y- f, = o. ;It!:: (3, 6. 12 >ltlf lt}J
p(x,t) = p, 3 (x,t) + ph(:x,t) - p 2(x,t)
ii! 'Ii: p., ( x' t) J!!i 1'?JJ lll!'lt ii> ioJI! !'J Iii
;Jp,,

=0,

CO<x<L),

ap.z ""'0.
ax

(x=O),

a:r

ii!'li: p,Cx ,t) 'O 11>, (x, t

,t)

rl'lfli

a..C

4>11 (x,r,t)

1 a<Pi

~J'f1" ioJ 1!"1111 :frll!~lll:ll1#l!i''ll< 3. 1

w~---,,,_,

(a)

PA= 0

(b)

(O<x<L,t>O) 1

=0, (x=L),

(3. 6. 34)

P.1 =at

1';)(;, ilil II>, (x r, t )J!!i l':;lJ J'f!Kl'iill!!'J;9Y

=xiii,

(3. 6. 33)

"'"'

i}(b

ax -O,

lfli (x, r,t= 0) = P.:"""at,

(.x=>O);
(O:i:;;;;x~L)

Ji'! 7 fi*lttll

______________,. .__.__, .,.

,~

140
(cl

2~f:(- l)"'-ie-tfl!,cos~,.,T

p(x,t) =at

x .. ~1

/3..

3. 6. 3 *:ICP!i1Zl'1lel!-~m!~
!ll i'El'lie 't' 7""1 Ll<ll!l; o,;;;x< = 1.J-!tllt iilJ. "'r!ll;tm l' -RltttiJ li'llf'rriJl!i,
. if.p_ 1.
- 1. 2
O<x<=,t> 0
ax2

+ ). q(x,t)

JI.'

- lap+
ax hp - f, (t)'

(3. 6. 36)
(3. 6. 37)

x=O,t>O

_ p(x,t = 0) = F(x),

tl:.~ll!

(3. 6. 35)

(3. 6. 38)

3. 6 lll z rr, itilliJ 1111.J ;!r,5J':Jl:ll!M l"1 ~


(3. 6. 39)

p({J,t) - f:_,X({J,x)p(x,t)dx
p(x.t) -

f-

J!:.!fl.x)p((J,t)dfl

/l~O

(3. 6. 40)

N(/3)

Ji; cf ,X ((J ,x) "11 N <fll:I!! jj!llf'lliJ /IJi (3. 6. 36 l - <3. 6. 38) Jf I)( i!ll5t J')fJ!; $;1.J !l/!iE{ifiiJl!iiJ !l/!iE
lilH&tn iYUL !ll! 3. 6 cf 1.J*it. till J'l Bl 'lli 3. 2 1f tli ~ I t1l h ~'.i!'till1lllifl jj!llfiti'lli ~'

rr . .(i.z t;;i;;C:!G~ lFoudn IE. ~l!Cll'll!.


1~1l'llH3.

6. 36)"1! iElll'!Jtl'f (3. 6. .171. <3. 6. 3B>J'li'il: (3. 6. 39 l iJ i!i'i\:Jl'l!J1trrfi\5t3l'lil!,


'I i~*'f:Jl:Jil!ii!i l!i( pCfl .t) iJ tml''llJ{illiJ l!!i'
dpc{!.t)
{!'- fJ
_ x- fJ
X((J,x - o> .
(3. 6. 41)
11 (t)
-~ 1 -+X~(,t)-----.lq(,t)+X
I
{
p(/l,t - Ol - F((J)

9C/3,t)

(3. 6. 42)

F((J) -

f"",_,X(/1,x)q(x,t)dx

f"-

(3. 6. 431

X<(J,x)F(x)d.<

}l'll\C3. s. 4ll:I'! 1Mi1J!tt1itlilt5t1J!ll,!fl1itl&'.ll'lll11'1J0'i\:C3.5. 19li~'!\'Jll,P:tli p((J,11.#


ai flli<i1%<!4' <3. 6. 42 t1J lit!& c, !l!lfill'!i~ c3. ' 40 J8'.IJB 'il:i1trr a:il:&i:r t1J 1i<>115t :mP<x ,t > = f"' !_,/!.!.~.~c-ri11i'F(/3) +-f' eXP1'[X:q(j3,r) t ",(,\f (j3,r)Jdc)d(J

>"'

a- N(~l

-~

(3,

6. 44)

(3, 6. 45)

3. 6 .tliLiltlf. ~

<F;!fr.>J-:it~

141

9!I ,J, 4 i!l:ff JKJtl; o.;;;x< =(1'1-!llililt;/J' ;l;!llCJJ-;fJiiii !&11 q(x' t) .x= 0 31J:1JJ;tffi l!l'Jl-'
1JJill !E:iJ JJ-;fJi 11 F Cx J , J;:;lt EE }J Iii '!IJ( PCx .t J

fi
'!.

ax

o,

(3. 6. 46)

x=O.t>O

p(:r,t = 0)

}'(:c)'

O~x<=

J:!i .~ 0x!: C3. 6. 44l1i)][tllf '.!!I llHfil'iil li!ilt'i~ "1


p(:i: 1 t)

J::n X~~'p~) e-:iTi[ FlfJ) + ~ J:_ e il2(!<{J, r)dr ]cl.&


1

(3.

6. 47)

>ll JI! 3. 2 ll! 2 lT.*. :J X c ,x l =cosx, I IN= 2 I, M:AJ:'il'.Ji',Jl'Jti'\ 'I' ft'J 'IJ<!J-i!i! if , fiiJ Hti1:lf.

(3. 6. 49)
~ti-i'\(3. 6. 48)1i)Ef!lil;
p(x,t) =

f:_

G(x,x' ,t)F(x')dx'
0

+ --,-Xf ['
II

~o

G(x,x' ,t -

d ...... 0

x'=O

r)q(:r' r)dx1 dr

(3. 6. 50)

ilL!!! lt'i G ;9; [if, J: it;!!; ii! ;jj: iii !& , f tE li! 4 lit '/'
ill-lfi llll l '
3. 6. 4

'
,.>------

o'----c,----L,--+,

I1'1~*ifi~t1J~!itm!ilb

JI! !J1 JJ-'Jt Jl1I lit >It ~!;It'~ Ill :iii Iii lilt It 7l' :IT
II!' nr j IX
'l'-1'? "'1 'ltllirr~5! 'Jt~' 1/.. iilf j IX I~ ~:if Iii! 9'~r'!i! fiij 'Jtll(/9 ill-"'!&' ..
Fo !it :J ll'IX'l\'l!l!"' !&nH11llJ ,
lt'i 1 'ft!J<tt 11t1t'lt :1rm. m:J il'l.l:'ll'~ w!&Fo l'f ; 11Zi'!'rr
!'l''Jtl!l!, Bill~ !E}J iii!&!J-;fJi.
'1Jll;-1-Jl!J!'Ji!!ll! .Jlf!J111 ab, Ji'{;! 'f (I ,dJ , .It .\\I lClfil!lt q 11'1it!& , Po ll'I 3. I l'Jf ?i' ltibtl
'!l-11 ;E !E iiJ :If fll j!lj #111' %r ft'J ff }J !J- ;fJi Ji1i '!IJ(p Cx , y , t J ,
iX #lilt ;/! B'J IE WI fiil \\!!Iii) ~ lf j!lj 1'i'!!! i* , Ji! I #!!! !l:;l!;l!!Ji'fF :"1.1.\ lCJlJ A JJ' l'< , ill!,_ !lll;114'

'1'"

*"'

-------------~-"-----........

',,

142

:li'IX:JT1'l\1fiil!l f !IQ1'll!JI', lll!Hild'f l'l'!i' Jll ml !Ill lll!IL lf!! 2 l'i!!!dliJl!:~~'!f ll'.-- rlJ l!1l'Hi'd'f,
:JT!ll 9' f 1tW:tc!Jf [!I ifil Jl!::li'IX iJ<J , '8 igJ!l f ;l;Jli'..Jf ,\\\ iJ<J .ll:ai!i 12<1;'<. l:l i>HI1f 9J'l!1;'Hklt, llll
tEJ!of(] J!l jff! i l'iJl!lli, ;ll;;lfl!I~ ili illt"f'

:; + :; =

i 3: + !

0(.x -

l)V'(y -

d)

(3. 6. 51)

;It 9' ,A= KI Jldlt:Ji( ,q Jl!t~&l!!!I!'! )Jli( ;"'ill iJ<J !*!!Hit:lt (m' /m ,) , ~ JI; Dirno ~ "9 ~, 'fjjjj

?t jllj l'Ftll JI' i1t ff H ll':

t fll!iB llll!llll4J 111l!!El!1Ji'tllif5 1l'Jillll!1W-J:!E:IJ 11 p,. Tililia p<x.


y .t Jn 1111; ;i; p, l!l!Ei iJ<J!E:IJ f Jl!::JT1'l\ cs. s. sD iJ<J 11!1!'1,l;ffilT~ Ill.
ll

li:ffii1H~!!I$

p(O,y,t) = p(a,y,t) = O,
{

y(x,O,t) = p(x,b,t) = O,

O<x<a,t>

(3, 6. 52)

p(x,y,O) = fJo(x,y)

i'J< !~ ii1! 3, s ll! 1 tJ'l!l:.. 3, 2 JI! 9 fi , tE x '11 y 1f fiiJ l4J 11 Fouri" 1!11ll.1Elli:3l'l'k, RP x :!TM ~1iI

>ii~ :kJ X. ='inp.x,p. ~!EE


a ,J/NCP.) =],.
a Y :!TrilJ1i'f!iEf!ir<;:!J Y,=sinY,y, Y,= ""b !/N(Y,) ~

~ . l'l'ff i!;i!X'J!:l'k!Ei:lrl!I (3, s. 51 l ti:lt!i!;i '11!1!':%

m' "')-n-2 '7+


bi p(m,11,t)

I d ':: " . mirl.


""d
_::__r_+.i.1nn
-'1n Xdt

(3, 6. 53)
(3. 6. 54)

(3. 5. 55)

. tnttl . nttd . 1nrrx . rvry


sin 7s1n Ts1n 7s1n b

tt 1!:J::il: 9' il'l1"l\!i"t' ill t= 0 i'/'8


Jll ii-.\\\ !E:IJ l\j f 1111'!

*'

(3, 6. 56)

;:!)"'. ~lnlii!E:IJ ?l':tri' ill 1-= it'E:;l; J , i;!;;!! lj/HJJ!'ll' 11'1'ruJ t

2)

il<l lil:lllrl-111~

~ff l!!l ftil ~ Ol7:;r;J!t7.l<ill.J'I'1111 Jl'i ' ;it) llill< l'f Of~ lit

apl

_?P./

:l~-a,..o =~;,-

ay

-o

>o'
:>of

0:

ay ,,.. b

<3.6.57)

p(:x,y,t ..... 0) = PD(x,y)


l'Ji.~'ll! 3, 6 lJlj 1

fi':fll'll! 3, I lfi 6 fi', tl'!iEi>i '11'.J5J ~ 'Of!J:<klt.

J!!tf p;j1J(olJ<jt;itJ#,lff, '!'Hol!illlJ

EjJ'Jl:l*lii!i'11'. p(m ,n ,1) , ~Fw l!J'.li!'ll! 3. 6 lJll 1 ff 8'J !i;lt'J#,0~il!ft P'i IJ::Ji<;lt'J#, :l.'!11illl
Aab[p0 (.x,y) - p(;c,y,t)] = Xt
q

}:;".:" -1 [ 1- exp ( + -2a'


~
m2

.. ,

2b' ""
+ 1i1'
L..J

3 ' 7. 1

, tn
)
mrrl
nl!'.r
-Xt
cos-oosat
aa

1r"

n J

l i [ 1 - exp - ir b' Xt IJ cos nnd


nny
Tcos T

11

(3. 6. 58)

~ Pi I& l!R llSI ZJS ilM 1 il!!J ill!

"It J\llilf Ji: R ~ 'il: cl: (r , I) 1' 91: B'J~iit fiiJ l!ll liJ 7l' ~ jllj #1111 llt RP J;f Jl'i IB:Jit a.;;r.;;b f\l ~ Jl'iIB:
Jlt o.;;r,,;;b 'I' 8'J 'f iif1l' rllilt. Tiif 7t~tl f ITT ~it.

(3. 7. l)

>0

(3, 7. 2)

x=b,t>O

(3, 7, 3)

a~r<b

(3,7.4)

x = a,t

p(r,t=O)=F(r),

lit~lJll 3. 5 i!i Jililt. II! 1'Qjt'Jl:J#,!11;Jl:Jlilfill l!ll. lJll l ;!l>;!i!tjit;)fljll;~ fl'JIJ'ijl-'Jl:J#,~!1.


~!f "f :;j;; fiilf!lE'Ziill!!!!'l'lJll 3 ft, :it 'I' ,,_ o, DP

Ell!!!! 3. 6 "'!JU.
(3. 7. 5)

(3. 7, 5)

'-~---------------

---

144

3 iHI\ 'JI' i: ;J; "'fR h- J! <ti! ii;

Jj; rp ,R, ( p. ,, ) , p.

fl1 NCp.)-f:1f1'1C3. 7. 1) fl1i!l)'l-,lj;fifC3. 7. 2J fl1 ( 3. 7. 3) JI' ii( llil?J-?Jil!l nit il'J


1il'liE ill. lliJ ll!l ll'J 111' liE ffi ti( , ""'liE lll l'!l \11' 'It '8 ill 83 'ii' 3. 3 11 ill '
Ji'! 2 i1Hl!;7111l'll iE fl!ll,lj; iif J!E 'iitl: <3. 7. 5lill'rr l!\:fr~li!o 'll!~Fo ll'J 1f!!!fll 1Jlii1c!idif ~J

r dp(~.,t)

(t

+ Xif!p<{l.,t)

~ ~q(p,,,t)
I\

l p(fi, ,t ~

O) ~

+ X[aM,(t) +bM 1 Ct)]

Pc{l,J

(3,

7. 7)

(3. 7. 8)

(iC/3.,,t)

J:rRoCP... ,r)q(r,t)dr

(3. 7. 9)

(3. 7. 10)

F'(f?.,) = J:rR 0 (j9.. ,r)F(r)dr

M "'

{R,(~.') 1.-.. f.(t)

'

(-1)'+1_!._<lRol

(3. 7. )])
j',(t)

l,

h, dr "-',

r 1 =a,r2 =b)

(i=l,2,

it1- 1 Jr~fi'iit~?t1f!lH"1lJJ1liJoJ/l!lC3. 7. 7lfl1<3. 7. BJ1~!Jl:&!;;!tfl!ll.


JI! s !i'flllil!EJJ~~ffili "P<P. ,1J.
'il 4 ii' Ill ll''ll!li'! l~ '1: c3. 1. 6Jlllrr &'ll!l#!NP 111 !E:iJ ?t l'li ffi 'It
. ) _
P( 1.t -

~ Ro({:i,,.,t)

NCr:i J e
f'"' -

'-"

'"w \

-rP'r

'"

\Pep.)+[_,'":'[ f;;cp,,c) + XaM,(t) + XbM,(t) ]de)

(3.7.12)

11atE !IX'tit'~l!lili?tlllll!\?tli!rr ili:'.41. ~J Ji:!~ 83 + Gibbs ~!'1P.11lll*ll'J B!XilL


-!i 'If '10 I& f;t o,,;;c<;;;b ;; ~ 11.( r iE fl!l11"'111!!

?!P + lap+

JI".! + hp ~
Jr 2

rdr

p(r,t = 0)

l_q(r t) = l_

'-

ap

XJt~

O< r<b,t

f(t).

"'=

>

r=b,t>O

F(r),

(3, 7. 13)

(3. 7.14)

(3. 7. 15)

fl: ft'J'! 3. 6 Ji'! 4 ff 9 jj;rp ,~ O, ;li;l!\?J-'ll!l#!X<i" !l>: ;I;


PCfl,,,,t) = J:rR 0 (f~.. ,r)p(r.t)dr
_ ~ R,(/).,t)- "

p(r,t) -

2o

N(/).,) P(t't)

(3. 7, 16)
(3. 7. 17)

;IJ;rp !*'liEm 'I!:, 'i'liE1ll'll lil:'I!: 83 :Ji! 3. ' l'I' llL xr1r!llofll ii!fl!l1'1kfif C3. 1. 131- <s. 1. 1s1 J!EJ!! ill'rr

l!\?J-'l<l#!i<l-ol'if"'J)'Jj:cffi!/ll:(l'J I !li'!ltf.t'ffl" ~?J-~!!1, fWliI p 11.( Fn lift!:.~;!: ( 3. 7. I 7) ill'rr &Jt!i:',


:111:51~ ffijJ ffi 'I!: -'l''1: C3. 7. 12)jj(<jVJ, J1 -J;;J-' 1' M '!I!, IP
. _ ~ Ro(/3,,,,t) -.rl:.
P( r, t )- .;:_, N(Q) e "'
.,,,.1

\ FC;l.J

t'm

+ J:_, '"''[} q(;J., t) + XbM Ct) ]dr l

(3.7.18)

145

1!:2Cp r) I

'

M(t) =

3. 7. 2

hi -d0
r

f(r),

17' 0

f(r:)'

l = 0

(3. 7. 19)

'""'~

1C llli ;;;; I& lilt ~ 215 im f~ i1iJ JJit

ml< llf 'il:;Jt "1 ;!:: IB'. >t; a<;;r< =

3. 6 JI!

11'1 'f illi j,l, rliJ lilt:. 't~ l!l 'f lE !ii rel ll!i

'!.
i? + .lq(r
t) ""l Z
ar- 2 + lrJr
,\
,,
xat' a <r< =.t> 0

(3. 7. 20)

~- l ?fj. +hp=

(3. 7. 21)

p(r,t

!'Ii .~;l<

dR

{-

... ~

= 0)

>0
a<_r< =

f(t),

a,t

F(r),
5 19 ,Ji!(;!;<!' '= 0( 1!iJ :'lg Jc; Jlij [liJ fl! 0 :lt<! ~f!(j}~lil!X& fili::'lg
=

f(/3,r)

p(r,t)

(3.7.2Z)

J~ rR"(j3,r)p(r,t)dr

(3. 7. 23)

J~ pR,,;;;,r)pc,iJd

(3. 7. 24)

~~(

N(p)

;!;'!' "1 !It Ro Cfi ,r) :flt N (fi) lb il< 3. 5 l!i'il;,

l>lllf r-a ~:it!J'Hki'fol!'T~ll!li!!JE~1!Y''f111:'i!i'1'11'1


fi ~. Ill :II' T J~ rR, Cp ,, Jdr M1r !'<:flt lE !ii i!'d'f i:l )jf illrriE :II' , JDI 1r Ii :flt Wia !41-f'f '.!!' ~ 1'j
( 3. 7. 7):flt C3. 7. 8)~1!;!1!'1%>1:, fl :of'J.i:it!dlf li}l()jf {l(1f -1' M, gp

dp~,t) + Xfi'p(fi,t)

~q<fi,t) + XaM(t)

C3. 7. 25!

p(fi,t =DJ= FcpJ


O. 7. 26)
M!Jfd'foi&-'11' lltl'li>t (3. 5. 19)!11 tll !E;IJ ~l!l!"1 !It p(p. t) 'if iE Ill#~ c, l'f l'/iJ!:

lb kl J: If :flt w
(3. 7. 24Ji1!fil'.'.!l'l!l!.:li/ff1l;!E;IJ:lt11fiillillt
p(r,t)

(""

fJRg(/3,r)e_ifl',

J,_, N(p)
(F<fil + t:"'[ ~q(.B,r) + XaMC<) ]dr)dp

(3.

7. 21!

1#0

(3. 7, 28)
l

3. 7. 3

1111

Xi fill ~ Im JJit ilJJ

llf 'il:lll!lll#!ttlifilli!!ftjjjj ~Jt, jjjj ~ Ji!l!J :'i;Jj,l, rliJIJll:llh, SP ffi;IJ p R .5; Cr, z, t l 1'*,Jo Jlij 1iU !!!
0 ;\;')'.;.

i<1),l\'liJfl'l1f'1!.IB'.tlt a<;;R;b. o~L l!'T=!tlliilll .~~kl TiEll!lreJlli


:/'p

l ap

ap 2

ar2 +--;::: ar + ~ + Tq(r,~,t)

J p(r,z,t) ~ O,

, p(r,z,t = 0) = F(r,z),

1 ap

a<r<h

Xiii' o < z < L't > o

(3. '/, 29)

>0

(3. 7. 30)
(3, 7. 31)

fr:llilJ!IJll.J:,t
a

b,O

z.:i;;;: L

Jll lR :lt'.!l'l!l!I.!: ;;!<!ii .::!II IJll: ijlJ , '!if M'.ll: :Iii r :flt z fl< !k:lt%0Jitfi fl( :lt'.Jl:i!lio , Xj' I! ~:Iii r f)i ~ J!I! lltJe
z 1!1i1'Ji!::ll;:lil.~5!'l'l!x'1'.5f '11:<3. 7. Slffi (3. 1. 6)tl!flll ,~'1' ,R,cp.,r) ,p. illl N<P.> lb'ill 3. 4 4-

146
3 ;)-~'Jl::l)J;f<>,fp,;)-JtJt.ik
--=~~~~~~~~~~~~~--'--'-'-'---..--~~~

:it'I' >-0 'lflfj 'f!"::lflli(3. 7. 29)-(3. 7. 3J);g,-!X!Jl:lt'.J!:i!"Fo'l!'.:%


ti. .l-,
_ _lap
J-',,.p(p,,.,z,t) + az1 + ,\ q(,,,.,z,t) - x at
0

_,,,-,

! p(fi. z

1
'.l!:lli

(3. 7. 32)

z = O,z = L,t > O

t) = O,

(3. 7.

33)

P<fi.,z,t - 0) - FC# .z)


(3. 7. 34)
Ll J:;IJ!l! 'l'i:Cli ~
z, l'!'.xt z J!!tf-IX!Jl:lt'!\'i!O. .:% l:i~U;J;iJil, 111" - "'i!!iK M z il'J IR:lt:ll!
jtJ\,;!t'!\'&M'1i'il:C3. 6. 5);f!J(3. 6. 6lil'J'Jfi'il:~Mo N'l);J!<Xt:%

J;c[:J,,.,r~,t)

f~~ 0 zcr.,z)ft(,8.,,z,t)dz

(3. 7. 35)

f, Z(Y,,z). ,

p(fi.,z,t) - ,:;.,, N(Y) p(fi.,Y,,t)


-!

(3. 7. 36)

;tt 'I'. z (Y., z) , r. ;flJ N er.) rll ll! 3. 1 lf lfj o IJo:I!: , 1!111!ii 3l: f-'I' il'J R, <fi. ,r). fi.-N <P.1 #l z <r..
, 1r.. N cr.1 JtU:% ra :If!!! c2. 1. 291- <s. 1. a11 il'J :lfttllil:ltiil!:lt Jiiii '!\'tFo fifi'lfi Jilt il'J *r:lt Jiiii

0 ~ R, (r )#J Z (z) i'Jtlf!iEil! fiill!!iil'J !l'!iEiil 'ti:, %'!iEil!;flll\l:'t!: o


;g,t;t;;t IX IJ<Jt'l\'l'J\Ll !ff, :If !llfll Ji!llil!#<l'f'l!'.Jilt Ll T :*''f 1J1 lt'l!'l'J\iil fl: "ft<P., r.. 11 il'J
~tt lit
1111!

lit"

~
dt + X( fl'~,

,,)p(".,Y.,t) =

x.,

Tq(" Y.,t)

(3. 7.

'P<P. + r,,, - 01 = ll'cp.,r.1


ij(/J,.,Y.,t) =

'FC{J.,,Y,)

J:~of:

'Jr
37)

(3. 7. 38)

...rRa(p.,,r)Z(r.,z)q(r,z,t)drdz

(3. 7, 39)

J:. J:. .drRu(P.. ,r)Z(Y.,z)F(r,z)drdz

(3. 7. 40)

Xt1fll! (3. 7. 37) #l'1JM14rtl'f (3. 7. 3811~ :@'.!!, ;l<llil!. llil! tlJ ,JJ!.lt1'1l513\'jtJ\0~ p<fi., r.,1) Lllff, l'!'.
l'l:&'l!'i!003!:<3. 7. 361"17(3. 7. 6)i'JJfi'il:ff,JJl..!ll:&'Jl:W!,PP-lll
p(r,z t) = ~ ij Ro~!'!.!.?:)~(~.,z) e-xti'!+i!!
1

.. -1

~1

(/3.. ) ( .)

{P<.e... r.) +
3. 7. 4

~J:_ 0 et<P!+r!iqc/f... r.,r)dr}

(3. 7. 41)

llifii~IXl<~=ttii1l~

'tf- Ji; illl lf' 13: >it a.,;;r.,;;b ,o.,;;o.,;;o, w, < 2") il'J .:: !II:lit f4J , '1li fll ~%HJ T JE ~ lliJ I!!
r?p

1 (}p

_ 1

'!

~ +7+ ri JIP +-y:q(r,8,t)-x Ji'

a<r<b
O<O<Oo't>O

(3. 7. 42)
(3. 7. 43)
(3. 7. 44)

-l~~+haP=f'~(IJ,t),
l,

JI:+ h,p

/ 0 (8,t),

p(r,8,t-O)=F(r,0),

r=a,t>O
r

(3. 7. 45)

= b

(3. 7. 46)

a~r~b,0~0~00 ,

(3. 7. 47)

3.7

147

W&~

*m

"1J 1iur'.ll:'i!l! 1f/j;;


J:nc:::lt jjlt illl ""!l!! , 1lT 11<l>(xt l'l >Jt ;11 e:flt , :frJllJ iltrrlR:fr '.ll:'!k &P f"'
(3. 7. 42)- (3. 6. 47JB'J :If lj( ll!l:friltff '.Jl:JIJ)- JI!, 1ll*T:fr JI! iii Ill: 9COJ :fU R (,) B'J !l'fiE iJ!.fiil l!li.
l!l\Fn 7)-~IJ t1J 1!J. 3. I lll: tlHtfiEiii Ill: 9(>, 0), !l'li iJI. >:fU ltilt N (>) i;.(Jl: i!l l!J. 3. 3 lll: ill 1'#fiEiiiilt R,
<P.,, 1'l'fiEiJI. fi. :fU IBilt N <P.l
>lll l'El!' ll:M l'l '.!l:tt oiltlt-!I: lR?l-11:~. i!Hl'i?l-JI! iiiilt 9<0l 8'J !!<fiE il!.fiil 8, fil1 J'l(l!J. 3. 6
9' lfl I fi'B'JlR?l-3t'i!l! xtiltrr'.!l:~' BP

P<r,J.!,t)

"
p(r,v,t)

Jl~O

B<v,o>p<r,8,t)do

= "..I 9(>,0)N(J1) p(r,v,t)

(3.7.48)

(3. 7. 49)

ffl <3. 7. 48JJ!i>!:B'J!R?t'.!l:'l!l!>txtii!l!ffiilil!!<3. 7. 42)-(3. 7. 47JiJjljiltfi''.!l:'i!l!Fn ,jlj;-f*T


'.ll:~iii Ill: p(, '"') B'J ii!fll!fiilJljj'
i!l_
1 ip
'-'
Il iij_
a,-i +-;:;:,,. - -rP + M (r,t) + M:(r,t) + ;:q(r,v,t) = X at
(3. 7. 50)
1

- /3 'P
Jr

i.

+ h3p- = 1~(Jl,t).

(3.

? + h.P = 1~c11,t),

/j(r,.,,t -

r=h,t>O

7. 51)

(3. 7. 52)
(3. 7. 53)

0) ""'Ii'(r,..,),

(3. 7. 54)

(i=l.2,

Oi=0,82=80>

iltri!li Ill" - ""'n<xt l'l 'i!:tt 1 J1ttl9lR?l-'.Jl:~. :% T :<-t1f! <1. 1. 50J- (3. 7. 54 l 9' B'J l'l '.il::I! ,
jlj'J11fi'-!1:1!1?l-'.!l:~, ri!li Ill bO" - "'"', Xt r J11'1t1!l?l-'.Jl:~B'J Jt'i!l!Xt tlJ"' 3. 6 9' !I! 3 ltill"
ili , BP

=fb,.,r'R,([i..,,r')jj(r',v,t)dr'

~(/J,.,w,t)
-C

p r,v.t

f, R,Cfi.,r)(,
)
N((l,.) p f-'.,,v,t

= ~

(3.7.55)

3. 7. 56

Jll'i!:~>!:(3.

7. 55J(l<J~'il::Xt>!:O. 7. 50)-(3. 7. 54llll'Jll!J!i'ffl!10-'Jl''i!l!,j1!lltltl!10-'.Jl:~iiitl;


p({I. , t J8'J 1 !11'~1! 1lt1!1:0- Ji@ fV W,i !tftil'd'I' Jm r ,

, + X/31.~Cfi.,>,t)

~iiCfi.,>,t) + x<fil, + /il,) + X(aM, + bM,)

~Cfi..t =OJ=

ij({J.. ,v,t) -

f. f'

1/(fi.,>) =

'f:'(fi.,>J

(3. 7. 57)
(3. 7. 58)

, ... ~ .. rR,([3.. 1 r)8(v,8)q(r,8,t)d(Jd.r

(3. 7. 59)

f'. ..f'.'rR,(fi.,J8(8)F(,,8Jd8dr

(3. 7. 60)

148

(3. 7. 61)
l;

*0

l, - 0
(i=3 ..t,

r 0 =a,

r 4 =b)

(3. 7. 62)

111! ill! t~ ili ,xt'f Jf ll'i IB:llll a,,;r,,;b, o,,;e,,;2, B'J Vlt i1IJ , Jill <Ell! 3. 3. 11' 'I' I
J!l ID 13: llll '1' !11: liiJ fl )!If :f li1J J! :f<Pli!lll'i B'J &5t:l!'i!l<Xt ~

p(r,v,t) =

f" 0

~~ cosr.i(8-

Jl\~J B'J , tlf lll .!ii

(3. 7. 63)

f!)p(r,f! ,t)d8'

1 "
p(r,8,t) = ~
L;P(r,v,t)

(3. 1. 64)

" '
"'.'I',,_ o, L 2 , ... , J! llllre:f'i'l' i1'i T . r:l!':ll: ~ <r, e,. .t) B'J ~!iH"l llli, "1oll/f$1i!i;js:i!l li1J
>\ :f ii '!if JlEo !It1!15t11l' l'k jjlj E. ,

3. 8 .f.t~:lir.l\tft~lR?t~~
xt 'f J!J< !ll lff. * 'l' B'1 i~!iilf.riiJ llli , ;js:1J 11'1'i!!!! 3. . 3 11' 'I' !l! ti , .R ltif>: J!J< %12 r"1 !iii , ip .R 1'; l'l
'J!' :ll:<r. t J fl~ B'J tlf % , fIJ Jill 'I' J!J< %B'J iJI! ill! !<.( ll: 'lll!lt 1r J;t 'I' b\J!I< ID lli !I\' !!II !1iL ll. Ill( r"1 ~ ~ B'J l'li
i11J.J!:f<Pi'ilii11J~~~~~!ll~*'l'B'l~~m~.~~JmT~liiJllli,

1..r il'(rp)
g,.i

1..

- 1.. a. .

+;.q(r,t)-xJP<.r<b,t>O

'f:+Hp-f(t),
p(r,t

r-b,t>O

= 0) = f'(r),

(3. 8.

l)

(3. 8. 2)
(3. 8. 3)

J! JiHI!: 1'l'j<Jf> 13'. llll 'If~;'[ B'J 4' ~:!;!iii liil ti' ll5I :l!' JI B'J :l!' l!l; , 4'
(3.8.4)

W(r,t) = rp(r,t)

'fli!:filllHiiJ/lli(3. 8. D-<3. 8. 3J:l!'~

aiw r
ar2 + "Iq(r,t)
W(r,t) = o,

~ + (H

W(r,t=O)

1aw

y~

O<r<b,t> 0

; ) W - bf(t),
=rfa~(r),

(3. 8. 5)

O,t> 0

(3. 8. 6)

~ b,t > 0

(3. 8. 7)

O~r~b

(3.8.8)

ltifillM' liiJ lll!B'J:lfttllll5t"" ~~ !lltT-* 'I' (J<J %'1'.;f{J "'1 <Jill" (3, 29) - (3 .. 32) fififfe). :;1;&5t
:l!'i!l<Xt El!$. 3. 6 'I'll! I ff!tt ili ,'f4f r #ti' x, NP

149

P<P.. ,t)

J:~ 6 X(p.,,r)p(r,t)dr

(3.

_ f, X<p.,rl- ,
f,;; N(ft.) p("_,t)

(3. 8. 10)

p(r,t) -

l!Ul!l!!J'f~f'f(3.

s. 9)

8. 6lifl1(3.8. 7l(!9!t:;!!'l,'lt~ 3.1lll5 rrlli


X (j3., ,r)

sinfJ,,.r

2(. + llil
N(P.l - b(/3'.. +HD + ll,'

~1~ -

(3. 8. !ll

!l, - ll

1.

(3. 8. 12)

mr 'ti! liE ill p. JlF'F J1lJ1fIi a9JE111.


{l.,bctg#.b

+ bH -

I ~ 0

C3. 8. 13)

m;!!'. 'f f. sin{l.rdr n'>l: c3. s. 5l- o. 8. 8) iilJI! iltffili:M'. , lll'X''f :i\'1! ii!i Ile w cp.. l (19 I llft!il
tt 11tlll::frnli& :ttw Iii ~f'i'
t

dW<P
,, W (,,.,.,t
" l
dt tJ + ,.,.,,x
W({i,,..t = 0) =

F (/),,,)

x- "

= ;:-q(,,.,t)

4
+ xbP.
H~ COStJ,,.b
1.(t)

(3. 8.14)

= f:rsinfi.,,rF(r)dr,F" = rF(r)

(3. 8. 15)

J;l;1'Wil1l 1'1 li!iAA! w <P.. t) 'fa.I


W({l.,t)

~ e-!(:F (/I.)+ I'..:''''[ ~q(p_,r)

+ XbJr:cos{l.bf(r) ]dr)

(3. 8.16)

l:li lit:il'l'k:O: C3. 8. 10) n.t:O:ilttr lit:il'l'k, Jt!ti!:l!IJ;l:<3. 8. 4), BPli ffi}J :fr:liiii!i Ile
2~ "" C{l:+Hllsinfl.r(r

p (r,t ) = y ~e

F ). , d
.. b({P,._ +Hf)+ H~ J.~or (r s1n,....,r r

+ ~ J:_ 0 e~[J:_ 0 q(r, r)sinft.,rdr Jdr

*T

+ xf=OetP!' ~:COS,6'.,b/(r)dr}

(3. 8.17)

l!jl;!!( ;;i !I '11 !fliifll ~!fli ill. iliJ rJ MJiPF !)' ll'ifll lll 3. 4 11' (lj JilltR ' *\1 n) :fj'(:fr IJE l'k?Rilt
fr :iJ<AA! !'\ Cf ill::(~~ &:I\' JI ~ cos~ (I] 1W !le 1'. J' Jt )JO :it:I\'!'Iii. JJ '11J: Ill il!i Ile B'J :fl'(1f:I\' l'k Milii

B ill 'fJ;\'.l+:J!fli ['JM:fE~itl.;iJ 'I' '11 Ill Jl!ti<;J;, ;;!lit'!' Iii'W!ifli!:;J; T

1'E Ji!=: l\!'. '!' , ll: 11111 jj! T 'Jtfl?/tl'Ji[ ii; 1J!i: Jt 1r'l'il li'1Jt51'it fll W- Jt'!t 1*1* Bi Jlt fl ;1J , xt
'fff~1rfll*~~mJt:;Jt'114,S1rR~.

3. 1-11: 3. 5'!' Jl;~m @'ii<J il! Ii! '1'1< :1 !l'liEfill '!!:' ll'i'ltfll j\fjiE{1! ftAlli.iJ 5} ;/jj'ii<J 0i't~P nL ;11

i:t 51 '.I!' :II! iE 'l' :1 T 1'f 'f IQ Jt'.ll' lli x& ,1\ilii .:!; *~ J!l W-5' '!\' l*lii >lt !Ii ?/tl'Ji[ ii; 1J!i: Jt 1r I'! !li'dl!i T 1!i!
ll\ '1!ii11. ili m:;r '.I!' lli .:!! *~' n~ f'J u 1iu11 r !it, 91! mwmm e<J ;1r 111 . Jt >Je ft~tiE 111-lt,!!! ff ill lt\:Jl!, .:!; !!< '111' *~ 1fII! ll,/ i!tli! .oji< ( G,een) fill '!!:JI< {j\ f *!Vi ,Ii!;It fill '111:/ii >)<:Jill ii; 1115}
1r t!!,Jl!,-1-1l 'it (J'J ;IrIii , @Jl!,J!1-:h 11' ii<J Ill it Z. ~ tE 'f ilu fiJllJ i!t.i!li; <J.:;Jti!t l'l lil lilc;\too 'Iii: Ill
iii: llH~ ;It iili !& l'iiJ lW t!!,~:flllc T 4' l\!'.JIUifr JL 11'%' lill :i Ill ;\too '111:1* , :f {J( .\!< Ul f J!l lilc *!' iili !lltlii3':
lit mii; i!I: Jt :1r 1'1 lil '.I~ rt ili .!Bit ui r !!I iii: 111 Ii' illi 'lli:lil 1rl.!'1'1l ti' !l!ll iX fill Ii' t!!,.:!J AA!<e .ff~ 1\iJ
l!!lli!{J\ f -'!!'!:IL l\ll!!<.fll~i l\'ili'J ;Jrlft.
4' l\!'. J! fll 111'1l =:1-1fllii &P 1!11'~1!! iii!i l'i:I.!' , it: ff 1!I! tefll :1Jli1 ii<J i 4' lli:E!i! Ll & -111. ii<J Iii;It

'*

Pi!i!&I*.

4. 1

llJ.lllit..\li"1JJtJlii!l~~

21< l\!'. EJf iJI. ii<J i!ll' ~If iii!i 'IJ(;ll, Ji,. i!ll' Bf,\\\ ill(Jil! Ul 2': ii<J , t!!,liit ;11,J,\ %1 lll lillil: Ul :it (l'J Ill ilii%J 1!I! IE lit
<P Slil' ~ , ~ .l!I! :t ;u~ S l!!l lilll W-!Jll' ii<J Iii;It iili 'ltl.!';1!1\!llt $1!! ll\ :1 :it ii<J it "!'!111111' t!f Jli ,
A ill ll' 1'f Ll 'l'J Ill !ii.:!}'!!' '.I (J3olt,mann) ~ l!l!Jltff lit Jill , .:!! It~ ilil !!!. , :f !Ii?\;11' !ij Ill lit ]f: 'ii' '.I 111

}j<::fll;l; iili:1J l!! ii<J il'i -j-jj!J f' '

4. i. i

~~ ~ ilti zis illi Zf.I

a mt

p, ,1 1- +o B~~J <'Ex - OJll:


i!li!:tt!'Jk ~!E.iJ ..t:ltl"J p, olt- :l;: fl!~.:!! p,. !!< i:r:t~~J ii<J Jli.iJ:* ;ff5. i8'.'1oiililf !Jl!ll<ii<Jg,Afiil
~ Jll,'f' Ji';R<!i!ilii ll'.Jljl; O<;;x< cnii<JJ;j )iljJil!J!!, Jil\J<i;Jil!J!! Bi;IJ .:!;

I/Ill ,

O<x<=,t>O
P(x,t)=l,
P(::r,t) =

0,

P(x,t=O)=O,

x =

o.

__,..=,
O~x<O?

>

t>O

(4.]. l)

(4, L 2J
(4. L 3)
(4.1.4)

1!l!Vf:!il:!l'J Jtlrr, 5!'it x ,1 ifO 'Iii: X 1'fl!!JN.PJl:-ii<J Ji';:fl!il'! :!I!; u - x' / 4Xt .i!li; \~x I ,!4ft,
fr:itlli <up lit JI'. tt '.I 'l)'J!l! l

:fy Jt,

(4,

L 5)

151

'f ;11; 1f ll!:f!l ;Ef!llli\i'f (4. !. ! ) - ( 4.

!.

41'.l\: J!J1it*:?l-1fll! EIJi!! f!lraJ llli'

~; + ,, ~~

(4. !. 6)

P<c=0)=1

(4.1.7)

P(c-=l =O

(4.1.8)

it .!.t'll'l!l!i::l:ll!9'l!JJIL,j\-ff(4,]. 3)ifit11'1Jl!i*i'f<4.]. 4)fl"=lffl-'ll:J!J'it<4.


( 4. !. 6) lfftt"1\ 'Jr. i'i+ P' =dP Ide. m1J1f ll!'i!:Jilt

J. 8), 1ffl

(4. !. 9)

d'

dP
P'

_,

(4, 1. JO)

= c 1e '

Jli'.IR :)}-!:).: , :if !II i!! Jll ~fd'f ;E t!i 11!"~ oJ 111
(4.1.11)

p(:_,:,t) = P1 - (P1 - p;)erf(

1!!J!!5'l;(A3. 2), t x= 0 Jd: p= p,, t

k,)

(4, 1.121

x-=Jll: t=O ,p= Pni"f-fr II:\:11!:,

4. 1. 2 ~~fig~ ZjS Im 1 lf!J ill!


~ill 14 J!lt?clll!:k:ll!! Ill 'I' - o J'i' ,Ill .I.I If. ft''~ ~'i:l1'Jl' 9' B'J J'i' '1'12 r = '. 1Jl\iii1:ll!!ll! Bi :1.1 J!J
p, , :ll!!ll! IJIt ::!I h , :if B'J Fl:: J!J Q 'f J!: ltE raJ I! il'rtffl:f!l li! flill!Ri'f lff '.!!'Jilt
(4, 1. 13)
?12=1-'!P
~+
O<r<oo,t>O
;Jr'
Xat

riir

' I 'Pl

p(r ,t)

p,

~OJ

ar

Q
2'1rKh

>0

(4. J. 14)

r-=,

t> 0

(4. 1.15)
(4. !. 16)

O~r<oo

p(r,t=O) =P1

K'I' , Pl l!!lll*ilf lff Eb

r - 0,

Da<cy )ilji!!.\j. t!;

iPl !Xllm (Poluparino"-Koohu.a, 19621 *!II ftnrl1111' Ii

~'ll:J!l.'
r'

(4, 1. 171

u = 4Xt

'f!!:1.fll!:WJEWl!i\flf(4. 1. 13)-(4, !.16l'!<Jilt

<l'1' ~
ud,+d<l+u)-0,
u
u

(4.].

18)

,
do
Qu
11m2u =.c:. = - -

(4,

p(u--+ oo) = p,

(4. j, 20)

*o

O<u<=,

du

2'1fKh

p' ""dp/ du lff f 1fll! (4, !. 18) "1\'Jr-1:).:, :5}/l.!5!;:1:Ji:fll:frZ iif l1!

!. 19)

152

e-
p' -.~du
-.-.-. d
r:.t ....
c --- 1 u

Ell l'!.11' ikf'f c4. 1. 10lIE1B 1il"tt " -

Q! 4Kh.

dp

(4. J, 2!a)

11:A.J!: <4. !. 21allll


Q ,-

(4.

du= 4trKh U

p(u) - -

"" , Bl !kit< 4.

4xKh

f'-" yd>
e-~ +
u

llt/Ei ill

L 20 )j[ ft I'! IE l!j ,,- p"

2 '

(4. 1. 23)

Ci

'

i '

p( :xi)= p, + 411",fhEi( - :xt)

p(r,t) =

L Z!bl

(4. !. 24)

:it'!', Ei <~ l fl;J</l!llR 5Hlii fl< >.Xlii~lJJUt iiii'llJ , .!11,llf;till: A2. l'liol: (A2. 3l IESC
Ei(- u) ::::::- f'--" e-y dy
y

:!JI!< Jl-iiii 'll'. t!!.Ji\1' 'il< iiii 'll'.. llilol: <4.


8'J i!!-Ji iti1?:J!l fl'.llt 'llf 11' fl! .

4. L 3

1.

(4, 1. 25)

24 l Ji!l!iJ Ill( 31'.W;i:Jt!!Jl.l 'P~W:!'J-1'-1"*2-J!:. MT iii

1J1 lf.t _ia iJill jl

tr~ ilt jJ '!' '/' , Hilt at 'f" i!f t\ ill! lE ii. :J\7 , #

8'J Hilt riiJ riiJ lfll ill li'J :it l'l. ft !\It 1*J - ,f,\ M'
<x' ,y' J!ZA.lt:ll:W: jj;, 1'1*!RJ<7 av ,lll(Jlt:J\7 om~ pl!V. fill #il't~J t- r Z 1!1r'litZl2i J;.( .11.f.\ M' J;.\
J>rllrt:ttA.mi: 1o1:. !!!iWlk. i'if J:ittA.1xJ</l!ll m,~~ fl<il!at'I" fill.\\\ a:. !iHiJ J!l. i!i!ll lllt >t~
)il;:i( ti !Z Jlfii]' # jf Ji! 11Ji'S1 t\ ill! fi'J !); fj1J
'fill#~ Ji!'!CRtk'I" itii Jt!!Jl.l. tti!ttU!! 1. 2. 4 '!'; PJ1l, X'l'f Ill "T !Eliililt1* It!ft .!if !Eil iil!l<ft'k:
.~\. PPJ!:(!, 2. IO)E!fff-, l:!il Jll;,'k;f !EiJ p(x,y.t) !'Jlf'li!:/fll! HJ1k1' Jlt'k; f\i'!ft p(x,y,t) !'Jtl!
ll1J %5'\li'J :!fill. JjJf I~ 'k: 'f !!l !ft p(x. y ,, J 8'J iElWl'iiJ !!!il'iiJ1' lltimciliJ!:,
t -

r~0

!Jp +tip= l_ ap,


ax

Jy 2

(4. 1. 26)

x at

p(x-=,y-= 1 t) = p,,
p(x,y,t = r) =

(4. !. 27)
;(.\\( M'

p.,
\ =,

~JJ>f

(4. !.

tr.\\\ M' !'L

JilJW,ll! 3. 6. 4 i\'JjlfJJ'.IElWl'iiJ!!!i!'J"'f'i';fliijjl;l,!,J!:(4. J.

26)-(4.].

28)

28JillJ1'iltimfil!ffl<l'iiJ

l!9i'

. ~ + ~ + 8(:r { p(.r,y,t) ""p;,

x' ,y - y' ,t - r) =
(.:r,_y) _. oc,t

?.

~lfjij ,t > 0

(4. 1. 29)
(4. 1. 30)

!El!. 8-Jili ill<!'J:ll:Jlill!Hl'.il':ll:!'J fliJ'll'. , H.i! <4. !. 29 >'i' 8 ""Cr, y .t) ?.1-1'11':11:8') 8 iii'll'. .)l;Jll:
ffiJ J</ [L - 'T- '] , 1"Jfl! 3. 4 1'IJi["l ;l !'Jill, JJ-1(J!!! /.!; 1~ !If Iii :>It ili :lt\i' !ft iiii 'll'. i:l: 'I'. ;f tr;ll: i1! ffj;f
"11ffi!-I!< jjij ][~'1' ili i'J l:iEllill'iiJ l!!lli'Jll!o~'

P(x.y,t)

p1 + t

=. .

~ rexp[ S:P.. ;4f~;;T:::.~;' .::.2.'..?.~J

*
*

*'

(4.1. 31)

ij'

8'J 1~ ~ fil:lll:i'flll' 8'J JiHl!liC1"'i,i;ff Ill -ll! at rAJ 8'J i1f JI!.
at~l!l" - "'11 j!{! Ill :Jl:Jiij;:A 8'J rollillt ~ ,!il l!!itiiEfli'l >l: C4. J , 31 l II'< Ill' JE :lr'lll !& ~11t li! JI ii< ('f >l:
9' 1' #; li! jtt A , 1': lliti!c'f l!A lit 8'J rJ', rl!f lill! li!il:-1'- ,Ii\ jtt A.
j\1111! ii'iJ!il!l'., '*lili .\\\ M (x .y JEj'OJIJ'i. M' <x' , y' l Z i\lJ 8'J llelll> J1 ,, GP 1'
r' = (.x - .x')l + (y ~ y')1.
(4. 1. 32)
ll! ml lit \f 'l!llilOll! ,f t >' if :II! at ~J , Cill fl!Jlll !l!l fr ml <!' iJ1i {;j: 8'J ml litII! tt@:JJ

P J: iii"-" lll!lf. i!lli& .l\t ll!! ff Ill

* *

8m =

J:'[ <ii - p,JnlO<lr

(4. !. 33)

(4. L 34)

(4. !. 35)

1':All:<4. L 34l,Wl1'
(4. 1. 36)

di Jitli! ill ;ii!/11 A =!'ml 4.;x. le 'i':f\:;Al'i: <4. !. 31) ,Jll:J8!lllllilll>t .\\\ llil'l.\tifJ !i'f!lr P.'h
-

p(x,y,t) = P1

Sm
[
+ 4 ~i6X(t
_<)exp -

(x

:c1)~+ (y
X(t _ t')

y1)'J

(4.1. 37)

l'l' ~J Ill 11! tf!: .!i; B1;1J z /Ill 8'J ~ft~o!\ (!, 2. 1ol , p- p,= p,c1 (p- p, J11.(bl. Sm= p,av, ,,i: ( 4. L 37 J
llJ 1lc '.!ii ht
(4. I. 38)

ll:; ( 4, !. 38) lltli!:i!ll B>j ,;\t ii!lfli'la<J ll$;1J Jll!l!;ll:;, j9; 1n) ii'il)!, il'f ;( ;li;[S&;k'f i!ii 11' l1, f~ Jllt<I> ;( ,\\\ M'

<x' .y' l ~ llibu--t-EE;IJ hi 1'i' , mH:E-li'J ,;\t M <x ,y J~ 8'J J31;1J ~iii l: ll!!JI 1'115l' iL
tm JI! ;;r; Ji!,11 AiJ1i {;j: i!HB!Hll iJ1i {;j: ap fr lilt <!' ll!tu--t-fit 8'J av 'm~ :ffilll B>j ,;\t j[ EE;IJ !ff
(4.1.39)

4. L 4

'-J !Iii JI ~ ~ !i\i l!i!

l: - 1), 11'PJiltii>: l'J JlHll at t< If fill, f '!); flii(Jil; !\UiJ l\!! <!' ,Ii. Ji!H.l.Jl1' ~ it~J 7f iii 1"'~ -!!<at illJ
'1Hr Ii A J!ltJIH!J , fF Ji X< If fl; Ji F\'@: t.\ If fli 'f :Ir '!IJ , lt!J'l.i!<f'f l'll f.iJ lit i!<f'f il\IJi!: i!i<ft 8'J 1': i1'1 !ff
fH11 J:l'U 'i!r.11: llJ JI.( JiHr~Jm. :/l'Nfitii>: 8'J .;\t il!lf M' <x' y' >~b\ i~" Cil! 11!'1lil "~ oJl;fi,i;
JJ r, ::f'i!JittA :I'!1'!.Ul.Jlll!lrll!!ll! l!f ;r $1'R!ltt '1 q<cJ , m~ "1'.!il ht
(4. 1. 40)

154
~i!liff!l (4. l. 38) ,i&f!ln;J r

.
p(x,y,t)

~ (4. !.

P1

R <, l'IJ r, 1'l?tllt ill t.1'.,\( if i'J J.EjJ Ill


1 f"~
+ 4trfci'X
, t _ t'exp

Cx-x')'+
i)
dr
X(t (y-/)'J
4

(4, 1. 41)

41 l :&t.1' iii. ilf l!l i'J -R!!.. :it~ . i!!r !A lJI\ I*l*!JUlfl U<t rr;J 'l' l!fiY:it , ~ij li): '.itlll if~.,,\(

if q(rlJJffi:ll:lil:lll~J!i.ilf,
Tilliltli>;.!!ilf~.\\\m. i:!iiJ :frJJil'i#ti!'~, Jl'-f+ti!l~R.:;J<IEi'EtEAl!llVJ' !'JJ.E:fJJ}
;ffi, i:!i!I iii. if M' M:lli:fl 'l'l!fi J:: lT. :ti r IE:/E!!Hll , ~ti JijJ 'l'l!fil'flf., li):JJflf. :flflf.1\1'.. lll=f+til'
~:lilillflC Ii'!lll'll i!li<lJ '" :;)< r, N Jfii'J !JijJ)Jo:iii'. Xt ril'A, i!' Jl:Fu iii. iW M' M:J.EjJ 'l'l!fir~, i>l<
J1 Ji.:!Jl!l'ill<. Mr*ill ,i!' Jl:.18 ,,\\ lC M' M:lli:fl 'l'l!fillll lT, l>l< JJ lli:fll9iJL
Ji :t.J-ii ,itf't!oi"'1t< ,I:\ JC) , i'E~ (.!. !. 41l 'I' 4- r, ~ 0, r, ~t ,q( r) JJ !il :I: .ll.l!'X fl\<},
~1)~(4. !. 41l!'lillt'.!i'lit
'
-- u-ridr
(4. !. 42)
r2

ri

(4.1. 43)

r)' dr = 4Xuidu

4X(t

(4. !. 44)

p(x,,y,t) = p,

~JtJt!lli JJ JJ

h. F:ll: Q-h ,;cr x-KI,,, !l!J xi:< 4. 1. 40 liJ'li litlli:IJflf.lll9!if.l!l!l!J xi:


P(:c,y,t) = P1

Jlt~ !;~ (4.

+ 4 ~jfhEi(-

;;1 )

(4.1. 45)

t. 24) 19 lfi~ll!:i;;l!J [aJ , !;'!! Ei ( - Iu I J<O <11'.~ilt A2) , !11'11' t il!l.lfl:k, p(x, y, tl

mi: 'l'llfiflf.11. i!!r:&ll'A. Jt. mu lli.n J:: :lT*:it~.JJ

1 ,. I

Q
p(:c,y,t) - p; - 4irKhEt
- 4Xt

(4. 1. 46)

!li:t.J ~-- Jt-t'f 'l:i"'Jt, :/E~ (4. !. 41) 'i' 4- r, - o, r, =t, (1, JJ ,\':< iC~i,l';a~ (iJ, ,Jtli): !JoJ"'
il'tl'iJ) ,q( r) ~ -q. t<J!ll '.it1*~ ( 4, 1. 43) 'mu 1'
(4. J. 46)

x-t r~ <4. !. 46>'i' 19 llll1'l Iii 'filii1'l' ,~ Jl'X ;!; 'i' Ji!;-llU} A'! ;<i oo , ~tl ii.1' ~ ?t:li!:ifJ<: ~ !'J 'f :li!::i!:
( 4. ]. 46) iiJilltli /!\\
p(x,y,t) = p, -

4- t- t' ~ /;t """"

**

i7:'Q 1i [f"~ - f" ..i


tr

XI

,r(1-1 )
1

i-

~--du
U

(4. !. 47)

ll\ Fa!ii\Ei 19 i!I (iJ ' ~tl 111!IiiJjit(;![f!l19 *:it~

p(:c,y,t) -

Pi+

4~Rh[Ei( -

;;t) ~ Ei(- 4~~) J

::lJ1AJt, J::'ll: 'i' Q'.i!:JJ-Q, NP 111 Ji:t.J:llOtl!l!'J *:it~.

(4. 1. 48)

155

4. 2 ':!311t~~~iliit
IE 4. !. 4 1' 9'1Jf 'fi: T jJilJl li'Jl\l'i:!IHI !: , !)); PP iE F :I: li'1 ti: F *111'Jii !E!l; flj( 'Ei"'i'i !519' F
:l:ll!!i! at riJ :'!!:it i<J. i;!J tm w'!ii ttF lf ill F:t:11! /iii, f!l. 11!1'1! gt f'il' r T J<J J1t. 1' Bi ;ri:

c4. L 4 ll II: llt. Hlt:ff;lf.:J!'l!il!fl\l'i;j;AUJl!li'J1Wll!'.


Q

i" Q 11et1DJ, ffa!llH<dl!t


J!tJ!t- r:i 'EF*, !ll'!1-l'ltati'iJOOl ll: -1-Vli. :I: ,:ft/ff~ II: Q-1 li'J Ill! !ill. !E'!l<lii<lt'.ll' 9' ,'l'
*iKIM .\\\Ct ,QJJiJlitolli'f1!ill!llt, im Ill 4. 1 PJiffi. PP !ll!IT!ill:l\:ffi ,!1f t;; .\\\J<J <1, = O, Q,J. (1,.
Q, l ,. .. , (t, .. ,.Q.. , l , < ,Q(tl Jllli: C1,.Q,l !ITi'll .\\\1i:'*!Elll! !ill lll!$~*1'1 !!!'ft. ;!'I; 9', TllF p ~<I
Ji\' T' ti: Fa;/ f\ij im i!!J PTrl , lK 'l'"1 ;la Wl # ltll!'Jltfr:frlfr , ~ -f>!'ltll!' JI! EE JJ f'il\ i\t'. , PP >It !'111 l!E'E
Fli'Jff ;l!:atl;IJ t li'1Bi:IJ1'!ilil'i:. ~= #tf%J;,!E:IJ1"',I(, PP !J<i'll t= t, at~tltlf' !'A Iii t= 1, + ~P
ff ;l!:at !<JJ li'1 !E:IJ :ll:ilil'i:. Too "1lltllltfi'itlt:.
111 . ,

4. 2.1

~Fe\Jffi1Jlll!1!

iltVli. :1: ~at 11 !'! '.!l' 11: 1111 !ill m " -t-1l!ill llt!llJllt li'111T ill! 1'! m 11\l iE ;lf<it'll'.at riil ' -,Iii mr ati;i1
tli'1Ff.:!J, "'~J1-1i'!illlltli'Jl\4$;/ab,,PPfi'Q=Q 1 b1(,-t,). j=O,J,. ... ,,-1, T';li!x\:
( 4. !. 41) lif'.!il )lit

exp[
= p, -

(.x-x')2+(y-y')2J
4X(t-r)
dr

~
~
4KKhl
!'"I

---....

[f''

,-)

Q,_, t+- b1-,l1-;


r

f'

';-1

~]

t- r

-----------,,--~

[f'
.

,,_,

Q.~, + b.~''"~'
t -

-f'

'-I

b.~'] Lxp[

t -

(x -

x'l' + (y -y'l'Jdr
4X(t - r)

r ["
.

(4. 2. 1)

l'. 31: '\' xt 41i'-i!\llii! il'J IQ?)'?)' !lit i!'illJl, ;lit;'\' l!!-Jlll il'J ?)''f Q,~, +b,~,t;~, :!!<'lit~ (j ~I , 2, ... ,
"-1) , "f jl!JlJ IQ?)'<j-l<f, IQjt!i!i Jl!:!!<il; t-'lit~Jli! !il 31: (4. 1. 47) Jilt (4. L 48) il'J Jfj 31:, ;l!t;'f' , $1!:::

lJli:!I<

[Ei(- 4X(t ,.i t,-1))- Ei(- 4X(tr

4 X(tr~ t,.))}

- b,_ 1 Ct - t 1 )exp( -

+ ~ ( Q,,_ 1 + h.-it.-

h,-1t - h.-i

1 -

- b,_ 1 (t - t.- 1 )exp[ - 4X(t

~~) Ei[ - 4X(t

=~ f,ffi,) J}

t._

J
(4. 2. 2)

'Iii F :11.!i! i> !It 31:'.ltlt , jj'J !nl , tE ~ F 9' ilillt.l':l!< if P ff'.l llli 'lll l.i! i!<J '.I!: l9' F II: ;lit;F I; xt i!<J f1il ill! !II
Q

' -Q~ ----~'


Q . 1

Q,

'''
'
----------~-----,
''
''
''

----L------L-----+-'-~
I
I
I
I (Q
)
I
l
l
I
'I
-----1-------1------1-----+-+-,
t
I

I
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
~

t
I
I

t.-i

t,-1

t,

I
1

I
I

Ill"' ,.. o"lli!~ilt;tRI<

ftp IE 4. 2 Ji!fff,, WJ b, - o <J-1, 2 ,. .,.,J . 'f:!!<'ll:< 4. 2. 2) fl!Ht~

(4. 2. 3)

157

l'E!&;l; :!<!If, "11119'. iii lit !ll-3'i'li1-:Ei:!il<ll!litJTJ T , llf'.!f ~ ,'t 'f ff :it.*1flil< ml't <4. 2. 2ljlj

:rch IIQ, - b,, - h, ;~) Eii - :X,J- b,texp( - ;;,1 J. ~~, < ,,
{
- 4:rch((Q -b t-b,;:)[Ei(-:X,)-Ei(- 4 X(t,~i,)]
- b texp( - :;t) + b~(t )exp[ 4X(tr~ ti)]}
(4.2.4)
- 4~h{( Q + b t bit- bi ~~)Ei[ - 4 X(tr~
-

p, - pcx.y,t)=

t1

1 1 -

11

)]

47i(t'..~--t--;:-J]} ~~t<t2

b1(t ..., tJ)exp[-

~F~B!:t.Jf9il:

4. 2. 2

lllll'El~filff :it.'ll'Flltlil'l!U13 ffiJJ\;i.,l, RP 'EFT

at fill t, l!l Fw ;II; ill Bl!<IJ (fJ !liJJ if>llil'W

1iJ!litJ "1!jl6: (fJ JK!iJU l*llll J'E:;t(4. 2. D 9' ~ , CD!l!Yt: fl' Rl a;t lilJ 1"' '" ~ o'llJ ' - t,, IJf V.J l't 9' :l!!Fw1-IR:lt(f] J:lli 11 , i!l:~ '" ll'irJ!:(f];;; ,, +ill at~ (fJ !EJJ <lt 9' t>t ;;; ff :it.1!!il ~ml fiJf "1111'
!J1Jlj~:lt~9'(f] t Ji!! 1,+ill, lP i>t, ii!~;!! t>- .i~-JI!;. :;t <4. 2. 1J 9'Jiifi-lllilft:ltfli'~

Q~-1

it

,,_

-b. i ( r -

t.-1)

~~~~-~.exp

t -

--[Q, .. ,

(x -

x 1) 2

+ (y-y

1 8
)

4X(t - r)

-d r
H

-h,.,(t-t,..,)][Ei(- 4X(t r' t,_,))-Ei(- 4X(,'~,,))]


(4. 2. 5)

p(:c,y,t)= p,

+ 4 Kh2::

:ir

1~1 -

Q,_ 1 -

( t - t 1-1)b,-1

b,_ 1

'x J
t

. [Ei(- 4X(t -" t,-\) )- Ei(- 4X(t"- )J


4 :~ht[br-1(t-t1 1)exp1:- 4X(t:t,-i)l
ti)

..

- bi-1<t- tJ)exp(

4-x(i!::.t~s) J

(4. 2. 7)

158

,JI; 9' ,t, - O.r. ~ r,, t ~ t, +lit, Mr i"' :IJJ!i Hl lilJ !il; t'1 ~ Jl:: :'Jl'{I'.; ( jp ?Ii ill$ Villi l f\l'JB, b1 ~ OCj
~ 1. 2, , nl ,Q,_, illi:i!t Q, <l~llt IE 4. 1. IE 4. 21lJ' 1'11 J. Eli l'1 :ii' lilt:li !E;iJ!\l(Ji!:flll :1J
p(x,y,t) =

p,.

+ 4~h ~Q1 { Ei[ -

4X(t r1 t,_,) ] - Ei[ - 4X(tri t,)

J}
(4. 2. 8)

fE 4. I 1'i 9' Ii' 1IJ T jJ! i"':llt 4f !ill JI' !E :fJ i!l<ii fill (4. !. 45l l1l !E ;iJ !\!(;![fill ( 4. !. 48 l 4. 2 1'i 9'
.X. Ii' 1IJ T tE 11: :ll' i"' :lit if 1f lB fl! !E ;iJ ~ii fill <4. 2. 2l l1l !E iJ :ll: fill c4. 2. 7l 1'1 bl $lilt :Ii ii<J Bi ;iJ
fill, i!@flllitt 1IJ T ltl!.'l! 9' if ;t. ll\ttiJ fl! !EJJ jj-1);, 12: ill~'il':li'f ll\jl-filii 'Mt Ei <-u JlJJi l1l ~'Mt Iii 'Mt
e -JJIL '"l u i'!!llt !JIP d!!llt:kll\t, EiC - u J1l]' ffl !nu+ Y ilt!N'li<.if- Ui!.llitl!!: AZ) , lffi e ''li]' Ill I - u
i1t i!'l'li<if\ !ZHJ.:!:!\l!Jli'il'litl:Jll!Fu , if Jill !EiJ p. #f-'ill\tlnl ll<it fiiJ ii<J;ll~ lil:fE 't!!\'."12 ~J; IJHi!A\
tt'JC I\ . .IA ilil!il!:fu@ :o-m i>l:4f ii<Jlli! i8li!ir~ , lt#f fE 4. 1 11' 9't'l!llli8i, ~ ljl,'lf 1'f o 987, 1gssa,

1989b).

Xtr ffijJ ii<Jit)I:' ;If at A Ill ;\f fll l(!j@Jil,. #f IM: ll: '.!!' ltiM If *'17di'Jfl\'JB1ll,. II= ii! lilt lit itl:Jll!.
ip t; -llt at rWJ B'J l!hti"'ll:li'i l'1 atrni fF;lt j;J!!il :lll:UI!. \:!:~tr Bi:1J*:ll:fll'JI' itltll'J!lill>i!i!li' er; it
:k:k , f!!~'f EEJJ 111<1-litlfJI' i!i!li'!iti~:k T l:!:Ji!:lll ;\t BiJJ ~1/f ;ll\itl!'J'i' IE 1'E'ti"' ll\tii<J !EiJ M
int :1:11< 14'!:\!!. ilil JliJ11:1i!:Jl'dt:ll'')i:Jf IC.( lfi(J<J !E;iJ , IN'!'- MIM: lll:!f_ii<J" le iZ" E Jlllli!l!*I! T

Jellll:kl:&~lft~i[j}:fll

4. 3

1111 i!'l l'i iii!~ T 3t ~:k!tl!ll! 9' .\\\ llil roJ I!! Xff- !t\11'1 1i1 Jl :!11 B'J 1fJeiilf lll!lilf ~ill! lC 8'J ~!:ii: 5t
1ii .i:1:1lJ l'1)ll'il:c4. 1. 39 J!/\:i.G fl! ~i>j .\\\ illtflll ,t!f:l!:jj-1fi B: ii<J 'i!rnJ :il':lll:i11:1'T*R5Yiffi!l<1~ .1!' T 3t
llli:X 'F Jlii 9' fl! fill , ~~ M~!1!'1'!" ii'.J!I Jl!.fll'JB 1lJ!!l illW-1$; oJ< fill ilil'll' T 41-i'!'-!1 tit% fl! fill l'1 Iii ~t
'f Jl!lU\1' fl! $!1 "1l !I!, 1lJJ!j Ji'Z)jj 3. 2. 4 1'i 9' E!fifi'J Newmn ~j!(lll(Jll!;JO:l!; fill.'!!', ;!; Jit:ij;: 11 lilf
;< 3t ~ 'f Jlii <!' ii<) ]\[IA\ llil >Rill'illt 1!11 "1 illt l11 l!ll Jlii If: '

4' 3 ' 1

;IC illl :;!;: 2jS ilii c:fJ .. ~ ii

3t '!l:k 'I' lli 9' i:J3<illtlif l'11i II= Ji!:'Jf.llli'S! i'iiJD'J 'f JliiliL iilfE t ~ r ~atlfr ll:!A\ x ~ x, fl! ili-fi1
: Jrl:* 1IJ lll'Jil: ;\t d.>o 12: Ji!;.::::i:JIJJ' Jil:. IJlll'!>R Jl:J3< x~x. fl! Villi:

f~"" dsdy =do


Ji!:-i!IJJ> Jil:. "t Ill d, M! y "![It ii<J-!l!tfll'JB , 1'0'\ C4.

f'

-< )
I
P x,t = p; - 4trtficX(t r) .1~

"'

!.

(4. 3, 1)

39 l xt y !J<Jtiti ti; l!itHti:!A\lJlilD'J ffi)J ;\t

d. ')
[
sly exp -

(x-x.l'+

(y-y'J'Ja,

4X(t r)

(4. 3. 2)

'j.(.x,t) = p,.

(4. 3. 3)

(4. 3. 4)

I 59

P<x,t)

~:=:'."]:)'.]

p, - ds exp[ k:

(4. 3. 5)

/ 41t"X(t - )

xt'f illllt:Rat 1'"1 1= o 1J ff ~at~J 1 fl'Jj;!/ll!;/J!l. El d, %S1flllfi 5i:fl'J-!llttlll%, 4ds(r)

~dr = q 1 (r)dr

(4.3.6)

(4. 3. 7)

4. 3. 2

;re ll1i! ;;I;: zis i!ii cp

'"* lJJ

7i'Jli! 'f jij "'ill:l\Y illl!!t Jlk;l(; RI. !:! [ij 'i' !Jilii ilf , 'l'i i1ll!t
;/ff 13:~::!7 J!:!l!'.::!7 x, !'! X.'11
CD~ X.'1'!5! fill 9' !JOC ::!/ x.
!'lilii it IE~l :it 9' .<\\ x = x., !moo 4. 3, ll.J!.i!rJ!:!l!'.'1<11!' 12t
~iE t~ r lllll>tf" t!Hll:ilt::!/ di, :It 9' .di =d,/dx ::!/ ;l(;Jll:!fillll:,

**111'

m1Joo>t<. 3. 5l:<t'.!tlll: ,. R

.r.+.,,;2 J1i"IT!!\7l-

x.-.r,12 'ill

!i< tJj lllll>t 51<1\Yilllit:f!if

t4. 3, 8)

'l'f di -';' x X.*, mUl:>l:;!J(jt !'Jl/i!l! l!f Ill ~li; li!i lll: <">i<ill!lt!!\Jt lerf<xl ~;1' <11!. ~ Ji1" A3 l

di{

[.xi+

p(x,t) = p, - Z{< er! ..2

(x -

./4X(t

xw)]

)l}

- (x - x..
+ erf [Xi
~2~~=.c
./4X(t

r)

(4. 3. 9)

r)

:xt'f ll>t fij !A. 0 'ill t i!'lj;!/!;!i;*'l!rilll. tE:*!'ilJ

I::/(1-

r)dr =

I:~:f(r')d(- r) - J:t(r)dr

:lt'i', ll!-1-i!l''itjjl;ftJ!!:it'!l'jll, 1-r=r', ITTIJll>

x,
2~J,_~{erf [2
d/

p(x,t) = p, -

4. 3 . 3

+ (X -

/i!XT "'

+ erf [x'2

(.x -

(4. 3. 10)

x.)l L,

./4;fr

(4. 3. 11)

;re llfi! ;;I;: zis i!ii cp Ill Jl!ll ..

;lG '11 '!' l!f 'i' 1111 Ji!J i1ll i!!,l!!:Jl!:;l(; 5! fljJ "' llll 1\1lilll !)!: iE t = r 111191 ' 't'.f?. ;IJ r, 1!11Ji!Jl:1ji. {\'[
l/11. !k ds = ,-,dff l:i"' tJj l!E l;;lg d>(/i'J, iCJ!i .\\\ M (r, 8).jUlJ:.\\\ M' (r,. & ) fl'Jllkf!l Jl"~IJ ::!/ 8 .jU ff , W:

i"i .\\\ llil 1' 1*1 "'1


(4. 3. 12)

'--------------~------------,,

160

Wt~ 4. 4

Jilfil<.
91 i'\ ('. 1. ' ' Jxt ll'f1' 111 JWJ J1Hr1lUJ-!itil: ill 111111 Jll lll\ l1I

-( () ) -f
~

Pr, ,t - p,

1
'

d.r({J')ro

4n:<ficX(t - r)exp

ll'=o

[ - rri

+ rz 2r rcos({1 fJ)]dB'
0

4.X(t - r)

(4. 3. 13)
M
M'

r,

111 "I: Pit<; 'I' illi <P 111 !II ill


'1'rillar!l!lftlllllil lJ "1:frw.111\l!lll d, E; 113G~Ul.3":11t '!' ili ~l. JllJ l:i'\:f'R:fr!lt

-p(r,t)

da'

.,;+.J
r)e-4z\-ll
0[ X(t"" r)

4 ~X(t

p, -

J,t > r

(4. 3. 14)

;ti;'!' Jll Jlj cl~ 2,,r,d, J!<'llf 1' Ill JWI 1: iJJBl!Jlt 1': i'JJll:;pj :% [L']' ti bl. lo (z) S'J:f'R:fr:<!lti'\ (1\1. ffl

Ji!' A2. 7)

l~(z)

2 irJ:""e""'~do

(4. 3. 15)

:l\'W:iC fji Ill a;/ rm M. 0 ~J t ,.qlfl'LJJ Jll:J1!!.'l\!lllllllllt:% q( r)' ~p


d

Q(r)
dtdr = q(r)dr = hdr

(4. 3. 16!

miJi'\ (.L 3. 14) X'i'lltli<Jlf(:fr!I; lli J\\'~!liffi;IJ l1i


p(r,t) = p, -

_e_f'

Q(r)

,;+.' [

rr

41(Kh -~ t - ,e-xlt-r)[" 2X(t ~ r) dr


(4.3.17)

7C PH 7\ 2!i iilii cp II iilii ii


36 m:k '!"ill! 'I' 1111llif1111'. IE\lt Jl'i 3G Al 'l! rOJ 'I' 1!11 l't WL :lf J! 3G m:k '!"ill! 'I' -'1:1'::11 r. 8'J 111% 3:Jit

4. 3. 4

'!'f[;iiC;fr W, mti;it illlltii ffi:t.Jli'f"f 91 i'\ (4. 3. 14 ! X<J';lt 'I'


Pcr,t) = P1 ---

'" ~i M. o ~J r. l!!fi:f'R:fr!I; ili .Pp

zkx-(I-=--:r5f~"-odl(r')r'e-!xii.'.:,;sI0[2x<;-7:'. . r)]dr'

(4. 3. 18)

fji 'll' :lit 'll'1" ' 4'


r' 1
ri
r'
u' uu ..
,du'
- 4X(t - r)' - 4X(t
r)' "' - 4X(t ---- r)

r 1dr'
2X(t
r)

~=-~

(4. 3. 19)

:l'ill!lll!llt di l:j ' JC')C ' ITTIJ'i'\ ( 4. 3. 18) iili!!('J'i lilt

P<r,t)
EE ~Ji!' (BS. 3 )fa (B9. 2) 1'i

*"'ii:;

p, -

1
,...~:e-J"~ e-~10( 2 ~)du
~ -~

(4. 3. 20)

161

I,( 2 .;;;;;r) ~ .J,( -

i2

.;;;;;r) ~ 2~L+'f ".'.'

(4.3.21)

'ilfJ:ltftA.iJ:(4.3.20)ill
j)(r,t)

= p; -

die- ~f e[f~ e-~'+~du']dv

2mc

i<:

(4. 3. 22)

:It 'I' ,c Jl!d:i ll: '!' f;, il'J 1M1 ill il: 'I' ,:ffJ'li"t Pl il'J f!l ?l' 1iJ .i!ilfi1if Lil , ft 1ID it <4. 3. 20 >ill
-(

pu,t =P1

Zni f

dl - 1

ce

+U,.

~-V::Ue

"d

r v v-uv dv
v-cZnie --~"'Jc
d1 1

4.3.23 )

i!: ll>. ~>lt'!l':l::l!'l!/! (4. 3. 19) l!.l!il', 'ilf l!(*lt r il'J:\Jl?l'~!ill:l'/ u il'J :fi)\j)'. l'I: (4. 3. 23) qt '' Jl\~f
Iii!' f " il'J!Jl?l':l!'Jll!itlMlill c J:ff.111!, 'l'J Ill IQ# IID lit c il'J ff ll!tt. ll< ffl or1t !ill:~ l'i1!fJ!Ht:ll'l'I:
(4. 3. 23)'!'ff.11'!l%.

lll-fl!l11m, it:ll' ll!l k!.l!l.l!.l7~ff- .... ff.I Bi:1.J. X't Jlt r;;,,,. ,u;;;,u.. l!itf!l# IID JI/! c 1'Ell!lk!.iiJ
Pl f!I ilf 1'!l%:!!':1: v<u. "fi!!.t <4. 3. 23l,iillldlll-1"1J\1t il'Jllt.!IU!l '!!:1' C pg i!!llfll'J , f!lJt :l\1
, ~f,jj"Jlllit:::: i"!Qj)', 1iJ'ilf ll (v-u) ll!!!ill:1i!'l:&'ll:
(4. 3. 24)

(4. 3. 25)

(4. 3, 26)

(4.3.27)

(4. 3. 28)

(4. 3. 29)

(4. 3. 30)

(4.3.31)

162
-----------------~

(4, 3. 32)

~ '>'\ c4.

3. 30 >fll c4. 3. 32lf't1ii1'>'\c4. 3. 23 l , NP 11Hlletl!ll iliiilXtill\lC II Pl llllff- .I:\ ill"' fl'1 IIJJ

"h
p(u.t)

~p,- ~[1 _,~(;J'1.(,J::I]

(4. 3. 33)

Jllt Ill IS '!\::II: Cr .t Hl!m 1lil '.ey JiZ


P<r,t) =P1+

!:!:i{e-.{,~!,J~(;,.)J1![zx<;w_:_i-)J
r

P(r,t-+oo)

=p,+

i}

< r.

(4, 3.

d~.1."(e-tfl:_.-:lf:(.!:.)'kl(
(r.,r
~-o r.,
! . 2X t

ltr,,, 'FL

))'

34)

-1)
(4, 3. 35)

r<r..,

fl'l[~itlJf.jtl!~tftMiC'lt;ffi

4. 4

Mi' I\'! i;i; ill\ ~ l:'>'\ :it:llUI! =>Ji Jt et fOJ ~ ?t lt!it ili Biil '*llf lllt l!iil l&i:l fl'1 !Ii !!lo ,
1i' T ~" 1: JL 1'1' 71'~ :kll!lfi! 'I' ftJ Bi.11 fl!! lit 'TN J!t-!l' li1f 'Ii'. lit" <i' I~ ill Jll tit:IE' ftJ!li !!lo
ilirili JL 1l'!lt ili T >C~:k 11' ilifl'1.0: M!111fll I~Ml!lf .xt'f1i' I~ill Jll ll!lfi! 'I' fl'1ill\ il::lt;/Jl. i'iJ'
I!! !l!fg(!Jii!3 B !1lllijJ 3': 'I" iii , ~ill lit 31< ~ lll! ll: :it lJtfg( fJ'14!-1'!1111! tu ml JiE ,ltJI\ flt fnJjf!lf (J'J fli! ,
JlJl JI'= 'I' l!f l , )(ti' 'f' i! JI( l!l Jll ii! lit II 15 31< ~ II !ill -if 1 xt 'f il! Bi: l!l J'1. , ii! fg( IP: Ej 31< ~ lll!

#-if,

4, 4. 1

~lf~Jtl!ficp.l.~J!R

<;'JI! 'I" i1L<'11l'lli' J;(l!j\. il'i l!ll!lJll?t~IJifti' x- o fll x- x,. MlC fl'l i' x-x., JlJl 11 4. s !!Ji7F ,

'.!lf>l<'.if if.liii ,I:\ x :l'.l:fl'1 !!\11

Xt'f2:1'1'*'iflllil 13:1!1. or ?t"h co#;f fill (tJ l!lJll l!! if. RP


il*i 1111"1 f~L i!lilllil il! II fll l!il il"l!l Jll , 2'.ll!IJf lJI. fJ'1 Iii\ il"l!lJll JI\ 1i
-1111"1 flHl -Ill! Ji! Bi fl'1 ill Jll l!!it . )JI! f VJ l'ii 11\t "1 fll tf lli' fr
i1'!ill?Hfr.
If!!liil!fg(!l(!!!! ' /iii 1;' fl'1 ii!!$! lll! tc;; :ii; f>j(jjl( i[ !ill% ' :it ill"
'lltjg

_,. =

I,

+ x. fll 2nx. -

llt/ilf<f'llH!:
.111t >C "'11' iii 'I' J: ~ lll! FtJ ;a* <4. , . 5 > :ii; !IF W:fll ii! fg(
111G11 tr A :bJl il't ili
2nx,

* *

x.,n

163
e..

I: .. (2"'<, .. ~.. J]i,


ti-r)

.I
(4. 4. !)

~ fll !El:!: l'i' ill B>IW: IC Bi;IJ ll! ~ J> IS It U ii: ii . b\l~JW J: iJ! , ff T i:l:1-!li l\iJ lli!lt:l!f. ill'!<
T. .:li'<i:l:fll li'J l!<l!il'l:lt:l!r.il!l*:;r;;;;~i!. *ll~OJ!H!l at r01 ' ~:katJl!JlHm Jlt. Ill ill Jr xt ;1:
( 4. 4. DJJO lU illi:lll:. ill!: lll: D'l Ef'Jll! ;ll',"'J Jll IS II! (Poiswn) :;JVlll 0 >!: (ill !Ill #I', 1'1 flil , '1\l- !!< fil*I/.

1981,lJ!

ss-so1)(J. NP
,1:,.f(<m)

~ .t_F(

2:1

(4. 4. 2)

1''1' ,Flit f i'J Fouder ~~.ap


(4. 4, 3)

f(y)

i.f:_F<M . "'dP

<4. 4. 4)

rillJ!'Jlll Poisson ll!>lfl0:<1: (4, 4. 2 l X'I <4. 4. Di1H'i'illi::ii. {;!: <4. 4. 1) <i', n D'J lllt ~ 2x.,
!:Jll !'I 'f 0:<1: <i' l.f.wft f i*J (!<J a. lllill '.l\'J!i! !lift F i*J (!<J p~ 2>=/a= m/ x .. ;I: (4. 4. 1) <j> Jr!1-r.1tlcl!li
(4. 4. 5)

(4.4. 6)

(4,4,7)

z = y - (.x - x.,) ,y

./ 4X<t
m~:<t<.

.111lJ:iillit
Fi (/j)

(x - x.)

+z

./4X(t

r)

r)

J:. e-~'

(4.4.8)

e"C nir.:.-i+<.t-ic..,.>J ./4X(t - r)dz

= ./4X(t

t) {e.P(ic-~,.i

f..,

e-' ei/1

J:.:i:(~ldz}

(4.4.9)

llE Fomie< 'll:l!if!ll! 1lJ '.Ill J:>l: <i'l!Htli'i*~

"'
f

_.,,, e e' ~~di:: =

t~J>-'li:;(4.4.

.:.
v~
tr e-l(-r)p

./'1(e- ., ..i1;,-)
~:

(4. 4. 10)

9)1'

FPI

= ./4X(t

r) [ cos

m1r(x -

x.

x .. )

. mtr(:r ....
+ .1s1n
.x.

(4.4.11)

(4. 4. 12)

164

(4. 4.13)

ll! ff] llli:!: #ill Btil!1 /C!E:iJ fi'lti< f; jjj l&-co Ill Bl 'It%;>\ 11 l1!. l!'i lil J: ?t lfi , iiJ :/!fi! ~jj\ ii! f'l ll!i li'J
11 Iii!!> !II! us !itlJ/Jl ,.,
I ) il!J!ifjj\~Jiji)li!Iil! 1J.! fill "f lil ii! +q c!il ll'"f ill! ii! -q (!) . 1\J\{l!l!t
2l Ji< .~UllBt !f!ti1!1fi'IJ!1ff~ Jm, !if tJj l1il&Pli l&%l't (!l~l&fi'I,
3 l .f!Jlll Poi~on '1tffi {} >'\ (4. 4. 2) :/!f jjjJ&ffi l&% j\(!lfi'lill('ey Jil!llll&-:::'Jil ffi l&J!\'<t(!lfi'I.
Ill.~ ~ f~ (!) 1f Iii 1lJ lil *if i!<i lit 5E ffi ffi i!<i lili!i! 1'1-11!% (!) ~~ l&-co Ill Pli '!!:% 3'11?t ~Ll f;
-(

p
-(

p x,t = p, -

. _

:c,tJ -

Zds ~

p,

_ 2ds ~
.1.-

.,,._x .,.,_ 1
[

~ L..lexp -

l""X,,.wi

L.Jexp

[- m 11i'X(t
x.2

r)

Jsin. mtrx.,. .

m'lrx

-sin~

:x,

x.

(4, 4. 14)

(2m - 1) 2 ,rX(t - r)J


(2m - l)rr,z-..
(2"1 - l)trx
cos
''"
4X,
2.X,
2X,
(4. 4. 15)

xt !IHif ffi !Kl>; ( O~x~x.) "'l!i:ii!Ul~fi'I ( 4. 4. 13) -

( 4. 4. 15)

ft J!1 $?tlfi ;ltml 'i:!: 1'fi'l'5ill::"'Ill :fr ~l':ll:/ti '1ti1' 8'J fi'I!!
-l!tft'J. i:!:lll li'J P!!:!!M'1ll (!) il' liE (ti'. , !l:lll (!) ::Ofi'I !ill l&:!!i: !! B~ 1ll
ll'Jil' liE !ill 'It :IE;;.: ( 4. 4. 13) <!' !ll'l&1!1f;;; tJj t 1 !'( 1Jl! if!;~ .ll!. 3. 1 "'

4. 4. 2

fl l;!Hl~ lt!l Ji i:p ~ m!

"ff /!!lfdif %13:~ i!<ili!J!I~i!l.T x= 0 ffi x=x,,

l!'.'ii!'ilJ'.i\!Jt
.f>J x;o :J1; .p J,\\ f; x., Jm I'll 4. 6 PJiii\, l'l.l:!ii:!:1' l'ilJ!l!i1lJ i!!J!if!l{g{Jii'Jll!
111
!II '' ;r.!11~16! "' ;!<iii'il 1e 1?: liJ'li JJJ !f:'f ilif. Jll'.1'J m4. 3. 2 1' .P :JG !l!l:k'I' ilif i*l l!'.w l!l( 11
( 4. 3. 8) i;lt (4. 3. 9) J!.l'if~JJU!;\ tJj , l1!.i151!1r- 1]'1J 1)3 !1'l fli $ lil!?f!lf:lllrf,
D 'lt{g{ ill! 'I' .<t\ ili {l!:ll'. {)J f; Zn.x, x,;
2 > xt 3C!l!l :k 'I' llif !f!-t"''ll!'ll(ll'Jfi'IJ!.ttr ~JJn, !f! -til<'ii!'ill!fi'I ai ;i: . 3. s>!iii:<' 3. 91iii1IJ
IJilil'I!
.r=O

.l'.,

x,

(4. 4. 16)

165

(4.4.17)
J:l'l:Jl;M y !R:fr:lff'J !fl :ll-l!: c4. 3. 4) , '1!+111J

P<x,t)

i: e-r~

~~ / _21

= p, -

x ...~-oo

'!"- \

. m:irx1

SIU

.. 2cr .. ,,e'~.. rf''~~,.~~f1~2cos/3,,,.x'd:r'

m:n:x.,

~"~,,-xvi

mtrxl

~e<>< ~-co ~

x,

2.r,

x,

(4. 4. 18)

(4. 4. 19)

(4. 4. 20)

p(x.t)~p,-dl:.;;c,
1 exp"-l2m-l)'n'X(t-r)J
1'c tt:~ 2m- l
_
4x!
cos

(2m -

l)tr:t., .

81Il

2x.

(2m -

l)Jrx1

4x.

cos

.(2m

l)iTX

2x.

(4. 4. 21)

4. 4. 3 ;i;: 111111'.t lJ i!Ei ~ll].I!


I!,( J:JL 11"'1<'1!+ T ol'iflllli! !i'J -!!l!tlti!lllllllltCll'I. ?\llilfl<< p, - plcl iJ !i'J ~JJ:J!J '1ili;$:11111
11tmtt. i!Jll iJ 19.fli dLd,,da ta dV. 'Clfl!i'ilt!lllll~J!J*lll:!i'J o, 1.2 ta 3 ~tr. J!JJ!i'fllltr
j),(J:JL91E!i'Jlllll11tmcasftf4.1.wTi!a*1111111tm~~!!l

Newman

iii! If( tr!!

*jt; Jilt;'!-1'fl ,!(,',II~ !Iii11\'i!' !i'J lilt

ii B ' 1A i1l J!J !iii

"I: IE 7f it!\' !fl l T ll:Ji! !i'J

~~~~.i!W~e-9~W~~~.

'll .1 l<*illlltilillillltiLl)'ll'
11'
'I
I
I
I

JtJ;!:~

ll;ll

f [P1-p(~,t) J, (~=x 41!;

llff[jf

<l!IWi>!

:.111;:
'Fllf

1111:

""'*
'I'll!

:!Ul!ll

X.111:*:
'Fllf

f.11'11:

~~

r)

'I

J/

e~ [ ~ ;;t i~x1

+[

~p[

(x-x,.)i

"'

(4.1. 19)

J/-Aq;

erf'!'.!!!Ez'!.?..,...W'f x1r1-~.~ .. )

(4.3.5)

(4.3.9)

166

-
li1~MH4

~!Wll!

!fl[j)

f{

xiii*
'I' iii

4irXtlo

;TG~:A:

Ill""'

""'
f{

JOJ!!!Wll!

Ji:~}c

'I' iii

!l<ll>J!J.

l:!l!!I:

4~

**%,
~ll!JfJ.

"1111!

"

~**
li!lli1JI!

!1<1111!

!>11!J!J.
mil-J.JiW-

;\\

.~

(4. 3. 26)

- -irJ(:z.,
000-

.~1

f; [

-Zf

x.

"'"'

(4. 4. 13)

.T,

(2n-l)'ir'Xt]

x. -1 e11p -

(4.3.35)

,.,

"
2 L;
( n'ir';(t) .
;;-; -l exp ----;rr ~!n

JICLE~J'I.

ffili1JI!

r,.r1

[P( -'h' I1f; I-'-)'1.( -1


-1].
2Xt
J [ +z;E exp (n'll"Xt)
wr.r]
x,
.xi
x,

_L
irii-

""'"
""'
J
lj.
l<!i!ill!
"'i>l!JJI!

(4. 3.14)

"""'

"

I -~
1+1

1~1
2Xt eAp

2: (

(~<r.,)

>lffili1JI!

01\:
%

r)

l
(rl-+rl
'1
'1' r -exp
- i-1
-r.,)
,,.,.;,
4Xt
r
,2;n,

Cr?:-r,.)

"
f{

'

l!lll!iill

'I' iii

[p,-p<t,t) J, <e=x ~

4.ri

,.,...r

2.r,

4x, ~ -exp
l
( -n'JrZXt)
J+-,
J.'t

(4. L 14)

7,

(2n-1)irxw

cos

Kx1 , "

"""-"~
---:x;-mn

Q:!.-!)ll"z

n'.ls

2.r,

Wl'Xf
""'"'"
mrx
11-000-000-

2x,

x,

:r:,

:E
tr'Xt) Mn-.,-=.
111'.r,. .
2z,
8 :E 1
[ C2n-l)'ir:xi]
7
2-lexp -

Ir ~1

~111

-exp -

I!

11ir.>1 .

llll"x

X<

X,

(211-llirx~

4.r,

2x,

- <XIII -

4. 5 Newman ~J!U;.!'j$Ul11Bllltiblilil'1!c

OOIJ

(4. 4. 19)

(4.4.2(l)

X,

4x~

(211-tlir;:n

(4.i.liil

(211-J)>ri'

(4.4.21)

2..,

~;j;f>!il'1!c

J: -ll''ffl lrJlilf '11'.7 ill''!' !f!tilli!> il'J '1!:1ltli iili lt. ~:Iii 1i1'4<'1!:1ltli iili lt, Jt-~ 1?: Ill ~J 'f ?/Ji.
4. 1, fl! l!!l'\ IE :1f $t cJ1 il'J ;Jl;;f!i\ l\iJll!i-M:Ji$llil'J, '4<11'f of!J!ll Newman iilM!\ltiifr llJ JI;" ;J':!jf f<i]
Ii il'J ll'IJ"I ill( E!l lt.

4. 5.1

Newm<!ll~fR)l

lt':irlti:ll!W!ll 'f:>J<.:::'.!1111.\#'1f f<i] Ii, Newman 0 936) b\l!I: ~J:iiEJl ,:ll'W!ll; llt"1Jl!E1'1'J
l4' .1: ill! l'i ;1J :itJi'! :fE 1t' !4'?/Ji. oo J:!lll\1 ml!"' 'll: mti Jtf'i' = !fl l4' J: il'J ill! Jt 1li liJ iii:J::::: -t It ill! 'l} 'Iii il'J iii "lJ!i!!ll:;)tffl., XtT M:il'J ltll'I' !ft('i, Carslaw and j"'ger (1959>It~7l&:1'
:If !ti il'J mz Ill Jil\mti ill'= -t--!11 r'l l\!i il'J ltll'I' Jrtit fll w!lli!rtf'f il'J ~Ill filH!l <'J ::::!t i"l l\!i iii "' il'J ltlW!i'< It :fll W!Iii !rt# . m~ Jt f'l>Jli! !ll 11'lltJi Jill it il'J
ib 'f !.'l\f~ 1l' fEl Ii .!iJ ~Vil fil l\!i ;( lt'l' J: il'J JI;~ ill' tt , Newman ~:fl( !ti~& kl *1\l!k lJ!U;lJ.Jll T $
!ll:l> lliflll iiil'J ll*atill(ll!ilt. Gcingan., and Ramey(l 97SJ!'!~T))\:1'1\iJ i1!i, aP-t $!11 llll!Nl:l!f
'ii fl' Ji\::::: :ii! =:1'-!t" l!!l iNl: .. il'J 1113C '"'-!f!,,::::: !t l!!l : il'J l!! Ji: , :it$ !II iJl!: iili lt Ji\ $1' -!f! iJl!:

iililtil'J~:f!(.~3C~5.A1'-llill'~il'JVil~g~~Jl\t-1'$!lVil~g~,A1'-llill'~il'JiJl!:

it: Jt 1li IK ~ Jl.t-1' $ !l il'J 'il it:Jt 1li IK 1ltl l'l';lH'iJVJ lb -llltll'l'!rti'i il'J Jill ill !!lf't iii llJ , rllif *~!
W.Jl'
%!11J!:kS!fBJ-1' JI.iii i:l:1' :::'.!f!lll<atM iili'ttiifIll x. y, z:::: 1'1f "1il'J'JCl'!l:k'S!1"1 'Foo iJl!:

4. 5

Newman

Jfl ht il; J; J llUI llt ij .;; .It 41. ;.t. .;; It

<np 3G'1it;ic'l"ilif l:~!lJ lllll!t!l ill 'li:l!llli!iir ill


(x)

16 7

~fnlll !Ii! 4.

1 9' !Ji fb'li:'l'!li!iii jg 1 <x) 1 (y ! 1

,p!fl!.(11
p; -

p(x,y,z,t) =

dV

1( 8[1rX(t -

(x -

Xw)!

-r)]a12exp -

+ (.y -

)i,,)

4X(t - r)

(z

z.,) ]
(4, 5. !)

Jt 1' =11u1ut11w llirllT ml"l1'1i'1<i!latll! ill lli18'J lli!-IR~ ill . 'll'lli w


'f x ~ rtJ '1!Jl.:l\Hl!.!E8'lllili!li:ILY. y ~ it)illJl.;lf;ff fll 8'J , Jl~'*llilltll!lif! jg \Ill <x) w(y) JDJ 11
!el!!ltlllll<P~l::lf

dcr 2 ~

p;-p(x,y,t)=J.~-L...iexp-

l'r

x. ")

l"t;

n X(t - r)
n1t'Xw . n1!'x
s1n-,m::c,1
x.
x.

[i + 2 ""'
L..Jexp [ y.
"-l

-l
I

J.

2 2

tr1n X(t. y~

r)

Jcos-coonrry..,
n1'Cy
y,

y.

(4. 5. 2)

ffi'"

!ell! ilol lilltll Jll .P~ 1: "Ill ;If 1'1! ft Jif i1ll I 2': .P i!l 11' Jll illi !E 7)( !If ifill!
\'! lit ~ lJli if I"
IL lilmiilll! !If:cl ill ;fJ 8'J 1' i'l tit ll! !E ill "lit El'J ll: rliJ t!! 11WT1' i'l l'E'li: !Xi l!I! J: J:t 1i Ill 1i '11 lit
1'!l 7)( 'J"!W!lit, Xt'filll!!ff ffiltllll!, ilt'!ilit j"Ji:-ltl 'J"JT, f!\J!ill J;' x ~'J"jT, '!1!Jl;f(:jg Zx" l'"l
Ill !Witt ii': /l. l)lrJ i*=!ll lllll iltll!iil 'Ii: tll x <x J wCy !lit te , BP '1k'if!' JI! ltll!i'! 9' l<lfl!l!il> I!.( ,fdll''!'
ltll!l> 9' Iill!!l1l! ~U ill JI! II!. Ill 9' !\'! l:1''!111l 111( , WT I!.( 1f
-( x,y,t ) = ds
2xi[l
P1 - p
~-

r!t:

X,

+ -L..J
2:t.~
1l'X1 n .. l

1
(' - n~11: 2 X(t-exp
1
n
X,

r)).stn - c o s 2

2n:rrxi

n1l"xw

X.

X,

(4.5.4)

;II; 9' h !frltllll! IJJi: 1X, =Kd;c, K,

;If;~ ll::!i rlfji;l}J!$ ;h' =h .jKu/ K,,Ku Jl\7)C'f 1ift;Ji;I}

!!$.
:rtf!ll:*:ltll.1119'1!11-* '!'# iltiilll! J:lli1'11rfil:J;J1i 1'il!'1<1l! , ;;ii ll!ll'!i' 11 h, x f!l y :nr1
~ill'$ ;!; KH IZ rlfJ !!} i1I' $11 K"' JllJ'll J'e Jf r;; 'll' ~ >I: ( 1. 9' 19 ) !- !I} VIL Jr 111 it 1i Vft It JI' ;;!:

.jKn I K ,.h = h .jKu I K,!li!'!f; , '/l'Jj(.f 'If JJ!Tlil: ;!; ,., if Ji: jg 2L, 1111
z 11li ilili 'If (tJ "' .\\\ IX ~ ,,. if 111!11li +JT , 'f :!i!'*='!ll w: ill f!"I Ill x Jr rlfJ jg)\'; "'1 ;le f IM"' ii': 1i 21.
S'JKdlf !l .y Ir rliJ 1i 3G'11t;l:'l"IM 9' Aili! !Jl\. z Ir rliJ jg J: T # P1l o11<'1!!' JI' tKJ\\I: 9' EJJ!iJJ:!i c-.1' !litllt
<!. 9. 20 l , J\\tJ!l x' =x

!Jl\i!i'il'S'JJl<l!Htill .~p;i;J
~

(x.x,,,_,) I (y) VI (x'

dV 1 [ erf L

p, ~ p(x,y,~,t) = --;;r::?
)"L-

-"'

...

+
./

,z,=h' l. l'Jf Ii.( 1f


(x -

1\.,)

4X(t - T)

+ erf L

./ 4X(t - T)

~----.-...-------

..

168

I
,/ 4irX(t -

r)

exp [

( ~v 4X(t

y
"

J'J \ I [ 1

z ~exp(~ nz,r~~:1 )-;:.-~2.) cos n~z"cos ~z.~J)

h.

r')

(4.5.5)

t!i !~Iii 111.8'1 ~ tf> I\ z li!lii!ii:J:IH< 8'1 'I' .S\ , mti <E.t>t: 'I' ,x, - o ,y. - o, Daviau et al< 1988) ,Ozkan
et al 0989), Kuchuk et al. (1991), Xu.Kong 0996)1!.C&.11\.'fl.J'i(l996a ifO 1996bl~i1Hr

4. 5. 2 5.15 7.1< '15 :I*


*2*4"#~'1'E-TI~K#rWrt>J*T~i"l:IJrll!li~~TT*'F#.B1if~~~.tN
liillil~ $[~ill* 'FillUj( 'Fttil!:A El U'J Ail< iillil! Iii! l. ii 1if ~ ~~lil !fl K ttD'.1 ill!il!Ai!Jll!. !Ii~* 'I'

#. il\: 1J'BtfF '11T1j(Jlt;J:7): '!'#.


{)J ~ Jtt *'I' 7) rt>J ~ il'l 'I< K '"!fl j[ 7) rt>J ~ i11if! K. '1' ;jjj ~ D'J tf Jf;, tt iA"'1JLT*31: * '!" tt
H

)l!,;(Efill-!Zf~.t.

i2
"K = Kv/Ku,z"

z/

Jl.f,

X = Ku/ific

(4.

s. 6)

~ti iiHll ti! !rt* 7l Ii1if'.!i nit

"'.i'2 + "'.i' + . il.t.. ~ .l ap

(4 5 7)

a.x JJ,z azi x at



i.J T lilf 'Ii'. :fr3':* '!":lfD'J ilillltilll llii 'It, 1if ttlt li!f~ xy 'I' W.t if if.l:tl!Jll!.D'.lil!!tlii'lt. ~lfi i/4f JL T
Cf f"l 7) rt>J !'.J tl!Jll!.il!!~ tnl'ilJIE ll:ol!:frl'.1)( 'I' #;(E .ry :!Jrt>J fi'J!Jl(tlii ~i:. !'}!Iii;~ Oil< 4. I '!' X (r J , X1
( z l !Ji: '1 (z) l)f j!ljf( B'J ill( llii'lt, ll:fl> Jllt!if!l'>J< D'J IJlilP17Jl! tlii 'It, Kong, Xu, Lu (1996a) , 1L, i!f<, P
<1995,, 1997 l ~ Jtil!:tr T .I\ !t!'Jlilf~,

'!" i!if I:: i1'J .!JlJll!.!Jl( AB, S 1" .diilf !'J ;J;ilJ ;\I a, 1':1!1: ;\I 2L, '!' ,,\\
;\I c .oc-L.(jio"'~ 1"1.KJl!l'\:fr 3\:1.K'Ftt ,L, ~L) ,jio[E !. 7 )iliij<. x<t'fi!ll'B'JIOJ!!!i'TIF-fil
xy 'l'ilii~ilJ;J;ll!

~Jtt xy

..

'

l!l 4 . 7 lJ' Ill .I:: llllit ill


~i\IA!!fl'.

nn Jtf x' y' .!\ 'l'itib lit ti! !ll\tlii 'ltle'i j!fjj; !ii''ll:Jf!. ;(E x' y' .ll 'l';l;l!lllltll( Pll 'li::W! x' 7) fill

X;flli.:k 'I' i!il 'f ;'k'lifj!!( 1'i J J)rt>J X;flli.:ki'- i!iJ cpj[.!Jl ii!! fi'JJii!jjt, IP I Cx'
y,- O). !J!'@I xy ~ '!'i!l'ilJ xy 'I' i!if .tl:.!Jlll! AB D'Jij:lflt!Jl( tlii'li:'1J
G~y'= G(x,y,t - r)

21

1
J41'l"X(t

.x, ~ 2L .x. ~ L.) I ( y' ,

exp[~ (- ,rsina + .)ICOSa)2J


r)

4X(t - r)

169

[erf L + (.t"co~~ ~.ysi~ - L.,.) +erf L - (rtosa + ysinet- L,,,,)l


./4X(t-r)
./4X(t
r)

('1. S.B)

;>);"' l: . Jti'ol!!ltioJ:tl!, 1iJ IE 7Glli!:k'f llif '!' Ri. ill'Jiliil~'1: C4. 1. 1911!f >.i<ll< AB "'1,)l-J[l31!)jt ill ,

*olf1iJ fF ;I; JJ !W l'l B i!t;ll: ,


!m

*"'

N i'!!!<ll<~~, :J!J! l<~i!Jilfili"i'. tiilil\,.1 .1': fllLi x ~(l'J" Ii! 5)-~U :"1 a, , a,. aN. J:t

'i'1':1Jl'.5J-~U ;I;

L, ., ,L,, J:t'f'. ,,\ !iHI!. tiilJi\..1 !'J IE! !115}~Q ;I; L.,, L.,, , L~N' ~U ;tl;jj iil

'111 ;I;
~

G,~ = (J(.x,y,t -

r) =?
N

erf
[

L,

1
./4irX(t -

f ( [ (- .:i;sina,
+ )ycosa,)i,]
,(

,.;...; exp -

i:) ,-1

4A. t -

t'

+ (:ccosa,.

t ysin"t Lw)
L 1 (xcosa, + vsin.:1; - I, )

'+f
"
4X(t - r)
er
4X(t - r)

l)
(4.5.9)

L _ L
_ KHt
_ 2n:Kh[p 1 - p(x,y,z 1 t)]
v - h 1tv - </>pcLzPn Q

:;\ '!' ,Q=Q,,/ N = 2/JJV I a, ;!;'ft )'Uj( 'f''it!<J 'Fi!J F:lt ,Q" ;!!;))- 3\'71<. 'F'itl'J .\!.;"':Ill:,
li!JifiD'l ?l-31'71<-'f'lt. ill~ IJli''l'i!J '!''!

(4. 5. 10)
~t 'f-~

I = (I.-1 + I.-2 + "' + LN)/N,xv = x/L.


(4.

[ erf L,n

+ <.i:voos~ ~,sin:i:~. .=. . ~.~v) + er{ 1.-iv -

(x 0 cos~ ~sintx, ~- L,.,0 )

5. ]])

J
(4. 5. 12)

l1i lt\i>; z rlil!'Jll ill~. '4tltl:Ui, l'11\:i!J ;I; :f J!i:Jf< <BP _t 1'1!1 Fll l. i!J ;I; !Elli Cp fi''9:Ui"11 Ii!
Jj()ffi-i'1!lffi-i'!E (~p_t rllil"1Jk'::l'ili!JJ!' ,J'I:,~~ 4. l 'f' VI (z)-" (z)jf J!l 'f J!.[l;j Jl'
tt:frmt .m~ G.=GCz.r-z1= fr G' ,/h ~;:li;:ltmffl'o!:ltrJ;'l;J
N

Cl (:ro,tn

'') =

1 -f 2 .l:exp( - nZ~KLbr) cosrnrz,,ncosnn:zn

"

G1 (tv ,tn ~ r) = 2 L;exp( - n1 tr'Xl,br) sinnirz,.vsinnn:z11


G' ( zv ,tv - r ) = 2 f,
L...i exp [ ~~1

(4. 5. 13)
(4. 5.14)

(2n - 1 ) 2tr'KLbr] cos 2n - 1:rrz.,vros (2n - l)rrzn


2
4
2
(4. 5.15)

170

(4. 5.16)
~t'f IL#'ilt Ill a<J~l*i'itR'. Im I'll 4. 8

J'liiR ;I!;#!!': L;,, jf"' .\l(J!! L.mJ:r ~a f!l i!;l, rll ll: (4, 5, I 2)

ii< iii !'> G' ,, 'I J:r ~LI Iii! It 1'1

'

.
1......

.
(.)

.>;

(;)

'

. . . {.,.

(c)

1114. 8 JUl'lll Jllil:x*'l';lflltil;lil

]) ::::fr J'UJ< '1'#$.-*l! (iJ11.i(!')-,jC'\Loli'll!l!' T l[!J!lfi ll! J , Jll 111 4. Ba.


G' = _!_ xp/ ~ YL) [ f 1 + Xn. - X.,.o
I 4" "
,vr
Zvr

"'

='

rf 1 '

Xo

+ Xwo

,....
2t'

+ Xn +x., 0 +~rf1- xv - x,.o]

+ erf l
2J

rr

z rr

l 17

:=':fr 1:7): '1'#11l' ;I< ill <lit 1201<3". i!fn"J ll'l 'f ill 'l'J:r *l! .tiii')- 7): 'I'# l , !JI, I'll

yb) [erf 1 -r

I
1
Cl,, = -exp
- -

'rr

4,

+ _!_exp[.;r

(XJ) ....

1-n)

2./T

4. Sb

1 - (.:tp ~-- L,.f))


+ erf ~~~~=

2/r

( ./3xp + J'p)~]l' I 2 l 6T
er

(xv -

fl.YD+ 2L.,D)]
4 .("t

.,,-r 2 + (xo -~ ./3Yn + ZL.,n)]


+ .n
4 rr

(4. 5. 18)

3l 11.l! :fr )\:7): 'I'# 11!1ill!1[ ( Jil JI' ill !fl ll! 1:4 lll 'f JlJ '!':fr ij!_t .I(!')- 71< 'I'# J , Jll I'll 4. Be.
_
( yb l [ f 1 + C.xD - L.,D)
G' ~yexp - 4rl er
.;r:
2

+ erl 1 ~

(xn

+ L.,n) + erl 1 -+

zfi

+ en.. 1 ~
t

(.<n

+ L..n)]

2fi

Xb) [ fl + (yD L.D) er


+ f 1 ..
+ exp-( 4, er
2 .fr

+ L..o) + .,..f 1 + erf l + (yD


z.rr

/7' L.,D)

(.xD -

(J:r,,

+ L,.v)]

2./7

(YD -

r.

L.D)

( 4 5 19)

4J i';:fr 3\:7):'1'#11J';I< ill CJ;ll 60'9'!3".ill 1"1 Ur'f ill 'l'J:rtlt.l:i(!t-:>J< '!"'if J, JI! I'll 4. 8d.

171

c1

~,,

rl

_l_
(- yi,)
f 1 + (xn - L.,f))
,/fexp
4r er
2 .fi

rl 1 (xo L..,,n))
e
2 .r;

I
[r er 1-(xv+L.,o)+ et1 1+Cxv+L..v)]+ -exp

erf
[

rr

2 (:co -

+_!_exp[0

(xp

rr

+erf

/3.Yn - 2L..n)

+ erl Z -

,r,:

(fl.xv 16r

rr

,13
Yo + Z/;.,n)
~

4vr

+ erf 2 + (xv -

+ erl 2 -

(/3x,p+y.o) 2 ]
16,

~-~~~

j (xv -

./3Yo +
~

2I~ ...n)

4vr

Cxn - ./3Yn - ZL..o)]

,r,:

Yn)l][erl 2 +(.:en+ f l Yn

- 2L.,n)

4 .fr

r.f'yD - 2L..D)

,r;

+ erf 2 -

(xp

+ ,;3 YD + 2L..o)
4/r

+ erf 2 + (xn +4 ~D + 2Lwo)J

(4, 5. 20)

E'l l!ililllllli t!l , 5tJ<;1)( '!'#t-'1;lJ'd'f T '> 9<!!Ul1 Pi .l\!-1-?k 'l"#!i!i\!'iltil'J. 2: ""~f'f!lf9<

;;(f!l pg '!l;#!;il~#!'J ."1'1!: !j lij 5tJ<:?k 'l'#ff'J 5t J<:'I!: !l ;jg!\!' 1;fll1'1!'J !ltflJ '#:'#{!!;jg [ii'] 19<
JK f!l pg ?k '!'#1ll!Jil!i$if!l !'Jl]i .\\\ d}J<:Jj( '!'#0 J!: 9', i!E ii Q J'Z:;<J '!l;[!;\ .Iii i"'I; Q. ~ ~ N, ill
M9<JKflJ li>J l\i1-?k '!'#, 0"1:9' Q \lt;lil;'!l;l!O\il:i!.

~-~-It~~~~~~~~
t s. 1 1'9'~ t!l T -Ill il'J l>*~utliiii'I!:, #! 1':: {rJlC.lii !1'1-l!-'111Cfil!4. 1 li'J etJOt'f'1'i

4.5.3

'f!i'if f'til!f!ff'J;J;lll11tlf;!ll Newmn ;JU!11!!1'tlll T lilli1:9'!'J~Btliiii'I!:, iE'i!;l;'E:l$$lll


liiii'l!:~~--ft.:;<iTCFlll8~EaS!lla<JM<P~etliiiiBCaft+
'<!! 4.2,
il''l'
I '

'.

'"ii!' "1J'l.lki1'';; !111;!1'.!Co;., !\)

Iii "1111 iii !!


I (x) I (y) I Ct)

3111!:1:"' OJ """,.
~:f 'f :c -&!i~'lf~:lilJ!i:j:rt(}.i'.:1!',:r"'O
.\i!ffi'.,(c)J"l'll'

.ft:! x, &l:i!IJl\l, ()~kj (bl

'Ii!~ ~B! 1*' 1n .'It :1!', y = O .'fl:I Y :ti:~ .Jll. .Pl


(a)$![ffi , (b) ~!Ii , (e )J"l ti'

ffl, ;r ,_ o ;ft! s, $J:J:IJ .Jll.,

mm~m: :Prtta: I~!l;tp,

Kit xi, y= o ;f!I


x""'fi "1:!.r, :tJ::ltlBf., (alt<tm, (b) Ji!:fli, <cliff.if

y. $!: it1 Bf.Mffl.

ril!ffl.lt\lirt'!J@:t.fi!U:#,ft.ltJl3; xr,JJ!i'. JllY""' 0 ill y, ?t:i:!lM


M~. x=-0 ;ft! x, ~:ltl:Jlf., (a)~~, (b)~,ffi, (c)j!{l-

(y)
(y)
(y)

(11) \II (:.-) VI (y)

(bl VI (;t ! \ll (y)


(~)

f-
N'

(a)tt:(x) I
(b)Vl(:r) I
(r) 1l( Cr) I

oc (.x)Vl{y)

(aJXCt)\ll(y)
(bl XI <xl \II (y)
(~)Xl(x)Vf(y)

(a) X (x) X (y)


th) )Q (x) X (y)
(c):-:l(.x)X(y)

... _.......

_..._......_....._....._....._....._....._...._....

.~<;

~- ,l!JJ!.*<I Jllltlfit~., Jill

".

t~r1 !tl:,(b)r<n

mm:k:lll!.11! it>#lf<Jf-~!f::ll' .~lit**

5tt

ill "' ii ~ !!!:

..

.imm .t:m#lrms.ttffl,

(~)

(J)

V (r) \If()

(b)\II(r)\ll(z)

1----

'"
~

Jilm.;l;::l!!!m:o/ Jf-7}:..l'f'-~lit ;If'. ~:!ii$&


f.,fj, (a)1-;?:<11 !ti:, (b)r<r1 !ti:

ri

r.,.r;;?:-rw !lJ:, (c)

#'$~

X {2)

(b) \1 {r) X (:)

A:Ri*:I&~ 'i'lll?ttti:q:n:Jt.~#-. $r-;l!~fitf; ZI" (a) 'i;;W# (b)


"'It~

{a)~ (1)

~ "I J&m J: TM tu-r!li:#

(a) I (r)X(z)

ti'

(b)

r.,.r-<r., !J.t:

v (>") x (,,;)

(c) \1 (r) X Co:)

Jtj!jlj;:Jll!~ 411!).1'-*.l'f'-#, :l!!!JifrJ::!Jlffi'fJI!;' (a) ~fJ.l, (h)

Ji!ffi., Cc)

"

II! f,;

'.

-gj- 1.~:ltlW.<liic:'.kJ y tflr) ~:ili;ij:;-'f;!t. #--'f'-fr'f y :j\11. :!&~ _tl_lfll


'fJi\t'i.lt~" 1f.tlti11Yf' (a) :IF-~:t' (b)'A:!ffi..

(a) I (x) I (y) VI (.a)

(b) I Cr) I (yll'J'('l:'l


(c)

(x)

(y)

IX(")

(a)[ l (..c-.x..-l+ I <x+.x.,l]


l(y)Vl(:o:)

(b)[ I (;,;wwwx.,)~ I (x+x,.)]


. l(y)\11[:,)

~.

(aJ~I(x)I(yJ11(~J

~Hrx~~*~~~m~Mrx~~*r<1.~mL~~,~~
M, x=O ,111 x, !U:'11?1, (~)~fill, (b)~ffi., (cl!I*

(hlVl(x)l(y)\ll(i)

l1'!*:lt!!.E1 'i':ik.lfl#-,:Jf-trt~T'f x 1'llt. :itP.fi- l:tiliffi -r'lll;Jtffl,

(al X (~)It (y) \It (.,l

(c) IX Cr) I (y) VI (z)


--

<al

.#ffl '(b)l!Jj~ )Elli

rulil!

(b) 'l'J (x) \I (y) \t (~)

11!"'

*ii;

Bi ;ti :lt'lli'l!lilf *l:lil!rlllt "" i" l!f;jj< iii Ji!: li'J


"11-AIHi!! Ii!!If;jj( !lj Ji!: li'J
:flJ tE 4' ilf fl IEi11' ,, i J:;l:JI[ .R ;l!;j;';-JilJ!lli>tll!i Iii Ji!: .., *"*iii li!:l!'J ~ -A!!ilt* :flf ll!i !lj Ji!: q, x y. , >Ill
Ill x' , y' ,z' >Ill ~ fl:l!', &\:fl< R'l;J:;l: i\lJlll!li'Jilf#iili lit, l.'1\lil''t iii 'l!11i'J ;EJUJJI! dA' 1)1; dV' J!.tff f\Ut
l'l'X<t!lf 1C fli!ll il'l 1"'~i>t f"l:!!!?t RP 1J!.lE;iJ ?f ;/j' iii l&', RP

*.

(4. 5. 21)

4. 6

11!'11.Jit#j}tfr

jf ~ illi "\ l1Hlll 11!'i ~"' lll\ OJ ft li'J~"' IJt *4 jg lflilll! Ill i illl ll ifu to'; ~ft "11 i! !ll '11-l'i 'E F 11'<\

r li'J 'E F"' :l\\!!HJ\11<!\ii ii( #Jt ilf:lf1*J!;;f!J Ill 11!1 1t ("*Ji' ) mlil; Ft> F !!I: 'E F- llt i1 lliJ Fw

'illillli
*1t

JiJf IM 111 li'J 11' Iii: !li:h ~it f151: it ~J IJt *4 , Jtilf >Ill lt1f!ll!1'< >Ill Ji' il!f ~'1!1. 'IZ JI! i'.1 $lilt!'!! l-1! ;\I
(i<J !l-'1!1$ J: llfJ:;l:Ji;Jii. li] ll!l.
fl. Jt 11illii" I!to';$ !ilt!'I!1" (fJ >i:#:frilf:lflii , 1lfo!l:I!\ ;[;lit1t Ci'iilli I !!it 9' o!\:lt ii:'. ilt 1t l E'i lltr
3! l!!'.Ji!oll'i" 4~ ltiiiiit !ii: !11! ;(': li'J >i:#Jt tli :lf ii; , 111'.i !$ 4~ It ;[ii;!:# !iUlll iii i'1: 1t <5 lll I 1!19' o!\: '1' Ii\
"' i'1: # l 4F It to'; i:J:'lt ;;z. :fr 1>J 'lit l!! isl:# fn lJll fl:lil:'i1' 'lit l!! i'1: '!i'itli 'lit Ji! tE ][ llHIH'F 1)1;'I' Xf Ji!: JI! tli
9' ill! w-;; !ll (fJ "Iii: !!in ~n r"l '.'i" it !'! illl "l< 1'!11'1 iit!iltl!I!"" , it illl "l<!'Z r+:tl[l'J<llt it it J!ll'l<llt
li'J t~'I! 1lT gj &*Ilk.I!! 11 5<' ~ lt . :ill! ti: lit# D ll!l:11>i1tl1!! ji';:lf Ill II'! ll!-'1!1 r ~ '1+1!!!!11 <mili~!l!
"111rllil) tl'l'lt !II; 7GJl:li'J !Ii ;IJ.l<.t7G l:li'J a>t llil 1!:it ill1 !!'<. #lf;i!IJ tmxot~'1! i!i< mJ: .1'!< 1>Jl11! Ji'; m~
.<!< l'f11' ill1 ii:\ &!-;; milll l'I< 1'i i!!!; l!'I ~ J!.tfflf.I % 1fJ ~ tl'J !Ii JI! ill iiUfl Ji( Tit )l;il!J illl litJilf x~ 6' !'!

4, 6

~ll',i,l,!f;)-#

173

illl iri 11J ~lit El mr lilt" ll! .iti;;::!Ht*" llJ' iiJ ~f!\ r ;>J 511' :l<4 ,
1l if! ii!# !i ~
il!i # Z l'iiJ ill <!'Bi!\ lit X, !It iJiJ !\lit K h I iiJ &!II li fitt ~lit
2l i1tlf 'I' HJ !ii Ii! Bi :iJ fll # llJ !"' lHlll:!J
3l #V !!If# llJ fitt ~lit , !f1\11 It:!R !f 111' 15 ~ ll!!!I: >tt& i!ICl!i'ttlil!i itJ J!l:Jll,
4l :Jt ~ iJli Ii! 'I' llJ' m!ff if itJ 4H'i'!f< ll!!J!l l'f. , iQ lli !!If Ii! f!\li'Li!l !If !/< ;K fll iil17t JI'. ilif J!1i
5 ) flilf l!ltilli IZ Pi itJ !ll(J!ll Jllf :!i!:o
1' r.ii l 11! jj(\ ill:#. "?t11-!lli!lil!J ""~ llJ II!~.

ili:'"'

4. 6. 1

~)J!!J't!4'1DII:t.JJr~

i!llll 'f'ti!Jl;Ji\#;J-!Ji 9' llJ -1' ll!'lif II!~. IOI )!;if ifjiiJ~~~ ili C:f ~xiD Ji\# 'f' 'Ji'.'.ie#fl'J
'Ei"'i!.'J llFu "1 !E:!J litlliiill~~ li'JJilli!~litJl;JiiJIH!zli!!i:!J J'.ltiJIJ i <J # Jlil l!ll IZ~li'J!;'!iEii!!. iil l!lilll
'i'~ttJ;,li\liti! -)lil l!ll IZ~itJ : iliffiR.
j!,!illJ'i'Q!11 li:J:c l!ll!l'i'll': fl ill' l'i IE51.. flJ'li~i.ll.l!l'Jd:!Efil\::loJ> 11!51. t!lfl J'li:lti.ll.l!l'Jti:ilit:
:11.S 11'i!li .I\ Vlt:ll li'J ttil!Jl!.51.. iS'll!*!ll EililI!li. 9' Im W-J:t ;!;Jl!J!l ~4 IE 51. ,~iEX'i!HJm r,
if lil'-lf! iE Ii'! illl R>t. lit# 9' il!iJm -1' Bi :iJ 111;
~rw: llil< ~ lii>' Jt liJ li!t *ii!! itJ tt lit!!! >l< 1:1 ill i!!I

*. *

""~J:l:J!-1'~R>lirn!iCJ!l:!il\ il'1 !!i:IJ Jri!till 111~.

fitfll1Jl J;.I " - "li!ffi ~ff~il!!W: RP !fi:!J Iii); 1* ?JiiJ'l


'!> !') !!i:IJ;J-W. iC 6p- p, per .t l t!:'F' ilifl f'l lrl!tiill'l, J'lill: c4, J. 39 Hf J!I( ,_ o. mu fl

1:i.p,....

-1!2Y_

4rrKhtexp

I {x;,I,.

<4. 6. 1)

XFf Mi IE llJ r ii!!, ?il J[llp(r ,, ) JI at o at, xtW:i'f' Jll;itJ ~J;>li;!;llJ:ft:k!Ji., ,;: (4. 6.
t

*ii"' litlit ill

))\'[exp( - r'/4Xt)

41rKh

ti

I':"__
J- 0
4Xt
1'
1

!) :illi!Matfn]

{4. 6. 2)

PJi J;.iffi:!J ofoJ@'itJ :ft:kii!!Xf J..\'.f r' I 4Xt- l, J;.I l:it 1j'Jl;if [iiHiiii.l1.11'J CSD r J!i'jj' !') , 'lf*!ll 1'
f'ill lri. iJ1. 11'1 JIJ J: it ill ill li'J i!l ilfil 4'12 ;!]
r, =

/4C:it = 2 .JC:X;

(4. 6. 3)

,;: "' .c, Ji!,.i.!1.1i!:ll'.1it 'llr. n SI ,c, -1, xtJl:ii!.'J ,c' - 2. 637 x I0. ., xtt;;l!Lll'tili!.'J .c, - 3, 6. Iii
J;.( J~j(lfL.!j).{l!~J r ,J>!jfjl 'i'll': r, "'"' ;!]
r, = 2(

~~ 1 }

112

= 3. 7947(

~)

112

(4. 6. 4)

it 9', r; ;!JJ!li!!l 'i'l (m) , K ;!] i&li!'lli' (m'), t ;!; BtlliJ (h) , 1:1 Vir: f*~ !(t (mPa, ) , c 1:1 iif.11 Bi
l!iLl'ilit (MPa.') , ;!] lt l!IJ(Jl CIJ>l!')ii<Ef ;J-Jjj() ,
j!,! ~J 'i'Q 01Htili ;!; 7 Xi J: iii Ji!. X llJ illllru 'i' ~'if JI! i!i!M ill J1I! Jlif , 'fl! ifl ilt-!l> ;J-jfr iill il!! #
ti*'lt !ii 'PtEll!/11! " !It 'l Ii!ilitJ EE :IJ '!\;1!:;it; II!!!!: J;.I & r, !It Vitti QCr; l-'; 1f i!li .~ Vltli Q. il'J ttii!!.
1:1 JJt IE Jlx lllJl'l !fi:!J
(4. 6. 5)

174
2Pn(r,t) =

()

p, - p r,t
C Q...

=-

E'

: Kh

I ''
r

4C1Xt

(4.

6, 61

Ii"'

' 9[;

,II; 9' ,C, J!l:.!ll {i[j>j\ 'IPlt 'I!(, J'i" SI, C, - J / 4, 1


~~ C, ~ 2 X 141. 2 , ,>tj,f>
llL !WJ ,C, ~ 2 X
1
1. 842X io-
.ilLct ffi p <r, t 1x!I r >!< fl! i'J' '!!! , I'; !iPlt 11!' r, ill: 2.,, 1!11 ~ J:: Vii :lit Q cr.l ."ij J1' ~ i1 lit Q. ll'J
It;';

Q(r,)

Ow

re
4E;Xt

=exp -

(4. 6. 7)

Hl 'r\ C.!. 6. 6J;f'tl <4, 6. 7l:FlflPl'l!J:Ff'iFf'12il!Jlillitl'J1'11x1 Ji ~;tll l'Jdl It (ifL 1' Jtt, >/lf "1: C4. 6. 3l
'.SJ lilt Vl T -!JUB "1:
r, =A

-IC:Xt

(4. 6. 8)

1'"1: <4. 6. 31 '!' J!l:Jf( .4- 2 ill!& ill ll'J Jl!ill 'i' ~!l<Jli;I:. Tllif itJ 7tl1TJ!:ll! 'J11ll i!!i1'11iJ l!!l 1lll-, ill
33: <4. 6. 3) )JJlll'J Jl! Ill 12 r !ll:itJ 1'l!l1 ffi~;tll ;!II x1Vli :!1!:1!1$:ic? lll:::, il'f 1'"1:< 4. 6. SJ 9' Jf(:F
Fil itJ .4, i:1.:l!llf<t'Jf(:;r; IOJ ll'J r, 11!, B~ '2.ti:1.:'f l'J itJ r, !ll:.ffi x1 ffi ~;f'tl:lllx1il :!!!X-!l-J!l:$ :le?
jg mm jig IX!. , 4'
r~

rf

u,. = 4C1Xt' 4tt, = CiXt

A= (

~~t) i

- -..

(4. 6. 9)

J;;;,

(4. 6. 10)

111. l!! il'. <4. 6. 61 ffi <<. 6. 1lit'IJ ill ;r; Fill itJ .4 {liPJixt liZ itJ r,

!ll:x :!!! !ff ffi ~ U & Vli:!He :Y1J T-

'i!! " 2.
2 0

2.s

5, D

u,=r//4CiXt

0.5625

1. 0

1. 0563

z. 25

3,0625

ZP,1;1=-Ei(-u,)

o. 493

o,2194

0,0922

o. 0348

(), 0121

0.00378

Q(r)

o. 570

o. 3&8

2096

0. 1054

o. r,4137

o, 0183

Q,.

Hi 'Ii!

. o

!. 5

A= ,/i;Z
I--- .................... - ........ +--

4, 2

-exp(~u,\

(!.

' 5

' 0

nf !!\ ,1'l< ;i: c4, 5, 3 JPJf Xi! Jl ll'J Jl! iJl!I ~lit , ?C :lltl!l'l ffi ~ ;~ ;;, o. 22 , NP ill i~ lli i!f;;,

o. 22c,Q./ Kh. ifif !11cll'. lt<'11' o, 37, i:1.::f<ii<i*'i'~U lkJ itJ ill l!!I P,JfJ!ti)(A'Jjij[
:II Ci Jl'~Vii:l:ll'J 63 %,W. 12~! !'f ltli!! 1!!1 H~J!tiJ\ff<IVliclt "1 i"'cltitl 37 % Hi :t< 1. 2 ll!li' ill , O!!i!l'<
.4 - 4, BP J!!i 1l!l\1l 00'1'12il!Jlil Jti:. !lii!f ."ij1!!!11 12!<Clli ~.Z. It ft :ig !. 7%, i!<I. R :(E;I: c4. 6. 3l ;;!;
<4. 6. 4) PfriE JtitJ l\1l~~12U !'f, EEn per .t)."ijJtl!Jl!! lll!l!i ffi;IJ p, A'J il'l.11PP llillfOO:i!\i!! ~+, J1'
ll. l'EJ!!i11!1l!ill912U !'f l\l: Ill! IJ19lill!(A'JV!i:l:i5 Jt~ ,g, Vilt ll'J 1t11! E l'fiJJ 2%
ffi:IJltti:illl!ttilt~ll tE !IL i*lf!!ffi A'J $l'L fr !It'!' ,
1::11'.ll'.1t1'1rliJ Jl!I !lll~'ti: ifif ~I
ililJl!I 11!1 JK illl.llin ll'J '.!.: iL 'lit Ill >i< i11' ;,tji 1' lli::h !tti: !Itri!!JL 1' I Jll JL #'!'Jill A'J 1r!!i >!<Ill' I
1P li! ii> ll> i1 :IfIi . r -1ii'. > ! 'f'J Ill llt l\l't\IJIT '.!.:~I* '1<11'1 i:1.: @1f ji , fil:lll :F 'Ii' Jll f~ i'. 1r!!i :iJ< !Jl'i!
Ap- p,- p<r ,, l -

*-,\ \

4.6

*
1'

175

l'ilillll/J'lllW'f leis: t-IM' ~!i!:jj; ::!! tr Z..Jl' "1: ,i!\l:ff -1' ji; l1lJ 1';i /.i. ,lit;;\ ii:' it :Ir !!ft 'I' iJlt l* Bi ;iJ
il'J 'it1ti111'1 f~;JJ Jt'ff ~. R'flJ.Jil:l:'ititll !Jl'<!!::ic, zl:l:'ititil !Jl'l!I'. ;j,. 1!!,lil:J!;iJ!!E1J lil!ill!\
li':ll'JC ~::le. :)!; 'B !m ~!JI' Ji 111 ;\\\ Jillll 1ll i;tti; 'I' I/ii ti il'J lil!i ~ :ll!IU Jlt i:k t li;!liU::ll'f' 'Tilt! ill
Z..j;tf'~eJ!'J:kl'l'M1J:kJ;;~j;t!JJ11iillllll'l'Mmil'J~1i!ll<~M
1. 8. 21' 'I' ,'JfiJ!B'J i!i.:i:ll!!t EjJl(jij Jli!i >!:il'J ~gi!IJ :IJ IBJ B'J 3:;;\ q~ K' 7 ~)Jlo-l'i!itit!l\1'11 ,7\l

;;, lit '1 ~ ll'l jj-'f Jiti!IJ ill i!!t tt ifri lEJloi:kf'i"ilt tt jlj! Jilltll!\li'Jllt J; :ff RI fl! Iii\ ifri J:k T<i' jj-'f[llt tt ill
ll ~ 11!.:<11i IE ti JIH l!lr llJ eJi 'll! 5l f!<J Iii!~ 't'~ 11!, fl. ilt!Jli" i1' Jlo-l'iill fl:! 1:1: l!I!:Ii!&
!.V:!l! l&ilHii tll ,!E:f.J lilll:J!i!t EJ !E 1J ill: H>llilJSi!Jl'jj,7\J:i 'f lliJ il'Jl'i 1' ~ct, '!' lliillt ::ti-ii\.
111 Ji1!l: il!Wi f!<J !Ji\ ll! jj,Jr 1!l: 1i Ill ml'!' Jlotil: "11il'1. Ji- Ji iii . EE lJi: 1*!!Mil ill ;!; it :Ir ft!\ jj,-T<PW.

ttl*. xt--1'~tt1*1!!i 1m-1'i1'Ill :IJ Fo eiJI Oil~tttil: il'J f~llil, Bim 0 956) lJf ~ T ;lll{ll; !1'!*1J ;!;
1L fr !lit 'I' ~tt ill: '1'J ~Jill , i:k:ll- #!IA ill: , l't~ Jill! ill: 'll' EE !Jt l* il'J {;!;fl:\ iqt tt1l!ll:ilil 'll! i"l!l: ill
il!\!Jl';!J a~ [ cap/ap) ,]'!'. :)l;'f< , "F1'T> ' !i!:ffi;1ifJllii1!'1. !ll "1: o. 2. 11 >ar J:!L"'li

a~ ff,~

(pc1)-'"

(4, 6. JI)

:)!; 'f< , K :Jl\*fl1 W, tt 1!!'111: ,'1 ::!J E !ill .l\ I!: . lfl !. 2. 4 l\" 'f< !it t!J ;j( ill fili11! >\ l!:i~ j; 4. 75 X 10'
MP., !ll "1: (4. 5. J 1)11f $,}!: 1ll 'f<fl'l!::!i l 450m/s. ii 'lltlill li'J (pc1 >::lcr;)(ill (pc I) ,JiJTi'.Hill 'l'
)II il!\ilf 1J,'f ;j( 'f Jll')l, ifrillil l*:'l!-1'1!'1'J l*l!l!l\ ttll!l!'. K ll!::ic, ,II; 'f<jl!'J!; \!!;!:. Johnson and Pion.
<1982 >li!H:J: :!<ill! JI! ff, tll t ~ 1* li!!W li'J llil Iii;!; 1L :Ir lit 9' ff. t Jl'l l'i ~ ~ B'J ti< WI'. , 1' Ill i!ll'. W 1'
IJ<lii.. Jlo EE ~,\Jlfll llil ff!i!jii!i'!'f' f!!l il'Ji*l!l~f.tll!l!:M 510illi'J.

~ 41'5' iii :i\!;;\J!i Ji i!W It 41' Jili !:f; fii'

at 1'1 'lt it Jiil iil!Jli'lT ill illl !i!:JR l!l 'fW41' 1llf iii!ii .l\ ll:

~>t ffi:IJ Jill !iUtillPJt11::ic.

1sJJll::, >f\l;ilHiltJ\- !N:;\!1': tll 'ffll 41'1i!i iil!Jf<.l\'l!.


'l!!&~i1Ui1*11!!!Jll!il'f- iltr\!ii !Lil' Jiff l)<{!Jli'J E}J5} 1iS ii!i I!: p(r, t) ~ l\lt r~r, ll>/gt:Jl4f Jill.Bi
}J il'J.!ll ll>:tll p(r.,t) :)!;'I' ,r, :ll4f11lf 't'~, ill:1'.!llJe:il1!J;\tllDf<4f Jl<l\l#4f '1'J !Ji:('f "F !t tll li'J ,
,'JflW lil *4f lllii 41'~ ~ili;l;R :Ir ft!\ ill ~Jlt$, 1L ll!i(ill: -11''>
I!: Ej lt!!!E!~l!:Jt "",\ll f!!l
p
ill ~Iii< J::i:Ef/;#"11 l\l41' w!Jkil'J;j:.ji '!':fl @(!! #1'\> ~
Ill': 41' 1ilf Jli B'J ~ Jlt $ . ill: l!l #ii!, Jlijlil iltA fl! , ~ jj- llJ:
11< tJil IS W. VJ & tJil ill il'J 1'i' :i:E Jlt !'r !m ll!! Ji llll *tr1f M fL 'F
K
Ji!, tll'L it Df<lll 11:1111~31!11< 41'!!!1 ~ ili:1"> J!i$ "F l!ii\. IP 41'!!!1
ili:~J!i$ K, <K , JI< JJ '!'')\;'If 4f, JI< <f Ji(J;:'1\;iijl; ti! Ill' J!!i

!IU~Ht. lE!!1'*jlj!4f!ll!Jif)ili:i!IJli$)c'fJt!!ll!il'J~J!$, RP

K,

> K , Ii<~ i!f!l\! #41' K, -;.. K &H:S1!'l&11'Jill ffi}J Ej J'Jilll! Of< -It
JI: tll '1') Bi :1J 1' rol , A 10le i:k f'iill:!!l! '1!<1' !i!:etill:!.V:
r..,
r,
'
j; T 'l tlll\ i1'J:!,: # :;!! &ill:!.V:, v.n Evordinger 0 953) ~I
J1l'-1'x tllll 111'~ s, ~1'!1!!.S!:lll 'f. ill ffJJ:llilt, .Jtl'E :7" ~./
ll!!ll! '!'%Ji<" flifll\114". M'f lll!Plil#l'EJl(:-Ai'~JJ(:ffi:f.J~~illl~, !m l'll 4. 9 9' Jiil !ill ABC fi.JT)j\.
EE 'fl'1W.'1'JMJI< ,;( r,<.r<r, B'J f[Jlji;'f<~llt$ K,<K. 11HlfDarcy !iEll!

175
.JL_K~
Znrh - &

(4. 6.12)

tEl!ltllt Q, Jill>! A~ 2#rh, J/\li llt tll & >F'i!'f!i 51<14' T. ~Jlf >$< K, 'Jl!JJ\s!::I! 11< - ' ~~ ' ii:! IE
rllilli;lc ~p IE;i:11!1i !ii< ill ABC 51: ';!; ABC' J:!:ili( '1l l!:Btl!f<Jil: 1li!f5ll! !Et"'!: -1'r#JiU IE f*" t.p., elf
lE JCl>i Bi iZl T' S, 1JI!
t::.p,

2trKhs

(4. 6.13)

'f:lil~ J!1''i!'J}:%'.&'l!J Iii ii:! elf Ji!:!li;IJ p. Ct l1'il!i~ elf elf Ji!:IE;IJ J!l!ltil! PC. ,t) :<'. 1'1'1! l!J T'R ;\ ,
ftw(t)

p(r.,,t) -

Q
21f'Kh

(4. 6. 14)

ii 1it ;<; Jl'J It lt ;itill JlL ,:/ llt11'tt Ill 'I' 'Iii' 1' !if 'Ji'.1'1 JI: IE f1i ;luJ ml .H'R {,, r.tttm ffi rlli ii:! ?:: J' ,
Ji'i'il!Bt'ltJil'.!'t;<J l'E Jf~ :'E~ 1'il:i 'I!!!'! J:iElf'F!ll , !'Ii liJ jt'J S 1'$;!;~,il:fll T, JE;IJ ill!~ ill ABC'!!'
-tjifif'F:lil ARCC' ''l!!tffilT' s il!M!?::' 'l!ii'Jf~~$JJ!Jtlll:ll!Fll\. ~p K, ll!J,,ft~ll!:>J<moo 4
9 Jjfjj\B':J Jl-'ll li1J .(,' llll;!!{l'Jtl!Jl'! B'Jlf!.:!ii!>l!lt , :j;JflP!<lli C)h'. :g II!!

t!.p -

Q (

2. 4)

K -1)1n!:s.

' - 21rKh K 1

r,.

(4. 6. 15)

Ill l'\ <4. s. 13 l- (4, s. 15) 1iJ' JiO , 1'Ef5li< 13'. 9' !llliil>~IJltiltlWIJ '1>1'FT , liJ' 111
S= ( ; -1)1n;:
1

(4.6.16J

It ili' !:!: i''ii: 'fOJ!i\io:I!! 1ll! Ill. l:!I ;<; r, tll K, ilJ!!fi':lb!ll:ll\*:!UB'J, NP 1ll! s il! B:!U. OJ io:l!llli'! lE
1'1 JI! IE!'J'f"B\.'1J~ill1*<, ;<; T lllli<lll:i' J" li!t, Jdfl ':II A f!J!f(:lf 111f 'i'.1 r.,i!';-11!'1!:, !'!iii s. 4. 1
'l''ll Jll l!ll Jlitll !li!i!!ll! 'I' C-U ';i;~if il:i lll!lif!, ~J!il11'1illlJlt;l!J !lijJ Ell l'\ ( 5. 4. 33) 'i!!#
(4. 6. 17)

(4. 6. 18)

ln R -S=ln_B_
r.,

r"''

(4. 6. 19)

JEl!ll!/Ll;\. illl'\C4. 6.19lliJl11


r.,,=r,..eS

(4.5.20)

tr S>O. m1J , .. <., ~P'll J!f<Jt~ 'i'B\ l:t~l'FB'J'i'"'llli !" T , 'l!ffe lJ:iJILI*'l!'i't!'.'il!' ii:! J\!lllHI f"OE:
~J~a ii:! !liliT<, tr s < o, Mu r.. >r., fill jm, Ill( It, IE l\\!IB'J'li ll!1ll!ll!fl'J!f(#111f 'i'B\ 1:t ~liF'i'B\lJ'?::
T , ill~ tt :!: ,s ;<; fl\ il!il'I , ;io: "1.l!I! !ff :!\111' Jli:J!(("1. :( Jf ~ 3Glll1' ~ii:! '$!Ii! .t ill\ f\l ff! /.ll ;<; i3: fl' l!I! 11'1
it'il<iF ~ 4. 9 'I' A C' l'E " E :tJ:. lk;I!: ~'1'111'!!! ill:-i'l!ili! Pl IJltf;i'!il;{Eia*B':lillffi;IJ!11 !11'.r
ill: illJ, l'EJ!#111 lll. Tl'llfllll'!kmlt<!E ii:! fill!ltl!lt ;llJ .1Ji liJ f s :!\1 to. il!111lli'.T. Y'l!l!il ;lg Ill 'f 1!!111:
1'!I !El\\!lil:i !Ii Ji!.# 1'! 'i'.1'l!!lt r ~,,,-', mll'E )l; 'EJ<!rtf S 1tio: Ill ml.
II ill!.i&k!lJll 'If 1lifilllli&.li!'i Iii 'Ii! Jli;IJ ill!~ .!f. J!il lll f1i jj --i' ili:'ll! l:!I ~ Jl\ijf IJlt li'lt!\1~ 'If 1llffill
ll!%'.B:. f.Jili IL l'i'l':>J<1\>8'J !li:iJ j};ijf p(r .t) 1'i<. r= r. lt1!> elfII!: !li:iJ l!l!Je{l! p(r., t), "t)tt- r:l

4. 6

't!til.-lfJI'*

177

*liliJtJi!!ll!
Jt
9'

l' t ~ t, 11'.t ~ fll ~ fll liA !Ef Ill !le 1E 1J 1'1;!( , Jll.;e:JtJI: li'J !ti Ji!,:.!!c l'Jll1!ll!Jlti'fr9P iA :% - El.
~
>tilt ff iii.If iii. rt;J Jt 1lll li'J Jlti'F r:>lt l!Ht'J i!! ii! 'f~:lf !ll: l' Jt u ii!fi ffil 1'!ii: {E It iil1 <!!l!
IR 31'~) .l::Jllrrli'J , IJ1 ITT~ !t ITT !Ef~!jl;ff iii. !4>ili.A!t111! , )!;$.Jt 1lll <Pili.!f ~i1J ffillil llil Jt~1E1J
1f ill ~f 'll:1t , JX # m'f 3(;if!Ef:ff fJI: lit ii-Ji!! Ill ilt!Jl!ilL'-. if 111lilf II"~ Jt lll'i fli.}J II! li'J !&!ii f1: 1' !!I; ill!
i<i: !i1 &z ,'t'i- o :If!ll: ~ PIJ Ii'! .it r.; if!l ii!! ll!"' Bi. n o11: r'l"1fittil> . lif "' Ii'! mIf!fl !l'- ;;u1'J '!"
lfi illi 1l!' - !l. 3f .Jr 'if iii.If ili.tll ,'It lil:!E1J 7f Ji! 1"11/t iltrilf JL 11' Ii'! Jll li:!li JI< Jll: ti'Jll ill! oli'<l'f RP iA :%
1llliii. ili il1I litIf11tl!ilfll!ll: ll'il B>t11-lill I!! iii. rt;] 1f111! l:!:#i!<d'f l' ill: lll il1I I:!?i!ii lj!'. ~ .J::jf ~":!in lit l!!
IT :If Ji!! iii illl 111'! iii.Ifiii. rt;] Ji!! iii 11'.t , >HJJ /"Ill li'J /iil Jll:J!OIEM! JI! l'f .Jt lif 9' li'J lili ,i!ii Ji!! Ill illf rt;] :If llf El'J
w111H;1t t1'1:\!'. flllli'il'.t r"1lll:k. :/.it n im: t Q CF'll:li'J o11<1'f r ,Q "'m i'f 111l M!Jl!1iltli'Jl!il?t fix"1
It il!lillt*il!l!'J', ffil !l!Ji!!J!!ill!}. .Jt111! liltli'J l!il:\t !'If 6 itiJ'Jill&*illt:J::. l!J lit-11'.tl!J , Ji!!ll!!lf.A.Jt111l

"'*

li'JIAr:lll:~rQ,ilff!l!~:/'11'111l<Pi111!1!lff4>~*~m~.;x#mr.Jt111lill!Jf!~~lf~**~lt!l

:IF lll'i 1E;h 1"! /llf l!! ;e:{t! ~ i&l"l f1: :iJ JFOO Ml Jl!i<i:!!1. lf<IJ'.tl!J ITT Fo Ml Jl!Xi:l"Z~ I~"' T
ill:/Jlt:i<i:Jil'. if!l ff l!li ill! ii! Xi:I'\' ;ii; iltj 1- fff Ji Ii'!. Xi: li'J 3:1: fl\ , Of !ll l"l -1- ~li1H r ill )t i!li fo/11'
Jlj
~'It 1i!lfMl JI!*~ .
111-fl!r!I~ .it lif <P 'ff Ill' -'i: !'!' ilif '1tJ!l m !lit 'i: '!!~ill' lf ili Jl!J ii!! iii , if lif 9'"' ill' -"C !'!'
iii, !ill 00 4. IO(a) .!Jiffe, l'*1t ITTFo lf.lt!lllL Flt Q tJ3 i!'il!li:\t!!! ill:, W.Jtllf ill!Jl!liltli'Jl!il0'ic
ti' Q,, i!ii wli!l. lll\IALA'lt111l Willliltl!li:\tii! ti' Q1, ~ Q=Q, +Q,. ilti!l:iiiilli ~:% "JF111llllll!I! lf\:iJ
A., 1i!lf P;J!l il'lf11l.tJ v. = A.z, ~tl'lt 1i!lf f!l!il!jj;iJt~ l!il:\t Jl!!m :%

'*

*lill

(4. 6. 21)

(4. 6. 22)

(4. 6. 23)
Q

A,

Q,

Q,

Q,

Q,
p

Ill - 10 111lllllll'l'i':t:lll
(b) :J1:"1.R:f!f4k:ftii11*

(a) #~"11119'."tlf.llf

Rarney(l965)~)(.Jtillflil!Jl!'llt~ C

.ti

178
~p. ~ pgt..z ,pJil!.l'il C=A.! pg. !Et:f':A;l;(4, 6. 231 ,li!IH~

Q,=-cdf,,

(4. 6. 25)

fli Jill Da"y Ji! l\I! , Ell Ji!!Jll iliA'it ill!ll!tll!'J i"':lilll:lt :!;
Q1 =

z,,,..h ~ (t) .... = Q + cdf,

gIiii;;; :II: ii'!# j!f Iii! Al "~ cD

(4. 6. 26)

~"' -~-

(4, 6. 27)

2">'.hie.

# Ji! >l 'JC :Iii'!'it Jil: IE 71 p.n*1 !t :flt iA li't flij tn :!;
PwD

= Zn:Kh(p, - P.,)
Q

= ~

1D

(4.6.28)

ci!

l!.lhl. rn=r/r m1J;i;C4. 6. 26)'.i!Jllt3Gtl:l!;J%ll::I;

Co ~P" - JPv)
dtp

= I

l:Jrp

(4. 6. 29)

't>'l

;It '!' pD :llB< jJ :$l- ;/ji Jiil ~* ll: ( 4, 6, 28) )jj ll: Ji! >l 11'1 )G :I il'J :II: o fll';l)' Jj 'ITJ l\ll ll: (4 6. 14) '!' Q ilt

ll!t Q, '11' Ell;;;:: c4. 6. 261 ~"" <4. 6. 141 B'J x:lil'J)jjll::Ji1
p,.0 (t 0 )

= Pn(l ,tn)

dftn)

- S ar/), n-'

(4. 6. 30)

;lt'i' Jlij);fil fl'tllijif,J 3G :llfll:l 11! ll: (4, 6. 28) ll!>t .;;;:: (4. 6. 29 )11J (4, 6. 30) i!Bf!l il!tlll!'l't ;!)'Jj 11!
El llil S ;f!I #ii!! lilf#l 'li!"'tt Cn if,! F'l i!i.Ji!.~{tf. ;/'f f ll: (4. 6. 30 Jfl:All: (4. 6. 29 l W~ F'l i!i.Jil~{tf

"1:!! ll!t
(4. 6. 31)

lf!:::f<i>jl )jj #ii!! 9' R 1! 11'#! lilt I*. x& 'f '1'. #lit Plt Jt. #ii!!'!' !lt 1i l!l:-'1'.Ji!. ilif. fro I'll
4. 10 (b) Jj/fjj; ~&i::!:l'f'if)jj .Jd.(J: l!'Jl!l1!1< 1'~1!; !!: l!!:!llJ ll! !. 2. 4 1'9' li!>l if,Jlilt I* B<Jm !\'tttE
Jt )If "' "1 '.!i ll!t
1 dV.

' =-

mil rl! #

jl!j lil!#lllltJl!'Jilll:>l-lil!:I Q.

v. dp.

=-

v:1 dV./d!
dp;J<lt

(4. 6. 32)

:JJ
- Q,

<"'

~r~ = cwv .. ~ft

(4, 6. 33)

(4. 6. 34)

c = ~~

(4. 6. 35)

m1Jtlf !;;;:: (4. 6. 32) it'll C=v. V., ft A;;;:: (4. 6. 34) j)JJi.\j!l!llJ;J:: (4. 6. 26),

-*,

i::!:ll'
X1ll! -#
11%1!1< lli 8'J F'l it!Ui'f <4. 6. 291- <4. 6. 31 1~1ll! :::l'f'11Jl'1JlfilliJJ<:Jl'.. E'Zj!jlii ill il'J:ll, J('!'f"t

'

.... ,. ..

__

"

''"

."

179

4. 6. 3. I

E!i:IJllil!>liltjf

Elillili*:!l:il: "lt?Tt'iit it'Ei"' A'! llif$ fill:Ui 1'18'1 'lt1t'1: ~, it1tnltl;tlit Jf :lt t'i fif Jliil'li'J
lfi Jl:, MT ;E i"'JiJll'lfi , JiiJl: <4. L 45l:Iffjf11"W:iJIJ lli:IJ Ill p.1 ojli<ff, , !!it r~r., miJ 1l
Pwf -- Pi

j![Jti mJlt AZ }1)f>l;1if jg:l)'Oj 'II: Ei ( -

r!
+ __Sl}!__
4irKh E'I (' - 4Xf

x) B'Jttll('"' x

EiC- x) ~

r-

(4.6.35)

l1UluJ,at1l ITT Filiii:J*!il

ln.x = ln<l. 78107.x)

l:l;9' 'r ~ 0. 5 77 216 JI< Eu!" 11!'1!' Xtr iE'I!: x ,Ei ( -

in 0'J

(4. 6. 37)

R 0 :il'lilJ=at 'Ei ( -

M.
-~1EIJ o, W>l:<4. 6. 37>ftA<4. 6. s6JJfit&ol!<Bi:Elrs <JlililB'Jm-tta!li~ t.p~ ~~l'hzs.
0

mu11

x) Jll

"'

,,

x)

p, + 4QB
,Kh 0. 577216 +In Xt - 28
(4. 6. 38)
4
"tl!t El! oi!<!ll~ lii1 sIJ&A'J mtaE!i ~< !i\'i'\ 4. s. 10 jfit &l!!!JJ$:ig ,;;11c B. mu11 !Ii f$
>t
P.1 ~

Pw/

+ 0. 8686 ~\ _

~ P _ O. !832QB ( l .K_
'
Kh
geyr~

**'

0. 1832QBlg

._I

Kh

(4.6.39)

l:t9' Q Ji!<l!!! ili1 mt :I:. J:'i'\:1< ~ ,:it T EE~til lfi-l'E:f 't )ft #Iii fil!illl\'!:!;\' 8'1111'1\01', # Jl!2W:!li p.,

.EJ lgt >i'U:~1'tlt ~ , 1Btl:J!Hlt-l'E p.,-lgt il'J 'i' xtli'11! l1iil'll J:!r~~ll'i1!!, 'EB'Ji'4$
QB

"' = 0. 1832 Kh

m = 2, 121 X

io- ~{ { it~~a~J
1

(4. 6. 40J

(4, 6. 42)

J;\)<i 31; ~ "1:"1: JiHlt Jmffi rlf.ll( !t 8'J l!! ii!: li!iilll ,

.t:jlij jfi[ l\li !!ht: it Iii ill Iii !'E :f


~JI< !t Iii 1illJIU11 J>rilll'/. IP~ 0'J Jl'<i'l'T, -l'E 'I' X1 li!'1; l<i Ill
Ji!.~"' ll"tt. ~r.;<j!!j Iii il'J ffi ~ill! !!l!JJ! i!5$Jl'.:<J;l[;il! ~Jk~
""
l!i 8'J ~il!I ffi ~ill! tt El! .!j'!Jlil , 9' M;fl! Iii Jtll :'-'I'm iJIJ Ill!!! nit ,
!mill 4-11 PJi;R,
.!j'! Jtll Ii '111 Jti 1: 'If'!! 4f 1'! fill 11!3'!: !'It.:!Ill. Jlt J>HI '11: ~J
:l<&:~E'ZB'Jllll "~, l!!liJ: .:/<Bi: El -l" s il!Bi~ ill! !!ill:1' 'f
i; :;l;i>i<J:J<t!J'Jtlllll ill! !!lelfittt!l.11 ~)i! Ill"~.
.,
9' Wl Fl:Ji!< R # ~ 1ii! ill~ Iii' Iii JI! at ~J 7f if! ml -l'E !'H!l 111 - u !t ~Iii,_ !I! !!l!<J 11!!11ii>;1>
l'/. 7f ittl i"' 'lo Ill "1iJ U~~J !Ii !IL El! r J!1J'f51< i"' 'lo ti~ , )iii J t!l.li1:" ll':llR t\l 11! ~fl!J lllllft Ii!!", i.!:1' ilkIll
:j); ill !!illili di!~ !1Jj!j ;!';

---~ ~---"'

180

(l'J illl !l\Jl';!>JJl IA~ C4.

6. 4D , ~OOI illl 'ii( 11)!11il:illlll(Ji;<i>:1li1't. l'E Jtjl.X1!'J(;Jt lif. Ill 1: fl, 1' :1' ll(

l!lt,:)l;l'if'l'i!J~(4.

6. \2)!J'tl:IJ.
~ Wl l!lt illl ll(JI' ;,\I 'il' ~ l>i' Ill !: Iii n~ , t!f Ill It ll'. :!!: "" \:!:!!!. 'll' it~ l'Htl 'IHIJ ~ n[.J ,

'1'i I>! ll! JilMf!l fl'JJIIJ'IL , &P:lil!Mfll Ji\ ii!. !itlillc!fli1: vt!E p.,fi!liJli~ Ct. 6. 1n, l!l,1t:lil!il! mt
EE p.,"J'at 1\lJ t !'li'l'F.* Ji\ , !it!!iX>!Eltl\lJ fl'J .;j>!'J(Jil!Of 1'1~ fl'J 1it!'lt,
(4, 6. 43)

\:!: 1' fir l!lt jJl, !IF" Jlil lilA!<ilt "llii' l!lt.
'1'?00! lil: JHMili<il'l!11! ~~i!l7KJII!i\, 01J ftU, lli' Mit'i lliH!ltiM1'1ix , lli;l:J Jtl!f1J lltllIJ!' 15, !~
hUJ!iilll #~1!'1!1:, l'E !<M!'lt"ll If- Ill'/' ilill\!:fJ~ J'[ti\1:, ~J'[ll(l!lt;illf $ m, 1'jl!!~ ll!Jill!i\llf lj! m,
:t !tflf!l'i!VJ:Jtl!i< fl'Jll'i*: mHI-. 01J !m, elf ~iliJilc-.K< J'l'il(Jtl'il(. lit It ft! '1,1 2d&.lr.ifJ1Wi Jll, Jlt It
ill.1J 4' "''}( l1l B'J JI: ifJ lJ!!1J' , lit It ill.ll!;!: , i1' Ji\!!! 4. 6. 4 1' ,
l'l!l )!,JI! llillIJ!' 01JJm;lil Wi!l'tJ!lJll ~ !E:IJ Jtlll:~J j;!;J!!Jll .:.( Fn. c!f il'i ( Pl l!z JI') kj 9C l!z Jll

"'JI!

:<:: l'iiJIE> Jll; tins B'J !!i:IJ '1f. in1111<"' te lll! "ii iii mt "1". JJt ~' l!ltlli:IJ llll !1(* 'I" J'[!i<. !ii:!E PJ,, at
l'iiJ t Ji;*, RP
JPw1=0
'1t

'

.14

:II; '8 fl'J Iii'~ Ill #ili 1101J !m "" !lttt, "1;1'! .11!:71: ...... "'"' it I!lJl!: OF- -itii': T , Eadoughe<
0 977l X1.!f.M81ill:c!f5tilite T .t!!!;!i.
!lil*iil!:l!':Stfii;l;>ti !!'" l!< Ji;I gJ J: 7t iii, ;Ill! f 'lit~ lE fJ 14' l'lf 1'1:c!f 5l- iii (l'J ;If Iii iJl Ill i3 i!IJ

.!mr,

l l l\;f jl;l!l fil)J !'J(ji;ljj\ Jil; p.1 CMPa ) - t (h) B'J '!' X1!'J1;!; jm ill. J'Elll 9' fie tiJ :Ii; 'i'WJ J'[~ , jl',
ili Jt<l'll!!!l!!H1'Jq;f$ ft! m (MPa/cyde), f!i.~~ (4. &. 42) J1!J 11
!ii:llllli\!'J(Kh ~ z. 121
-

J!ltiJi!ll';

X 10~'

QB(
e':".'...'...n:')
mmPas

2.121X10~; mQ~h( :,', ,)

(4, 6. 45)

2l ll'. ili q;f$ m i!l.RP >!: c4. 6. 41 >!r1!'i"if l'f 81 Ji\ !'l1 Ll Fo, it~l'l:till1!: :ltl!l5'till: t= lh !ll:ll'.
ili !!i';l:J {1[ p,. Ill !gt= lg!= 0. ill>!: (4, 6. 41) 1lJ1'l!!/11ll y. s
0

S = l, 1s1[!.:..:.: Pih- lg

1>!~

0. 9077]

(4. 6, 46)

3J 1"J'f ~* 3'G 'Ill fl'J ~lllBLIJ illltil, '8IW11 ~'f' ~Jll l!t, J;!J1! !it Ml!lt fl'Jll' 1lJ .:.( ~J IWi /11 llll
l!z JI' Bi l't!lt!ll:c!f ~ili:!& i!i<i '!' '1l 7K Jtll!!!
4, 6. 3. 2

llifJ~3!:it:#'

HifJ l'I< ;![iii! c!f j l iJJ :Ii!! ill 7J( Jt $ii( Theis (19 35) :(E lJf l'llik r7t7t Jt $itlll 9' Jll, ili (l'J , l\'i l1' l'E
~~Ik4'~tt~rn1'~iE~ffl.

lli:t.J i~UI: ~ lllll: JE Ji !'K:.l!Jtc!f '!!!* Jf ** .:.( Fn #Iii: JE :IJ ii lllil!J( !l . lt lt~ lfi :IJ !'I< 3!: i!'J
j!; .l\~. ~f'f li!i"'li!~i"', f!i'~ (4. 1. 47) Jl!t r=r.

!Ii' ;l:J

#it JilJi!!Jllf*!Rli\!'J( B, ~~:fl' j!;j1' Fo elf Iii:

181

p., mp,+

,i:~r;,[ E;( .... frci:~ <>t))- E;( 4 ~~!]

J< 'f ,1, Jil;jo)"' lltli.J , Ip Jt;lf jjij'fl'J *7f Hti0J 1<>t !th\* ;If tfij'fi<J lltJ!lJ ,
JI! J!i: fi'lxl: (4. 6. 37) ~ jijjj'\ ( 4. 6. 47)1lJ'1' Jllt
p.., = p,

QB [
r:
+ 4'1fKh
In 4X(tr + t:.t)

p,,,,

p, +a ~f( lg

r;

In 4Xt:.t

(4.

6 47)

r:! 4X<>L 1 lltllJ' i'J

(4, 6, 48)

t;tAt)

(4, 6. 49)

J<'f. ii\!&, xt SI ;lg lnl0/ 4,- 0. 183234 .>tl~lflUjt ffl~j;ig 2. I 21X10-, >':C4. 6. 49)'/i{ '~, k
# Fo !E:h fl'J!l'i;![ f1i' 1: lg [<>ti (1, +<>t) ]Jllt~iik !I\ ,;II; J'[~j!f>j;L(Eli\lfl.'il.!itilifJT jg
(4. 6. 50)

P!f l!1 'il;:*;lfFw fl'J J!;i!!J ffi )J'ltl!if~ilifj{E p -[<>i/ C1, +<>t)] fl'J'il.M'lt;I\ +i<OO J:, ili'tli ;ll;J[~l'Jt fl'J
ffef '1' m llTJl< !iloltti!l! fi'Jjjl J1'$ K {11Lllom" (! 951 l j,\Il'l\fl'J1~.\\\ lJ! LJj , IE i"' T 1, at fill Fo *;If . *
;lfatti.J jg "'. ~tl l'E "' at ~J fl'Jffi ~ p,- p., ;i, ~f' VJ i"'I; Q IE?" 1, +At at rm 'll ,gfl'J !Er<J<bo J: u
Fl;-Q IE?" At it fill 'll ,gfl'J ffi ~. it l'l'J'!i IE~* .l\ xi: (4. 6. 38) :& ho Ill !Ii JI! fiiJ !'I !ilol''J * .l\x\
C4. 6. 48) P!f ~j itf+ !E:hl!I<;!!: ill: #Jt!linl!<1!1lt1!1,~ jg Horner lli.
:ill!!! llJi!:'il<!llflFf s. ~:!l!i'lll :Ii** !llllt IP t m 1, Jlli; Alm 0 lltB'J ;If Iii: iltllik~ *;If 121 Ill ;If~
ffijJ p., J'!i"' (4. 6. 38) 'il;*'lf lltJ!ll Ill iiltffi1'/ llli:
0

- -

QB[ lg ,,er,.
1
iKtP -o. 8686S J

(4. 6. 51)

jly.1(t-tp)-p,+a Kh

;i;q, ,. me0 "'"'m1. 1s101. Ill xi: (4. 6. 49l~1"<4. 6. sD. mH1!llil~'l!.1ILllJT
.
QB[I 2. 246K11..f>t2.
p.,, .. Pw1lti' l -_ 0, 1832
Kh g c(tp + .6t)r!

l'E!Efll!l<!lilli !il<fl'J J!l'~l'lt J:JOC &

J , mu <1, +At l

Pw.(& = 1) - P.,,1(t =

tp)

+ 0. 8686..
"s]

(4. 6. 52)

It, l'(jJ)) ~f' I, l'El!i<lfl.'l!.ilt$1JT, ..t>CPT1'1llli:

m[ lg:,,.~+ o. 9077 + o. 8686S]

(4. 6. 53)

iii J:>t 1lJ' l1\\ Ill 'il<ll' Ill i' s


S

1.1s1[l!-'-~}!__:) ~-Pwi(tp!

lg!~ -

0. 9077

(4. 6. 54)

~J:PJf it .11t'!l'.!E.tJll'i!l Jll:;lfJt!tf fl'J:lfl!<ffe~Pf 3 i!limT,

1l

4\5f Jl;i11U ffi.:lll!l<K'ltl!'i!lt Jllt p.,(MP,l -1(hJ il'J 'i' :ltillt!i; j!j\[!I , l'E ll'l 'P ti< Ill ][~lilt .111;

tli l'i:Jlfil<ll!B'J *'f il' m (MPa/cycle) , J'!i>C ( 4. 6, 50) 1lT11!!llilb !I\ 'lt"11 ift!ll:Jt~U :.lJ
Kh = 2.121 X 10-l QB( p-m2 m)

mrnPas,'
K

2.121

JO"' QB

I em' I

mhmPas

(4. 6. 55)

1! T ffef!t: m {11:~1 Fo .i'l:>': <4. 6. 54JllJ'JJ<1ll'il<ll' Ill i' s.


3) lJfl )iliil!llt!!\Jft !E:1J p,. f 'Pllll:1r!l!l'ltllli K: :!l: <>ii <1, +<>i >-1. ~P 1'! t.t-=, mu'i' Millt&
\iF f!I J: 8'J !E:!J111! title p li.\:Jil; P , Ji!. Ii!\i! i'(l[Xt 'JG '1'! :k Jti!Jl:!Jl;iE lJfl 8'J !!Ir tf HJ il'J ;If J!. Jtti Jl:! , lliJ
2l

182
~l0ltll t,1' ;lc;J!;:;J< IE <Ii di'

t,!j;;lcJ!U p' 1J'T p, ii!,

M'f BJf JIH1':J llli*, A !IJ\lli.l:f )l;Jl!iJll ilia'J 'l"~Jt!! II;IJ p, Ill Jlt , J:ktiiJ>t5'flltolt oi':I!}
!)'J p' !!tilt !ilti'J!!r p. l!;Xt:JC'1\!;kJt!!.!'!J!!r 1iT ~( l!!!Wili'J, Xt'f<li !'? Jt!!, l!i'i o!rlltiI:IJ p' '!!; ~jJ:
1ilf ;k'f J'l'.'!l;!)'J '!" ~11!!1! II::IJ, Miller. Dy" and Hutchinson (1950 >1i l!i T Jmr:lflt, l'il>'F MDH
:If$,
p_(t:.tpA) =

JltFa ,Matthews.

ntpp(t:,JllA)

l, 1513

Brons and Harekroek (1955) X'.1i'!tl!i !Jl-i'i!a'IE:lflt, 1ilffj; MBH


)

Po"' ( fpDA,

:11$.

4.6.4

p.,,

p -

:11$,

rrtpn(tpDA)
2, 3026

BITT~l'E5.4.3~frm-1'1'~<11xa'J'l"~Jt!!II::IJ!)'J

ffiffin~m~~~~~~~~~

lliU!!lfl!lf l.i!Oll!, t'- Cl Jftl 'f-;f, :li:tl!T~7J<i!ltl! fltJlI, J!~ l'Extll>::li:MxH!<!)'J tllll:J: fj Cl fl! {fit le f\iJ I!!! ll! '6 1it<i>:'I" llii il'i Cl ~ T"Jf li'J f\iJ Ill!, 1l! it? i!ltl! li'J IE~ >'J a , it :Q1 JC
p..,f)

ZrrKh(P1 - P., 1)
QB

Kt

(4, 6. 56)

,to = ~t-Ca2

t!:.~3'\:(4. !. 45)~hOO':J!ifl!<llJ3'\:(4. 6. 37)5/<!;i;fj

2P,a --

~-

Ei[- (r,/a)']- Ei(- 1-)


tD
4fo

2r -

ln( ;:) + Zlntv

(4. 6. 57)

th Jt 1iT JI!. dilt:II !Jll:J' !gt !i!t:t~;': , RJi1<X:li:$tJ!!rx"':kJt!! 'l'.+ :li:#TillJJi;a'J j!!j fl!,
Ii!! l!!t, t'- o Jtli'! 'f :li:fll Jlii l!!flti!t, it !'J li'!:l!t >'J <a, b>, mufl! J!t li'J Iii Jllo t1''!" llii J: 1l ' r:i
jf, 'flii::/lCJI!. von Poollen(l965)),
2Pwn= - Ei[- (r w/a)2 ]- Ei [- (b/a)2 ] - Ei[- (b/a)2
4to
to
tn
:::t:

4Y

In [ 4,,~i

b'(b'
ai ai + 1 J + 4lnt 0

+ 1]- Ei( -

_l I
ta)

(4.6.58l

th JtL 1iT lj1, dlUli 'l' lgt fJl .. l!i:.~-" , ~:li:B'1il'l$A:lt ~;kJt!!I!! J!P. Jfllflfl li'J 4 fl!,
-RitJii. ,1iT II.I ilEn ,fl!~ 1*1iT )II 'f 9CJ<fll ;IJ nIn <n Jii;;k 'f l il'J !llE'!IOTililll, ;/'f jf {!z 'f fllf'Jl'
liJ!J: .WHi'!lf1*riJJ!j'f9CJ(fll ;IJ 2n/n(n )r,:k'f 2 !)'J!llE'!IO,
II.I J: iii !I! T "l i!l ll~ Iii !!I\ 111 Fa , i!lll 1' :li:M it'J t~ll! All!- &$1 $ a<.J t."f fl! 1il.
ii!ll!!t le: .t !UR 'f 90 xfll 8- nIn
.txt e1J ff 11 fll ill 'illl .!'ti!t fJl(J;Jtrr. li'J , W.Jl!i g.i .till> nJll.I
liliii, II::IJ illliiJ!lll=>:J<&!'J$f $ m, l:J'll!-i'if>I' m, z lt!Y!!l''f 360' , o-. Wf 111 th 'liHl
i'1:#:>tlliliT i:.1 lilll i11 '.I' xfll a'J;k 11,. ~ '.l'J<fll e!'J illlll>'J

""'*

e=

360m1fm2

(4. 6. 59)

Jf!J !1l i! :111*11! 1iT ll.llilll 'A1 # ?ll:Jlii I!! li'J l!U~, !m3!:< 4. 6. sn a fil:, 111.t:tilt Titllltr!U II

;IJ 1il17! llili'J iif % '

183

!li:tJM\~;l-!li

4. 6. 5. 1

:f'Ej(! 4 2. 1 11" 'I' 'Iii fn-ll- tll T if 85!' r"lll1!% !ll!lfi!.l':ftIE )3 '"It ill! i!.l':il'J 0 ll: C4. 2. 2l it
ll:'l'!ll~ft~~1t8!E:IJ~il'J>t
4X

at. i$' ll: (4. 6. 37), Ei <-

x)

11f Ill

ln.x

'

(.
t -

tt.

t .. -1

(4.6.60)

)'1(]

jiij l!i fl J1JI exp ( - x) 11f Ill l - x

ft 'f

Yk c/;

(4. 2. 2llll~-11'1'1'8!E:IJ11f1'Jii;
L ~{ [ Q _ -b _ ( t - t _ )-b;_ r~X lnt-tri
l - t,
p(r.,,t)=p,+ 4_
rrKh:f
1 1
1 1
1 1
14

-b,-1<t - t,- 1>[ l -

+ 4 :~h { [ Q,._

1 -

~ t,_ )]+ b1-1<t -

4X(t

b,_ 1 (t

....

t.- 1 )

....

b,_ 1

11>[ l -

4X(tr~ ti)J}

~1J[r +- ln 4X(t: t._ J


1

(4. 6. 61)

'

~ QYJ:::_!1
b c ~ [Q<11 t, - t ' i - i 4X

Q
i-i

J 4X(t !
t,-1>

<4. ' 62)

141 J:>': ft A ( 4. 6. 6D , ~IH!H' llli!i'!'1lllll!Z.1t'lt l&l'$<.!>1: El]'. ffeHli:iJ '"lt;lr!l!;(E Ill llid\'!f)Z i!IJ (SD
T'!l" Iii;

[1

p,Q(t)
- p, = 0. 1832 Kh
B g X (t)

;t 9' ,S }i;-*.:h

X(t)

K
+ Ig per~

- 0. 0829

+ 0. 8686.J"]

(4. 6. 63)

2Kht.p,/Q(t) B, X (t l i:l'!lf ~llJ :;f- i'J /lt!!!Ull T't\:'!!1'1';

(4.6.64)

:ii; 9' Q <1 i

(4. 6.

JI,'" if !I! if 1; at'1! il'J i"' :1:. "- !:!\ x <1J1M 111 B m'!1; il!I i"' 1; Q, }!: tll.

m>t

63)11j"Ji!., (p,-p.l/Q(r)!:j lgX(tl!i!.~tt'** ,;1;1[~jlf$


m ""'

o. 1832 Kh

i!lf I!.! #f '!);il!J 1tlil':llt!lil'! tlt:f'E>f!Xtf!fil ti< 00 'l'lit Iii; (Ji!.:ft. , 1939, i'!1 b)

(4. 6. 65)

184
P1 - p,,

---X
Q(I)

llll !Jt , ii< ili 1!1<11:~ 'I< m , l'f ru ,,i: <4. 6 63>iiJ:fLIP3'Iili1" Et 181 Cf S
S

L 1s1[P

-d:"

111

-lgX, -lg, K,

.,,.:r.,

+ O. 0829]

;t '1' T Im ' xt f'Ff 1[ !i<l?Lt 11 i2'Jit -Iii 5E ii\L lfJ*B !Lilt.


xt T F:!iUI< ~ 4. 2 pJiffe.#lft;!;'.J)' ft !P ii 'lit PJiiJ!lfJ "~iiliI"TillJI" ' ru"' (4.
Li!I: I'll it1f1", l'E SI $J TiiJl lilt
p, - P,,,_r
Q,

. B["

u. 1832 Kh ~
+lg

~:r~

Q,

Q,.,l (

Q.,

O. 0829

g t - t;-t

0. 8686til

(4. 6. 66)

2. 3) tl: :it. j'f

(4, 6. 67)

;J;<f' ,1, - o,Q, - o, '.Jl;fif, L , 3't (4. 6. 7l'4';;jtifjlJjjfill,1lJ ru xi: ( 4. 6. 64llli1X&~lit ili it:!!: C!l 4. 2 ,Q,
B :f tl: !JI! ,QCt l &lilt T Q,. u i';;ltf~ lJJf l!Ui!>\ C4. 6. 63 I<!' lgX Ctl Ill 'f t'l 'ft>\FltlfJl'll ll' 111111",
ii mtF 111:.!l'nr$J , m~ 4. ' , 1i<P11ttt (0. 1s32. - o. os291Iii'<;1g<2. 121 x 1o- o. gon)

*(
s. fE1.J1!t!Bl"i
*rff:!!: '.ll'i"':I: *lli:IJ!ii1[
'Ii'
ffJ 'l<iil'i't (
4. 6.

}J ])Iii Piii

p(r .t)

lit'1N1':1 J!I! l!:i\li!W B l'E Ill 4. 2. 2 1l' <!' i1Hr T it:it . 'if .i!f tl: T LE

4. 2. 7) ,

Ji<>\ '11 r Jll r. f~'!>l' !P !!!'if Ji1i 11.J!i(j[lfJ 'l<iilll: , 3


r'

4X(t - t,) .

(4.6.68)

(4. 6. 69)

(4. 6. 70)

(4, 6. 71)

X(t) -

(1. 6. 72)

185

""lll'lit !ll~t'll:'lii:ii\tt"l'l!'l'1J'lii:S<:llFf' ;Ex t>p,-Q,BS/ZKh,~tiil:<4. 6. 71ltE SI r1l Jl!I;


p., - p, -

0.1832 Qf.[1.xccJ

+ o. 4343 Q, ~ Q,, + o. sss6

2;s J

<4. 6. 73J

i'i Ill f, liJi!.Uli!IJ , )OJ .tiJ: <!' ,l\{t Q, 1832 1'?'1.l:Jl!I; 2. 121 X 1o. SJ 'il: (4. 6. 73J1if !i\, 3(:it FE:IJ p.,
'oJ lgX (1 Jii!. t!Ht~ '!\ , J't J!ijlt lll:jif $Ji:!: Jl! .t 'il: <!' :Ii Iii -It i!tr illl (1'J ~ !J:L PJi 1:1 tt Jilt Xf '!!: 1i 00 <!'
llf '!i!WI 'll:J\li!4l Jl!I: p., x Ct 1Jilltl!,~tll1!l tl!lll: (1'J ffe!JI< m , np 1if >l<llf il!l'illJ '!I 'I!: ill<il!l'!lr, ?.& In tE.l!tlt

llLl:!f<-,1:\ <p.,"XCt,J J, Ell l'l:C4. 6. 73J:il:~PJ!l:HJ'lii:Ei:l!Ff S.


Xt'f f":lifl< 00 4. 2 !Jiff, ii!. %~>!:'1i'lteP iJ!i 'lit !JilJ! li'J "ll>lilt:"llf Jf, , Si 'it< 4. 2. 8J Ill :!t, iii
.ti fill jjl(l'J 11! Jt)j'li!/' lif 14~71' !!i:IJ p..JJ
p

p - 9.\!i.f.'.

W'

*'

9.LJn :..__=

4trKh~Q\

'

(4. 6. '/4)

t-tj

J't'f' .t-t,+c.t,1,-0, .t'ittl!ITJ'.lilllit


(4, 6. 75)

(4. 6. 76)

4. 6. 6 7J( ZJl :J:t li: t.J ~ )\ );it :J:t

*!Ii

li1f JL 1J' 11' !Jr li!J Jj; li'J '/lilJl!!il J![


ll!iliiit:fr tJi m1 tE lilf j'l)j( '!'it li'J Bi ~:frtli , '11. 'f :llli 11 '"'
1), 11' 3:' 'll! li!J li: 'ICRi! ::k .tr1"! P!l !Ji,Jl! '!'.Jilt 1-iJ<'!"it (1'J FE ll!i:lt!Ir X1 J't '!?: !Ji,lf! , ftU J<!J!J !ii, ll! .1' .!!
!;!!ill tl! (1'J JIB!!! 11' 1;.1 & 4!-fl'1' ll1J ttliJi: (1'J !!I ~.lfd'f ,:II; !il(Jll! Ji! .!Ii! iCl (1'J ct.'!!! T> fill ;t Jtl: :tE '!'ill. J\li 1l!
4. 2 9' ~ - lill ' j'j']!J!l!lllf lltil!f il!i'!:niltlif#iri!i'i&. Clon1' ,Ramy (1986) ,Xu ,Kong(l 996 )fj<, ]1,,
P 0 996a) i'1l 0 996b Jxt J!t i!tiT T lilT J'1; r illi ;t: 1'1 lll :II; FE :ll F*lli ::tr1lll
Bi ;IJ lillli'l!!it;;t "l'If:1ll!llil Ji!! A'J J: ll ll!f! i'1l Ji\; Ji!! #J ;lg~; i1!Jj( ' Jj( '!":;'; iEJ ~ i1! $ K,
~ K, ~ KH , ~ lFi :Ii 11iJ jJl;J!!JI< K, - K, 1llil i!~ Jl' ;lJ h ; ttlft ;lJ z.. 7): 'i"ttEJ x lilJ '!'<ff , :II; iJ< '!"Ill:
l';Jl';lj ZL. x>l'fi!fl'tlfJB, i!!.J!!!fil 4. 5. 11\' /jlf;J; , :)l;lllffftil!(FEiJ SJ j\; ( 4. 5. 5lll!;;< tElilf J'I; Bi:IJ
~ 13'. at ,xt W: 'il: M. ' o ~IJ ' - t J1Hr :f'>t :fr "l' Jlt 1t 'I' 'if VJ i'E i"' t Q '- i"' 'if lt & It!! 1! ''IR lil '!:!
B, Jil/I! ii! i\ll.!hl V.Jil ttM 9'il!I' :l:#J CJ , ep

*'I'*

dV
~ = q(r)
d'<

QB
2L

(4. 6. 78)

= -

'fJl!'il: <4. 5. 5>x-tat1<1:f'>t ltiit HJ !Ef;:fr;/TIA'; ll!itiil:Jil


p,

p(x,y,z,t)~ ~-~:r;( 2~) J:~o ~exp[ - [erf L


[1

+ (:c - x.,)
./W

5. I 0) ii'. x (1'J

"ix:~)x]

+erf L - (x - x.,.)l

./W

+ 2 ~exp(~ nl~~v'). cosn1r z;cos nzi ]dr

X.:li ill :l:xt J: A Jllii' % :l:illl lt .le it K


( 4. 6' 79 ) (1'J 7G !II: illl ll' 'ii: 1iJ

iiill:< 4.

(y

(4, 6, 79)

- KdKH' hi - h. IL,

WIJ A

4 ill< "' '" , i$c # ~. It ;; Jill!!


--

186
Po(,r,p ,yp ,ZD ,t0 ) =

~exp [-

n J'r'
./1(
4

er

I I - (r 0

-.=

x,,,)

v4r

KH

<f.cLl

PD(xn.MvD,zn,tn)= fif'v
4 .. a

J[erf }...:t:.i.:i:.:;:;:
..:'.~P.2
vor

][i + 2 ~

L.,exp

(- n ir'KX1'
h'i
a

J. d:r

(4, 6. 80)

Kv

.xv= ~cf~I

"t <4. 6. so liHi1 T lf 71< 'F'ltll'J BifJ :\tlll'.


-y.-o. r!lo'i\< 6. so)il]''Fj~

)'wv )i
r

COSn11'Z,..pC'OSn1l'"Zr;.

x=

(,Yn

<~uyr

Kv

Kux

il'illil\il.~ !1i

KX

(4. 6. 81)

!>! a 1ll!illbol:71''FJt\1llll!iflJ 'I'" , ~U

x,

~.... exp(- Yb)

1
[erf
~n + erf l ~n]
4r,
4r
4r

~r

(4, 6. 82)

lJI! HJ!' Jt \1ll '1' flJ BifJ ;l!J ;\lf !i\'!'E , !*!\ii. Yn - 0 1'11 '" - z,njf, :ffiJ!J;lt ldi JlliJR xv i'J flj, Goode and
Thambynoyagam (! 987) :\tmi\ 1'J itcl>li@:J\il. ;(E 3': 111 P !ifl!l'J 7GJit'l'ill" J<i 1'J 0. 869 j(J:. l'i jg 'i\
( 4. 6. 82 )Ji!'f z 1ll!li!lfJtJ!l'1ll! '/' ,g ,!Ji V) Jlit Xn - 0, 738 Jtl:,
7J< 'l'#illiilblfl!~;f/i JI( 'F'if !ll:li 'Er Z. 1lff ll!'i'illl ill!!tl: T' J!iil! lli:tl p, flJ 'Fl#iilt;!;, Jf Ml
i:Fllt !t:li\!t f%l i#!Jli\'1\@;i;Jfr Ill l&i.1-fi! llt llil"' ,\j' i#!Ji!'1\li I~ :k, rb It 'I'* tfj i'Jlll! l*lll!
:l!l'li''f h\WlmlfLA 'if11ll 8'J1't 1l!;. 1'i!ll'l'l!l'1illllll::t1lff, 11' 'F'lffi! ililll!lliU[ T' x Iii! 'Fllii BP yz ''
ilif "'1 l'J1l' r'1 lM.. !ii f!llK'' l1lt 4f8'Jl'1i1'~ " ili "1! "i'lllH!il!\iill .j!! ITT T' 71< 'Flt 1!1~1" , llt,\\\i'J l!lUil
'I lcl .tl\li, 1'E\ l!l:1" foJlfL ;;!J li'I :tFw, il!illl ili "1! ~ J: T )'; i!l!Z: - :;lg X'lft>llii i'Jili!JAt!M.;;!Jlfl!. i:l:Jl!l!i
J: T jllj 1' l1' llii 'I'll! 4f1'! i1I El'r --1' ;it 'E !!' "1'J .:t JEi .!'! 7'i 'if~ flJ - t ;it 1:l!l >I Z. il1r 8'J !Irl1lt tm
J: T l'kl</fll ,!'i!!l!lm!I! 4. 2 x IJilttl':B'J~ llL '1l'IK'F'if 'l'J: Tit!)'; l'J.iell!:kl&11l~ mtlill ilir
!ft ri\1:1li% IB:ll! '!' .\\\ El'r ;j( 'F'if, xti:l:f+tlfl!icfi 7Gl'!li!'1'1!1~ It, file\:!E;I!; i:l:Ut\J! i!ll Ji! z= 0 1'11
z = h fi'J J: T )'; ilif xct T' illliili<l!J !It~ 1J' l'Jflf i!l .141'\J! /Atilt 'ill !\'I i~!il . JI!=: 1' 1ll!iill li'I PJ '11<1' 'I' .J!ll
!il:ttlAt iilJ JIL "i J: T l1' i!ll !!' "JlJ#i: Z.Fw f!Hlii Jf r'1iJt:II!:1J, ,'1l'IK .lJL It 1~ t< ilf i.liitt i\ :;lg iJt iill '!if
JI! ili Jlll { 'Frrr y 1ill!i 11 ili llll 'l'li'I !il:ttiltNP 'Fllii 'Ffi'lti tml!Hf 41.Jm 1'<Jll:;j( 'll 1'iltiillli'l::f
ili ll1l. li! l!Y 1'1ll!;;!Jl!JJ!! xy 'F 1lif J: El'f {;;',[l;J lM., ilfll:;J;i '1'1\'11" f1il 1ll!. J.:l:Jl!<E r. T Jt1 J'l. ll'~'J i!!JE 1iA
fci 1'i !$C;(EJj( 'Filif (xy l'F lJii J:h\ l!Yllii/\.:If lll! r'1 'if\1ll fiilJ!i ~ flJ, Jl!lii!!~l!Jii\!l'tlll! ;l!J l!J. J:1; J!!;(E
1l l1' i111 ill!'!' ilillll flJ , !K>1!'.( 'f r'lilii ll''!i~ll'J 1ll!iill, xtxl'!l;kill! ill!T ili ll1l 1$iili iilll\'I. JI! l<Ji!Qil.l\'l It.
'1i!M.. xtr 'Ii"'< ID! 1'<1ll; J!(B'J !Elli it! l'l'Jki1t, 1'#1' 'fl li'l!l!tt1'tofll 'flli'l 1"fli11ll!, <E!iili'l 1'19fit!J'I.
IE ;0 mii: lti I'll lt,/,li /Ji:iill
,tt !Jil!t ll'J ILl'i'IAt iJfJ lt'I Jt4'1'1\li'< ili Jlll , J:1; l&tl T' ill! lit ll'J ll>iit:fll J: !Jl, T Ill: it! J'l.Jki'f l'J'li
!lt, RP 111! ili ll1l J ;lt;B-1lliJ1" !ii 1!!.:f-!!f, /Ji J;.( 1K 'F'if B'J iltiilllfl!tlfI< lt4')'. l:,;i, , ;j: ~]['if lll! il/Jlt'i~'
!!f lilJ ljl. Tllii rt;('; c!i!lft illJ li'l ll'J l3S :ti llll! ii1" 'll'>l' Iii
!l ~lfl!lf r.J>M -9fa1i''lftlflli!l!i1'1, H ;j:i.1Jl1l tE ;fllf 1111/fr x 1liln r'1. 'J J!il'J 1'!- r'lJltt, !K>
if')'i\ l 4. 6. I 1J J'E j\jilfliljl.{i'z ill'J r'lf

0.

187
P-Rf"""'

p,.

2. 121

io~ ~~
[lgt +lg ~ + o.
JKuKvL

+ o. 8686Sl

9011

J4.Tw

(4. 6. 83)

ll! J: l'\ :f Xi!il!ti lit# ;Jt 11' Kn K, fl'J )ii; Ill I;( ll. 7J< 'f #'!i!&'. llil i' S ,
2) llllllllltillt 1'; *'I'-# Jll;iii:J;t fll (1<1 J: rn ~ l' Ji!l , ll!Jlll 9' l'l f 1filli r:1 'f rr ff'J * '!"#.
'1<1f!E;i.lj'i")IJ d~min(z,,h- z.l'l!f;;<, WY1if

p.,1 = p, - 2. 121 X 10

'

QB

J KHK,L

[ 2Igt+ Ig

IK::rz
a + Ig IK::rz]
di
.1.

,1,

,cr.

,c

+ !. 81.54 + o. 86865 J

(4. 6. 84)

Ji.If J;(f['f' ~Hlc III J:1![~111t$1$1jj ha-fl>,

ill J:;\'.!@'. Jilil!il'li! llil El'JJ!filit # :iJ<111 K ,,K" fl'J !!'!Ill rJ

:&7J< 'f#'il!&:llil'f s.
3) .Pllll!i1!till! ~1f'l'Wl~ttVli:,Goode and
p.1

p, ... g, 128

ThambynayagamC!987J!ittl:

Ji~ . . 141. 2 --2. . CS,)


\I

(4. 6. 85l

K,,K1,f~

'1l' .fl{,;K, Bil! it Jtlll'l 111tlit!Ht tl: , V!J ill t>\ iEJlll!i ;tc ~f>III 9'14\ tl:

p,.,- Jt illl ~, ~J Ill ll~

l1it$1$1i]'i"111' KH,h\jjjfllf-zpjtjfj K, 1'11.lt'i!<&:lli!i' S.,


> ~lllllli\!!iill! '1'l 'f1if "I: 1JJ! J;i!Ji!l !!< llll !Ill ,:f fl' tE 'I' J!ll ~tt Vii: , Pl< Jiii Vii: il!J JI! It\ ;J; 8'J ,1iJ' J!1 ftJ
'!!!ff- j;
P.1

~ p, -

2.121

10"'

QBe

v~
KHK,L

[--""-:=ooe
"
+ o. 4343 [s, r.::
2h
m-.(1

+ v K)

h - ::.] }

Lv'K.

(4. 6. $6)

4. 7

OOJl!iW.ir~Jt.mff111*

1!fJ -1' IR 1!11 ii> fl'J 'Ill llil "1: #:5t lJi1f lt:J!H1i I iZ ~Ill fl'J:tfit: {13.~a JI\lit 'IF 11t 1'11!1 ll! ~ ~ IE:IJ
~ l!! rE 'I' XJ 'lit

"JI: l!i fil. +ii i'!I J: WU ;j<J!'.hltii:AAIll:

~~ :f lli!t' Ill lit llil 1'I: 4f :5ttr :l.f111 , l-12: lll;'lii'l!! 5ii:

*
,.,
.P lli!,Wlttl!!:lfk mu iii l11I1Jtlim7t url!t111 l!! J>l!!
'-f<;tt
fl'J 'il'fftt!ll't '1llll1tlit#:5tflf1f1*' ill::lfl*fl'J

1'1 ur *Ill oo ltlim ?t:tfit: Jlt11';\l;~i!i' ftl!li

fl'l liill fl'J !Ii*" ill::lfl*Ji\ 20 ttt!C 70


Jj;Jlj!JIE
J;4:.l!i.!!'.Ji\, ll;tt Mll-# l' f"l ll!!!!. t!!l'i'i.li!li!1r i!i!J:!!ll <J;J iii. Jr-fit."' 1L. ~ '$. $' li!"I' l .1!1' j;j;
~ '!!. #"11 i'1 it!Jl.lll; !!!! (;ii 1l: JE!"" iE illl'Jl! 11!'~. liJ "1illi: ll:J!C '!"'IF, JG Ai! f!i
'l"'l'i!lit # '1Ji)

""'*

*
.li!li! ff Al.Ii!

'fit! Jl.!J:!!ll <;JGfll< :k


ll! )',! fll l1l'. lE IE. ~Ii! l1l'. '12 ')( !<! %~ llll %Ill! 1" '!J' l , MBf# Ill'!! i1' l!l 1' lli'l ff'! ;!lo tt (i1ll 'i!<fl'.1151 f i'l1 ;l[;:I:!A 'IF!* lit tt lit JI: tl: ;l[;J!t !I! IE :iJ xt;l[; It !A 11>! lnl fl'J illi
~ # ii!llJ iE~M 'IJi';h llii III J: ,iK # illl AA III ~ :.\I l'itift illi !!J! l!lt.1!1! i'!I Jtli I:!< IEi ill'~ l1!JJ IE:IJ ~ l!l <E Fii1
!'it R. 'tfl'J ~M ~ ;tcjjiOO J:~ ii!;IE.:IJ ~~l!ti'iiJ ff'Jil'lt!A fl'J illl ~, lfl'.*f i.Kf'i' ~ll!JJ illl!l! 4l!I!*1!1 liliii!
rr l!Ht 1i' ?k Iii illi AA 4 l!I!it: m.illi. 'l' lit-* illl ~ %1oil!:it .il!:'!! 'i1 ill:~ iJ!J i11i !!J!Bi. !!I ~I-# ll!!l'I:&
I;( &

188

;ii; /jJ[ xt B' "'1 ~~


Tmlt~A#mB'JB~E&X1f~~ ~*-EW~s.&l\'cp~~

4. 7. 1 1J~lt!!liictita!fi~fj~
ill llii!JU!; 9f JI! l!i jjiJ:t 7Jc!J ffi 'Iii' ilf Jill /!'! 1E tli -J1di!!.tl 9f~ "'1 ill llE ~ f1;J ltJ ~!it jji 11!' 111.Ui!A
1: Tiii liiJ T Ill: 3': l!IH!l!'!if illl!E l!:!Jit 1t:W $#'!'IP! Ei'J lill!! , Jill Ji! llT ~ JI! 7G ~::le l1X Iii' i!i :fir )'; "'1 , !!:!!it
JI! 7(if ~Jl ill'.llX :f '\l' J!'i if Jli'.itl ; 'lil!!ifflo"'J "J iili. I: "10 if~ 517G ~ 'l' iili. ft Ei'J "li"li, G<inguten and
Ramey (1974),Gringarten, Ramey and Raghavan (1974),Gringarten (1972)i1}f'j[,"fi@_li~~

1t fli

*-"'

4. 7. 1. 1

>ll1\JillUUllill!~!i

'\\' J!l~ll>Ji!! lllill )'; 1'I ffl, Ji! 1" 2x, 51 2y, l!I ~ <Xtla i!ili!!!i! ytOt~itJ) 1ftit rli!!ll! er ,c,.,
!!l!Jit 1': OC:'.!J 2a, !II'.~ !iii Ji\.#. tit f 9f 1a ..r Ill! jjiJ1 il!H'kl!:!!if SJ Jill Ill iili.1'.J\'. tit* ill'.!!:! !it er f1'J iili. :I
q Jl!;ll);i{i'J ,RP?~lWblJ;iiili.l;!!J!Jit,N\1f x.~o.y.~o.
4. s. 4 ll'J'Jf>lli'f!l'! 4. 2 cpN Ca),
;ti; iJ!l ii!j ~;Jg X ( x) VI (y) , :l\"l Ii1I' 7G :1:1.i'l I:

l'I<

Pwn

2ttKh(p, - p .. )
QB
,to.\ =

Kt
..t

r/UXoY<

Kt

(4. 7.1)

,tur = ~

~/IC:Cf

ITTIJ!i! ;JI, 1' tli Jflil::lCfl!Pl !E;IJ f1'J <!<l!;>t


p..o(

.:; ,r0 ) ,,,,,zn-J::A~ [1 + 2 ~exp(- n2tr'r) J[1 + 2 ~exp(- 11 2n2r)

.~.~~~~;7~;~~2 Jar
SJ l:l'ti11'ff ~\l[f!<5H& ff Ii,! il't tli ~
ltl -

milll Iii: .e lll! i I'll Ill'-

(4.7.2)

P.a:'.!J!I>\~ tit, ~ to,~ Kt/ hucx) ~lit !l!flf,, ~ x"o!x1 ;!J$ I:

1* :'.!J :tr* Jill F.! t* lillli:'!!I' JitllJ ;i :I I'll lllR

'Wli! ... illtt~lili!i

4, 7, 1. l

"-#W~7GttB'J.!mx:tr~ltllli:i:iOC::1Js.~~

- S JA.!i!!Jl!i11'1'-l!:!:lLRPi11'A1filli, Mru#Wi!i ,Gringanan, Ramey and Raghavan (1974)


iiE UA .Rill' fE'i!Jit 'l'llit if JI'.\\'. :'.!J xo ~ 0. 738 !P'f, 119HJ!!l!1 tJi , i:l:1'\l[Jti Jlilll:11/ll @J!j T?J< 'f 1fW
i!i C'll.lll 4. ' 6l'l. r7G~1l'tt'111f 1~7tl:!l'lffi:i:J *"'~
P..01' x, ,tvA)' =
I,

.-r.1

z;rf'.()A [ 1 + 2 ~exp(
"

-l

- n 2n-2r)

J. [1 + 2 ~exp( -

11 2JT 2 r)

=!

(4. 7. 8)
l:>':i11'1'i~ill1iJHt 1 !iiil'J ~lfili Ill Itri.

x>tf x, 'I' !/'f y, Ei'J !!!% Jt!!Jl!.!j' J.'l l: rli>illl:Ot~it:(,

l,J:!ixi:(4. 7. !)if
(4. 7, 4)

?Ji Ll :if xi: c4. 7. 2>i'f! c4. 7. 31 it'J1Rlt l: ~J!O~ tm .Ji!tl'l!bt~Ei'J !'fill B'Jli:l: Ill r zJ I x,y., i'Elll! I(>;
IJl lliR 'l', Jll.'f IPJ Ei'J x ,/A Jli\";f lilJ ltJ i'fiJiilll Iii:, x,/ A~ 0 ~t il''f ]G~:;lcil!J il&7G'l!B'J j!l'1!'1.

189
iw~:nlti
Jll -$, 1-:<;m11BifJ111!~1'00 it&l!\it .i!l-~111{1! Cxr/ A).,.

ll'Jit V.llff' 1"1-llt~i;,cl.\J:i:!t

tll il'lf.l 1111 Kl! t Bi)J il!oftl :<;llll 1111 ~J: IJijJ {ii[, JlifJ ll'J il-H'J tl/J![ ::!; (p,/ i>p) M - !IH\'l %:!!!:!!! IJijJ (J'J
Xi:x "H~tt:!iJill\!JlitJf
(4. 7, 5)

(4.7.6)

.4

X;

'

x,

Ia
4. 7. 2

(4. 7. 7)

'z

;JC PB. A: ll!l fi!i cp ~Pi~ lJffi .!: !8' Iii~ !I ;tt:

't l!l xra.:lcM!ffi! J: JJli "'1 f li\1J:i 'l'i!'lt. fr Jl'tJ:i <>J i'!-rlil liil tt. l'l!if 'f ilii iliilt 1tf!Hllf!l~ n1"1 !l r. liilr Jllll!l! w, :it* !lf ::!J 2x,, ""I!!'. ::!J w, ~uoo 4. 12 IJi?i'. 00 '!' J: Jlllii< Iii ~!if tt: l1!!1il '!'
B-'1.11MJB1* r llll <'i ;c llll!l!!if {l'J !li iill111 <lL 11! ltl! J: >r !Ill!!! .llJfmriiJ Ill*"' lli Jlll * , Ji.. mt-l1!!J1!
{1'j i)_J;i; bli :l!:JGra.:kJ1!lfjj! cp:fliCH'J!liiill 'iC \l[Ji,_ X; ~u +X1 o jjj !!.~!if!'! Ji)~ J: 'If JI; Jif li!(iCfrl
- 1f!Jl1t i:tJ i.!; 1-lll\1,l:;li! '1!ILJoi;OJ'~Ji,.J1!!1)l1Jt)dll !if, Jll. W; 1': It l!l!;;f;iJ!t :I;::!; q (x, t) ; j!j :/E x ~ O
~:fl.\\\ i[, ilt:!f: :'fol Q, Cinco-Ley ~(] 978) iii l'1 T ;.!; t-riiJ l\!i,
'

It-

;,

1~nt(~:xx~x1~
-xi

I'll- u

f/f(T,t) 0

/;j

.,,,

If

:<~*$1il1ill!!il!Jlt!M0'!1!fiiillHll~

~~~~-m~~ ~~;;t~~$~Jr~.~~tt~111ffl*T~f!'Jt*~*~iliW
Jt!lffl - j f 'f i!iiill! fl;!!' ~-Iii i!ii!ll~ 2wh .w f!~;;f;'.!l!!lf, fill lltfll! ~~ft J!'lli!\Ji!OJ')l!'7):(J'J, ~ff!

!l!lit ~ -!11 'i'ill!!lli;IJH'J "1.flll fiil ll!tnJ2'J tll !Ill f,

190
~
dx 2

t.il
+Ki zvhqi(.r,t)

ap,
Jr = -

/;/
2whK1 '

1ap1

X1 Cit '

O<x<x1 , t>O
.x=O~t>O

(4. 7. 8)
(4. 7. 9)

(4. 7.10)

ap,
Jx

x=x1.t>O

0 '

P1(.,,t = 0) =

p,.,

(4.

7. 11)

;M; 'f ,x, ~ Kd f,c,. II! Jilli! 4. 4 1' 'f pjfj 8'J ~1i!'J!i!i!!ll 'f J!i:~jjlj(fll ~11!'11!! fl'J J1! ii>;, 1lfJIJ3''.f 1!J
xm 1'il I!!!, 4. 1. a)-<" 1. 11) ~1 :JC!l:m E;IJ [Zj,l'lf Ji!i 'll:

(4. 7.12)

(.!. 7, 13)

(4. 7. 14)

;M; 'f Yn - Y / x,, ~!ii 'f B'J Jli:IJ (4. 7. 12) 5f lfli!\! cp J!i;IJj'E yo~ 0 ld:J1Z if<ffl 1ji, j"<J !fl Poi,;on ~f~

05'tC4. 4. 21'4)3!;<4. 7.

12)i!!;:EJ~T ,!f'Jli!t:JC!l:!f!!I:

(4. 7, 15)

(4. 7. 16)

191
i1 :ILt 'it :5'lll l!l 2 1iJl qr, il't ~ n!1: q,, JZ; :!% ~ J;J :/E y = o !11: "' Cx "> = q ex"> IE mst :tr II!.
( 4. 7. 16) 9' Pff-(f.J *!J:a'.Jl':!l!;Ji; qn (x'" r) , l!l'Jl;1'1JUJ-:tf ll!.1!< :: qp(x' n, r) , 1'}ft lfil ( 4. 7. 14) ~~
l~~lit"' 11'1 tlitI lii!i '!!:.
Fredholm i!IHt~i.liHl~li:il'11
ll!i )A Fredholm 1J\jt :tr fl. C4. 7. 16 l 9' 11< :: qn l1'J l!l'tli l!'Hll "l l!l lit. j;J Jlt Cinco-Ley 'lf
( 1978) Ill '!Jc ili.~1.i1J11ff 1!<fi ifu llJf :tr 1!!if.1 lllJ flHltr'l J!li'i' ll!l!l: 'f XD 1& n!I: N ll!. f tn :if bi.
k -traJ~.:/E~iitlil1' 1ll!fll!!t-t111!\!J:Je" fttr.iit~L 'fJl;'il:c" 1. 15Jll!l!l:FnPJ1'1n!I:
0

,,,l..(tn + -2~ ~ 1z[1 -

exp(- nlir1X1Ltvj\_)]cos(nn'Xv)

""-ffJ,-1 ti

LJDf.'

;;

""

iwJ

-I

'

~ 2; "2;qo,, 1 2j n3 [exp( - n2rr1Xrn&,,1 - exp( - n2'1i"X_.vC:.t,1- 1 J


Xln t~t

cos(nrrx01 )cos(nJTxv,) sin(n11'/2J\t) - f:.x

.;;;-

.'

l=l

x.1'I + }"!1-1

= -4' LJ
""
' cx1.1-1
LJ"!);,I
"I
1.. 1

qv,,1ilt 11 , 1.}
.~1

- ~/]
"'

r./

(4.7.17)

1~1

x:J- 2 ~{erf [
Y''
'1

= -

&:l-

-Ma
~

y1f

'1 Ei(

erf [ };;:] }

_uh)' A

~~.

0
/-'o,J

Ei( -

(4. 7. 18)

fuJ.
A

~t.1

+ Y,.,Ei(- Z: )' - b,.,Ei(- ~)}


;,1

!,/

lii!i '!!: Ei ;f1l erf 9' l1'J '1 'i!':!ltii! J(j;J


,, =
..,

i. ..~

i.N..1.f.~, "' =

f'

i ......!2!l
...=:.li.?. ' ri.; -_ L.t' i-:2N

1/2 Ii

_ j_~ i - 3/2

' '" -

21./

(4. 7.19)

M!i!! II! 9' I'> ll! '.bf :: :tr llH 4. 7. I 7l ilH!JJ -t 1".~1f lli!ll. 'If llr Ill<:: %:ii!: 9' r t HtJ!J l1'J lit I:
qv. Ail: Fn;ll' l!Hf Ii!: lli;IJ PtD-tn *rill i5t, W. wK,/ K.x. tJ .. lit , AA::!]! it I!! Ill JzJl I!! 4. 13 ~Rff>.
fl" T llltt Ill ii&!;( Fn 1'J"illii:iif 11i rill AA ITT irii'lffilll ill PJiJ!;l!! l1'J ttl!!,
...~ '1l *1ll> !II!
l!! "ii' , 111! '.l!H'l!lit1f 11'1 'JI; i!ll tt l!!ldl lfl1J :/E "ff .111! ii': Ill lil!J\'. >tottl ll il'J ~ xttt~ t.Ji Ill J: , 'If 1'11'
jji 1111 i;l(J!!: ff !fj -fr " #; 'J};jlllj ~l!! 1111 i;l(!cj' Jil;-;T. I\\ jji 1111 AA% Ol'.111.-fr ap ill JJ -1' .. '!!:Ii. wK ,/ K"'
l!! =: :'/'i , lll!N !Ii ;iJ J1l it JJtl!I ~ il'lll!-

K= QB(p'")
21fh t,.p
l!l =.!Ji ,i!i:i at 1llJ J1l -fr 1!<111!i!!ll!'I':111'.

(4. 7. 20)

19~

,(( =

[1:( !:;1 M]l/'

(4. 7, 21)

lll l1ll"' 'ffll!! iU "'-"' il'J!li !l<J!l: tH 'lilt~!&


(4. 7. 22)

1114. 13 'lCPl!;!;!l!JJ;::fl'Pl!>liilt1itlil1!ist#l'Jll;tl!I~
LJ "" A'J #<if- Jiil lilfiiJl!! tH '!!lil: if (!)~Iii: Ill T s,,

ll'i liil' ,-llHI! s,


!". l'L c1993b, 1995 >lilf J! J lliilH\!!ilif llJ if llli lli:IJ ?tifi. if 111 if lllilli:IJ .'JJtJ\\J {ll[llJ iiff illi11'
filit!f?tifi .i.!t"!f T ?tifi!i\!I!.

1'tr ilii JL l\'lilf 'IE T Ill B~ !It il 'Iii: Ill ,t:; JiH1'r *i< Oi 'Iii: Ill 9' ~ Y'J Ill 'I! llJ 11!% it! J!-ild't fa ill\iC 1t :ffl
111l 1! -;:E '11 i!IJ. :$: ll'lilf J! 1i' mfa it! !IH!<i't J\\J ;l\J 4 J'f li:11!% llJ -lilt fiil 11!1 Ill 1* Oi 'Iii: It . ;{)}Ji Jirj 'lll ,
Ill 1* Oi !& It 3ft jj/1-ll!t fiil Ill! "'13' '!!' ll'l l!E!E 'f :ti' - t lir :iE llJ il! !If I~ llllftn M'I ;Ji:~ till fr il'J Ill *i< ill
'Iii:. i'l\'l'{ll. l\!JEJl!!Pll Y J !ll!ll*i< Eli !&lt'1< !Iflit Vii: 1i'll\il'J-!l!IJ!I!it, 1lifR!ir tH J -!'i!llilt!il*i<
il !& llJ !OJ !I! ll\xl: fa 1i' It . 2: lll: 1'! i'l ll!!llJ ;Ji: jj/l'J!' 1111P 11!' Fil J!i11U: fa 11r~ '.l'J

I'll ~ ~ Pl9 Ill:

fll1I ~ 'It $'e, fl! 'IJH!: k'.1 r il!jjll ifiilllll

4. 8. 1

\Jip(r,t)

l;:

II!! llll lt

~ q(r,t) ~

i ap~.t)

(4.8.l)

(4, 8. 2)

+Ii,/'= J;(r,t) ,

. p(r,t) ~

F(rl ,

JS~

r'J .t ~

(4. 8. 3)

.11; 9' ,q er,, 1JloJI' li'L f;i:!J:t!l!!li! 9'Vli: t!J B'Jf;i:-!R Vli::llt. a; an. JloJtl J!-fli s, l'. lll"!'rltl:!01i'fill (t'J '!<!& .; ~
!. 2 ,. ., n .n JI; JS~ R l'.JN!~it! l'l llJ!& Kl , 1i' ll\ <4. 8. 2l {g ~ J 4!-l'i~ !!! II) li!l'I !ld'f ,l, ~ o IP

;\\) ll!-~ J!ll'lild'f 'h. ~ 0 ~p ;l\JJil.:::~JtIJ!.!ld'f,


JJ T ;J<!lf~!lt 1'111!! c4. B. u - c4. s. s> min itit 'f ~J '1CJl.J$.1'1l riiJ llJlflljl!IJ rOJ i!!I

193

J!lJfl. S, l:'
, G(r.t;r'

,r) =

<r

t>r

(4.8.4)

r>r

(4.8.5)
(4. 8. 6)

;;J; 9' ,a(r-i l "$'!1t'2 Iii! !'.I a Jil!i'li:. ;;J; :l;jf<J',\J [L _,] ,d Ji!lfl'li:, aci-rl Ji!BtliiJ'.ll: !!! li'J a iii 'it.
;IJ; J:jf<J ',\] [T-'], lil'li: G li<J I; jf<J;ll: [L -J, lill ll!J liiJ i1l! (4, 8. 4) - ( 4. 8. 5) il'J~ G(r, t ir' , rl !(tl1;',\J

Cr' , c) Ji!li!( ,<\(!'.I it.13'!'.!!::I:, Moc" and Feshboch 0 953) "1


Jl 111'1 Jl!lill JliJ fii) M ( 4. 8. 4 )- (" 8. 6) ii'! lli'!j; Jil!i '/& G(r 'Ir' t )Jl b\1~ r:!l: 51* f( I

11'\;j;f< Jil!i'/l'(,

(r t)Ji!Jffej .\\\ i1:J flt'2 'Jl::!l!:o

G(r 1 t;r 1 ,r) = (;(r',

r;r, -

\4. 8. 7)

t)

l:'il; !'.I 11' X!i!t'z. 'f r' i11'E r fltl;!J li<J fifltjff.iCM Jffei .\\\ r i1Btl;!J t il'Jll' '~ .5j t'l J' r i11'E - t itl;!J il':J
111<at!f iCMJffei # r' i1 Bt~J - r ii'! ll'or-J:ll:;l!J 1"1 il':J ill.l!!:!!:
f( <4. 8. 7) , lill J!iJ Jr!1H 4. 8. 4) iiJ'.5f
Ji!l;)jj Jil!i lll G(r' - t ,r -t) '11ii'1i<J li'<tizrl F 1

il'J*

V"G

1
+ X8(r'

- r)o(r -

;IJ; 9' , \! ''i!!ii\Xf 'it:I: r' li<J lll:lll'lll:W!JI'.


Jll<r' , c lfl:1!l' (r ,t) t!!.J!lZJt.Ji!: ll: ~ff
M"pc~
v
r,r 1

+.

t) ~

il iJG
a;: l:Kl\IZ R Pl

(4.

8. !Ol

E!l ',\J}J1'! (4. 8. ]) Xt~Xl\IZ R Pl ff ill: Cr ,t l Ji!:II. .lhi !II

+ l).qr,r
c~ 1 = lX aper'
,r)
(Jr

(4.8.11)

'i!f<i:C4. 8. JllW!i~Jii;U Gllilti<i:C4.8. !0lW/itllfi!!~ p 'fill


(G

V"P - p V"G!

~8(r -

q(r' ,t) -

r)8(r- t)p

(4, 8. 13)

<G 'V"p - p V"G)dV =

:tf(
G i1l' '~15.
""

p iJG'I <lS.

(4. 8. 14)

an,,

"' ( 4, 8. 13) ;!; itl Wli!JI Jil!i lll'J'!i' Ji!:

Gp1::: =GPj,_,.. -Gpj,_ =-Gl._/Ctl

(4.8.JSl

!:'ii; 'It lf! =t-~'ii;lll:Il.:11: llSI ',\] ffi 'ii; (4. 8. 6) , t >t flt G- 0 ji!J r~ 0 flt p~ F(r') , j1f VJl:='ii; fl:
)1.(4, 8. !3lftHJ:

~+O

1lJ!l!
p(r ,t)-

fG ,.,F(r'
j

)dV

if:_J;<r'

,r)G<lVdr

'

' ._

.......... ,,,.,..... "

--- . __,_..___________,__
~

.,

__

,,._,,

,.,, .-.......... .., ..


~_.,

104

xJ:.,tJI G~

.Jt 'fl ,'Ii' l/J!I Fn ~ Jlf iff Ill l/JJ'hlH'i' <4. 8.


(4. 8. 5)1ffl4
ap
G an,.

- p

~)ds,dr

'

2) 1'U <4. 8. s) ill1r lt'.S/,

(4.8. 1sJ

Ill G l!i1<4. 8. 2) ilil:I? Ill p :Ji!

a:; = T,l GI s, J'<


/Jan,
, r,i )

<4.
8 17 )

;!;'!' ,G I,, 1-J#Hl<Pli tt G l'EJ'f ilif S, t Ei'J ill'. ~'it< 4. 8. 17H~A <4. 8. 16 l iff ~ lli1J Pli 'rt p (r, t >Ill
!!> #lil tt G(r, t ;r' , r) 'if ff- E!'J!li*
p(r,t)=- !G(r,t1r' ,r

O)F(r')dY'

+ ~ J:w IG(r,t1r' ,r)q(r,r)dVdr


0

f' ' f

1
+ X =O~s, T,G(r,t1r'
,r)l 5, f,(r,t)dS,dr

(4, 8.

18)

.Jt 9' , ii!'. Iii -JJI JiHt MO>:l!illt!J'l.~fi!!.!l'i = !! l/JJ'f '.SI l!J Ei'J. ~i!!J'I. i!ii >~ J Ei'J l/J.J'i.!l'd'i'fi!! !Pi:::'.#!
Ei'J,~1Jx!;C4. s. 2)jiU (4, 8. 5)9' h,~o,f!!l'i!;C4. 8. !81Ei'JJ!i'it1'1f:,c!fll.!li#liltt G lllJi!~!llJ
1\lJ ll!l"'1 " - o E!'1 l/Jl'HJH'i'. *l/JJ'f oo , ~ j E!'Jl/JJ'f *i'l'J!olll-#! Ei'J mu ,i: c4. s. 21 fl1 <4. s. s
1, ~ o. 11u111x!;< ' s. is) !lli'i-lll'1'fllilll!~ Ill 1, ~ o f';A , mll!i:%'~ it c4. 8. s 15'fi'!lnl':%' ~ ,

>"'

(4, 8. 19>

(4, 8.

20)

(4. 8. Z!l

+ xJ:w~tJM.cr .)ds,-dr
.Jt 9' ,M, tr ,t) Ell 'it (4. 8. 20) it lfj 'it C4. 8. 21) l!:t:l!o!ll !lit!< iili ltt'i! 'l'li'! il!.1J !t ;/Ii -l!i!$titx!;. 'E:
Eli lJlf !l!Ji!Z , l!l-tJ! JI, Ell tJJ .lfl!t 1li Pli~ F Cr l M lli1J Ei'J :l!tili\, !Pi::::'."1 J!o ffi ill( ir:))';/li Pli ~ q Cr .t)
;~ !f1J Ei'J jl:[ifi\, !j!;=ctJ!J!o Ell l/JJ\'-!ld'i'4P'lf1J<:ttR~ lil l& f, (r .t) l't ffi:IJ li'J:l!tili\.
E\ tJl,J~'f-!ii!=:!tl I'~ !l!imlf:i~ 8'1 !f :IJ *it>l: .M'f =!111!1<-!tl!llJ!i, f!!l'it \ 4. 8. 21) 1ff VJ
ti' i1! , ii' Iii! 1t
=!t111~ X<i''f =!II till Jli. j.il tHl'.lllfll>f '7' fl1 8 lil ~ J<r- r Ji!lllJ(ljJt=!it Ei'J , fllJM, l'EJ!i'
ill ~jiji~ 9' S(r-1 )~8<x-x' )ii(y-y'), IKJ;< R o!U~;it dV t!l:"'l!llfR A tlli!ii7" dA, WJ"'x!;

(4. 8. 2Dl'ii!it1'
p(r.t) =

fGCr,t ;r
'

r = O)F(r' )dA

+ ~ f:w J(; q(r', r)dA d<


1

'
(4. 8. 22)

:it 'I' ,,, fl! d" Ji!:.:::!ltiiilfl A ii'! 'JI! i 1' )lfJ U!i!IJ'l-.&:iti11<5G" M, (r r )1Jlj'.lizl: (4. 8. 20) lE )( R :f
Ji (4. 8. 20) 'I' s, i!ZJil; ,, ilii B
-tfli11l!j. X-!'f-!lt11J!>, 'V' fl! 8 il\lil!Jil;-tfliil'J. jjlJjm, -!It~ '.lt!tJi!: x. WU S(r-r >-8
( x- x' l. ttzl: (4. 8. 21) 'I' r, Ji!:~ R .dV fll G ;lil JS\C!i!!ill: JI< x, -!It i*il!: L,dx fll x' G Cr ,t 1x' ,
r). 'fJi!:Ji'l'i\(4. 8. 2lli\\lit::!J
p(x,t)=

f:c''GCx,t 1:r:'

O)F(x')dx1

,t' =

+ }f:_~ x'PG q(x

,r)dx1 dr

'
(4.

.r' J, G(x,t1x' .rlf,(,' ,r),


~-

{ - x" 'fl,

I,.., i,1.cx

s. 23)

X:t.:::,'O#!Ull'r'

(4.8.24)
,t)'

XHl!-IJl>U!J'l-

:it 1' x'' Ji!: SrurmLiouville ,liili'll:, Xt'f lf-lllili, -!t12 i>J lilifll -!llil!Jtli> fllI clilil!lf.f 'll< P 5t ~U
jgO,lfll2.

4. 8. 2

lS~lillt0\l~li7Jl1i

.t - 1J' 11' 1111 :\ T Ill !if# ill 'll<!ill lit ti" ff IX ill' lili1rf.l! il'J -Rl!l!! ii!: ,x:t T- ~it , .:::illifll -!!It1t
Jf'J;J !if tl T Ill !if# iii l!V!l<ii\ ii'! Bi;t.J ti . i!~'f!f >!<!ff f6J Iii c4. s. ll- c4. s. 3! '.It Jil; "/-:;J<'.il! ii' ii'! fl!
#iii 'll< f6J lllL : 1Jlit ft ml!J ll!t ti; i! ~fl!# ill 'll<il'J -!'f1r!ill lt1rlliJi!:.ll!: 'f jf! 3. 1-3. 4 1J11Jf 1111
:\ii'! 5t .111 '.ltltlli Ill 5l-1"!'.lt!tlli >)t li'lff lX fiil llll <~lit ill! fl! J\J lit~ (ll J\:lt~ Q.I f ff IX f0JIi
I a
(4.8.25)
\72p(rft) = wx

'

~ + H,p =

i!ll'I- s, .t ,t >

O,

'

IZ:~Rpg,t=O

p(,,t)-F(r),

(4, 8. 26)
(4. 8. 27)

l'lilll 4. s. 1 1J11Jf1. i*ff !K fiillliil'J ll!#lil lJrnitlll/ Jil.Jmrlilll!IJ r~m,

i; ,

IZ:Jiji; R Pl ,t > c

(4, 8. 28)

iG

an,+ H,G = o.

lllJ'I- S, Lot> r

(4. 8. 29)

G(r,t)=F(r),

t<r

'iJ 2G + iO'<r - r')IJ(t -

r) =

(4, 8. 30)

l'!i .~'1:(4. 8. ZU!itll: B'JBi:iJ iii~ pCr.t) il'}-Rl!~iil'i\ .~JljffiiJ!ll!l'f q(r,t) = o./,(r,tJ = o,'f
Ji!: ff!)::l'Ett fiiJ I'll< 4, 8. 25 l- (4, 8. 27) il'J !ff ilJ Ill :1\'!)::l!ll l!IJ i'Jll!l <4, 8. 28 J- <4. 8. 30 J il'Jlil! G <r,
p(r,t)

jW,jm ff!):: )i!Jirlfii) ll!i (4. 8.

fccr,i,r ,, = O)F(r')dV

(4.

s. 31)

' Jll 5)- ;\I{ '.lttlliit!:fl>Jttt#l''f!fJirlijl!ii<Jil;Jm f J!>z\:'


25 )- (4. 8. 27)HJ
p(r,t)

Jc~(r,t 1 r 1 )F(r)dV

'

(4.8, 32)

;!;'/' ,G, j!!ift1f!X1'1li!S'Jilf;l;j<li~L i1f'i'ti4. 8. 3Jll;'<4. 8. 32lX~.~-T1lJ'lll'!i'ili .J'fli:ii!Jl!ifiil


lil<4. 8. zsl-(4. s. 27lS'l!ll;if<t>&'l!':/E r~o i!<J'/ihS>'t1lJ'l1l G, J!!ift,!P:lf
G(r,t;r' ,r = 0)

G~(r,t1r')

(4. 8. 33)

"< ffl-1!'.~ Jf( (J'J !1!4~ J\'IXii!!!llll'l l!!l ( 4. 8. ! ) - ( 4. 8. 3) ff'Jilf ;if<li!'I!' G(r ,t ,r' , r), 1': Ii'-*,
l'iiJ Ill Jt,Qll,PIJ fo!1'J!ll G <r ,, ,r .r - ol lf1'J li!!!ill: c!. s. 2D 9' !'! !ll;if<lili ~. 1:1 T Jl!i~ill:t-i'JU, Jllffl

~i1ii,

n* ,m

m* m" *

.m

'*

m"'

Ii!! ;;: "' 11q1. - r l!l :=: 1" IJf


'~ 1'!\?t 11: ~
ix ii!! i'il g !'
!ill:
(4. 8. 2J)flllf'it. ::flfl!;Jtl1Jl,i1fJl'IX>E!i'lr6Jll!<4. s. 25)-(4. s. 27J;;jt111i!<J G(r.t;r ,r~Dl'i'i!<J
1 ~mt 1- r lltJ!! 4Fl'f!Xii!!i'1"'1!Illc4. 8. J) - <4. s. 3) li'n''lf #@'Ii'. Eb!;( J: i~lr 1l)' !;(ff HJ Iii~,!\'
11Ht lil'i1Ut!*:>Kjjf.1f 1Jz !Ejjf.f'J !lli <4. s. 2sl - <4. s. 21i. #i1f Jl!il'I !ft C4. s. 32 J S'J:lf''il:. >Jt11!
G, Cr .t, r' J , ll}i1f ;II; 9'S'J t ~Ji'< t-r, NP jigJli HJ 4e3\'li;)i!!i'lf'Jli! (4. 8. !) - ( 4. 8. 3) i!<J!ll;j;fqjlj'tt,

4. 8. 3

ljl

m. l!l '1ri"i 'J' 1\'S'Jtt;J;. PT:Mi Jll ill ;if< iili 'Ii'!* :>K !1'14' 1f IX4P Ill i!'< ii> iii 1'1 li!~J :lrl*ff lll! ~3 li'I
Jmr,
!I! -ff ,9e!l! 5tlil'i 11: :111* Jf( 1111"i4' JI' IX ftiJ !Ill ;ff!!< S'11f 1" fiiJ I!!! i:!:Jk 4' 'Iii :.7ltf!11'J !VlHlifil
W, c!\ fl1 ii!.lC~li:l!! 3. 1 '.l[J!! 3. s '!';Ill i!Z !lfl5tNP 1lJ'. i1f i! -t-m.~lll!Ji'<it (4. 8. 32 l i!<J if' 5!: , Jf(1!>

(~(r,t;r'

r).

l!l :=':;ii, i1f Jl'(i1f 8'J lll;l;f<iili 'l:l'.*fil Ill S'J!ll'li' ftAJl!lll: <4. 8. 21 i, <4. 8. 22 J;Jt <4. s. 23 J , NP 11;
m iili 'Ii'l'<ffi !'!. p (r .t)
lll Wl ff !\' l!l tt I: I 32; 14'!ll 51- ,ii\'; 11::111;1* 1119'! Iiil1H'i ff~;(:!('@ R,(J: #
ill: ill )jJf V,j -!!'.
tl! 11!- r Ell !!!:=:ff111 1tt i!<J Jl!IJk l'i iilli Jj!jft J'll ild'f l!1''1l i<fl., f'f' Pll llt'l'lllf.@ .11Z Ii!! 1'btl J'll j,f'f' it<
'1l !Iii j,j'f i!<J lRJt l!ll il!fi 5t !lfl JR 5t , '1'1' J!Jiil! i!<J 1'!\ 5t '/<it'll: 1ll t: S'1 it ffl
ft 'If J::l:lltJ!! M~ !ii
3. 5. 4 11' 9' !!Jilt!'! Gibb, lll!a'< S'J:l.ri.11.
iX Ii'!\! ft Ill !If*" Jill 'Ii'!*Jf( !1'14' JI' IX ii/I lilt fil ,m ;;i,~i!llt\l: 1t. * .~ !;( J: 4 1-;ii !lllli!l'ff np 1lJ':U<
ill !Ji'lll'i S'1 !ii* .

!'If*

'"--lit

II'"'

4. 9

#f:l*mf&~(J{J l!:Zm

J: -1' iliJ ii: T 1lf# !'& '1!'1*!1'1 ii> lit!rl'i! llJ -l:lll! #5fll 1Tl*ff lll! , lji:1'1?rlg1': S'1A1* 11ZJ!I

4. 9.1 IS~illttE.S.~~fiiil'ftcp~filZl'f:l
ii<:lf-111 o,,;;x<J. IK~El'JJ4J hlt:ilk!i!. W!lil lli:i:J jg F(x) 1i"i lMI lli:i:J '11:1l>t!al t 11'.Jt, j)'~ti 1:1 f,
(t) !~ f, (t) , it:!!\Jl;lg q (x ,1 l )jt!fifJ 5t ;/ff S')j!!J;!i;J:,
;r9e'!'J 1tt JJt """"' !l2l P!l r

197

O<x< I ,,t>O

p(::r:,t)=/1 (t),

x""O,t>O

p(.-.:,t) = ~1 (t),

x = L,t

PC:c.t) = F (x),

ifp

-l"P

D.Ti+ ;.q(::r,t)- X at'

(4. 9.1)
(4. 9. 2)

(4.9.3)

>O

< x ~ L,t =

(4.

o. 4)

!II ffe. ,l;lfl 5r Ji!-i!'lltl:l< :;Jt~*1J !l'.:lf !k riil l!l!fl'J !fl!, !ll:lf !kil!ifl!fJ l!l!:l1
~p.

1 ap.

a;

axi = :;:

P(:r ._,,.. 0,t) = O,

(4.9.5)

(4.9.6)

p,(.T = L,t) .-.-.-.- Q,

(4,

ph(x ,t = 0) = F(x),

(4. 9. 8)

9.

7)

flt~ !T li!~ttl:l<. ~*lk r~ 18l 8'.Jnl' ::\1

p.(x,t)

'i

""'J:,~o[ ~exp(= ni;f) sin n~xsin n~x' ]F(x' )dx'

ll!=;i>, :#i .t'tl:;:lrll'i-'t'l'<l::lti'\:fiW G., Ill t-r


<4.

ft1l'~ 'l'a<J t

9. 4) Ji.If !!la<! 11! :lt:ii!i I/Ii:


2 ~

n 2 ~X(t

j_,.. -

G(x,t1x1 ,r) = L L..Jexp -

r)

(4. 9. 9)

HP 1!!il!JW rJ Ill! C4. 9. ! ) -

Js111. n1f::r:
. n7rx
ys1n L

(4. 9. 101

.~1

ll!.:offe. :#11' <4. 9. 1oJJ'Jf~>IifJ'J11!:lt:ii!l/ll: rtA0l't <4. s. 23 l 1!:11'.lilJJi!iJi!lJ!:! l'h\'d'f llliJif ll!
-'!:! fJ'J 1l. h, - h, -1 , mtiill Ill 11! w'!!:<!:"' rn m::\1

1
rCKlXt)
. nn:xf' exp ( 11 ir2Xr)
- t- sin
, - fl

Z L._;XP
~
[' + -X,1 ~[,om\

~
+ X f.,2 ~exp

-~

. n'-1r:J:
'1
q ( x 1 ,r)dr'dr
~~o
L

n'<'Xt)
n"<'X) f 1(r)dr
-y- nn.
ys1n nnxf'
y = 0exp -U
n~n:ixt nrr
nrrxf'
( n ir'1Xr)
--r;r,
I~siny ~ exp -V / 1 (r)dr
0
2

2 "'

-XL~(-l)"exp

,I

~4.9.11)

JIJ:nl''i\:
(4. 9. 11 J!\'.JT%U~'f f, (t);<!l f,(t), @! x-0 ffi x~L ftA.t'i\:!ltlll! p(x ,t)j;J~f 'I', l1"1llt
U; 14' ffel ilif E>] ffl\lll JI', l::l't#Ji!l'f ;lH1 !'J Fu Jl!iJJi @;It 1'i !' x- O;<11 x- L JIJ: 1' ll!l-l!'<l/lt@!I !'J li!Jl'lt,
Ji:i~U; -Ill ifl;IJ'J 1Jl:l1!.l!X& (4. 9. 1 ll '!' Ji5 Ji!i JlJ[;\; J1tff .fr1!fi!QJT, 'i'f Ill ~B lil! fi'J i!tfil iil!itl'I: f\:1!1'~
'l'fl'J>al/ll:' Fo ji!jlj; 9'!J\:fr Of~ mt
Jilll!!!i".~llfittl'f'*f'f:li!ili/ill@, J'/('i\:(4, 9. 2);<11(4. 9. 3),{ x~o ;<11.r-T.

! 1 ,~(t) =

f',., :~
e

t.

fi.~(r)dT

(4. 9. 12)

198

i ~ sio~:;1L)[!1CO)e"" ti;i + f: . e-"i" 1S-)df1(r) J


2

+ f ~ (- l)" sin~'f1~)"1, L) [l'i(O)e-" Z;u + f~-o e-" .;i;~;-n d/2(r) J


1

.tft:i!iJj!lj JiJ1 li'1 !!l'tlt1l k'.l T tt fll "11i1ift: cff 1'J :5J 111! Eil llll11'
1_

i':

L ~~ 1

n'Ir/L

IEf ffil EE ill Jllif<f'f Jl! ~ li'J l!il 5t

p~(x,t)=

_ .!!_,_
---- 1 L'

sin(nn:x/L) _

(1-

+i

c liE Ill! l

j_ ~ (- l)~ sin(nn:x/L) _..:::.


[, =i
- L
11:11:/L

C4. 9 14 )

p. (x , t) :Ji

~.J!1(t) +

lfi(t)

_ 1- ..,
0 sin(nx/Ll
IL
L

(4. 9. 13)

nJt'.

=I

..."f;c o !

!&\ii VJ 1: l'lt1' k'.l kl, .lll~;jf x~

[r (O) e _.',', + f'


11

p, ~ J.<tl , x =

r~o

( )]
e _.;,"-''dJ
1,i
1 :r_

L ! p, = f, Ct l, fl:kl nf:llHE:IJ 5t 111 ii!i 'flt

p(x,tl'.qlft.

1
X 2 ~ '1:u
n:fl'xf' _ e~ L~vf', sinyq(.z:',r)d.x'dr
n:ri:x'
+-;r-rz_,eL
siny

~n)

r-0

+ Ph(x.t)

.r-o

(4. 9. 16)

ft:. 9. 15 lil't lfl

iX!tJ11tlll m:lt ii!i ttl* >ltllf li'1 fl:IEt!li JI!.


TlliiltJe -~fl! J(l.!tJ 11fl!l:fil'% ,
1) fJJjfl !E:IJ 1;)1\" ,t >O il>!l!l.W. J:JE!EJ;):l;, ~p F (x l ~ 0, f, Ct) ~ f, Ct l = 0.t- 0 il>!"1lli!l!'
1'J q(xlli'1illll>lll!!. itcris:l+11il!l:ffl'if',.,ft:c4. 9.16lfl!lt1'7
~ 9' , p, Cx ,, l Eil

(4.9.17)

(4.

9. 18)

(4. 9. 19)

F (x') =q(x' ) I I< Xt !Ii :1J {fj Jl!~,


2) fJJJ:li!E:IJ FCrl =O.t>O BtiftJll!E:IJ

ilf, BP qCx" ,r) =q(c)o(x' -

x,).

1' x=x, J1:1f-lliil!'Jil q(r) li'Jjif~


Mri:l:#""IJl;tlfif', ft'.<4. 9. 16) li'ilt1'7
f, = f,=O,

(4. 9. 20)

199

~-~~~~tt~n~
1Jt;11;~111 i>L 'f '1'1Ja R 1J 11111 JBlll! Ill! zJ:. rn 'f lli! r J!:H!l:Jil\lfll. ll!'nil.lll! oorm.

4.9.2

:i; li'll!J lll!

ilif lJi: ~ , A>/ lll! !>! ill: if it 71: , <'ill!/. r = R lt 1':t 7): it ill!/. 1: !ILIJ J; f <t J .El 13: ~ i'l llll 1;' ii j} <li
q (r ,t) , lf llfliJ):atlll!il!tilllfl ff.fl J; F(r) *it7.ki;J: 9'lll!ll! BifJ '.!!" ittil%,
it r1J!!l11'1 !!'I "I" m

{
J'.ll:.~ !ii 4.

J"'

~+!a,t+~q(r,t)=~~

O<r<R,t>O

(4. 9. 2ll

p(r,t) = f(t),

r =

R,t > 0

(4. 9. 22)

p(r.t)=F(r) 1

O~r~R,t=O

(4. 9. 23)

s. s Ti FTii, iif tlir'1J il'iillitl:ff,


!ii
5tJ!l 7l"lil! "il' llllf m-lll !i" lJ :II' ix r'l ll!l it 11' ix~ llil fii1 li!l tJ

*.

l*

il'p,

ar-1

+l

>p. = lap,

rar

Xdt'

ph(1 = R,t) =

p"(r,t

O<r<R,t>O

(4. 9. 24)

t> 0

(4. 9. 25)

0,

0) = F(r),

r~R

(4. 9. 26)

1f!l!i:lt Jllf 31: JI l!f , Jt ix ""l!!i 8'J Jliil J'J


ph(r,t) =

f'

"'"'~

r [~i::e-P!x :f.;.~f!.~'..2. J~(fJ"r' )]F(rl)dr'


R .~ 1

l1(fJ.R)

(4. 9. 21)

;11;9', p, fl: Jo <P.R! = o lJ iEi!I.,


ll'l ::::ffe, f .tiJ::&l!i"l- Vl B'J ~Jtol:;tifl' c., Ill 1- r fti!!' ;II; 9' t PP ill~$ rel J!!l (4. 9. 2D-
<4. 9 2 sl WT I/It lJ Illi* iii !!'!
,r)- RtL..Je
1. ~ -.a!X\-<! JJr,(/3,r)J
(> ')
(4 9 gJ
G"( r,t,r
2 ("R)
I

G ,,_,..

" .. l

'-

1 "'"

li!::C:ffe , if!f ol: (4. 9. 28l~ff;1J!lltf<ii!i ~ 1-l:Aol: C4. 8. 23 J , 1:1:'11 r = R ;,/:illJ'l.111-i'ff! l!I~
<*:1J
(4.9.29)

~ ~"
J,<P.rlf', .. e~f'
+ RI2 Ax :::.e
Jf(/1.R)
,,_ r'J <"
,.,,r'J q <'
r ,r)'dr'dr
0

+ ~ ~e-ii!np~ ;;i%:~))f,_ 0 el.~/(r)dr

(4. 9, 30)

ll'! 11ll #' !itiif1!'!.=:$ Wf {llo1J $ iJ::lld!illlJ Ji!ill!/. r= R J: i!'Jill!/. '1i i'f (4. 9. 22), iii Ji<~ a] ,
Ill J'J p, f! Jo (p,R) = 0 lJ ii', Jltlf! p<R, t) ~ 0 ilif .'.f~ 'f f (t), J;!;Jl!dil 'f Gibb, 11111.i!i:nil.i!'J , J'J
Yifl#i:J;l;~~Ji. ~flJX1iJ:(4. 9. 30J9'li!"J!l!i!l'ff:ltllfll,fl7f,:j!fl,fljflr:fi:; /(t)
f(t) =

f''""

f(r)e-11.!i(-ldi

200
(4. 9. 31)
30)9'jf!=:~liJl,\'.'.lij'lil(

'fJlr'<l:(4. 9.

2 D J,(/3,r) f
Po= R ~ fJnJ1(/3rlR)

(t) -

2 D J,(/3,r)
R ~ P.Ji<P"R)

[f(O)~-;:x, + J:~Qe-~X"

ndf'(r)

(4. 9. 32)

'Fll!iiE aJl , J:>l: 9' f <11 iJ ~ lll:!ll.lll:ff'J l\f ffi JI' "1:7' H fF 7' :q l!lljjl;'11f l'l B Jif aJl l , n

..2. 'I; J;</3,r) -

R ,., /3,.T, C/3,R)

"'i'tr,\'.'.!'J 1:.116, Hi:I!<! r- R

)(t

p, - I

(4 9 33)
..

J'ic it, xl:!! J, C/3.R) - 0. .!!<Iii ilJ>fif ffijJ Jl' 'Iii Iii 'lit

(t).

'lull;
(

~vJ~(/3.r)f'
'J(fi'lF(')d'
) -1_.~
R 2 ::-1e
Jl(fJ,R) ''~or 0 ~'
r
r

p r,t -

~ .,:,,
J.,(/3,r)f'
+ R2i ,--xA,.,
-"'-'e
J'(R
R)
'LI"

'"f'

_e

"~v

-'~~

<' ') qr
c' ,r)d r 'd r

r 'J G f",r

~ ~ fi:'J1~fp;.k')[f<(J)e-ll;v i.. J:~Dc-~~"-rld/(r) J

! f(t)

(4. 9. 34)

i!;lit Ill ill *I' Pii lll:$'7K iJ ffi jJ :fr,.,


T ilii ltlf': JVl'i' i'!f .<1\ iJ Wfl<11\'11" ,
1) ilt 1'1 l!ll Jl'JiicllL ;J]ft~ ffijJ 7'$. t>O atl'Ei!!Jf r- R J: !:ti< il!:Jt1!iH1' iE.ffi::!J p,, r'l llil
Zlt<f ll! IC , ~~'f i:8: 1'f'!l'!'ii11\' % ,!!!1>!: c4. 9. 34 Ji!lfit::!J
0

2p, ~ J,, (/3.r) -itX<


( ) =p,-)fL...J
pr,t
.?J<'RJ'
.,~l t'n l p,

J1; 'f' ,p, ;lit J, (/l,R) - 0 ff'J lEilL


2J jjl; 1'[ ~ ll!l JI' Ji!! ll!. ;JJ ~IE jJ 7' '.lf' ,

fil!i!ll 19 q (t) !'Jiii !!ti!(' ap q (r' f) lt1J


p(r,t)

3l i!l: <! -

> Oat ~ :)J; ill JI- r -

q (r )a(r' -

X ~'.~ -#1.

'1fR:A:=te

,l'.l

iii ;ff' ll!l L. )(t


0) l2r x& 'f ;;l:1'f'j\\'fl<tfll' '!!'1 >l: (4. 9. 34) 1'lf

Jo(/3"r)
J~(finR)

R )(t jij\tli ffi jJ Jg '.lf' ,

f' ,
<w

e":&q(r)dr

(1. 9. 36)

~JI' Ml iii! , t!J ~ ffi 1J 19'lt JltFu i!iH;i.i!l.Jf J. )}! ffi 19 '!! . t- o l!l!:at l!ll r'l 'If ;m i:J!i :fr 'Iii

Jl(q(,),np q(r' ,cJ~q(r')o(r-0),

X1'fi!f'l'W!i\:'11\'%,f!!1:et<4. 9. 34li\!ilt7'

i:

?t. C-f;X! :!;.ii!:'.'.'..2.. rR r' j o(/3,r1) ~dr' 1


(4, 9, 37)
R .. 1
J 1 ({:J.R), ,w~
k
J::P: "i C4. 9. 34 >l!'J ll!~ Xi! TH tt "11:.l lll tli iii it, 1- o Atl!il !( ;<; qCr J l!'Jl!l!:1t&!l\X'1 &J; iJ lit iii* "i llJ
lt! ffiJJ :fr 'Iii F <rl ~ q (r JI< M!E iJ Jt 'Iii l!'J ff! ili*Jlrl\! '.!::~flt iJ
4 l i!l:1'1 ~ l!llll'M!lii! Wli! 13:1119~, JltFoil!l\l'lt!Jf J::!Effi 1951!. t>O IJ>t{E 1!11 r'l Jt .!Ji'lf "I'll!
.flt q, A'J ffl@E!lC M'f i!l:f'F~fl<1ii'*. j)lj,J: c4. 9. 34 l i\!ilt::!J
p(r ,t)

= ..

(4. 9. 38)

ill J:ol: 'J .w., i!l i-=llt, 'iO\ <I'll!:::. JJJiliif 1", vlt:>w'ltlilt!! 11\:!i B'J x~'fl!f'i'~l!l\li' q, tif!ll;ilii'J
II\ i1l Ii!> jJI[ , "It ill( "!"Ill jjO 1iJ Ill r 91J :If l'1 ifil i!1 jj.!iH'/'t! n<
(4. 9. 39)
p(r) =O,

r=R

(4.9.40)

xtr ;x ff B'J 11\:!ili!l!it ,"Fl!l!fll4


(4. 9. 41)

(4. 9. 42)

(4, 9. 13)

(4.9.44)

!ft11\'ltr Jt1i (Laplace) 51'.ilk!* !fl Ji! Ji': i!il!I\! 5t :1Jl!iH1'J -1'1!i>JI!1:i /ti , A 20 t!t le 40 'f f1: :ff ii! ,
r!J van Evecding"' nd Hu,,t(1949lWit\:1J1"5f)dlli"Cfi.i!~!li':!fi&\1'ill!llJJj\z)jj, ,SjJI! 3, 5 11''1'
Jili ~ if !l'i IR ?t'll'1*1**fl! ~!Ii' lill I\!5t :t:rl'i! 9'J :f rei z M: t 'f , ll!:lil~t 'i' r15t ltft '.ltJi:! Wat r\iJ
1 ci<ft 11: mr"' eJTif !l'1 n f!'tt llli'll' J*iti:lil n at rOJ 5t1*ft5t Ji< , w
~!Ii' il!l\'Ht :nw 'I' n at 1\iJ
fi'J lill1'1'n I~*, R ilill''Jl'i*'i! 1\iJ <;;<i!l"i! l\iJ l '1'1!! !llJ;lt i'kiii'IJ:< iii<~ liili 'IJ:> ~<t'i! IAJ 'J\::11:>1': ~'IJ:B'J
litI\! 5t :t:rll! Ji li!liz,:!'i' 'JI' 1*fl! Jldt II( lllJ 'I' ~J , jg r!J 'f l!f >!<ill ff<! If, ffi 'IJ: >Hll i!?. i:.t llt i!iPt Ill :I< lif tt
Al , mi llit T '.>' itlif l!fi"ll'JB J>f , M~ iii '111 B'J f!!l!i llt i)i{ :lill!l l!Hll llll !<J 151 iii! i*Jri'ii !l'1 !I'. ffl ti :lt ?ill "1
#IL ~JittlJ Ji\. A 20 t!U<l 10 'f 11: k'.1 !irl\Htrlfr'll:J*!l'J '111 lilllt i)i{1! T K:Ji!!l'J :ltlm. i11:11!:1l!lil
1ll' !ftltli 5E W!/til' ~Iii' jJ "" 'I' 1!! j!JJ ! I;!, !l'1 Jj\z)jj :f f)7,Jjj 'f "11Yl!tll!ii! , !fl Ill T' ;!(it lJ!l,)ii! jill jJ( !l fr !9t
lil Ill , :r; 1X ffl 'f 'f 1m Iii'~ ,m.'ll r ie 'f wr Iii'~ !l'1 ~Iii' .
'I'* R11Hl'lk WT 5E WI 9'J Ji! 5llk ~:!Ii 'I'tt!lt 7f lf1 , ~if it 5E1'119'J !llilillt i!i! jill 'lic ll!llt i)i{Jrl.li
k'.1 !lit\ fi1"1~iilt !if *ti Ji! i!IJ"\7)(~ lit('!' il'J :Jl;J!;;A~ !Ylll :if~ Duhmel Jl!ll!ifr 11-#!iE H)j ,
CE Vl !ii JL *'+'it Wl\!i II; r.J iiJl!ir 1trWr~ 19!1.ii 9'J rot Ill ,

!'

*,

5, L 1 !!2 fi lll Jllf ~ ~ il'il .lE .>:'.


[iii 'IJ: f Ct) !l'1l!11\l'!ftltli;!EJ* Ji15('1
L[/(t)] ""'](,J =

f~f<t)e."dt

(5. J.])

:it'!',' - + iw l\Ul'llc, "1<'1!ftffilrllii~l!1'5E lit. 7<.1i'i< j,1 liili'IJ: f (t J il'J 'J\:1'111'li ll!oiZi!l iili 'IJ: , jjjj
ft o n '1 i'cs l 9'J W, iiii 'IL !it11'1tr llii ~1* il'J llt i!i! "'>\'1
__
1 rr+""'
L-[f(sl] ~ /(1) = z.;J,_,~](s)e"ds

(.\, J, 2)

11\ ?tfil'li' s ff<! :J;; l11> Rs) ~ r ff<! ff~ 1ii!!!J1t1T,


1!1 1!1llii ~l9!:ff 1'E:li!liWJi! k'.11' = /~,fd'f'
i l :Y<~ll:t 8<J !l~ ffi 'IJ: f <1 l jill !' <1 J ;( 1;;.o l::i!'i<illll<?t jj!i!i<il , ~P ft ilf f>tl' 1! 1J!l~?ll: fl!J

"l 1-0 et.M:Jl;t}'f l !l'1 n{il,1"[/Ct) l;ll,;:/ll'H1'.11"l t<O et,fc11-o.


3) 11! 1-= 8>j, :fftE 1i! 'IJ: u;;.o jill M>O, li!1l! lf (t) Ie "o<;M.
;!i'/iW Ji! k'.11:2" 1-lki'f, ITTtl ]ts) :li\4''1" llif Res> l:: 8<J IM!iJf ii!i'llc, Re ~ii<)!; Jill.
.t:J1;~1f i!L r .:it1*>\ cs. 1, D "Jllll:f 1'1. fl!J~~, u 11! 1-0 at, .r<" llll '1,g , z) :Jl;l\I: 1
{it ,/(t),., ;;t;"1* llil lilf' 3) 11! t i~* 8>j ,f(I) t>:l!i'IJ:J!i>\:!tll!c.
2)

'''"''" "'' "' "'->-

203

<'E ti< mt '1' '!!'. !ll '1J ~11illl 1Uil'1i11' !k . ill 'It J .'> 8'J ~ lltlll 'II' lllJ!li ~l<i! '1' 51.1>!
L[/(t,c>]

= J(s,q) ~ J''

t=O

;ll( ]i:lll i\l'!!rllli ~ l!Y! f!<J lit ill! 0

f' /(t,)e-"-"ddt

(5. I. 3)

<=O

'it jg
(5. 1. 4)

a= Res,.I

Req, -

11'< args,argq < 1f

fl: :l-J~1*1ifil!, <'Ex!: (5. 1. 4) '1' ~ q~s .')f'.!j A3'!1iil5!':11! r f)ijj$;51';i ,ljiU:fl
](r,s) =

f~

f""

-0 ,.. 6

.f(r,t,r)e-- 1 1-'"dtdr

(5, 1. 5)

5. 1. 2 Ill: 'M Ill: Jlli ~ l!fl illJ .:!: JI! !'f l!!i
'1' 11':Irill lll 'll'!l'rllli ~l!Y! f!<J ;;\''f 1::!1'!'lit 1'E+Fn 8'J jjf J!I' :Ct i't '1' JS i!llttllt JiH~ :fl Ill f!<J
!!!< ll!t 911 !!! jjz#Ji !II! !11 ~JI} !iii 'It J (') ll'l '11' !l1 Iii ~ l!1! Ji! 51. 'it (5' !. l) ' 1l) !;I Ii :)I; \fl l\:
!' (t ) !'.I ll'l ll" ll'l J!li :it"

(5. L 6)

J: xl:ii! ff 7Hlil1'l 5t

~ ;Ji 3ft 1!>

L[f' (t)]- [/Ct)e-"];'

+sf~ !Ct)e'"dt

'" slu> - f<o>

cs. 1. 7)
,II; '1' ,f <oJl!iR 1- o+ l!<tiiii ll: J <t >B'J@.. RP iiii'lt-!11' 1'l''lt!'Jll1ll'll1J!li'll'J!k!ll'll'l'll'll'l'1i:lt:ll!: s JP!
l'J ii 'It J Ct) 8'J 51'1!Y! 'it~ :!;~ii 'lt:tE t ~ o+ B'l iiL
,J! (tjJt!!. !it:l!:iilf:15tlli!1'l 7t ll)jlj !iii 'It f (t) !'.I ::'.,!Ir 1'l' 'ltl'll jf Jl !Ir II' 'ltB'! Jil: 'i!'Jil:l!li~l!Y!.
L[.l"Ct)]

L[J'"(t)]

MJ- j(O) ~ ... ~

s'l<s> -

(5.1.8)

sf(O) -f'(O)

t'J(s) - s'''f(O) - s-f(O) - ... - f"'"(O)

r- "CO)

(5, j, 9)

~o f!<J~JJl<1ifJ!LljiUif

L[f'"'CtJ] - ~J(s)

(5. J.10)

RP ii 'II: ~r 11< 'It B'Jlil:'II' Jil:J!li'll' 1!11 ill'J- Jl'l t' Jl'll!li'le :ll!:f!<J n lie ;!;JP! Ll iiil ill: f!<J lll lll'llll!li 3\'1* ,
11Ht91Jjjztfjjz#Ji!fl!I!\ mJ!! A! )(.J': (5. L !l liJ' !;I Jftjlf !i!i'lt f (tl B'Jl'\\5}
r)dc f!<J ll'l lf

J:./C

g(t) =

J:,,. /(r)dr, g

(t) = /(t)

(5.).)1)

IJ!JJ'li g(O) ~ o.

M;'t(S. J. J1)j!ljJ.t!f)flk'll'llll!li~l!Y! ,'*f,,.J!ll j!;(S. j, JO). ll)ilj.

L[g'Ct)J

~ ,g:c,J ~ ,i[cf'.JJdr J

J:>!:Jl!iJ.t!ill< Ll !!r'll'llll!li:Jt:I ,, JHcJl: g' Ct>~ f Ct> , !Pill

(5, 1. 12)

204
(5. 1. 13)

(5. 1. 10

L[J:.f:' .. J:1'Cr1)dr1d2"d.]=

cs. 1. 1s>

;1(s)

1xJi*

lit ;l'l!i!!. rn iii / <,) fl'J ,, 111'll:frfl'J w. 'l!'t!:Jlli:Jt~'!l'r!fl if lillliill':llt , !'1 ,,


t rn iii 1c1J4'
!it fl'J !tr1!f !illlii J\' ~
tf ~ tt Ill <t;I l!J ::E li!D ilil Ji iJ iii J <o lit 'Ii' ti: JIJi J\' ~ ;E 51. ;'( <5. !. D , 1iJ' l;A ~ lfH'i tt e **
f <11 !i !fl ilf lili\li:!t~
I.[ e"'"'f (t) J =
a~~fl'J~'ll'~~~~

J~ (,"' f (t)e-"

(5. 1. 16)

*~8!lilifl'J::E51.

o.
(=,

d(x) =

~tri!!/~ x~o

l<s ~ a)

:r 0

(5.1.17)

x=O

!'JffMo[lllJ I 1'l

~.r:= O(x)dx =

J/5'(:.r)dr = i

(5. J. 18)

a'1littJ!l 1'l ~1' 1ll!!ll!tElt ''tif-l!lll: Pl '!Sr J (x) :fir


[,f(x)8(x)dx

~ f(O)

(5. L 19)

i\\\l!l)E 51.Jt: (5. J. I l;fV;'( ( 5. J. 19 l , 'f'lfi!)jt .f!!- d rili !it !'Jlil if !il!fi'Jl:~
L[O(t) J = 8(s) =

J~ e--"O'(t)dt

= e--.. v = 1

(5. 1. 20)

R~ 8 Plilifl'Jt!:'l!i'l~Wfl!'lj;'i''f 1.

'if jjl fl'J!li!~ i9: f

(t) fi1

g (t) {;!,ff t>O

f(t) * g(t)

J:f(t -

'f!if 'll'kA\;~ f g~ g J. '1<W- J g

Ht:/i iE 51.fl'Jj!lj1' Pl >lie, J;ij!!j1' Pl ~fl'J 1il!J1l!l1'f ")r)g(r)dr = f:f(r)g(t -

r)dr

(5. 1. 21)

il'Jtclf!ilJ\lil\'~::IJ

I.I/ g] = M ~ ](s)g(s)
(5. J. 22)
Iii: ;;,Jj! j!lj 1' Pl iii ti !J1 fl'J !il if !flJIJi 'Jl: jl;'!J''f ;'.:\'. j!lj i' rili iii :fr ~IJ J!tfT tf: if !ilJIJi JI' ~!Ii JI< fl'J *ff! ,
rWiiE~J1~111ie.
L[f g]

**" sc

T*/i ~

f' [/

f" [f'

J(r)g(t -

t=-0

'"'-0

g ]e'dt

-0

tl'11:l!1JJll)tJl\ililf '1cM 'A 0 'i!J t. !i.Uix1 t


=, llllll 5. 1, lllilif'/:(5. J. 23)lijpj('.!j'Jilt

f' [f'
t~o

r)dr]e-"dt

"O

f(t -

r)g(c)dc]e "dt

(5. l. 23)

. 0 'i!J=' "l'lfl'r!\:xt t A' 'ill= ,if.?J'1M 'A 0 l'U

5. 1

"'--il'c!i-J\~#<:ll.~li/;\

205

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~-

L [f g] =
=

f:l(r) [f:/(t

J:

f-(t)
0

-r)e

"dt ]dr

[J;-:,g(t - r)e-"dt ]dr

(5. !. 24)

016.::>"-:.:>.~L.:~~-+

;!; (5. J.l3) ltj ($. 1.24) ~!JHl'JlllJ):

Ill 5. I

'Jill -i'lli'!l':I!: ~ 1~11' t.~=t

r,~ti'll

dt = d1j, dtdr = dr

L[f g]=

f- g(rl[f" f(~)e-"+"d~Jdr
~=O

r-0

[f~_/<~)ed~J[f:l(r)e-"dr J

(5. !. 25)

= f(s)g(s)

IE lit i1E awr si: cs. 1. 22l fl'J .iE liflltE.


xtil:C5. !. 22)J!!j'flJtil[,iif1<!
L- [f(s)g(s) ]"' L- \L[f g] }= f

(5. 1. 26)

Jlit !if iJ! ,i!!i1''!!' Ji!! Jiii li!1l!i! II\ l1'J lit llii iii JiUfl'il: i!!i1-11! .fi\Z l1'J !l\ Jiii 11!1 a<J ;>/;II\
J 1'. ~!R 911 lil 'f lillVi!ll~ il fl 4> (t , r) 8'J ) >t
1J
ell' (t) =

L[4>'

(t)

Js

tP

f'....

(s) =

"'I!\"' )(,

4>(t -

i,r)dr

[~ f~ 4>(t, r)e-(+i.drdt

7f<!i'.Jilr.'Hil !IE Duh,mel "'!!l!i'l:flf l!J l'JJ r- 5C'ill!1111'J!ll 'lll'tfrWill:Ji!!.


!\!iff,lfl !II! 911 ~!II! jj(;;; 11!1 f (t) B'Jtfr !llWi '.Ji!' Ji!! "'
](s) = f~ /(t)e-"dt

<iiE 'JI b\I& l

(S.1.27)

(5. 1, 28)

(5. 1.

;fl; 9' J (s) JI< m\ il 'I!: f (t) l1'J 51: J!l! ii 11!1. Jlil{E \ti!!:'!!' Ji!! ii 11!1 7 (s) Mill 'If tfrlVi'.lt!lt s l1'J %11!1.

si: j!!j it! xt , JJ<: 1'11!111>


?"Cs) -

d~;s)

f~

(-

:!\'Mil:< 5. !. 29 l i!'llt!xt s ;t n 1!11" 1!<11!1, JllJ14

t)f(t)e-dt = L[(- t)f(tJ]

2~)

:fl!-l:

(5. 1. 30)

206
]'"(<) :: d'r,'.')

~ L[I- tl'/(t)]

l\t.llil!, 'l!'J!i!iii '!!'. 7 (<) ~~ ' i'J n !ft "'llltill'T' Jl\ iii'!!'. f Ctllli! il< I

(5. 1. 31)

t )'

i'J ~2 i!'~2111i1!:J!I!, ,\'I. I:(\ , J:

"' i1'J lit 1'1 Iii )f\ "'


f(t) = ( - i)-L- 1 [J()(s)]

(5.1. 32)
~5'\(5. 1.

l!!l#iiilSll:e<J'llHt "'1ltEiti1!'l!'>iiilllt 71,JXt' E'Ji!Ht.

29ll\liitl.!lu ~rJ b i!fi

!lbLi~

- j'w /(t) c

-k

-SI

- e dt

"

'!l'iiil/lt /ltl>lJ 1-0 HI

fltl/t

(5.). 33)

i'ftE,ffeHl!iilHJ--J1l:l[IJ:J!i:.

T'~Jil1t11."'iJ: b-~.WU'?\15. J. 33)

1!':'AJ

J:'!c<' Jdi

J~ !Ctl '~"di~ L[f;t) J

cs. J. 34)

l!l:Ji!! iJI. , l!:l!I! iii lilt f I'> fit .!/.. ' llJ = E'J .W,:fr ill'T' Jl\ iii lllt f It l Iii ll< t E'J tlL tlL Jli l!: .11
"1 T i"Z!'J/f i!'illlfil, Too"I' JL 1-~J'f.
fll S. I :1' !il( iii 'J'l: f Ct) - ce '" t) !ft 'l!'J:iiWf 1!' J!1!
Iii ll!ll!l'i!JUtls. !. D~&l:>l<lil!ifililllt I i1'Jl!:ll'li!Wi'if'llil:% J/,, l'l'tlixt<s. !.16lPJijl;
if, 8'J Ii lilt y 11'
/.[ceT"']= cL[eT"']=
fj!J

!Ill!

'

15. J. 35)

s. 2 :>RJl\iiil/lt:'AJ hlatlfo chCaiJE'Jl!r.1lNil:llli~.11.


)ij( Jlii 'l'l:
/

(t) = sh(at) =

(e"' - e-"')

I!! Jl'i ;E :X. >!: c5. !. D ,:f xft:>R 111:ittlL'11-l!r.Jli11' llil li!i lllt "1
f:C,J
1

ll'2 s-a
_!_ - _!_)a
s+a - s -a

T,(t) -

ll'2 s-a
__!_ + s+a
- 1- ) - scc-'-'-ai

s. 2

1~~m:wr'!f~ff{Jflffi'&l'N

tr'l!'!ftlli'l!'l!I! 8'J !1.'!t'l!l!Ji1!~!~l!I! Jlii fl: <!JX~ ii!illltl ](,)lit iJ! '-1 Jjj\ ii!i '!!'. f

(t) ,

it'li'!Wfli jji_

111! ~ 1' i!'l #If Iii -#If Iii ;11,f!J ffl 1\ll1' Ii'! tfr tr tv:Jlli ?lt19\ l!< NilHiil l. - l'i I~~ ii !'J tfr -lf tfrJ!li
;Jt19\li'J i1> l'i'ft!!tiilrr & 111!, "3-#lfliiJ!<l:li Jffillf 111! 05!: <5. 1. 2Jf!J ffl llll~ill5hil11'i!t'.ll'. Tllif
:ll-M~'f !!.( ~2'.

5. 2. 1 ~Jlf.lffiMffiM'lll!l!t!llta .Billll
f!J J!I J3! lf11'Itfr'll'tfrJ!ii;Jt 19\ 'ii! iillT lli' 111!;II,1it Ill li'J 1!!,;111$;! !\! l'lil I/! a9 'Jf lti ~t 'f Jil;l!!; t: "1 J!i! .I/!
Ii'! 'lt19\ ii!i !I!: l (' l mT A EJg,iit ili T '1:r (rJ fl9 Jl!(iii 'W1. 'ii! 5. 1 <fl 911 ili T -@{El# lJli. 'I'll: ~J'llt Ill fl9
jjfIii: t~
i.!l:t-cll<xt 'f 4- Iii fl9 Jit;l!:
~ag .

*.

"'ii"

!II!'- l

i!Hll~llill'llil!li'll!ljlli!

.1.

5
6

'
,.I

(>1=1,2,"')

12
13
14

I'(n)

(,.=l.Z"'

I
(.>+a)<;+(,)

II

2
_l__ t"-1

(n>o)

,,:a)"

10

..

.,,r;;;

,-11:

(n-1)1

(s+a)(s+b)

."

(ab)

(a"i*hl

I
$1+111

fl

'

r.~t

J 11'
I

12-111

'

.o'-11'

15
16
11

..L(ai--idnat)

sl(s'+al)

".;;;

-1-+a~" 1 'er!(a

J;

_!_e 'erl(a ./-;)

'

19

,;;( r.~,,;
I

20

21
22

C+a)

.;;+b

la#b>

e"'erlc(a ,/";)

. ; ;)

208

""

~~li&~J(i)

2,~

e .. ' r;-

24

_l_e

.r-.

'I
,;--;

"

~~

--

(a>Ol
(~~!))

,,...

,1;..

26

r.,;;:,o l
(o;?;O l

"
28

"

lh;i,O)

Js,.i+ ./;)

ae- / :

:: ) ... aerie( 2 /;)

re+' b,,-)

e'"'e ''erlc( a
0

" y t

(b~Ol

~~=~ r,)
,J._ln<

' '

Jo

.J.. )n ( l +.::.. )

"'

-+in(
1+
'Ls

'

"

.32

1
- -lru
,_,

.J 3

ln s+a
'+b

"

,-i+1

35

_l_lnti'+a')

""

I+exp(

I
~"'[Ina- EiC-atl]

(.:i>OJ

sins

- sirusi (1) -

,,

CO>ll~i (1 l

1- ~i-

iE jtf}{ )} )

.1.. [atllld +sinat- a1ci(at) J

(a>CI)

"

s1 +a 1
ln .<i+b'

37

s'-a 1
In s'-b'

3i

/(,(:;)

( t+ .Ct!'+( I - .JtY)'
2

./iL1
t<l

I 1+ 4=11 -I,_ .;,;=JI'


99

40

_l_K.C<i

'

I ,I

r,,;:_ai,J

I
'K o.
/;e";

'

41

.("";K1 (a >/' )

"

/(~(q

(a>OJ

(,,>OJ

1>1
1-<C::l

To( A ft-)K~(B rr1+Jo(B ft-)Ko(A


jt'f,.1=

./:)

2"

~+ .,{;::b,B= .;,;::+::/;-

' I "' I

-e"P
-a
It

M.

r,!,

7(;)
. .

~ 0.
h(;)

(5 .

2. 1)

:)'; 9' ,g( l fl'J 'Ill'!!; 1~'f h <;> fl'J '11'~ , iITT h < l fl'J ilf1' llil f l!llJi!i;l(f.t 8'J lJ.B::F#J f\lJ , WJJ\; s. 2. I!
1lf "~Jill; mi r JI'"' ,
](s) =

g(s) = - ' ' -

h(s)

s-a1

+ -''+ ... + s-a.


-'s-ai

(5. 2. 2)

(5. 2. 3)

lit' 5. 1 lll 7 IT, l/ (s-a;) fl'J N 1'!11;


/(t)

/,

*j; ,i, /iii!:.( JI: (5. 2. 2) il'J &1'!11; *;()

[J(s)] =

c 1 e~ 1 '

+ c 1 c~1'

+ c,,e''.'

(5. 2. 4)

!!l!i:fl "l' 9' . l'E;i\"J<S' i'ilJ 9' :i<l!l fl'J ~tttt Ji!!ll lit~#$ !!'i fl'J !Jl !!
!F !l! 1!:' ii< ::Jg Jt . ltlil Jitl!l !Jl Ji!! !J; !l! It fl'J R ilO'. Ji\ 1'~ 51. 8'J
ill'.$' i!k Pi! !I: ill r ,i:; '!< n<
JI;!!!; msmlillte<JJi(illl

7< ~ Q' K,(r ./<).

;()11!"1!:

(5. 2. 5)

>!< ~!!\ !l! It. 11< l'ilJ llli 1lf '!lJ Ill *fJUl! Jll! >1'1!1 , ~
g(s) = Q/s,

Jl''i'i< 5. 1 'i'lll 3 lfl 42 jT,Jl]Ji!: g(,)t1J

h(s) = K~(r /$)

h(,JB'J!iij{f~Jl<)t*lj;!)

_lexp(- r'
2t
4t

Q,

Ji<"' (5. 1. 26 ) ' '!t !<Ii !\:JI\!)'( fl') Ii ij!;!) !!<ii It fl'J ""!)'(
L 1 [g(s)h(s)J = Q*

1J>Jll}o!lcf!t fl') lE 51.J\ (5' 1. 21) llJ


Q
L- 1 [ -;Ko(r
,/S)
fF'.l!::ll~'ii, 4'

J=

f'

le-~
Zt

1 / . =
vQ Z<e-dr

(5. 2. 6)

Qf' ~-:ttdr
1 '

(5.2.71

u - r' I 4r .du~ -oor Ir. '11-!li lj( 111

L"'[~K,(r

/$) ]~

~Ei(- ~;)

(5. 2.8)

5. 2. 2 ~J ffl II i! :JR 51 .51< llll iiEi@


ll1\J'Elilf l'EJ!tl~cf!J l!l liiJl! 0 A (5. 1. 2) )j!J!(<j It. W>:J\fl'J!)'(Jt IJl!;l(J>\;(E '= u+iw fl'J :.l 'Filif
.t l!IJ!i 1I'f !Jl<~ 8'J 11!1\\ a= YilftT. FJ1Jl!ij<loa<J r Ji![ll\11 ;it!< ii ft](, l fl'J FJi1l it .\\\l$J 1l! f'J!ii;l( o
~ r fl'J Zi'>l! i.! i1 lit r Ncf!J m;!!(?!!: !l! ttlll! re 'I' fl'J [l;J i!! !R Jt1l! Ill tt!E!!I! ilf tTilt :11:
l!Bt e<J ii JI: r illl ?t iW #fll lli\ lt!\l!)'( 7t l~ 111fl'Jj!\;J'l\*11!)'(7t B'J ;g:11:
!II -'1'11 >J1. '!\' J9'! Pi !\:!lit~ Pi It 7l fl'J it .Ii fl! Ji\ l1l. .Ii <l!J.:!l. it lO , ii! f' s, , ', . "" ..
~ i"l!:J>\ :/ff!ll.fl'J lllt1lf~i1'J , ~ T JX!\11\lj .lii~h Pi It l<s) tE:I: 'FiITT s L.li\;$11i11'!. tE a~ r 11'1 :Ii' ill
fF-'4'~1'1 =R B'l*l!ll!m,1 ](sl8';/ilf1J<).l:ifl!IJ!tf!llllf1'(11jjJl ,JBB'CA'A zJ!l,Jlill!!I 5. 2
Ffiii\.

210

1!-!0tt~a<i!IHTliillf

111s.2

z +

i1i 1ill Ji!!$ ;k , IJi 1l it! lit .11 lill t I!!ill: Pl.

F(,)

"'](,)e'

(5. 2. 9)

F(s)ds = 2Jri 2:;res/'(s0 )

(5. 2. 10)

1-1

ABCA

=It 'I' ,,.,p(,, i ii'J'li:i1i !!<Y, ii!i'li: F(s) fl1Jl:il'.1Jt JI! " :IJ:(!<J ll'illt C'!l<"''li:l , Ji!x J!1
rrliF(sA)

zkfF(s)ds

(3. 2.11)

=It 'I' P !!HY.I!! .Cl ,, (!<J ,\!!$ J,i'J 1111 '!1!! .1l! il!-1'\ll: '!;pg~ ,, 7r!U 3G=lt'B iii,\\\ , xi:< 5. 2. 1ol II\
!t ff~ L'!l Jl,'!Jlt)!.. Y -;p :!JJ r +;, jlflfj BCA it! ;kl!!J lll!, )j/f ['.( jf<xi:, t!i.lif'.1" !iZ
(5.2.12)

.Jf-<JI
+'~J(s)e"ds =

f(t)=. 1
2JI"\

.J

resF(s,) - Jim - 1
R-= 2Jl1

!,.J

RCA

f(s)e"ds

(5. 2. 13)

lit l'li Ill PJiltlt: it! II< Vii fiil Im iliiili , -!J!:Jill 1'

.J

1
lim Jl1
p,,..,,,
2

BCA

f(s)e"dt -

17($,ll<M~M
't'
/?"

(S. 2. 14)

(5. 2. 15)

=It 'I' ,M l'I! a lit lE 8'J 'It lL JO: Iflitii!- l'1I'*:* l'\
N

f(t)

=L-'[l(s)] ~ Z:::re.F(,,)

(5. 2. 16)

'"' !!I< F (s) tE 4!-/~!!l ,\\\ :II: fli 'Ii: itJ ,tJ-;fll ,
lit JltlJi ,1'( il!i'li: f (t) !11 'f il!i !!I< l (s) "1 ['.( e'J:S:1'llf !Qfil
Jl!=f<iitlJJJC il!i'li: 7 l lllH'if iiJ''li:itJ lli(:il'. Jl! .lit 7f, tE s~ O :ll:l:E1J- ;i: ,?,\ <i*'i1!/.:0. Xf 'f
ii. !4'111!1>. J.J T 19!ii!i!!I< 7 '' >Jlt!jl1J!lii'J, iiJ' M. ,~o :llJ :flt3G~tJ-1'.,J ~, lill ms. 3 1Jim. nlf ,t
a~ Y li'it! 1Jll:!\ ii!i-1'-'!'ll! ;lg R itJ ;k 1111 lll\. !Qj} itJ I!! ill Bl AB ,BC, FA ['.( lk!!J<i!! CD, EF f!l ill:

0s1
052

0s,

'
0Si
A

Ill!. 3 t11=i.t1llllliHHm1&

{Jlii::l F(,) ~ 7 (,le'. i>!ilH11 '11:)!'.1!1!. ~tllf

lii!i'IX 7 Cs l tEJIPI" iii ' J:J'1!il'iil'J.

zk r

(5.2.17)

](s)e"ds = l:resF(s,)

ASCiEFA

J-l

11: R-= ...-o.mu,i;cs. 2.1nllJ1'l'~

2~f,::](s)e'ds + 2~ \Ji.~[

llC+FA

J ]+ T)F<s)ds

CD+EF

i-O

(5. 2. 18)

'"'

l:>l;li'Ji!li!-Jjlj~Jld.l(Jii!i '!!:I (t)

:[R?f:'i;",

Bl 'f9kit<5. 2. 15 )-!ill:Jlllll! Ji!. ~J , NP /!f:k l!!Jlllt BC+ FA il'J

'f:!i:>l;C5. 2.18)lt:'/;
N

f(t) """' 2-:resF(s.) -

2~ {l~ J 1''(s)ds -IM

~fF(s)ds}

(5. 2. 19)

CD~EF

Awl

Tjjjf iiie !:;;!: '!' :lt!Ei- Jjlj il'J :fR?)' l{l ][ li!l CD ~ EF ff

f!jf Jlijl{l!.\\lllt CD ~ EF

CD:s

EF 1 s

rre;,, ,e" = e-"' ,ds = e'~dcr


&e-"',e" = e-"',ds = e-""d.,.

il'Jf)l:fr 1'J}}~ti'!! lit


lim ~JD-> /(oe;~)e-"'du
2tn c-....
0

-1.f""lcrre;~)e-"'d"

2m o

(5. 2. 20)
(5. 2. 21)

s = pe1' ,ds = ipe'~do

Ell Jlij l!f i:!: 1' rj' 1!!1 il'J li\:fr 'fff '.!j' lit

2~

PF'(s)ds -

~ 21it'J~~](pe 18 )e"'il' pe11d0

!;;!: c5. 2. 20 l - (5. 2. 22Jf:A;;l: cs. 2. 19 l:l!'.Ji!iill J.l\iili'!!: I <tl :'/;

(5, 2, 22)

212

+ lim
(>-0

1 J'~ ](pe'')e""" pewd(J


2Jt' -~

(5. 2. 23)

iii ll!-l'Ptil!tll. J'Jf ltli'J J? ~ 5" (5, 2. 15) ;fll li! ::l'ifll'i !ff1' li'J J? ~ 5" (5. 2. 23) 1iJ JI\ dllb'i Ill! ill .fR
5r :>J(Al(P& l&Ri!lll!l' li'J Al!l':>j(~ Ji!il& 7<s l W! e';:i!; i"IJHRP&l& FC>l ii: 'i't tll\f;( '' ii: li'J ill liJ:A lJ:
l{l'jljlJ !<;fl! '~ p tJ' l!ll li'Jill?t. TOO !t<.i!1Jili. ~ ;:!!; @.iR5t li'J ilt!r.. ii\liH'l'liJf 9'1,~p filr!ill > iil l& F
(s HI 'i't1'1l\.I.>: ii: il'1 iil l&.
lll! ii: mlll: *Iii: !111 l!' I!; ll ~ lli 4. 1. 1 11' rff l1: 4' >t ~ 'i' liJ il'1 'f rm 'f rr lilt ilfJ iJl ~, P ~
[pCr, t) - p,]/ (p, - p, l , ffeti i?<fiil@li'J l&'!'Ji!ii iii 5" (4. L ! ) - C4. !. O!it /lj , ~~i::l: @,i: 'f)i;Jllii!!
rr lll: iflll: !111 ll' jf;, <till lii~ " f'1i;i:11fiil!\!l1'
dfP(x,s) dx~

_!_J5(x s) =

'

O<x<=

P(x,s) =

$1

x=O

_J5(:x,s)

x-=

(5. 2. 24)
(5. 2. 25)

(5. 2. 26)

(5. 2. 27)

Xlll:'llflll:Mll'AWliJJ!'t1RrfJ!'a,'i'liJll'x~1't.~Bil'IJ!'a>1::
( 5. !. 7) Jj(JliffijJ ~tw 1"1 I li'J ll' l& J1I! x~. 3p/iit Jl'. u !El 1g sP<x ")Ix. n >':: ( 5. 2. 24) !!fl::

JI[."

jt B i12'!'J Ill T j]Jjlf;;f,{'f ( 4. !. 4) P<x ~ 0) - 0. PJi ill lil\ll!l!!Jfll!"' l\ij li'JlJJJi! iJ![foJ!\!lll'm
:t.'i' lil il'l >Y<!'i!>!1 iiill'l!\!l ,1ll li'J il'lllt7t1r1l!ll' 'ii!' lit 7t1J1l! 1l ~'ililf J1! Jllil<ft <s. 2. 251 ;fl!
(5. 2. 26 ) il'l 'iit1!1:5t /Jj!il ( 5. 2. 24) ttlllifiil l!i1'1 !l't f1lf. ,. irlf.1'

(5. 2. 28)
s.1mz4ft2~1Jfll!Mil'lirlf.
P(x,t) =

Jffi)-- 1-: err( Aft)

erfc(

p(:r,t) = p 1

(Pi - p,)erf(

Jffi)

(5. 2. 29)

(5. 2. 30)

1' T ~;!!;NII i!UR7t, liJ"l[ilJi iii ~iiiB'i!i: <s. 2. 28 l tli ;ll:J.!lff!il5}il!r. Hit? Pex, sl { s ~ o
!tl:J\!1'.J<:.I! ,l!ftJtz ?r~u :Jti'lh'i tli in;m =#11!'1(1'] J?5" cs. 2. 23> , lJ! illlf
P(x,t)=

2lmf~[j;(11e-'~) ... P(~;~)]e-o1d:.r +Jim 1-f# />(pe;o)e,,.''pe,ud&


"

-o2n'-~

l;i\;f;" i!Zlli ::CJ1Jlli'J!il5t 1;T I , ll!-Jlli-!R5l'll'i *1' erfo(x/ fflt) , :Rl:!Ei1!1'imlll! 'il'lilJ f1lf. (5. 2. 29 J Ji1i
(5.2.30),
-~~~~

T005}~#til!~tt~mBil'l!ill~.

213

FJi'lit F(, l !Ii ,~a !if 'Ii n 11ftlll.<!.\


!!l'llt 'Ii< ii' .lit ;1rf if! it ,
J)

F(s) = ](s)e~ =

J>rJl: jf;fi'llli (1'J, ma .ii 'lj( F(,JfE ,~a lliti!filf Ill Luu"nt
.
~1.1(s - a)*+ 2.jB.(s - a)(5. 2. 32)
1

.;-o

~-1

II! JI! :l'll' ill 'li:J'll! i, .tit 9' I I -a) !'J ~'Ii: B, fl;:'!) F Jff s ~a !lf !'J li'l 'llt. le i'F ,,,p ~a) ,
[:ll :II l:itl!lfi!ll!l m\ .s~a fl'J 11!1JJJ'R5'ft'Ii1t B, (1'J :t;!Of i!P'f :if'., :il;'l':ll!J4J i!P'f:\I', JlJi l:J 'Ii
iF(s)ds ,...,. 2niB1

:'!JTli'llXi!li'l<li< B,,jif!IJ<s

a)"

ll>i'ct(5. 2. 32)fl'Jj!ljiJl,jlfM ,Jj< a 111it'"''li1:1f4' .;~a,!WH!i

B 1 = resJ<'(s =a)=

i)1J

(5. 2. 33)

id-
~[(s -

1),1 \ds

(11

a)"F(sJ]

-a

(5.2.34)

s. 3 iil:Jl<lll'FJi'!j(fl'JfE s-0 !lffl'Jli'l'llt


F(s) = c 0
s1

c 0t

+ c1 + '.);As"

(5. 2. 35)

f;;{, "

#I "1! ;( t~ 0 !lf fl!= 11ftl!l.<!.\, l'I? J!:(S. 2. 34)f;


resF(s = O) ""

d
ds [s~F(s) ],_ 0 ""'c 0 t

+c

15.

z. 36)

2l ii 'I!: F(s);(,<!.\ s~a !lf R 'Ii Ill ii\\ (-11itili AO , ~U i't (5. 2. 34 l@i':l(J lit
resF(s =a) = [ (s - a)FCs) ],.a= lim[ Cs - 12)F(s)]

F(s)

~ift~~;

(5. 2. 37)

(5, 2. 38)

:)t9' ,N (s );( s-a, (k-1, 2, , n)!lf fi .lj!jf'!, Jl. M (a,) 0 ,M(O) # 0, N( 0)0,
Iii 'li10
#I [l;j '~a, ~tJl:.lj!l!l \\\' f!J !Ill!: (5. 2. 37) ' ma '~a. !lf Iii 'll:z i'll :'!)

iif:)jt '~a, !lf

(5. 2. 30)

(5, 2. 40)

~+.li!E~.l'!E
&2
rar
xat'

p(r,t)

= f(t),

p(r,t) =

Q,

O<r<R,t>O
r
0

(5. 2. 42)

R,t> O
r~R,t =

(5. 2. 41)

(5. 2.13)

1: 'i!:M at fiiJ'Jl: :II t J.11' fr Ill:ilf fll:Jlli'll' jll, , 'ii: lit#.'. fill ff'J lit lllt 5t :If ti!
PCr,s)

:If ti! cs. 2.

](s)

(5. z. 44)
(5. 2. 45)

Jfl! :kill~ lf; (1'J !Ii! 'll: :II !ll ii !J; :If ti! , :Itlil1 PT !II !I! -!J:! i'll ll! = !J:!'ll:' llY !ll iii !J; ii 'li1

214
[" (r

""*.t<J!Jflt4'\ik
l!J! 1' !\1111 !'l! , l!I ilif lf !'il

J;7X) fa K, <,. J;7X ) '/;;if, , ojij lil r = O.Ii ti li!1 1Hli 11'1 !I'd'!' , Ko

---

( 5. 2. 40fa (5. 2. 4SJll'Jflll0'!


p(r,s)
(t) = p.,~ij

:!;' f

= ]Cs)g(r,;)
= 1 (.o)

lo(r
l~<R

Ml
h7Y

(5. 2. 46)

s/X)

]Csl = p,/s, 'l<ll!'.l!:Jl<"f!l0'<\CS. !. 26), :ff


p(r,t) = f(t) * g(t) =

g(r,t) -

[,

-1

f~f(r)g(r,t -

-o
_
1
[g(r,s)] - - .

2m

"

J: '!' 11'1 lJl: mm li!1 't h7XJJZ"ll Ill !&111

11

r)dr

(5. 2. 47)

! 0 (r /Sfi) ,,

+"'

x~t- 00

(R

./s/X)

eds

* ii..'ltll!il $1' l!!'"' i'i~u JJZ tllfllllli

,,fs/X =

if3.

s=

x/3z

(5. 2. 48)

11'1 ,

4(5. 2. 49)

lli'11ill" !B8. 3) , lJl:f!I Iii li!111'J 1)-fit '11!,,' lit


l,CR

/;IX)= l,CiPR1

= J,(pR)

(5. 2. 50)

J,CfiR) - 0

(5. 2. 51)

lJl:f!I ti !& ll li1! ill.,\\\ tiilltol1di\l!! A ll li1! i'E


s. = - Xf3~

(5, 2. 52)

;II;'!' fi, ;111111!1 <s. 2. s!l 11'1 iiL 'f il51'19'11'1 ti i'i!tt~l" !l1 'f firilif ltii:: 11'Jl!l-i'itilill.< !1ll ~ 5. 2 rJi
if, ) 11'1 @1 Jilf 11'Jfj( 1t !Ji u
0

"

g(r,t) = ~resG(r,s = s.)

Jt "' .c

""" <5. 2. s> 11'1 lll:f!lml& '!IJ!ll ..i:

<5.

2. 501

G<r ,s = s,.) ~iJ ~:if: :Jg

'

<s.

(5.

z. 53)

2. 521 lf4f Io Jl<llt 1, ,,; x Jl<llt p;. mu


(5. 2. 54)

(5. 2. 55)

r) Jdr

(5. 2. 56)

5. 3

fl'l ~fl'lWi~~ f.J I& fii.l.it ~

1: -1' lilHt T lit tf l!rWi 51' 191 fllllli ti lll 11'1Jl'lf'i:EJ!'.Jf1* , ;II;'!' , ol'J !II E lf'i!' 191'/kJll'rrfllllliti

5. 3 ii 1t ti .t\ 1: j$, !;4U1 ;;_;~

215
------
11': fHilll!\lll ;;t@!if >E ilJ ill!&, !lilitJl;i)i.1l 'Ii llU~ tt. llil ffl l!llll[fR:frl!Hr lli'.il!mU 1'!1 "l Jll(Jill, ~lfl

---

1'E I Ii'!); lift 9' JI! llJ ilJ '!!' jj; 0 ~ lil: ~!iii '!llCllH!Jl; 1'!1 "l :I!: iii ilJ , );,( ?.': 'f Ill l: i11\ ill''11f 1Jt ilt:lf lli Jilli!
'1' i1!;tl; !!\!iii ~L i!li!'.1!!! 1lllkl'fJLJ\lj'l!'jj',liitEI<l! 'I' i'J l'Z!ll :Jl:llJll;i;:'!Hl<J , ~ lil VJ*, ;\It$ tt:olt
J.1!:fi' T 1'11111J ~ ;IJ, l!,(<>:;Jt4- A. lil!l:l!: ilJ 'l&ii!!&ll'::lf/R, 20 1!t!c 10 'Fit Ll lf!, i!@:irlR l!it ill T
ill. lJ ilJ ii!!!! , ::ll lk lf Ill J\lj 'l<l>J',IR ilJ l'Z l!l :Iflll' T } ~ ilJ 1ltr :II: , :$: l\'~:il' lB i"i #ct J! ilJ '!&11!& li1!1f
!li, -:11!;.;il!i'f il!i 'l&lil'>l'lll!f!!ll i(?;ilJ Steh(est :lf!li ;-Jl,;il!i'f Fouri" l&~!!llif':llJ Crnmp 1f!li,

5. 3. 1 Stehfest JJ}!
ill::lflti ill Stehfo.t (1970 )jftlJj , fllllfl.J:\!i Gaver !R"t.$ ilJ !iii'!& f
Jilll!,J>'f' f,(a,t)jg

tt) ~~ i'lil'$\l! ill'

(2n)t
(!
"')" _,..,,
,
( ) =a,
-e
e
,a,,.,
J~a,t
n,(n- I)'.

J; (a ,t) i1J
(5,3.1)

(5. 3. 2)

v, ~ (- !)~+;

ruin(,,~)

;s"

1...

['1

1]

IN2 - k)

(5. 3. 3)

kT+'(2k) !

JkJ(k - l)l(i

~ k)J(2k -

i)!

1lJ".

1'J fl! ii: (5. 3. 2) ' lit Ji: -1' at l'iJ t {I! :fll ; ill 'lit
ill -1' J (s) 1l! :fll - 1- v, {I! ' bi. jjij Bl ~ !iii ~
7(' ):ff: ill Ii\ ii!i 'Iii< J (t ) ilJ 'Iii< ill !Ii Jl!
ii:'!', N 1' !mJl;fll!'I&, ilif N illilJ)!J;l!it lttl(:!I!: Jf, t:XHt;ll'ilJlil Jli''ll'iR;ldliofol J!<txtl' fill
jj! ~ ilJ !iii 'Iii< tE it 11 '!); 11!! ill: Ii 9' tu tJ lfll iE 1' ii: 'Iii< tit ill T l!it N - 8 , 1o lil: 12 JI, il!t if 8'J , :II' l!it
N> 16 ililll'li!i if :!'Iii ill'.
Stehfest :n-)J<B'J ii!ti11 ill i' Steh!est 1Jt ll'::lrlli Xt N jl! Ii! l>Hi1'!! , .!ii!:!\ lt ;;t@'!!'1t 'P'illlilJ
ii!i 'l&lt:ll' Ill 1l!tl!lil! ,M 'lt' ittl! ill' ilJ !iii '!&"' sI;l;:'llC !!I. !llF111:fll jl;! ilL :!I Jlt , :tr fF ill" ilt I!! 1'E Sichf"t l!i'!l'!!lli(?;ilJ lliiJll .l:bU t.( 1-' It~ lE , 1!!! N llJ!i): {l!ii\l; l!ll lll:f;:, YU Auti et al (1990 )fU Woo<len
et al ( 1992)~ lElil 'f li!J 'l:i!llJ ffi;IJ 5''11f. fill {fll!i\ ill i1Ji&iil0 'i!:!m r'
l!t 7(;) f;Jllt !iii '1' , J (t) j<J Jjj\ !iii 'lie ' Jj[ ilii !}"'1
f<tJ

~ h;2 ~v.:r( ~2;)

cs. 3. 4)

Jltll: 1'j ( 5. 3. 2 ) jf; ii: ffi [ilj ' ill ;ti; 'f' v, ~ i& jg
min(,,~)

'J.Sfi('k
, + 1)'.
['!"]tk+ !)Jk!(~ -k+1) 1U-ktl)J(2k-;+ D!

N
v. ~ (- !)>''
I;

(5.3.5)

;ti;cp,N 1Jl;<Jflll~,fil N ilJliit{l!tE I0-30 Zl'iJ, tEit~tlfil!Tliit N~IS,20 Jl'< 22 Jl;J!iifilJ,


fF 1:~ {II; lEFn 1'~ !!I! "it [iiJ JW!'ll: ill' ilJ {.!!'11. l'i: ;ti; !Iii" ii! !liF!I!: :fll 1it~:tr FR i& 'II'

5. 3. 2

Crump

15 ):!

1:1<1f/RJ1o Crump0976)1'f Dubner,Alate 0968lifFB'Jifilil!Jl:lltf!l Fourier!&'/&{!!: T-

216
ill:!I 1:7 Jlt , lt f,!f 'll'fr jlJ Du bner '11' A 8'J I 1t .
1lf t'l '11' Jl!WT Iii. ill' :IE >l'i!: c5. J. 2J 'I' lll'. IJ1 ii '111 B'J '!k l1ll 1'U !lUil 1tlf mi '.El Ill\
f

(t)

e""f"" [Re {7(s) lcoswt - Im {](s) }sinwt Jdw

(5. 3. 6)

1' cp, a Jl!.:k+ " !']if :I:'!);'!!:," Jl!. ll'I 5. 1. 1 1' 'I' f?l'E il'd'f (318'J lit'!!:. FJl!.'ii' !'kfU lll'ii' l'k of
'I ;ii;
Re{f{s)} =

J~ e ... ., /(t)coswtdt,

f(t) = 2e"'f''
~ Re{](s) }coswtdw

"

(5. 3. 7)

2e"Jw Im{](s) }sinwtdw

f(t) = -- ----

Dub nee

(5. 3. 8!

'11' M>l: c5. 3. 7) !'Z I!! mlfVi;. >!:i!i: i~ 11> 'llJ Jiii T '1!1f!!!ii.Ii{0 5'l: ,

)cos k"']+
E'
T

~ Ze'[.l](a) + i;Rel]la + kni)


T 2
~-1
t '
TI

f<tl

(5.3.91

.
2naT) [j'(2nT

E' = Ljexp(

+ t) + exp(2at)/(2t1T -

t)

(5. 3. 10)

"1J I!! 51' l'kf?l'EllH'f <31 If<t! I<;;Me" ,t>l:ilJ''EJ Ill\


....,expf2(_a-a>tJ
E '~M
"""' "' exp 2(a
a)t]
!'( .liff (a- a)~ 1ll )il ~ ;k, ffe~il]' ill! l!!J!!

<s 3 111
'

-1-1

E' l'llllJ 1'E AillYf JOli!B'J11!l'A !'l. P.11 lJA , -'ii

Stehfe" ;IJ~

Cf fh1 !'J .!Ii: .!if - ti Jl!. '1!11!! Iii. ilil a<J ltJll: l!!*' iif A 1' tcr !;( /'l JllJ
Crnmp l'E.t;J'.Jll!Jt 8'J !ill J:*lll Foudeo f&!jj(j\j[ T !I-$ ll('~. f\1'M'i!: (5. 3. 6) !'Zffl mit
0 'i!:i!i: jl:) 111'llJ1il. II! 0>\: 1:7

f(tJ~ ~\}l<aJ + ~[Re(l(a+ ~:iJ )co,~'-1m(7(a+~1 ) ),rn~J)+E


(5. 3. 12)
w

E = e"' 2.::exp[

a(2n'l' + t) ]f(2nT

+ t)

= l:e .. ~..r f(2nT

~1

l!e.~ffef'f If(t) I~Me' ,M>t:

+ !)

(5. 3. 13)

"~1

cs. 3. 13)cf(fll ii[ l~


A1e"'
E~eii"(l-l'

Me"'e- 2T(o-J,

O<t<2T

Cl. 3. 14)

0<

(5. 3, 15)

<

2T

J'E;f<J Ill &II! 0>\: cs. 3. 12) !ltf'l!:11!oc ill'itJUr.t, 'li!i!! iii T >Ill a (!<) Jil;J!;. :IJI.!<. 'il?r, 1:7 Tl!<

ii: C5. s. 15 l il'J i!i!'I; <'EJ.l\!E l'J Ill'" T, illl 'l:f 1ill Ji'. a ;,; a il'J
It:. Ji, 1$:& ilO: lt# ffe !if !m T ,
I! J!ifl)( T fl, fl;; !<A J:.@fit. @fl)( ZT>t~, NP fl)(

**,Ill llif ll' !liHii11!. i11 l'J

7' > t., ... 12

2J J!ifl)( a fl, ~.@flill!l!l'J~Xt;J!


E/Me"'=10-

a=a

lt:IJ 1r

(5. 3. 16)

(f.IU k=6)

ln(E/Me"')
ln(l01 )
~- =a 2T
2T

(5. 3.17)

<'Eli\i fl)( a fl! Bt l!lf 1ill Ji'. lR till !I< / (t ) l'J lit.\\\ s, fl)(
a > max[Re(s.) J
(5. 3. 18)
RP a !l:fl'l:k r s, 'll;llil 'P Jll:kl'J -1'.
3J liliJE T i!! ifll a ii i'AJCT. RP'll'li:ii: (5. 3. 12) Bl lR!i! I& 7 J# ill !il(il !I< f (t) l'J!&(l.
f i!i J11'-iPil!'l'I Jmfiif M!lilillltl'J a iJIJHt1t. J'i it. ~fll'l'!!ll ?Hlf-Trrll'.iltl!i! 9' ill .llll l'JiJ!
'Ii!, ~ T ~A iJ! 3'rll''ifi'l1-il!'li!, -i'!l'!ii: (5. 3. 12l'Pl'Jilf11l:iJ! E, }l-1-!l'!<'E!ll (5. 3.
12) !l<lli<ltJ!Jat .~.J! llll'lf "1lll! N lll!JI: ill l'J f N (t) , llJ llif Fit Jilt~i.l!'

,.

E, ~ f(t) - f~(t)"" TS(N)<

;it;.p .s (N) !! ( 5. 3. 12) l'J!l!!i!' 'l<Jtsl: .<E [ -1. I J. Ill j; fet) I

(5. 3. 19)
fN(t) 'If i'A Tcl::.11:

(5. 3. 20)

ii!illlt a l'J >!ldi1!1.!i11il!ilflll:il!'l;~r l:iJiltil!'li!, RP'lf


e"' S<N)e = ew

r~r f<2T

a., - 2T + ,In IT f

+ tl

(5. 3. 21)

:ti:)~ t) I

(5. 3. 22)

11Jljllj1-$j'.:kil'J a !la, fU a,(a,,.,a,) ,J'll;l:(5. 3. 20) Jlill'lf


fjJ 1 (t) - fiJ 1 (t) ~ S(~)e:(e~i' - e41')

S(N)e ~ T

'ijf l:ii:f~A <s.

f'iJ'(t) - fjf'(t)
e~: _ e"i'

1J1

(5. 3. 24)

3. 22) !Pf!! a l'Jill:ftlli

fW(t) - f]i'(t)

a.,.,= 2T +tin (e"z' - e~i')j'-Jl(27' +

5. 3. 3

(5. 3. 23)

t)

cs. 3. 25)

!a

l11l f ii le 'I' fjlj I&l1i & iii! it# :Ir Ii; l'J tt!ill .\\\ 'it!:if ti: Wi'.ll: J!l; il'J !I<l1i !it ili! IF Ill!: l'Jlil le
D Stehr.,, :lrlt:il'J 'f:~tt.\\\!l'!fl! tit aJl T . mr5!'1t 'l"!.!Hn dk!Je!l!1' Jitlliiril'J. ~.#.J1.0ii:

218

C5. 3. 2) <j> N il'!il'Jill;Jlil~ilJ ii ft ] (,) il'JI' n~, 11!.l<tliliJl,xt-1-llill lEil'J ](s l , Jlil'.1' l\ll B'J N il'!Iii.
iii! il'Jtl; Jil :11; T fill il'J , >\if fi1I - N il'! !ll 'f fill- ] Cs l <I' s il'J '.'!'fill '1: f!J , :it; Iiij( 111!l!:11!. '.'!'-! Ii Z .
>\if [i!J N il'!fll 'f '.'!' [cj A'; 7 (,):ii; Iii.i1Hli'.Ji< 11!.'.'f'-!'f. iTii fl.llHJ1 N ii'! il'J li!:Jlil3G!l\1$ 1lJ1!li, El lltr!ll
l!!G!J!-~Jlil N ~ 12, i!!ll<lli' J: 1';\!;"l;jf l)L r!lil N ~ 8 i;t 14 ?<i<Jilll!:lf. :it; it;lh!i!Jli!lli !;! f~it,
JI! :JC Iii !ITT 5t ii.! lE If ~ij Jili,!J;jj' l!i tE Jili 'l!: ill!!;!! 'I\: 1t ~ill Z ~ Jf ~ > '!!: il'! %<1li:f!I lJii. $ . IJl:ill' Iii fl;
Srchfe>r Iii )jf 1:xt (5. 3. 4) flJ CS. 3. 5 JtJ;l:;}jifij:/f Jilf il:!Jl!'..
2) Crnmp ;!;Iii 8'J cE Jf ilt.ii\ itj!j: il\Jli!1lJ!ITT5t I!.! lE , llll!!ii.! ii! !'Jll!Jli!J1!i]jt a : .!li! iliil't Ji
ij( Iii /Jt:!I; 1lJ!'i' iM 8'J. lik .ii\ it j!j: i.:l>!IHt litr~ !If<~, fl" 5t illi!ll! lllll ii!~ 8" ft l l "I .iii 8'J ill:l!t
,~s,(n~J,2,3, .. .J, fE ' il'!!li'i'\:f5. 3. !7)Ji!l)J! ail'!. tEitj!j:~'ti('i'\:(5. 3. 12lfft .lllli!G!J!ltt
j!j:J'.!lift N 1lJ H 30 :tct;. 1lJ*J!l '!!:(ii'. itj!j: cf' i&~tl:t/1!'J :tfl!i. ii(;t;IJ< Xt'f ill! ill'Jl<it~l~ fl'J til'J!i
Dli.mut mil!dlilll il'J
3> .@z .xt'fll!l.8" 'l!:i!l!!ll-3!'1t 'F!;lltil'J!i, ltli<*fll Stchfest :lrl!i. ffilxr 'fill!!;!! 'll:it~ll'!f;lJ
~nil'lill!llil. \lli&itil'JB , Jti:ll*lll Cm mp ;!;l!i. l:l::!I; iif !;! i!l!fl!H!'; , f jl;;Jltr-:f+;!;tll:!l;lil;'f Ol 'l!:tt; 1111
il'il'J /Jt ililIii :f+1fl!i T Fouri<r !ii 'l!:. 11! ~'Flii!!'J i!l!i\lXfll!ll'il'i 1l!: 8'J Jilli!!' PJli'.1' ;k, ilil
Fourier !/i!li(J!j T i1li Jl!i lJii \Iii i!li ill J'Z ii(;!!,;! J!l fl'1 o
4l *r !11. i!l'W.li'i Jt jlf; il'J !& il'!!ii'. ,i;{ J'Z Ill ft "l' <Oi' fll!JJ 1'E !ltiilllilf J'L j'jljJlll tE 21 t!!: IE~ '1lJI! Ill
lllll fl l'I! ii: 1: .!! 5i! II' il'J ;If /!i foJ t!!:

s. 4

mDID'ffW-t&m~r:,~nn:lf:

iili "\ 11: it> !ft: :t J!l il'J ~i'f' fl! 'it{!! 111 1111 J!i:/f;'!':Ii!!!!! <I' c' - P fl! :Ii:# il'J 1f J!i 11':\ifJ!l lil lll'
trli'i !t l!l! :1r l!ililf Ji'. ;;i: - fiiJ II!! !\I tj).;til !A\ ;;i; m i\l lll( #1!!111. JI. f;l: r. ~ fillliit fll 9ritIJ'I. fll
li! !E9fitll'l-tlliB. riii :fr$HiiL

*m

5. 4. 1 9f. !11 fl! t!:t l'!l ill! ~


ii.!:li!!Jl!'f-11' !\I R, jf ~ 'f-11';/;; r., #8'; lilt l:::'\I Q, :li!!Jl!Ill Jll!\I h, Ji!l!i! ffl\Jtli!f;IJ :'\I p,. mtil't JE
fM' r'J II!! nJ 'til Lil Jiil r ,
(S. 4.1)

-~
(rilp)
fJr "~' - 211:Kh

t>O

~l,,Bp

t>

(5. 4. 3)
0

r,.""_r~R,t =

p(r,t) =Pi

(5. 4. 2)

;/;; >IZ 1!1t'fll J'ZJ!l ;t; il!il!Jjjl. , 'l IJ1!' 'fJilJ :JC l::!flJ :I;
PD=

P1

p(r,t)
Kt
Q
,tJ) = 7;;~'

.'./'-.

2trKh
r
r..

Yv =~,Rn=

R
r.,

(5. 4. 5)

219

1 < rv <Ro, to> 0

(5. 4. 6)

In> 0

(5. 4. 7)

tn

>

(5. 4, 8)
0

(5. 4. 9)

<s. 4. 9>J:"91 il!rrJJZill-!~llli:l:'l'i!, ti:!!!: jlJ ;P: (5. 4. 6l 'I' apvl iltn J9( ll'J:l:'l'i!tli ~:%
- Pvifo - 0) - Po(,) 'ma fiiJ 11!1 (5. 4, 6l- (5. 4. 9) '!li ;lg PD ll'J'lltll~dt:lr!ll!<lll!l ii! foj ll!i

~~ P: ( 5. 4. 6) -

Jin<)

1 < rp

<

(5. 4, 10)

Rv

(5.4.11)

dpol
drp

'p=fl.I! -

(5. 4. 12)

'

:Ir Ill (5. 4, 10 l;!J;:kiitll/\Olll ll'J lt'll':!lt !Jt jl}l<:lf !ll , :JtJiiWI :%!11' ~r 'll' ll'! !Jt !If!); ii tt I, >Ill K" ll'J m
.fr,n
./S) --!-- BK0 (ro ,($)
;f!Jffl ;ti Jl!.11,('f' (5. 4. 1ll >Ill CS. 4. 12) ;fljl)i! llL~ Iii: .4 >Ill B !mr,
Po<rn,s) = Alo(rp

(5. 4. 13)

---- K1 (Ro ./S)


A= s t[! 1 (,/.S.. ;K-1 CRv ./$) -l1CRv .,r5)K1( ,/..$.. )]

(5. 4, 14)

B ~ l,(Ro .(,')A
K1CRv ./$)

(5. 4. 15)

11

14f li! ti: ll'J ,l\lli: A >Ill B 1'\:A;P:<5. 4. 13 l , BP 11!ill ~ "i!f!il fli;IJ ii ttll'J Wll!T:\l!iiiP:
.(.'MC.(.')
p 0 (rp,s) = - ,
,--s N( 'v' s )

(5. 4. 16)

MC./S) = K 1 (R,, JS)J~(r0 ./$) -t- l 1 CRD ../S)Ko(rv


N(./s) =I1<Rv ,/7")K1(-/S)

./S)

KiCRn fi>l1(,/$)

(5.4.17)
(5. 4. 18)

'f JiHil>lf tl:W'i Bi. iJUl! JC :1: <s. !. 2>'I' lJtjj1 ii!i tt 1if :ir; nV.
..,fS")
F( ) = e"1;1 ./SM(
NC.(,')

5. 4. 19)

Jl-1ltii!itt NC ./i l f\1" "I s:1'J!<lllttt8'/1""1tl!.i.\. :f4f:iKtl!/.l: (i!l!l.lc fF .<n~ 12. 3, .. o). E
Jl!:lrl" NC.(.') ~o ll'J11!o lll.ll*>i;P:M&Jl!(B8. 3)-(B8. 5) .~~lf)l<tt a,~ -i .(;, Jl!,:lf jl<
J 1 (RDa)N,(a)

N 1 (Rva)J 1 (a) =

(5, 4, 20)

li'Jjf!. j;Rjg 91 !lf}J< ii!illi: J, ofll N, ll'Jtti!lillf clil ,jZ;@!ftR,( illH>:-!ii'tl!ffi. 'f Jl!ii!itt F(,) :(E ' - O.ill:
!ll; 1-::::: !ii'l&.i.\ J 1'E ,,~ - a. (n -1 , 2, 3, "') i!l:Jl!-!ii'l&.i.\, !il:iK @,I,\ l'l ?h F (s) :(E '!'iii s J: WI

220

(5. 4. 21)

'f 11:1(jflffi;}J P!i !Ii: f~ l!!i~1{; 1;15)<' F (< l lli !IJt:ff] fiil l\!l,
l!l lll: !1ilillli'. 'i\ cs. 4. 2 D 'I' lli!li:1'Jilfljl!il:fr. rllii :fr ~Ff>'.( !II ill ,
l) ~ oj(t llil 111: rm !II iE
; ~ 0 Jtl: ii::::: l'fi'jjl 11,, fiJ.i!l llftJil: BJ f!l B2 9' J!i. JJl \Ill!); P!i!IJt:fl'J!!t!IJt:i!iiti'i\ , 'J'~'i\ (5. 4. 19)
1'{7;< il'J lJtfR!i !Ii: F(.<> 1if /&
F(s)

e"t> -/s.lt;f( ./S)


s:
N( /.$ .. )

e"D ao
a 1s !., a 2s2
3
s ho +bi:;+ b~s'

(5. 4, 22)

(5. 4, 23)

R1,
1
ZRo ,b1

bo
jl}~~

l'Rb-1
1
Rn - RvlnRD ,b2 =
4

4(

e'dli!/&l!>i!l.l'i:, Jis 'J''ilf F (< l :Jij /&


2
1
(tns)
F(s)= o(l
S"

c~

+ tvs + - -2 J

+ CutD -

C1

+)(co+

C 1$

+ c s + )
2

+ .:8A_,s

(5. 4, 24)

;fil-0

(5. 4, 26)
2)

, ~ ~ llil 111:

rm Iii! :ii!:

,~ " (n ~I , 2, 3, ... JIJ.tl;i 11:~~c!&.i!

!Ii: B'Jttil\ 'l' 111 .~ ' 91: lli !li:z 1'1119


.:.:...iresF(s") =

..:...

"I

l11 J\\10 :<!:Cs. 2. 30 J Ji'fiJ Jll i't"' B6 9' Ji! :111: il l'i:"'

fiJ]

re' -d"( ~-)


531 ,

M(c,
JV

V S

ds

=,

~ e=-! DJi(Rva...)[N1(a.)Jo(r 0a.) - J 1 (a")N0 (r 0 a.)]


a,,[Jf(Rflad) _ Jf(a,,) J
1

,,,,,_
tt

:;-f

(5. 4. 27)

,i: <5. 4. 2sJ'l!1 <5. 4. 27Jlit11:ii<1n'!lf Jt:W:B'J!il:llll lli !Ii:.


!!i:blil!Jllt.:&#i/i1i;l;;t #f'i\ <s. 4. 26l1'U cs. 4. 27litA <s. 4. 2D ,Jl!!fi:IJ ill l'i:B'J i!ii!i'i\

221

~ e ~'nJi (Rna.)[N 1 (a.)J ~(roa.) J 1 (a 0 )N G(r1,a,) J


a_[Jj(RDa-.) - Jj(a.)]

7r "ml

(5, 4, 28)

:it'!' ,a, Ji\Hi'ICS, 4. 20lITTilL


-ll!iJll , ff RL 1.1 I Rh""O. J:xi: cp" ;J!'IJ[J'iJ[Pf i!t{i:,('.Jij' .~
2to
I Rn ~ + rb" + l~o ~ 2t,; + In Ro _ ~
Rb + n rn
4
2RD
RD
Rr,
r;,
4
Xtf' kit ff Jt I.Ii fl'J El ITT , :t '!if;)'; Git IA: !ll';!J IP Pn (! ''" ! , ~ 5't (5. 4, 28 l '!' '" - I , iti'I: i!l: <IJ Xf
R,, l , "' C5. 1. 28) cp ~ 'lJ[ R '!if J!J( J'll " 'lli <!'.!a ljJ; lff 111 T , jif 'l'J Jll llfl" B8 '!'!ii .l\ 'il:;
,J,(a.)N~(a.) = - -

ira.,

(5, 4, 29)

(5, 4. 30)

(5.4.31)

Bt l\i] t iii. j~ *at ' J: Ill,;: 'I' i!l 5- J'iJ[ ~ 'f '!l' it fli li!: 11HrIf!; Bi ;iJ ~)" ~ Jlll f!I' "~
0

*Jlll f!'f

(5, 4, 32)

_ _ Sil:...[t
R _].
2Kt l
21fKh n r.,
4 + (1cR2

P.,1Ct) - p,

i't (5."

33)li!;J!,jf!

4.

6.

21''1'5lllli:t19>l:<4. s. 17!,

($. 4. 33)

1E~J1111f ap.CtJ/at-#'IJ[.tl;:JJWI!;.

~iiif..

'"" Eve,dinger

5. 4, 2

and Hu"t (] 949) ft .!f.!iJf 'il: T ![ i!"!i1Wi'Jl:i!f!iiillil!<ilt iilJ I'~!!!!'!' ITT f>Y.111 ,

91olld~~Bi:111f~

rJ&"'"' Bi mID Jlitr -11 11'~ AA , .t!i:t JG:1:mft' 111'if!i1Wioiti!f!111 s .1fi'il ;a JlE f!'f ;1dt 'J'
'.Jij'Jl<

1 <rn <Rn

(5, 4. 34)

dp"I
1
drn 'n-t = - S

(5. ,i, 35)

PD<Ru,s) = 0

(5,

4,

36)

(5. 4. 37)

222

flli!ll'f'!ld4'C5. 4. 35lf1H5. 4. 36llEli!i\'ll: A,B ;f]


A= Jo_
SJ/<

- Ko<Ro ./$)
11 ( ./T)Ko(R.n ./S) +Ki filo( JS)

(5. 4. 38)

(5. 4. 39)

(5. 4, 40)

MC ./s)

= l,,(R.D ./s)K,,(rD

,V( y";) = 11( ./7)KGCRo

/S) -

fiJ

K 0(R.D /s)J,,(rv

+ K1( ./s)lo<Ro

/$)

fi)

(5. 4. 41)
(5.4.42)

T ;ll!d:fl iii' t!L Jl'r & ll! lE JCi't <5. L 2l 'I' lil! fJHll 'll: 1lJ '.!if JllZ
e"o

M( .(s)
s ./$N< ./7)

F(),,,,,

!!; s ::kJ!it!!l'il:B1 N(

./7)=0 ;flltlJl'Zll:,
s. = -

(5. 4. 43)

i!(

(1!. (J. =-i J's~

(5. 4. 44)

:!l'!lf!'i\ NI fi>=o;np
f1l ./S)Kv<& / ...~ .. )

+ K1C /S'>lo<Rv

/ ...$.. ) = O

(5. 4. 45)

fl'Jlil" i'llL 'l'Jlillli!"' BB J:>\,NP il. Ji!:lflli!


J,(R,,jl,)N,(#.) - N,(R,,jl,)J,(jl,) = O

(5. 4. 46)

!'Jlll n 1'1ElfL il!; ;l\;,1'\ s. \ll)Ji!;~!ft!Jt.1'\, Jltyf. lE s=O !1J<!)<I' ~'f'~!fi'!Jt.1'\ , lli!li;l: ~.1'\ 12lfr,
F Cs l tE.@: '!' i!f !Viti, ?Jr VJ illill!i'riil JC!!!;ii'!EE:IJ Pli ti: p, Iro .tnl 'JJ
oc

Po(ro,fo) = ~>~F<sn)

+ resF(s =

0)

(5.4.47)

ri!fit s=O !1'11 s=s. !1!'Ji!lti;,


ii Ill: !1Hlftl::E
O ' = o !1 l'li Ill: r.J ill ::E 141 3!: <5. 4. 43) lil! :trl Pli fl F <sl 9' 8':i 5FF M ( ./7) '11 5HJ; ./7
N< ./7 l Jt ZIJ ffl ;l'l;l&f/%>\ 'IJ!ii: , ~U<i'
(5. 4. 48)

(5. 4. 49)

223

(5, 4. 50)

(5. 4. 51)

ill.l!'flll s. 2. 2 ll'<l'i:''f\:<5. 2. 37l.m~:fi'


resF(s ..,_, O) = litn[cg
-~

1f

+ s(c~tn + c1) + 0(~ 2 )

i: e-fM"nJ~(Rn/1.)[N1 fi.),T~(rn/1.)2

Ji</3.)Nr,(rv/1.)] (S. .

4 53

/3,[J,lRv/3.)-J,(p,)]

~Jt(5. 4. 52)jil!(5, 4. 53)ft,A,(5. 4. 47)

(5. 4, 52)

''!!

.~;

Po ( to,tn

+]=bi Rv

.1!1::1:il!llijJfi'ltO'J1!!JZ;:iJ:

~ e-fM''vJi(RD/1.)[N1(j3.)J0(ri1/3.)-J1(/3.)N4(r,,{3.)]
~ [J'(RD/J,
o) ____ J'(''
)]
l"n _ 0
1 f',

) !Ro
- n rv -

1f L:..J
=I

(5. 4. 54)

;It'!' ,j3, Jll:fflii!(5. 4. 46)(1'JJll n 1'ifl..

#ilal!Bi X-!'fi>:#ltt'T*i!!, J!*G#f lf!iRP rn~ 111J:II;IJ, 41-'ft <s. 4. 54) 'I' rn~ 1,#f
li':f.'<1Jl*'i!;:ff#i% q; O'J:l:~Z.'l': <s. 4. 29 li!}'f- 2/ </3., "1fW, fll 'ft< 5. 4. 54 li'J Jll~ lJl!, mH'#f
It II;i:J ili il:l'l':
-

Pwr:i(tn)

21

e-!f.> v,f~(RD/31)
= nRD + 2 {Jt[J~(Rnf1i) - Jf</31)]
l

(5. 4. 55)

,;: ~ lllO lf!i l.lt:Bi :jJ :l:ilY)fist


) Q
P,,i(t - p, - 21fKh

(in r.,R + 2 f:ll[J~(Rn/3


,~''JiCRn/3;)
)
) -J~(;l )]
1

(5. 4. 56)
P~u =

(5. 4. 57)

lnRn

Pwi=p,- Q In R

21fKh

r.,,

(5. 4. 58)

1'E !lit ltll ll!i !li.;i:J lllO 1111t 'It ' ~;l;il!~iltl'l i~ fiU u Fw !!<:II.;~~ ill I.It: ;Ii "
5. 4. 3

Z!!~ll!l~JI:t.J

'l'l'J Ji!!!! lli.JJ Ji\jJ!J Ill Jf '.jt q; (I'] -1-ll!:-!l'tt 'It 'E Ei. ill1 jJ!J. (I'] ~tt . Ji\it J!I Jil( jJ!J li!!l!ltiiltf;*1

224

~~

l:Dl illrJiili 11!'1ili'it!J '51Ji:f 'f ~'Y(!'J J!d!l!Ji': J: ilt, 'f <Jlt!!lll ffi;iJ 'f IEJl.19 t7Gil27J< A i'.i'clld1 T J;
flJ IJifl' 'if HRll'i:t :JGe~ l~ et1llJ Folil!ll!JtlDJ 8'J ffi;iJ . ~~iti!' 11'11!! 1 tlJ '};_ , 'l"<Jlt!!lil ffi:lJ IE 5<'.. 19
m1-f'illi kl: it'll\ JJUt'< f llJ IJf l~ !>IJ (!'J!fi1J
iR :UH~ l~
J. ilJJ!ltll T "1J!lliil:'ifl&JllJ('l"!Jli!!ll!! EE;IJ 8'J $l'P1ilt., -l!itiJ!ll!, ME 7f
;ltE!'J i!li II! Ill iil:'if :if/! 11 m:1t:IHJ\i111 rr ri 'f <ilil!lll Jlij1 imlltl:' r;i $'if lill ll! 9'- ri 1f, Ell 'f :1te:
Jf (IJtE 7f % . [!I Jltif!:Jf Jli}J :f oT!lll!!J{:!!Jlll IP il'Jl'd!\ IW X P-l (!'J 31; !iiR'f<J ffi)J ttli'l 4. 6. 3 v 9' 'Ill
:ii'!~ i:t!ll EEJ1!!J{:l'l'dl!i!lllUrlfli:trl!*111'1".HJ!il!e JiiJ 8'J :tr!*. rn 'f 3iZflf,i111 it<Ji!:" lit Ill . IJil Jlt
illli:t!'rllli:ifl.!' fiJ.jilj 8'J lli1J :k'f 3i;lili fi"'l"!J lt!!ll!! lli}J 'll\ 4. 6. 3 11' 9' Jrm 8'J MBH fll MDH nit.
t!\l'>l! :\!\. lli U &HJi "1'.Jj(-# F!lfil :ll:'f!JJl!le lliiJli'J:tri!l.
MJJI! ii': J: 111. -1- F !If (i'J it:IP!'<J Jtl! Ill !li;iJ 8'J nl.!' Ii\' Ji!: .!'J mEE;iJ Jt 1\i~t llH' lt!! ll!li' fR 8'J
11\JtJj( i~. #. fL <1993al !if 'IE Ti 1'1"1 !\!I, i!ii:J:l!l -tl!lllli'll'l!i< :ffl.'i1* tlJ liHlll 8'Jio X9' illll'l:,
<a llt!!1"Ji!:!J !It 11!1 Jf31l J'1. ff~, 7r'l'119 R, '!' -c,- o 1i#, (b) mt i*Ji!:~ti fl 'f !li!lil 8'J 'Pim JI( 1*,
coi :1:11 fll 'if liltxtm.11'1 !!) 'M iif i:J. lifibc, cd) l'c it!.l\lJIH,lfll flJ
Fl Jtf1'-!!l:7! !If' tElliJ j\1f 11 v 9' E ~Jj(f1j T !'ritlJ'!. ~I'll 1'11 lE l!ill'i #1i!f Jf3 tt!ft lnl 8'J EE

*,

*.

'

;iJ:)t{liliij~ )ioCrr,;loJ:CS. 4.16)flJ(5, 4. 40), )ivCra,,l!1i'il:C5. L 2)i!ffllilii!~Pi!l!/ll!'i'inl(l'J

:JG:l:!lll EE;IJ 7! 1\1 'i!!tlii xtlili !1111* 11\!I\ """ u i*IRll!t~f'JL 1llfG '"1 Vll!itJi!:x&i'illililillf !I\ A
illf !I\! 1iJ '!" l!i lt!! ii! EE 1J , PJi [!.( !/ '11! '!!. fiJ 9' 31'; :ll!:!lll '!'l!i ll!l ll! Ell ;iJ p,. ;!J

f'-

Po.= AI [ [ ~
1.

"

2 1tJ.

(5. 4. 59)

Po(rn,s)e"t>ds dA

r- ""''

jg 7! ~ l~

;It 4;, rlii' ajl<if;'f l!j ii!! ,A~ <R' -r:>. Ill ~J !RJj({IJ '!"J:!J :ilk'& 3' l'iiJ'.!i'.:ll!: '" :i)Z '!" J:!J , llif ti: 'ilf j:!L
Jlli'.!)'.j!l<Ji\Xtet liiJ '.!)' lll: tn i!.i'fr~j'.I!, IJi tl J:i!(;cp IRJtli:Jf llf U :if.jjt, 'f Jld:J't'f Sj Jilt
(5. 4. 60)

(5. 4, 61)

;1;9' ,R,, ~RI r,, jjlj 1it Ej R!, Ii It ilf lifibc I , J:s't't 5'rit!J'1. J>t'll tU:ie lli!lilll\Jl!t!ll ti'J , J1Jl!lli tqPE;
l& 9' fl'J p,,(,-,,,, >il3st'!'l'!I1llf B l'liil R Pi'! 'f iHi':!'rit!J'!.~l'll (t1tll Jf3.
M'f!>rit!J11."ll'll1iifif3,~stcs. 4. J6l<s. 4. 1s>ti:A<5. 4. 6llf1j
0

f~''~'~'~~~~~~~~~~~~,~~~~~
12
RD

2
Pna

Rb - 1

[K1CRn ./7)lq(rn /7) +I1(r,, /-;) +K;Crn .fs )]rndrn

s~ [! 1 (R,, ~IS)K 1

,/$) - K, <Rn

/S)J1 C JS)

(5. 4. 62)

101 Ill ~Im B6 l)f1 Yi~ IF lii'in flJ ~l&tt!lt


d:[xf1 (,r)J

:r!~(x),

.......

........

......

225
.... - - - - - - - -

__4__[xK1 (.;r) J = --- xKo (x)

fE'it (5, 4. 62 )?J-'f !Ji'j,g iJ!j

Rp

!lit"''*

dx

M(rD /S)rDdro =

"v-1

rs -

rD

(5. 4. 63)

!Ii' J;; >It jlf j$:?J-'f jj\Jtl'Jj/j Jll,j/]

r-:-[l1(R:i fi)K1< f i ) - Ki(RD ./S)l1( /S)]

(5. 4. 64)

Jl1f'it<5. 4, 64lt';A<5. 4. 62lBP1!1


2

(5. 4. 65)

Pv.=R::,-17f

llLt 'it;(;' JfiO 'i!l'W<'it <5. 4. 60 >:lrtli'l' 'I' l'J t ,I:!\ BJ'Jo'l< 5. I lll 4 rr iii ill ti; JiL ill~ !!i1 "i! l'iil JG l:il'l
'i"J!lli!!ll! ffijJ Pn. (tD) '
2tD

2tn

Rh - 1 ~Rb
1'E Bi :iJ ~Ii: i:t@ 'I' ,'IA' B -!11 lil! fl! lll\ili! !li:iJ p;, mtl lll'f'J6J lil! JI ffi:iJ p,.
po.,(tn) ""'

~~'iPlio(tv)

p,.. (t) = p,- = p,

(5. 4. 66)

QBt
1f'l/>chR2

(5. 4. 67)

ruk'it~~WBi:iJ~~i:illl'l'ff~llj'~l'J'f'JOJlil!ll!ffi:iJ,~~k.k'ltB-~?t'f*ii<*W
.Iii~ jit, Jt-Of '/' R'~ 'l!:;<.!i,'fl. !!!(f*jR, fi)f Ii.( lll'JJ!!/i.if, l!!1"!i!!liif 'f' 'fl:IJ ~ffl:l'J !JijJ,

i'E;X:'itl'Jili'llL T, ~ EO ~5'!;1tllj'~ 1, 'itll!:IRL Bi p... i"J llj' B:In* ~ffil 'f s. Nti1"
p.,.

QBp [
p, - ZirKh
Pv(rv"" l ,t,o)

+ 5']

(5. 4. 68)

>/if 'it ( 5. 4. 67) 'f' Bf raJ t W<J!t 1 !"' llj' fiij 1,. Ji!> !ii~ ii 'it ( 5. 4. 68) , iioXi 'it et J!!J 'f J:IJ Ii!! fl! /f,jJ
p.(tp)"JJ
P~<t,)=

p.,,

QB[ Po(l,ti) - Pv.<tpJ:!)


Z1!Kh

+ SJ
(5.4.69)

=p.,+i::f,,ip.,+S)

Jt'f' A'= p, <1,1,n)- Po. <1,,)*m:lltfl!Pr!fili'JB JGtJllJ!lijJ 'ii! i!!!! p,. <1,,) = 21,n/llt. i!ii p,
( 1 1lpo) EiJ t\: (5, 4. 28) ~ ;l't: rft ro= 1,to =tpv~ 11. !!Ff 11.{
3

p,s(tpo) = lnRv -

4 + 2~

e-.~~vJ 1 (R 0 a.)
![Jf(RvQ,.) _ Jf(a,,)]

(5. 4. 70)

:lt'f' ' JI\ :If@ (5. 4. 20) l'J Jil n 1"lf!.. !ltl Jtfl! R/r f!l t DD, WJ:'it 1iJ J.'1'11; p,,(t,o)1J'!j)j 'f i!! 5,
2'f'.~ffllft1iJl!.(~fl!. et~W**lli'ii!il!::f~.
~llFltJ.'l''l"JiJ!i!!ll 1!171 IV lll!!lllr,
I)

W'Ei"'lftraJ t,, !'f'J'.~ R f!l'}tii!f 'J'.~ r.,lf.W Kt,lhKR'

oj!I

&=Jl/r. >li; =,./R.

ffioll! s. 2 l!1W p"il!'


3l Wp,,fl!.& B-!11 l'J P-fll *~ l!;l r S, l'li't\ (5. 4. 69) RPPJ~ W3::1tllj't1J l'J 'l"JiJ!i!!ll! /f,;IJ
p. Ct, l 1tiJ.iJ 5'!;1t Ii.( Fo ff fiiJ et J!!J l'J 'fJiJ !i!!ll! J.EjJ ::f W;il'it .
2>

226

~-~-~+---

le-3 5. [)08185 5.11306 5. 3643515. 700571 6. 21124 7. 310183 7. 415657 7. 667-365 S. 0048

g, 51911 9. 658201

2e.. 3 5.179972 5. 2852315. 535371s.872709 6. 3$3465 7. 482438 7. 587907 7. 839598 5. 176987 8. 591124 9.828207
Se-3 5. 280159 5. 385449 5. 636642 5. 973023 6. 483809 7. 58278 7. 688245 7. 93992 &. 277269 8. 79126 9. 926659

4e-3 5. 350986 5. 456292 5. 707512 6.

043~16

6.

~54716

7. 65368 7. 759141S.010801S,348113 8.861972 9.99S842

Se-3 5. 405714 5. 51103 5. 7622G8 6. 098684 6. 609494 7. 708448 7. 813904 8. U6555 8. 402828 S. 91656 10. 04898
6.1432~3

6e-1s.450255 S. 555578 5. 806827

6. 654088 7. 75301 1. 858463B.110095

~-4473398.

960951 10. 09199

7e-3 5. 487164 5. 593092 S. 844349 5. 180782 6. tl916 7. 790531 7. 89598 8.147599 8. 48481 8. 99830510. 12800
8e~3 5. 520125
9.,- 3 5. 548554
1e~2 5. 57388
2e~ 2 5. 737101
3.,~ 2 5, s2s<144
4.,- 2 .5. 890352
se~ ~ 5. 936131

5. 625455 5. 87672 6. 213158 6.

72397~

1. 8228977. 928342B.1799483. 517129 9 03051110. 15890

5. 653888 5. 905157 6. 241598 5. 752421 7, 851327 7. 95\i769

208362 ~. 545512 9. 058'/8510. 18591

~.

5. 679211.> 5. 930489 6. 266934 6. 77758 7. 876652 1. 98209 8. 233672 B. 570792 9. 08395910.

20~86

5. 842448 6. 09374 6. 430197 6. 941024 8. 0398150- 145225 8. 396708 8. 73359 9. 24589410. 31791
5. 93.;;19~ s. 1sso9a s. 521554 i. 032319 8. 1s1102ia:. 23493 s. 487912 a. s21e3s 9, 33638210. 44513
5. 99.'i70.'i 6. 247006 6. 583469 7. 0942115 8. 192972 a. 298351 8. 54973 8. 886359 9. 39775 10. 50298,
6. 041484 6. 29278/l 6, 629252 f. 1400i4 s. 238727 8. 344099 8. 595453 a. 93.2021 9. 44319410. 54587

6e-2 s. 011705 6. 0770616. 3283115 5. 66483 1.110652 a. 2742888. 370556 B. 6309?4 B. 967525 9.

4?8~64JO.

57957

1.. ~ 2 o. 00024 6. 105595 6. sso901 6. 693366 1 .2011sa s. 302014 0. 4os119 a. 659508 a. 995016 9. 50691210. 00711.

BeZ 6. 02s6z16.128977 6.
9e~2 6. 043068 6. 148424 6.
le- I 6. 059415 6. 1647716.
2~-1 6. 135482 6. 240839 .
s~~ 1

380283 6. 716749 1. 2275718.326191a.431554 3. 682877 9. 019371 9, 53027710. 62982


399731 6. 736197 7, .24701~ S. 345635 8. 450997 3. 702317 9. 038803 9. 54947710, 54886
4160j9 6. 752545 7. 26336'/ 8. 3619818. 467343 3. 718661 9. 0551419.56599610. 66495
492149 6. 8211617 7. 33944 8. 4311051;8. 543412 3. 794726 9. 131198 9. 542024 0. 74063

5. 152638 6. Z5'1996 6. 509306 6. 845775 ?. 356598 8. 455209 8. 56057 a. 811884 9.148356 9. 659182 to 15779

4e-l 6.156587 6. 261945 6.

51325~

6. 849724 7. 360548 8. 450159 8. 54519 3. 815833 9. ISZ306 9. 63131 O. 76174

5<!-1 G. 157496 ll. 262855 G. 514165 6. 850634 7. 3614518. 460068 S. 585429 B. 816743 9, 153215 9. 664041 0. 16265'
6.,-1 6.157706 6. 263064 6. 514374 6. 85084.S 7. 36167 8. 460278 8. 565638 8. 816953 9, 153425 9. 66425 10. 76286.
7e-1 6. 157754 6. 263112 6. 514423 6. 850892 7. 361715 8. 460326 8. 565687 S. 811001 9. 153473 9. 664299 O. 162911
Se~I

6.1577,65 . 263123 6, Sl44S4 G- 850903 7. 36\726 8. 460337 8. 565608 8. 817012 9.153484 9. 66431 10. 72gz

9e- l 6. 157768 6. 263126 . 514436 6. 850905 7.

36172~

8. 46034

8.

~6$'!

a. 8171)15 9, 153487 9. 66431210. 76292

lrO

6. 157?6B 6. 263127 6, 5144S7 6. 8.)09()5 'l. 361729 8. 46034 8. 55701 8. 817015 9, 153487 9. 66431310. 76292

2e0

6, 157769 6. 263127 6. 514437 6. 850906 7. 3\il7.2S 8. 4603418. 5657018. 81701S 9, 153488 S. 66431310. 76292

3e0 6.

157~69

~s.s
MDH,MBH

6. 263127 6. 514437 6. 850905 7. 3617.2S 11. 460341 8, 5657018. 817015 9. 153488 9. 66431310. 76292

~Tmffi~~-~tt~ffi~~n&#~'''~~-~

n&Jltti lt;Jl' rlif 'l!il'i1-illl l!l ~:9<1"J

;ll;lli;,jl:.i;~J'J'f:\l! $. 3,

'II! 5.3 1Jl(ll"81Jl(2lidlffill*


1'J

~J

(I)

r/=O. 09
c, = J. 278X

l0- 3 MP~- 1

(2)

~=O, Z4
c,=8. 73>< io-MPa-1

B=\. 50

B=l.12

Q=779. lrn1/d

Q""'24m'/d

h= 146. 9rn

h=LO. Jm

.=2x10-Pa "
l,=310hr

=4,62X10- 3 P~

t, .... 4380hr

r.,=0.108m

r.,=O, lm

R=S04. 1
~(U=O\=

19. 03MPa

p..,(At=20)=22. 87

R=200n1
p..,(&=0)=2. 317MPa
p..,(.:.\1=54)=7. 38MPa

227

!l! tE ;\fJIll* l'i liJiit:lillii!!ff it:lt


MT'fllJ (!) 'l)Jjtlfl R/r.-804. 7/0. 108- 7451,Kt/;cR' -o. 368, 2) 83 '1'< 5. 2 iili1l!:'i'f1!
p,,-8.167, Sl!ll s~a. 6 83~(5." 69).ftllfr)jtll! p,.,-23. os1MPa,
XtT'fllJ (2), l))jttlJ R/r.-2000 ,Kt/;cR'-1. 948, 2)83 ;& 5. 2 ll!i{i'[Jjtj!j. p"- 7. 192, 3)
)fl S- -3. 2 83~(5, 4. 69)Jil:llfr1!j. p,.-8. 217MPa,
.1i'J!ll4'1'7ilii.!;;l!I 4. 6. 3 l'i'111Jfitil'J MDH ;l;lli ,MBH J'flliit:Jt!liJIHt*'i'.!ml',
Ills. 4 !1!*11"~!0.!; MDH,MBH ~)iO)lj~(l)ltJ1JIC2JitlJOltt<il
K

"

Of$m

911 (I )

23. 201

o. 276

L 263Xlo-i

B!J(Z)

10. 64

1. 702

i. 503x io-

,mg

......MPo........... -MPa/xtft:liJM

'fl]:JI!! !if ffi iJ p,~ CMPa l

"M'

*"1111i!

MDH

23. 057

Z3.057

23. 011

8. 217

8. 443

~.S3

' 6

-s. 2

MBH

>IU S jj'J:;t 'lit !i\ill: 'lfjt l1f J1t14 l!l c1!t 5. 4 !!If J>~ !Ii JI! BJ JA\ , Ill MDH nlii e)f
l!! !Ii JI! '\I :if< :lilii il'J 4e 11tll!i!i , mi )fl MBH :lilli P!i illlii JI! .lHlli>l jJ(j( , .M. if j!: Ji !l!;[!i ;fit ,:<jl: 1J
!!Ht 1Jl'.r.J !! ,
:1J1 5. 4 <j1 p ' , m, K

*'

s. s

liili'..>IMI~ irtdla

JS!l!.!Jfltli>:il'J Jll itiJll l\ltJ;,f,j'lf)ljJ l'1 r .,,;;,,,;;,, !'J l IK:fll r >r, il'J I IK il ;r; l'1 il'J KI fifMJi.
!.Kl, <Ell! 4. 6. 21'<1' ~ r.iitlil!l r~'lf>IU'lil'll'Ji!!i! '11/!elJtl'Jll!fr'JJ!\EJ ~Jf>!ilt-i'l5li'
IK, i!l!l~J!!.$ K, ;r;1!J''f K, Jlt~r, l1J1;>j(ijK iJllill'!i.llA.>11!> !iltil!i1'1' fill !IUt fr'J fill 'L' l!!l IKI!<. ll'lilt,
~~1*lJllill'l~@A~E~fr'J~~~~.

5. 5. 1 l!liil!llllf'!l!~ia.lel!MI
i.\t iJlll\ltil'J'IJJiit !Ji.;)) ~"lft, 'If it( iJ!i"':lt Q !Ef', m~ fJll ,f,ol!!J :!!:*lJ!t l\ltil'J iE:ill< I'~ @BJ:lii lilt
1'P1

ar'

i1 Pi

+ ?.12. =
r

+l

ar

1'-,,c

Jp!

r.,<r<r1 , t>O

K 1 at '

8Pz _ tA,c dpt


ar - Kz at '

(5.5.1)

>0

(5. 5. ?.)

r .. - - - -

r=r.,,i:::>O

(5. 5. 3)

P1(r,t) = Pa(r,t),

r = r 1 ,t > 0

(5. 5. 4)

r=r1 ,t>o

(5. 5. 5)

Jr

ap1

ar -

2n:Kh'

K ap1 -K

ia,.-

?Pl

~ar

P2Cr-=,t)=O'fii.ap,I
Jr

1>i(r,t)

r1

= p,(r,t) = O,

=O,
r-11.

<

r,t

t> 0
r.,:o;;;;r,t=O

(5. 5. 6)
(5. 5. 7)

228

-----------------------

dtp_
1 dp=
+ -rdr
_, =
dri

5
-----p.,
1

(J~J.2)

Xi

(5. 5. 8)

.,. dp 1 = ~ E E = _9e_
dr
s '
21tKh

Pi (r1 .s)

(5. 5. 9)
(5. 5. 10)

P2Cr1 ,s)

Ki ~d..!!.L = Ki
r,

~d.l!.!,
r

r = r1

p~cr-0<:>,s)=O:!!X:

(5.5.Jl)

dPil
~o
dr r~R

(5. 5. 12)

1r l'1 <5. 5. s Jn, !ll '.Jl' :II: il'J IJHl !F 1r 1'1. ::9fi1fiiiilil1". .le

z,=~,

+ BK (rz
CIQ(rz2) + DKo(rz~)

Pi (r,s) = Al.(rz 1 )
P2(r,s) =

(5. 5. 13)

j=l,2

(5. 5.14)

1)

(5. 5. 15)

::91111 !Eilil fil , r ilii '1< 'flt 18 ?f i!! J'Ht! 'f :JG'1< :le i1'J I'llW !II i!!Jl-~i'f 'Ill IJ11l! !F !iii !& !'J tt !li , 1iJ!E
ill c~ 0' :)1;1?: :=". -1' !I!& A, B. D EE rfJ :trl!J!il!;j!IJ!l!!I,
(S. 5.16)

+ BKo(r

Alu(r1z 1 )

Al1Cr1z1) - BK1Cr1:t1)

1:.: 1 )

(5.5.17)

DKo(r 1z,) = 0

+ (JK 1 /K 1 )DK1(r 1 z~) =

(5. 5. 18)

ill':IJl!i!(5. 5.16)-(5. 5.18)il'J'!\!&ti'JlJi'\"


A= JKiKo(r 1zi) [11 (r1z1)K1 (r,.z1) - 11 (rwz1 )K1 (r1z1)]

+ -IK"sx 1(r 1z 1) [!1 (r,,z1)K0Cr1z1) + lo(r1z1)K1 (r ..z1)]


1' 'l1' 'f 'f:. 1 I: ?1J *I !If~$ lit!&
(5. 5.

K,

($. 5, 19)

1' IJ1 \i!; IF !iii !& K, Crz l t~ Ill! iii. ma 1r ll!l!l< 5. 5. 16 l -

181:/!Pf!-!ll
4 =

r..,~s4[ ~K0Cr1z2)K1Cr1z1) -

B = r ..!sA[

D=

JK':Ko(r1z1)K1Cr122)J

~IQ(r,z1)K1Cr1z2) + Jl'1K~(r1z2)l1Cr1z1)J

5i ~[Io

(r1z1

T,..Z1Sl..l

>fjf J;!;@ ~~it A :Ill\! !5. 5. 14Jjf!J <5.

)K 1 (r1z 1 )

+ K~(r 1 z 1 )1

(r1z 1 ) ]

s. 15 J , PP 14 il!i-1' li<Jl& 'l';tlr E< !i!lliJil'J !E';iJ 1l' 'ITili!i fL fil'!l!,

~(1985),

5. 5. 2

~lll~r~llSJJit.JiiEi~

M.t - J' l'i ;Jt 14 i1'J ~ !iii !& .,,, fa y;, i!! rr !& ft Bi i:1i! , PP 14~ !!11 5! fiiJ i1'J IE' 7J !iii !& p, <, ,t 1fa
p, (' , t) , 1'i1 !!\~:fl< if] Jf ~!iii ~i!!ti'ill ~Bi i:li! , I!.( iJ' ;;Jt ill~ !!I! 5! lliJ il'J !II ~Ill .
i*J IK !11 Bi:IJ '11\li it Jtlilf 'It 1 Ii< i1'J IE
l!i!, 1l' ~'"1 ajj, Jf 'f I"' I <, 1l 6# o, jijj

"'!1

229
I, (;Jtf ":.!r'Filif iii, K.(;)tf Iarg; I< J:mili.

'f!ll P (r,;) <E'l''l'-ilif Re[.];:,r>o J:ili,

1'11 Ill ;=, Iarg; I< ~-B'JiilfJlil!!i'i'i'i: <Jl\ l;Afjj!: BS l


I " (s )

1
r.<:::::e ' , K ~ CsJ. ~

y 211's

ii)!;( iiE BA 1'4''- ilif Re[;];;?or> 0 1:' !!j

Ii, ..,

(5 "'
' ZOl

?e
.,S

,-=a<t P (r ,, ) ""T a<g; --lil'.lo!I 'f '1;, 1t.fl.

Jr~;"' P (r,s)ds
Y-t0o

(5. 5. 21l

(5. 5. 82)

B'JJl'ltJil!!i:!i.>J:, l/il'!l!Xf l:'i'i:it'll'.tl!i!!:!l\?J-, Ill ;!J ; ~ 0 tkli!if!\il 'tt p(r,;)


Cl -e") 1"1-1' .Ji: I.\ ,l;\'ilf !J\ 'i'~lli!:l'J-~J i!l!, !m 00 5. 4 fi!iii\,
:IJ T Jit llJ

p.{r of)

..--r-.::B

+ i/3

_____
c ______ c_
,

'

D'

Ill s. 4 It ll:;t: i!:illJM l'lil?Hlil 11!


(E Ill 'I' fi!f JI< 1"1 liil ll1f i*J l'f A~ 0, PJi Pl 'tt p, Cr,')(! - e") tE)t< ff .lit i*J WI iii,

t'

ill M CMwhy

lie1l'

p,(r,s)(l - eH)ds = 0

(5. 5. 23)

_tilCC' lY DA

oliJl!l ,-o a>I I, jilJ K,

2~!~!{1, +LL+ [/p (r,s)(l ~e")ds

P1(r,t)

l/!Jiillfl~:fl:Jt;'i'i:(Jl\l;Af:!i<

B4)

10 -1,!1 - s/Z1Ko ,...,_ ( ln

J]i (r,s)(l-e")dl-O,
1

'

(5. 5. 24)

+ r) ,Ki ..~ l/$


:tp-O

(5, 5. 25)

(5.

s. 26)

230

:f4f l:'ltf"':A<s. 5. 24ll!I


P1<r,t)

'f'
,

2m

-=

]i1 (r,s)(l - e")ds

+ -21:rn.f~- ji 1(r .r)(l -

e"}ds

(5. 5. 27)

(5. 5. 28)

)(w)=

'l>F

Nu(;: J~:w] [Ji( ;:w)

+ 'l'G tJ>l

i('l>G - 'l'F)d

+ 1Jt2

N1(w) - Ji (w)N1(

;:w) J

+ ~N, [;: ~w] [J,(w)N,( ~:w)- J,( ;:w) N,Cw) J

~ ;: w j[J,( ';'w) N,(w) -

;:w) J
+ ~;J' [~ ;:w] [1,<w)N,( ~:w) 1,( ;:w)
J

'l'(w)- J, [

J,(w)N,(

N, (w)

F= JJ 0 (
G=

;w w)- m,v~( ;w w)

gJo( :~ w)- nNo( ~ w)

f~J,[ 'V!K;
fK.:KK'Nr,.,("-w)J,[ "\/{K;
K. "-w]N,(''w'Ir.,
r,.
-"J K,
K 'r.,w)
1

:f4f 'lt (5. 5. 28J oftl <5. s. 29 Jf\:A <5. 5. 27) DP Ill pg IK!li:IJ 1l'1ii Jili~

(5. 5. 29)

231
(5. 5. 30)

(5.

5. 5. 3

s. 31)

;j:j: I; ff :t.J

'fa.IT 111 'fi:i:Jf .!lllltlllifJl'UE:tl. tE'it cs. 5. 30>9'~ r=r. !!l;l!ljJ if Jll\!'J $111\li!l!i'Jl::, iii
itl!ii7f 'II! J! l!'.i-;# HJ~ <l'F+'PG I'll! It 'fa.I

~ [,!

(<PF+ 1P'(;) =,,. =

1 (w)No(-r.u)

- J 0 (w)N 1 (w)]

IN I-WII - I
IJ
[J,[ ,,,;J(;
{K, 'L,v)N
r,wj-J,[ ,,,jfa(;
(K, ".!.wjN,[ {K, ".lw]]
K:
-../'Kz
'

[J Ir,
J

-W

r..

r.,

J 0 -w
r, ) l~
" 1(~
r,

r,

r.,

r.,

0 [ ({;

'\

r,,.

r.,

O!'Jl!l*il'Jl::C5. 4. 29),J:>\4!t1'/rf.S%9'1!'1il::MJ1if Ill 2/rrx

r.,

r.,,

ii!!~ (x 7l'M~'fa.1 w.r,w/r.,

(JK,/ K, )r,w/r,) f!Jil!!.


(5.

s. 33)

(5.

s. 34)

ri:IJMJ!;.1'ifR7l'!l!!il:llHtl'll! 1t. 'fa.I Jlt. "4f IR?t '.!ti: w 1t 'fa.1 ll'i lit. IP [O .w,]~ [ Wo. = J' tE ll(
l\i)[O,w,].J:
(5. 5. 35)

(5.

5. 36)

(5. 5. 37)

232

(5. 5. 38)

(5. 5. 39)

BJUIJl#Jil:!li:IJ ! Bil'ilJ Jt:)t:ke& ,E, ( -,1)-0,exp( -ct)-o, IP 'il:;(S. 5. 39) 9'1li'i'l:l!l4


lii!i 'II: JM fl! Jli'l'I: liiii ~ lJ! J:IJ iiJIJib!i lil:Fn ;jij. :!!'.it lJli "'9' -C:- r:J JHil!llHtllli ffi n;\I
(5, 5, 40)

(5. 5. 41)

(5. 5. 42)

5. 6

7Cllll::k!&1.a

4< 1'!11n7Gflli!:k.lt!l!l! 9'!!l 1iit*1l Jj( 'fit,#~ Jil'lii.r!lllil ff!! itOO M!il! 11t~. Agacwal,
AlHussaing,Ramey jr(1970)'.fiJJf.J:t1rif:t:!LWf?!!9'ttRJi<:f4:i_itt S ft! Cn fflJfi~Jff, Gringarten et al
c19 i 9J!& tf1 ~J c,,,, ;\I1'L-A'J illit ~~!it tf1 -'ll'$H!l ill! AA litlll!~ 00 Iii . M. ilil ::!11'J f!l J\'.11/l '!t J!I} 1IJ'
!T!!tftitJf4{JfitlJ\\tT i\rd'f. Bou,det et al. 0983lJ!;tf11 Gringatcn !Elili'l::llel:: 'f'l'l:ilb~.jj;
ill! tJ<m it:lr1*i!l:1Tit #ffi'11ll!llniiJ ll:. m: il'OT or fir ilL JU 20 1lt!c 90 'Pf-I:.* 'F'Jtttffll ll!~
?t!lf1! T :Ii! li'J ti:~. rL, il!, p 0 996a, 1997) Kong, Xu, Lu< 1996c llilf T 1"r fill '1>tt.lt!l!l! 'I'
4 .!U!< 'F'JHI) BifJ l\l'tt, !t"tJ1!t:l<.r!lllil ff!! Jtlli'llt'lt1$iili'J T 'll'J.!l!i!: IE. ::!I :fr .:l<J)C 'fit ~.l! f".it
# !& tf1 T 1'I! ii Jf.illl ~rlH& '1'J ffi '11111* 4< 111 1'I ;J;J! <!!' 1'I! ~fl! :Ir!* . 'f Jl: !;!! ii1Jll~i!i'!1i1'
'!'# fiJ llli. :IE Mt it. Fi 0 996a, J 996h l <!> '!; Jt:li>' 9' !llnM. iiJ ~cit !fl 4. s. 1 1' fll lll 4. 6. 6 1'!>

!J '\).
5. 6. 1

7C llli ;':: l!!l Iii c:p .!!!. 11' all ff 1J

:1 !fl 4. 6. 2 1' 'I' 111.\l> tf1 :It Ji! Cl< .r!l llil f fll olf 1"! 1lt ~ II) Pl it! !Ill ~d'f, RP 'ii:: (4. 6. 31 l llZ
<4. c. 29 >.r 4. 6. so 1. 7G "1:kJl!!!l! 'l'!il 1i 'If II) )E illif 1llJ l'liiiJ'.Eif tf1 mrf,
(5, 6. 1)
(5, 6. 2a)

233

.\

C dp.,n
II dt,,

!Jpn)
. JrD

'n~I

~J.

ff)>

(5. 6. 2b)

(5. 6. 3)

li1npD(rn,tn) ""'0,

"n-"'

1 ~ rp

pp(rv,tp) = 0

< ao ,tn =

(5. 6. 4)

Jl;9' .s J<ci!<&: [!I 'f '3i'.:!l!!l<J.,,, J(_ j;


rD = !.._,tn = J.Kt2'

ZrrKh(p, - p)

rw

ycrw

Pn~
Q
Cn=~
'i-'f '1: ( 5. 6.

lJ - (5, 6. 4) ~tHtfiiJ 'Jl'il! tn

(5.6.5)

i!!'ff lll'l!'lllJtli'Jl'J!I! !ft ill


(5. 6. 6)
(5,6.7a)
(5.6.7b)

(5. 6. 8)

,Jl;9' ,, J<c!lrlfifrllii'Jl'il!. :IJl!l(5. 6. 6)8',Jiifi!l'IJ<c


PD<rv,s) = Alo(rt> /$)

;j1J Ill Ill ~ I, (.r,-oo )-oo 8'J l'!lf..


(5. 6. 7Ji>!ili ~~ B

+ BKa(rr, ./7)

ITT i'f J.lt J'HIH'f (5. 6. 8) "'ill iii~ A~ 0

(5. 6. 9)
0

f(jj ITT

VJ J:'j J'l. ld'f

11
B

-l --

' c.,K,C ./7)

(1

......- ........- ........-

+ C,,S,)

./7K,( ./7)

(5. 6. 10)

J'Ji' \:.( i'El!I: El; "i! 1"1 !fl:!: ffi}J 'it ;ffi' (!'JK< Jjlj ~ 11
Pn(rv,s) = 1 .. ... ----~~-(rv...

f.Z.?. . . . ._. . . . . ._. . . . . ..

(5. 6. 11)

./S) + (1 + CvSs) /SK1( /$)


11 T ~f!''ir IJT(!'J\\11Jl , llt flllll'ilt 'ifIll; ffi:IJ , ~ 1iiil'!Jl<'.[!I 'f i'1 JE;, JNi!:ffi:IJ fll c;~ <4. 6. 3o l!\'t
ill ,iii:>!: f'Fli! If !fr Jtli'Jl'Jf<l!I
s CvsK 0 (

(5. 6. 12)
~:>!:<5.

s. 11 >ttA '' s. 12i:1Jj\li"79'1fl!i< ,.,~ 1,ap111f!' 1;<!iJJ8'JK<w~


,r o()
, =

1
.l-- Ko~.o;'"";) +S ISK
, - </S)
,.-

,'./7K,C./7)+Cn>[K,Cv ,)+ ot sSK,(v ,)]

(5. 6. 13 )

.tx!:TIJ' Ill !I! s. 3 \1 Eri!l fl'J1il.lii!!'ff lli1 ilUii: ilif. i:!J. TIT Ill !I! s. 2. 2 fJ' fi.Jf Jtfl'J l!lllifHtifr!lll'iJT &
ll'!. Tlliflilf 'li'.12: 8'.J!fliJT & ll'!.
:Ii' JitBi:tJ lm:(EX>J';!: (5. 6. 13 Jifi'!lll'IJTIii' ilif, 'ittllil'! l!Jl, Ill~ P,.o (< li'E ,~ 0 Jlt 1f -Jt,I.\,

234

.Jt4z-'ft !&.\\\#! tE ffi 'f"'jl;~ l:.

I!;] lliliiJllil ~D 00

5. 4 Jji;iR il'JllHr lfil Ii&. tEW:lfil Ii& l'l ll!l 13:J;I; D, IJ!!
l!1 cl !t:li\fl!ll,ff (Y.L lm.l\ii Cauchy ;l;Jll!. lit lfil li&!lHt

-A
.m f

Pwt>(s)e"vds

Ail<,\- D DA

(5. 6.14)

(5. 6. 15)

(5. 6.16)

=z~t2-_rr;,{f-+-

,-~

D'D

CC

-j--J)PwD(s)(l----e"o)ds

(5.6.17)

:it 'f. ,., ,, 1m,.i: <s. s. 1a1!Ii11,, r,.'lm.1!11'i!1'ilJ elfm;EEn "1<1'f m,.i: <s. s. 111 e<i=: t-1!17t z;f!l '1t
lll. f Jlij 5l-~Jlf)!IJ:k=:-tll'l7t riJi.
o !tlilf'li'.JJLo1-IR7t. <!!- p-<' -'" ,d,-iffe"dO. l$:'1\(5. 2. 22) mU<f
I=
l_,
:J
210

F($)d(s)

f'

= -I Jim
211' .-o

--~

"

Pwu(s = t:'e' 0 ) (1 - e'n' ' 8 )t2e"'d8

Ji; 'f. llltjj:\ Pi 'I!: F (s) - p.a (>) (1-e") , l&; e--0

tnEZe'~

,__[in~+

Ki<./}-)-

18)

nt, 'ff (JI!, B4. B6)

1 - exp(tvffe'&) ,......

Kv(,/"$)

(5. 6.

i: +r]

!e-'

il!Lll:i1lii!i'l!H!;:Jl:it.A.'11:(5. 6. 13).f!J(5. 6.18)jfi.J: <O,Ji!l:!J,iiEHJ!JI0.=;1-1')15l- r,-o, l!;]Jlijcjf


l~!E.1J ~llitl:Jif '11: <s. s. 171 'f iltrJ!'i-tlibt .<:.ffl.
iffitEit!l'ifrCC'.ffl D'D ff'JfJ<:)} I fil I,,
if} CC' ;s=1e'=-a2,

/7 =ia,ds=~200a.ttl~lf

I -~If'_!_ [K~(ia) iiaSK 1 (ia)](l


e-- n)(-2a)d
1
2ni. = - if. - a~CvK 0 (ia) + (1- Cn8al)(ia)K 1 (ia) a
11

i'llllffiii! B8

~15.:: ... il;.JJl-Mi!'bl- I,

11 =

Pf'illil.

~f= ~ ~ - ~(1
m.~tr

e-11n)da

(5. 6. 19)

(5. 6. 20)

235
A=
B=

+ aSJ (a),
N~(a) + aSN, (a),
J~(a)

+ (d'-CvS aCnJ\ ~(a) + (a2CvS -

C = aCnJ-0(a)

D
1

}ff D' D:s=r:le- =-cl,

=
2

..Lf"

rs

_._ae-'~11

(5. 6. 21)

l)J1(a),
l)N 1 (a)

= -ia,ds= -2ada,Ji!tiff

_l_ [Ku(- ia) - itt.SK 1 ( ia)](l - e_'i'D)( 2~?.da


Ztri ,, -cf (-cl)Cr;K 0 ( - ia) - ia(l - trC,;.S)K 1 ( - ia)

(S. 6 ZZ)

'l!iW;!!, 1'J!ll ~) .. BS ~>'i':'f:\lf I, >j ~

-1f. -1(- A+ iB)

I 2 ~ niod

C+iD

(1 -

-''D)d

(5. 6. 23)

fi':<5. 6. zo>E;<s. 6. z3>JW;!';#!ta.l!J

P..n(tv)

= 11

+Ii= ~-f~ ~ -~!-~~{2+-DFfC) (1

11

- e- D)da

(5. 6. 24)

antes. s. 2D1'
(5. 6. 251

a'{[(a'C,S

J)J1 (a) +aCaJ,(a)]'

+ [(a'CnS

J)N1 (a)

+ aC,,N,(a)]'}
(5.

6. 26)

.a

5. 6. 2 7t Pi j\ II!! lil c:p t:I= mi !IJl te lit t:I=


1'J mi': cs. 6. 26) Jff !ltll!1'!(;t ,..~ fll ;!'; <s. 6. 131 Jff!ltlll!J1. l!il. or w. wp.,-1a B'1 jll;
l!'! lib iii<. ;': 9' , lf]W 1-#1:. PP s fll cD. i[l(~!lt1lf% Ill 'f lib !!lllt! -l'tJlr lt~!li<ill!B'J. '1'.JEB'J Jiklilf
l'l;.jl! DJ! , 'f lll-1-!ll it#!lt C,e-"J!Eli'J fi!l'l!i(>; IE lili. Yi(\( , lft!llJ (tJ 00 Jiliji!,l\( p.,J;i!bU~ !iii, l\( ta/
c, "~ ~ w, , l\( c,," "1#!1t8'J !!till! !ii<. 'E :111!\l i[l(!t!lt~ !iiilft!llJ 8'J. Jtu oo s. s JW:ii<. m9' lib!ii<
CD'11 Ji!: 'l'xt !It lib!ii< 8'J lli!!lll!ltiElii; llt~J , t:; Ji!, 41-1-lli:!J lib !!llJ: p.,x1 1g,, =!Ir >r~Hf l!ii ll''f
"" (tJ .\\( 8'J ;J; iii<
1"1 "! jjj tiJ ,;!';CS. 6. 26) Rlil:!\l 'f 1l! &:Ill 'f S>O 8'11\f iii. X1'f S< OB'.1111% ,!ll@ it. JE~
!&!IHUif if PJf tiJ llllff'J, 1'mil11llfl ~ :fE iHl!iJti'lillW~ ll!.tlf i!!JE)J lil\lt. J:l: l'El!l 4. 6. 2 1' 9' 8#2
llll ii:t 7. X>t':f S< o, !t: llli': <4. 6. 201 !Wii!Jl..B'J'li!&tl'l'l"'1''18'111!$. Jetl'l\Uffili 8'J llt~fP )\j
lifi!Notl'l'l" '1''1'.J\::k. flWil!JIE ~Jlrl'Ei': cs. 6. 26 l 9' ~ s~ o, i!l.:lGl:!fll lltfij '" ftl x !!! !fl! 11'1"!
1it'li: Co A'J~'tt<lt r. :MJ itz (\( r.e-', PP tn fll Cn :MJ Ill tne"fll C,,e" f~'I!'.
'!':llbi~ S<0,;':(5, 6. 13)fll(5. 6. Z6>!t*~it"1

(5. 6. 27)

236
(5. 6. 28l

IE s. s 4' llJI it. ffi !ll llil >t Ell !II\ <ll ill! !ii< l"Z it< 11! >J: <s. 6. 27 HJ; <s.
<J, 3. 2) .l.1!11' IR iJf . ,Ii!.~;:\: cs. 6. 27) q:t f~Jrl s= iln2/ (tJJ!Cv)CDe ~"

6.

2s lit Ji: 1ll lit ililL :1l' !ll il:

1oir--------------------~

..Willl~.1:*'!$1; 1 1)9

.ll:ltl!IOI k '9 .lcll<Uj "1

lo'

JO'

IE S. 5 Grlngarten lllllli'.
l!!Jlk i'!I s. s 'I' c,,e'' i1I Ii ill: lfJ it'i JR ill! '11<4' lit 1B f~, il.:!it ill! '11<111 if
iE !lll!l fl'J l' illl iE
ff.. tJT Jl:R~it1-tlllfl.llomdet et al. (]983JtE Gringarten i!iilliiJ:!l!JmTllll"Zlflffi;/J.\l'l'!HI!

!If* -

jj(, ;fJ fji .\l'li(ill!jj(lj' fii;fJ Hi! id(flltili:.f!':(E fill ll!X</j&filiif i'!I J: ,.'fj& ill! !J< fli !!('J;_ f,jt Jjj d(;;i~,)

Z, ,151i ill_ !f>ffi"'I'!1Jl C\1

In ICn

Ill Cne". fii;fJ .'f1'! i'!l liJilt 11 Bourdet i'!I Jllii. jl!j ~.f!'i;-:(E-i!'ilf<FC\I

00 .Iii, Jm i'!I 5. 6 p)f"', it <!J1HI! i;I! 8'J lf.Jtlllli'~ C\l"f '!<ill''f l (1'J Jl:i;I!, jfij .'fj& ill!
!J<(l'Hl<J!Jlll',I:~ C\1 p' etr/C, ~ 1/2. r1! 'f ffi;JJ .\l'l'!ill! !i<XH!li!i: (1'J c,,,a ii! IK~U*l'.;I; an Ji!.. it ii'il:!E
:iJ ill!ii<1ll .'f1'!ill! i111rJ n~J!Hilil fr. tt !till fr fli!li ll!l!!tcrilllJi! 1ll liT 11f.
Gringacten-Boucdet

0 1

10

100

1000

lo/C' D

111S.6

Gringa:ten~Bourder

111/lll

100.)()

237

iit#Mffi 911 Ii i1l ffe !I JI! 1 it!E Ill ill!~~~ it ltii!J'fJ !li 111 i'1: Jt1i'rlrl!d11 !fr lW ,
1 l 1lr lls1111k~i Jt Ill; !KJJ 'llt*r&lllJ llli; p.-t illl'1!<;fll (dp./dt lt-t illl '11<, 1if IE JJ illl ~;fl! 11 Iii:
1111 '1!< liiJ llt1!11! ~ l!l lllLtiltff lll it, 1' 1!1-1' !lt'li: CDe" i1!, Jtlo l' 'I' Xtlli: illl ~ !'J li:'1!< llb!!l Ml
Btli!J,
Z)

3)

4)

if !1!1-J11 ih\\ .{1!-l'IJ <p.o/t>p) fl> [ti (tn/C") ]. !'Jili. ll'!Jll::JC 1;!1'1:/l!'J"' J<. 'Ti~

Kh~~:l~J:).

(5. 6. 29)

c = ~h( e;fc~)

(5. 6. 30)

ell c *ii :JC :!lil'!Jtiili1it'li: CD'


!ll C De'' ili:f!l CD iii:>)' t!j :i!!!li:~ T S,
S

~.,tn[E.ft:)MJ

(5.

6. 31)

!In *~IKJJ ij(2!'. li\'1f. Wi &1l!J!;il!J !En 'li:l!'ir&lllJ 11t P <"" >--p" <oi - "" illl ~. atrBJm s
ffl it,\!! [<It/ (ID/CD) J.,
illi 1it Xfj!j ir!'J!li li!'!if iJl;fj'jl);~, Ill;~ llJ )fj Horner /ti Jl!<I )((J<J Horner Iii, Horner l!il!t~
ell 1: ]lif IJ1lt/MI'! I 'f'lo l' 8'J '!' Jt'li:rl!i !11<J:li:~l'lt 8'J i!!l Ml.\\\ 7f lil , ff flijJ 1111 ~'!' Xtlli: Ill J:Jtjll;
-!!< li:~. :flj lll ikil< li:f;!lt!:l!! 4. 6. 3 1'!'Jflt!'J'!\"imli\Jt:frilrnl.!: llJ k~ JjH~
fl! S ill:, jf.!;f lll
i!ll f;!l~l(l- nltl:>l<ii!'J!li ll!iltff HAi1' li:?iL::4f ~1 B'J \1!'1.tJ 'f :\t1'fr!II! 1l!~J 11:' ~Jiit!
ill:
B'J .fJl xtll!!H T lo% , ;!;Jt~ -f s B'J i'ext!Ji!'lil: 1J T o. 5, llJ ii. "'11" 11-ll'lff 1~ l'IJ llli:t!li ll!, 11'!

Kh

'Kh

\K;t,~j\l}#),.ltJlli$.

Xf'f !KJJ1i'<J: 'li:l!'ill'lfi'ii'f l!!B'Jlll;~Jf llJ !ti I.Ifill I!<. Horne' I.I<, i:!: 1'1fl:li B'J !JI;, lli!lf
iltrilii Ill Gnnga<ten III Jlli(JJ:ltt fiJ11l!B'J D 1'11 iii:' "1Jltl A ( 5. 6. 26)"' (5. 6. 28) lif 'll'lli-!R fiJ1il'I
"Horncc l'f lli. ill!~,., IP PD[ (t, +At l DJ- PD' (At) DJ-lg[ (t, +<It) Di (Al)"]B'J ill! !l\, 'l'f It\ 1'1-!li

rJ

JE WI , i:!: il< illl <J< il!l .!;f JI; iii !liil tlO!: 'li:l!! J\lil:lli: it .

"

5 ' 6' 3 :li5 llli :*: ll!l ~ cp 7.l< zis tt . '! !!! ~ Ji tt ill
;(Ji! 4. s. 2 1' fl! JI! 4. 6. 6 1' 'l' , B ~ ~ JJ;liJ:Jj( 'I' jf 1'11 :fr.it 7J< 'I' jf 8'J lltiJ :fr :itr f!l 1" Jt:fr i!r
ilJ:\t~~JR. 1~M! &1'~ JI Jtl\1f 1iliil!!'J J!OJOI , t!lilt1'Je ~it~ -f s .Q!UllJ !Ell'15k# 9' '!f tt ~,
i!\:Ji!;~ 1.1Jtiili11tlli: Cv fl! ;!;!li: l3J T s Ji!.ff fil E'lt!'J5ki'f'l''ll iJt 8'J, Jt1; tl1 Tit R c, fl! s B'J Pi
!1111',lk# (4. 6. 29 l- (4. 6. 3o l , Jl!:i\' <4. 6. 3D ffill'EJJ< 'I' Jt5ki'f' r, :J!' llHM 1fli;; ili !J!ftl B'J Pi ll1
J\liYd'f', i!!Jl!:.11!8<: ~ T!'J #tE "151 il!lJt~ 'l' i"''-El\ltJJU Efifl/ DR Jtlill11t~ C ~JI! nJt ~ Efif1
""rit-1'..,,. li'i. ilillt!ll 11-00'1'*1JJ B'lllf llt. 1r c ~ t:.v .1 ::.p "'"""'*l!!:.i:xtJJ< 'f Jt{)J~~i!im
B'J. nT MJJ< 'l'i+tl'IJI'~ Jl;!;ffi:'.;fll Jtiili!'JJio(<i) , ).. lfli>! llJ T :!l 9f-l'!'i!1. ttJl';tEti ll; 'ii'illJ ~
Ell c, fl! s .*!I Fw JI! Bi. !Iii ~u #!Ill! 'i! rllJ , r wJr !ii iii: - n Iii ,
Ji!1'*'1'Jl'
~ Jfi.ll<'l'#*lln 2L. i"':!ln Q,JlJ>\tlli*ll'J:lll\it:ll\ll' n qCrJ ~QJ2L, :ll'l'it.&Jtiili
!i!'.11. mu :ir Elin :1t111
5. 6. 3 I

t:.p(t)

=
l
c

f'

-G(x
Q
v z t r)dr
ZL
~ ' '
1

(5. 6. 32)

238

X'!'.GAm.k:i!:tjntli1J1-8Mt!J
G(x,y,z,t - <) ~
~~ tE "'t !!\\:If j!j Ill :II! 8'J !If '~

z:,< d["f,(I)]

(5. 6. 33)

J! et i" :!I; Q J;iZ ti Jilllll !liA :If j!j 8'J :!11illl: Qr lW :IfIll 111 illl:z 1'11 , ~~
_ Q

+ dV.

_ Q _ C dp,(t)
dt- 1
dt

-f

Qr_ l _ C dp,(t) _I_,, dp,,(<)


Q ---Q dt -'-'D
dr

(5. 6. 34)

(5. 6. 35)

(5. 6. 36)

(5. 6. 37)

(5. 6. 38)

(5. 6.

39)

.;It '!' , ft :!I; !flJ:I ll'J lf! Jl. fll ill ii!: <4. 5. 10 l MLIL

l'!"'t l!\t'll!Ei:ll! -Fll'J !If "l'J. lf!.R ill 'II:& 5 I 8'J ~tQJE!lif< t:.p, .ti
Qf

t::.p,

Qf

QS

2n:(2L)Kn

2'1f(2L)Kn Q

(5. 6. 40)

wc,i; cs 6. 3s >f"t Ak:il: cll'i!!rrk t!ll it. mu 111m*a:51 i!llfl'J llli Jtlldi'l EEl!if< ;i,

-- 2LD
I
I - (_.D
- dp
1 s
dtD

p.,,r;. (cDS ,tD )

(5. 6. 41J

"JI'\ \'.! k illl fol l'Z !\1 B'J o!t li1J 11' Ill , ell' llli ~Pf .ti, fl'J 7i; :!I; !Pl EE llif< ti
PwD(fD) = Pwtx(tD)

+ Pwo.(lD)

(5. 6, 42)

f :il: cs. 6. 39>1'11 cs. s. 4ll ffi Im :If MIJ: :::. :il: :fu'lill i!!ff lftll'!IL!\li.'f!'~. I\ <5. s. 4ll :tilill Ill fl'J
-'.It ~0'it <5. L 7J , 'it CO. 6. 39 J;/llillif !lf Ill !l) 1!!1!1ll'JOit~i~:il:<5. J. 25 l ,.'f!'~Fn, IK!'i!U!i!llf1' :If
llli !E ;IJ ;r,
~

Pwf>(Lll,S,s) = 1

"Pn(w ,s) + S/2sLD


+ sCnS/2Lo + s2Cv"f;o(w,s)

(S.S. 43 )

X'I' .s jjf 'll!Ei:lll 'I'" A!lli!f ll:Wi'J!::I:. 1'f~l)J;ii"' 111tJj8'J"'' A'!' po (w. ,) J!t""tli(* 'f!f 8'J :If
Ill; !EfJ $!.Iii., ~
Pn(w ,s) =

f~ Pn(w ,tn)e-"dto

(5. 6. 44)

t !II Pll i(!' '!' Bf2 ill' tlJ J *fol' 111' ilff il!l ll!! 7J< 'f '11' D'J !Ii :!J Pn ( tn lo

s. 6. 3. 2 ;l-:11:7J<'f:lf
xt 'f:fr 5UJ< 'f:lf "'9'9' Ill <l'J'l'-'i',j( 'f :If, )](~U J:UJ:itJ Jt~ l"J !'liil!!ll. lt, jjt, Fi O997 Jlilf

239

......

'it T i3:1'f6JI!, f;f.T filjJ;itJlij'\ p,<w .tvJ:f lil! Q.( Yr .xt#iii!ltl& C J!:lltf!i.'i!X. iJl:Jj( 'Ftt1i N
1'5)- Jt, J1il ilii,~ !It Ji ;lg QN~ NQ, i'tffliEX
NC - AV"', C ~
Ap.

LIV._

N i:>p,

(5. 6.

45)

le Q, ::!7J11!J;! iill.A ~t-5J- Jt#EIJiilf. llt. L>V.,;!') .~ ifJ #iii!llit f'i'fli'il\'il' ii'. ft. 'f Jik 1i
Q N -NQ+d\1._
I
dt '
(5. 6. 46)
i3;j;\<~*.filill~IJ;l:'.o\'i\<5.

6. 43). jjjj'i\<S. 6. HJ'f'ff'J Po(w,1,.Jil!'i'\<1. s.16J!li11fi!i!'l'l!-ilt

;11";,\i,;l!:tiJ, ;i{'f' ,G' ,,tu G'. il!l't<1. 5. 12)-(.1. 5. 20J!i'ttil.

5. 6. 4

JC ~ :;\; Jill ~ cp 7J< z # 8lJ 7Jil rt I.it #

Xtll< '!"# Jltfr mi f\'.li\#5)- 1lfo %;!!; J!l'E:li1 X't l&fil !>fi 'f'r.r.1JIJ tll :Ji.I; !11 ifJ Bi jJ ill! !!< ifll lli jJ"'
fJr ill!!!<. VP ill il!#li! 'I' ff'Jit;ll" ,<\\ Q.( Fn!lt tll Pn (w ,t,) ifJ 'l'i.llil't , jf ill 'ii'. (5. G. 44 J;ll'. ill 7h (w ,s)
K!\Fn ill 'ii'. (5. 6. 43) JI: tll PD (CD .s. s) J!lFn ill l& i1!1il lll!~JllJ tlJ IJijJ illl !!l<ifll filjJ ij<fj[ illl !!le. IP lll
it oo li!L r iii x>t >-1-?J< '-#tu* .Ji:* 'F#5l-*Ll r l'l ~J

lit'i'?J<'I'#
1'tJ\:Jikit i!J i'J!ill(Jj( 'F#Jll' :Ji.:ft;f<J IJi:fJ Pn (x, y .z ,t), iS 'f'{J(J<'l:Ji.Jllll:idel!J!! 'I' '-1' 7J< 'J'-jf,
jjjj.fl.M.)!; 1': 4!-:1+1' leJ i~H'f rfl'J .qa 1'7K'l":lt' "'{J(Xt J: ]][. r Ji!:"l li!l ilii .fix& .)!;1?;4!-:f+!I! it fl'JJ:
r Ji!JILJ}\{'f .t:\rof J'l;1" 4. 2 'I' oc ' - XI ' 4!-frl:j til >j;J Ji\;: B~ !lift> ii l&, li!\Fn Xtill(it: ft )!j ll>t Jlij r~ o
>IJ r-t :m5l-NP lllllfllllff'J :Ji.:llt!l<I lli:fl Jil!i n Po (xn. YD oZD .tn)
~#;l!dl'!!li1Ji!i l!J ff'Jlt;ll", J;!;;fEll! 4. 5. 5 11' 'I' Bi!lililiJ lffl , ill! '-J11! !Ji., it:ll!.JI'< y,- 0Zn - z.no
l'E z lil!J!iii:ifill!lili'f' .\\\ ii'Jtl\'llt r, If< .xv - x/L- O. 738, ;!{ 'f' ,L :ll!.7J<'i" # ifJ 'i'1"!f, jlf jf Jll .<\\
filrJ;il!j~).. .t.J Po (xn, yvozn .tnl 'I' , RP 11!1Ji1/llfl'J PnC w .tol , tl!.it:ll!.Jlf i~#ll\::Ji.:lt.!Ji!lli:fl
?1' YiiJl!. f Pn (w .tD) ft).. 'ii'. (5. 6. 44) ft !!l fi'-!!lJOi '.!)<l!lf '11: 11! # JJ!!:Ji. :Ill: !J1 Bi :fl !J< lit Jll' !'J ~ ii
5. 6. 4. 1

lflPo(w,s).

1'1'.Fn!iiit pv <w "l f\'.A'i\ c5. 6. 43 J 1!!~ J!i "' flJ s I;.( Ji'iff'J ii' II\; :Ji.tt!l<l lli:fl ~ iili lL l'f 1'1J
Ill $1! 5. 3 1' l'JflifXfl!&iJl:IJl'i;Jitfi~;l'l:RP OJ !it1'J tll.>-1-JJ('J'#tll'Jf ifJ 'fl!Ji 00 ll!i. j<J Ill i3:;; 00
Jl)fOJ J!tf:ilil::lf Jll'lf,
lit 1'* 'I'#~ 'If'11!1.i >1; *'Fit ot ii'lll'lf111'1; .s; Ji! s. 6. 2 1' 'I' xt ro ll:ii' t!'J ot ii'lll'lf:n
11;~1m
! :y; 001 !Ii :i:1 n il'i l'E "lll >t: oo i:& R. "'!" >l!l 1eJ t!'J "1xt n "'- w-"' r.r.i!IJ ti! .,:11m ff'J lli:fl illl
!!!!tu .\'J'fX illl !!!! ,1f .!O'fl!iiOOll!iJ!tff i!( it. 00 s. 7 lit wT ~-1-JJ< 'F# illl ii!W<itfl'Jtll' llC, 00 5. 7Cal
Jibt m:kJll!!l! "'Jil.1' >f ii' !'1 illl !!l<m Tl" oo s. 1<b) :11t 1l:!!!!mt m11tt iii'/~* 'F!f ifJ ill! !!l<m Tl"

"lt

~Jllll:kJll!!l!'l'Jil.1'7J<'F#lil:#Jll'lf1r~~WW""f,

1J
2)

il!ii: illl !!!!JJ:<if 1l!'llJ rec" .Lo, K ~ K,./ K,, l!!lki>J liiJl>i itil! TM flJ lli:iJJJ:<iti1! pM.
il!JEJJJl<il'il!-lil'lJ

C = ZrrKh(1'i\d),Ca = C/2rrh"cLi

O~------

'

-2

-1

- I

3'--~~~-"-"-----

~2

- !

~(1)

lg( r )

(,.)

Jt;~;*:Jt!!!il<PJK"f"ff

Ill s. 7

(b) 1Ctt!lf!il~lii:*"f-*

*'l':lt!lli di! Ill! di! ill!lll

*1<*'l":lt
lit % ffi :11: ( 4. s. 12 l ~ (" s. zo l !t 111 llr !ill Ji; li!l:f'f T iJ G' .,;fll G'" ildlil 111 llJ ;ill!\' iJ Iii ;Mi
ii 'IJ[. ~Iii X1 lil(j[ ff Ill mt l"'l li!?J-# :JG I: II'! Jt flt 111 ill! !I( J)( 'I"# 8'J XI: 'fil IE JJ ii 'IJ[ Po (xo ,-,, '
5 .. 4. 2

Jlil.l!\' Jjl,Jltlf<.Ji'i il'~iit1f: .~. J'!< .~!ii 4. 5. 2 '\l'<f' JiJ1\E.\'..8'J :JG:ilt;pjJt ,Jiit zv ~ z.,, ,x,, ~ (L.,, +
0. 7 38) cos.ct, Jfl = (L.,.n + 0. 738).sina. ljff:J! ~{[{ {~A..tkf:f&~jf Je.:l:WJ fi .fJ Pn (xn J'D, zv, tn)
9', np111i.Jf11iiiJ~\l!\'1Ht-lll;ktll'l!EJJ Pv<w.tvl.
~Fn J!ilf Po ( w ,,, 1f'CA'1: ( s. 6. 44l ff 1!1 '!f l!lWi'l<Jll!, :>i'ill~\l!\tf tf lf!i k:ll!H !EJJ 1!!1< ffi
'tt:pn(w,s)o

Jllli'i;l!f Ji,( w ,,JftA'1:(5. 6. 43l:>i'-!11it & Co ;fll S 8'J kl:!!! :#tll\;!EJJ!l<!!!i'lt p..,(C,.
s, ,! #!'!:!ii s. 3 11" IJ1; <i'J Jili<l!HT'lt fl![& iii! NP 1lJ!&ii!IJllH:f l:?J< 't'Jf iJ .!Ill! ill lilil <.fL, !lt, I'
19 96c '1997) :5t1':71< 'i"Jf il'J Ill lilil Vl L( to/'" 'Jiii: ;la ~Y,iilr 111!E11 Ill! flll;p lil''IJl illl t;!l, il\rallilil J!;l;
~'ltil'J . xHl)-l!l ((" oe" ,K ,L,, ,L.,;fll z.v )j!ilj -;'!;All!! illlfl!l (:;li;~llii. illl t;!l l ill 5. 8 ill 111 .1:. T

ill 5. 8a J!lil'ii\'$ lt fl![ K ~ 1, 1lff c,e''


ill' 13 .t?i'. r ?J-11 ::1J o. i. o. o1, o. oo 1 a<J oo l1l\. .t w"'il"<Jld!1l Ill!!!!!. rilif 'Oil"<lil:-l'f 'l!'.Ell! iii, oo
s. Bb Ji!: cne"iJi[ ~'f o. 01 , ifa~il!il' lt (Ii. K ~ .t?i'. T :5t~U .::\J 1o, 1 ;fll o. I i<J IJl lie. M'f'li'J ?l-5<:
ti: it1! clll JJ , ~ li'l iilt ill !iii: .\1f 'Itfl![ lil:?l- .:<:ti: N ft'J -'!" . iiHlll ;'; :5t .:<:!!=.: :5t .:<: iJ jllj fl5 J:!: ill 'Jl tE
l!il J!ll lit ill jjl! 'i"Xt'tt :1l' fl!ljji! fi'J t4'i'.ffi ill-fl! .
Ji\i."I ll\ 111Hl! ill , Jt :t?J<4"!1'1'~>E;'l;{tr "'!2xif! fkl il'-1' '!"#l!k"{lra<J. J:!:Ji:!'Jr<{'flil:
J;t Pll l!I,~ , ~ :lbt <~ J 20''!<xl!! I*! 7J< '1"11') <i'J~llii. Ell! i'Jt.

5. 7

Duhamel ;t,}

241

"Rx Ill Pl !l'.1f Ellt~ jf ll':J .ti-!& 13 E; 5t Jt1JCf jf!'J 5t Jtt!: l'l IH '\if . t~ &: !'J !itllJ , 1fK, tl'ill IH l'l .
'RX Ill Pl 7f< 'F1t$i'Y:jj!ji1it ill fl'J Jll ..i. Jt Jt;>j( '1'11'0 'il: op !'Jiil' :!!: &::% '"'W .fi! Iii' Ji~\'.\ N, 1t
Ji jffiil #!& C lit>'.J, AV.,/ Ap. r0l \'.\ N, rlii~1'f9"!'( ffl Pl lf!'f';j( 'i'-:11'11%, 0si:: op Q liY: "1 !l<i'F
l'Jltjl; ,jf ll.li!>'. C- AVml Ap.,
.!il ~hi-Jll! ii>: J: l)I, il!1$tl.H1Ff Jll tikxl!J :% n/2 <n Ji'I:k 'f I !'Jll!t!: >11% f!!'l'f Jf{\1 'fill
'FJtii!O J:. , ~~lit~ l* Jll 'f 9''!( ill 11 2n In <n Ji'I:k 'f 2 (l'J 'i'i!t!:l fll.Ji\tE !); f'i\ J: ,ii1'/fl!ili j\:Jjj\_
Ill 'f1' CJ<ill 0 :)gjf :@:fil'fl'Jttl'%, 7\Jf 0 fil';f!i';;kjc, fjlJ !m, X1'J2!1(ill 0 "1 2n!O- 2n' (]+<lo'
<l /2n' , ;1 op , n' :l!tlfit!: , ;II: ill 2n' 'f'J)< 'fjf JiJi 1l! ll':J JC ;lt!i'I !E :iJ p' o ill' l!Hi'i UT iii fWi!UR :O'J Po
- p' D (! +') ' ffif ll.i!H!11!''1!: till iilO ~Wl 'II: Jiif '"UT Ill ll!i
x Ill 0 fJ<J t!: U1

* "'*
100

100

K"'l
LWJJ =2

Cn.!5=0.01
LWll"'2

Zwn"'0-5
Lo= 10

10

10

S,."' I

!.a

~~

:,

Zwn"'0.5
Lo"" 10
S.. "' I

'

;:

~
0. I

c,,,,,is

~ 00 JO

0 1

0.1

R :c(). I

c,,e1 5 =0.01
Cotf-~ ...

o 001

0.01

-2

. 1

'

lg(tfl!Cn)

-2

lg(t 0 /Cn)

.!: l'iWllllllllii .:?t:til<'I'# <lilt 120'~)1("1P!il<'I'#)8111~dlili

*~*~#~1fM~/f~ 5J-Jt;J<'i'-11'~1fmff!'J/fl*&~!mT,
1't )t.jf!j!i}Jj( '!"ff llllilli! 11':1 >1.:t!:Jiif, jf jj!jJilil~
ill Ap- t>t l'il 1''11: (d p. I dt) & - t>t

ffi"'

'"'ill till !'< , it 'l1; ii!/ till Iii< E; l'Pli till !ii! l\: 3': l!Ht, 1fJ it I!.( !l'i UT 1l! ,
I) !1'ttfl'J C"e"{1[l'll K ~ K, / K" 11\:, I!.( llffi:iJj!.( ttii!i pM l'il 'tr.Jfilttfi!i TM.
2l ffi !li:iJ m irfil'!lt ill
Kuh' = ~:(p}.1) ~ K1-1h~ = '{;<1'M)
1fm:rt!!i'X.f!lill K, .~)iiffi K jfU
3) ffi'lffiJfilirill'!ltill

K"
C

1)

'

(b)

(,)

Ill ' '

-1

ffifili:' jifr.f!)(l'J c,e"l'll c,

*s

Jil'.ill K"
=

2irKuh ('I'M),

c
c/) = 2;r:j,,:h:ii
I C "
S=~ln~
2
C'n

il';

241

5. 7 Duhamel yj;;J'!I!

~~

"*II:
fft1'1 "il' itli'J riiJ
i Iii' '!' 4' , !1l lJCie lll11lJ tl

Ouh,mel )1!1!J! 111'f*11iii'fl!lli:fr:lf ll!' Jl::f{f Jll J'l.#d'f 1'0

llJ! 1')1'; ((]


'G !iH 11>1 1'1 "il' it iJ fiiJ llil!Jl)( !!\ i!il b\ liii fl! "'1 ll 1~ JlJfllf{t 1\1> jJ
*11
Jli;l;J: >tt
lll'lllJll!!\i'f jitj lll! ICll!il! :J'!iHll>t 1'1 '.!l:itl!:#'21i7Jil! 1'l fl'l "'1 l!i!!, liii!Jilf i'i ff l !i!lltfJ'.!l'it fl'J~ 1i1 Jll
"'1 riiJl!iJ!li'Jill', lj,;Tf !ll-:: Duhamel )1!11!!';-#iiE UJl :!fl,&jfiJi U~1'; iJ j!,f*f\')jj ,

*,

l)l!Fif

5. 7. 1 Duhamel ~llll\Jll:~~~
~ 7\) ' ~ ifl '.!ii :: it! J'l.51\i'f1'0 ll!lC II\ il Fit ff.) 1'11!' it iJ "-ill,, ;JI; ;Jr 1ilii'fiiJ l!i!! '
(5, 7. !)

?l!. +h,p=f1(r,t),
l,Jn
'

p(,,t) ~

F('),

;It q, .i ~ 1'2 ,. .. ,N' N Jl:IB'.~ R ~~J!lJ'I. iJ 1'tt. J/<m,

J&J'I. S, J1 ,t >

(.1. 7. 2)

[[~

(5. 7. 3)

R Jfl, t

Jl:lli.11:'rlllJll jjij s, i'J:i'rl.&~:lf l"1 li'J.ff


1Jll!C:::~i&J'I. ,I, 1'0 h, J!J:J' 1;'1t 1; Jil:::O

fl . .l'\ '!!: l,.h, i!lill:J!J 1J'littt. I.~ 0 j;Jil-~JllJ'I., h, ~o


~ J!1 J'I. l'f
M'f iE!JHoJ llill (5. 7. l) - (5. 7. 3) , ~ lflllJ >:l lilii't:i<li'l'1'J :tt!l f\'(l{JJ&J'l.51\l'f l'll ll!iCl!ll Jl! IP
f, "'1 q J!J ;f !iH Bt 1'1 'lt it iJ l'iiJ l!iJ! , !ii\ )fj ill JllJ 'f Duhamel !Elll1 !it tit~ :!B'lt ;E Ill' fiil l!li 8'J Jil:fci!/i ll!,, l!:
Jl:-t-1~.!li 'll'tE.l& 11!1li'J;JrllJ1,1'!' ~1Jl:1' I. fl1 q '!' Bt 1\U 'lt 1t i'J fiiJllJ! B 11 lll! !ii'. !ii JI'\ i'Jtllllt
r, (il'JJIU ,!!l illfilif llll>l>li'J:lil.&!it tit T ill''l!t) , Ill i:!.1-:lflltll!Ji!. tit ;It UJl Ji!.i'Jt't~tt,
1i1 JJt '~il1it;f!; 1j' %!1111' l\iJll!i (5. 7. ])- ( 5. 7. 3l;t!J!i1i'J~::\Jl!f ii< iJ 411!JllJ "'111!1 .4- <jl(, ,, 'rj ;Ii!;
T l'J 4111 lllJ r~ Ill! i'J Ill' ,

'*

'~(
\l w t,t,r)

+ Aq
1 (
r,r)

l . atP(r,t,r)
mi,

+ h,w(r,t,r)
~
=

X1 a<P(r,t>t:)
at
,
fi
)
, ,r,i; ,

(5. 7. 4)

JllJll s, .!: ,t >

t!>(r,t,r)=F(r),

(5. 7, 5)

IT:f:tRJ:iq,t=O

(5,7.6)

:It q, 'T 7U1'-1'.,.tt' TI'!' Jl:lltfiJ B'J Iii tt. JiJi 0 it4il!JllJ fiJ llill q, /, jitjm\lCllUl!' q :Ml ;f Jl:fftl\U 8'J
Iii tt . "l ~ 10 It Jll!;Jr !JI, fiJ Ill! iJ lJ! ill''ll' !iii .!! 14 it . ffl' 1ltrilifJt .- 1\1 llll >!> i'J :If !!1 PT :If i!ltllil!1'T J1': !!
iii <I "f :f{f Duhumd ii! 11!!/J!lj;Pnr, l'l':i<ll! T 4111 lllJ filll!i!! (5. 7. 11 -- <s. 7. 6 l 8'J !JI, 41(, ,, , r >,
m~ "'" riill!i!! <s. 7. u- <s. 7. 3) (l{J 1111' P<' ,, 1llJ'11 JllJ r "'<' ,, .r 1l/J!rn
p{r,t)

'I'

= -;:;;

rb(r,t - r,<)dr

(5. 7. 7)

.,,.. 'fil 0
&fl !!UJ ii tt p(r '') 1lJ!lllillJliJ ii!tt 41(,,t, r) 8'J I 51.~1'\ 4'' (r ,t, r) ~tatl'iil t 8'J ilii.\l'tt!it tit :fiJ Ill
1'\5t% r:i<lli:5t!'J 03':, # IE:if.!'11 Ylli!5!\itf cs. 7. 6 l , r.3': PT1~~ !ii'.
p(r,t)
>:.(.!:$!;JI: Duhamel

= F(t)

'I ,

+ ,_

ati/>(r,t

~ r,r)dr

'A!lll! i'J ~AJtl/J!lj;. 3l: ( 5. 7. 7) J:; ( 5. 7. 8)Jl\jlljl;~fltli'J,

(5. 7. 8)

5. 7 Duhamel .lt.J.!

243

5. 7. 2 Duhamel ~ l!I! illJ liE !lij


Duhamel ii[!lll (!'J-l'fiiE AIJ1il.!< , ~it , ;!t ([Jilt l\; lilf '11 !E
:iJ (!'J ~ il!i '!!' p(, '') "~ lllJ iE '!!' (!'J ai. il!i '!!' <i\(, ') fiij (!'J ~*
111. l!! l!! 5. 1 '11' 9' !W lill :l>t (!'J Ill ll'-!llllli'.11'. j<l, (!'J tt !!It .1illl< 5. 7. 1) - ( 5. 7. 3)g,tfr ll'-lll !lli ?J)'j<l,
) lij '.'i li!t
~#.i!!jj:tfr 'If !ll!lli '.ll'.li<1ii!l!il tH

17'i'C,,,)
l,

i [q;(,,s) - F(,)],

~ii(,,>)=

+ h.p =

],(,,$)'

k!:lt R pq

(5. 7. 9)

J!1Jl. s. J1J:

(5. 7. 10)

'

!l!i!:(Jf!J, lijl;(X't~llllf6Jlfli1illlC5. 7. 4)-(5. 7. 6li!!rr'.ll'.l\1!. !E'.1!~~1illl9' q(,,e)fll f,(,,e);;;


a>j lllJ t ;Ji;~ , X'IJX l!!< Jl1i fll !ll t'IJLWi'.11'. l'Offtl!t Jillli! 1'( Ill 'If lllllli'.11'. l'k'.11'. It s Iii tH!I! lllJ I~ lfli 'I)' l'k l'i
'.'i )/J;
-

V 2tZ>(r,s,r)

1
+ s..tq(r,r)

;.i;

~..

'

= X[S'V(r,sr) -

cs. 7.11)

F(r)],

l; ,,__ +h,i= -f;(r,r),

(5. 7. 17)

tFtilt' !llJli'l)'j<l,. Tilif X>ttf '!!' c jljfll-!i:tl:t'!Jl!lli'.11'.~ , NP!>!:< 5. 7.


11) 'Ill ( 5. 7. 12)iill!i!ll J!I: T J~e-dc i!!ff filJ!I: Jf ;f<J)lj :ll<.i:!Jlll'-tl:Wi'!l: li<0>!: ( 5. !. 5) , ~IJ:IJ!ll
($. 7. ll)'llJC5. 7. 12)'i)'j!1!flij'.lij)/J;
1'(J:J1] JilX>jfft lllJ5l'.t t

vi~(r,s)

+ 5~q(r,s) = ~ [s@(r,s)

;,;r, + h;@ =

l; ,,_

""'

--

F~r>],

(5. 7. 13)

-7,(r,s),

(5. 7. 14)

'

J: >!: j!ljjji!JI<! VJ Ill ii' tl:llli 5l'. I: " ~1/ ilf

17'[~(,,>JJ+ lq(,,>J
l1

(sa>)

+ h,(s~)

~(,[~C,,s,)}-FC,)),

"""l1<r,s),

IKltRP'l

(5,7.15)

);/l!f. S1 1:

(5. 7.16)

f1illl C5. 1. gJ'lll cs. 1. 1o>?J-~1J'J'1illl cs. 1. 1s) :fll cs. 1. i sli!!fi 1t11rr lil '!!'tit Rllf!E~ !l!n\i'i
tt l!'1 ~c, "'"' !IJ;;li\ffifl~li!i '!!' "!!<' ..,) .m~ il'i1-f6J ll!ili!:'ll;3>:l!l. l;!j tt. EE:iJ ~ilii'!!' 7><' ,, )'J'lm!llJ
il!i'!!'z lllJ1fTJ'IJ3':~,
p(r,s)

*~ :ll<.i:l!l-ll'tl:lli'.lt!if!*~" (5. !.

f" J""
,.

1>!:<5. 7. !S)ftACS. 7. 17) ,Jllj4

(5. 7. 17)

5) '<!><, ,,) OJ''.!ii )/J;

a>(r ,s) =

L[p(r,t)]

= ~(r,s)

p(r,s)

(5.7.18)

lf>(r ,t , r )e - +)dtdr
,.. o

=st J=

tP(r,t,r)e-r+ 0 dtdr

=O 1-v

(5. 7.19)

Tilif E!! >!: <s. 1. 19 l tl1 $:J/liil!JE!E fl il!i'!!' p<' .il 'l'~ lllJ IElll!iWI .i;c, ,t, '> fiiJ 893';,;, J'1 Jt,
J!'.:l'J Ill r J\'.1'111'1(1!'.!il>tt!!lt. 111.l!! <P<r". '1 r J\'.1!111'\ .i; c,,, 11!'1t>' 'l!'lllllli'.11'.~>l: cs. 1. 2s1 Gxlll

244

'i' 1\iJ '16. !,[, r ii' ~~'ll: ,'fi I!\, l<*lof iil'l!:~ J .l't (5. 7. I 9) A'l:t>lilfo]''!<i /& si!i' (r .s) , f J!J:>l:ii]'

'$)'I&
J,[p(r,l)=

(S. 7, 20)

s"<P Cr,s)

Jll'..f'J Ill 1l''ll:'lt~A'Jl1!ll>\ cs. J. 7J }f!t:l!:JllJ I SUIHJ\A'J \E Si.>\ cs. 1. 27 l , 1f !I>' Cr,,~ ol ~ o,
mu oJ>' <r.1!1<1ntr1, ,;JtJ1!1!''1l:B'J"~'J"'!Jlll:
r[~'(r.1)]
_,
dt
=s<'c r,s J

(5.7.21)

jlfj'\(5. 7. 20)1')(5. 7. 21)flj ltf( .i!>'!ll


(5. 7. 22)

) _ (JI>' (r,t)

p (_r,t.

at

(5. 7. 23)

Ji;; .lffi lil 'll:I X-l<m!'J >E Xl't (5. i. 27 l, J:>\ iiJ'1l:'.!B' Jll;
p(r,t) =

"f' 0

at

,~ iP(r,t

r,r)dr

(3. 7. 24)

i:!i\:;I!; Duhamel \E.f!l!fi'l'll:'l''l<JJ;i}j'\(5. 7, 7), 'l';i!;\E.f!l!fl;fl]iiE'E,

5. 7. 3

Jlt ~~'flt )Jt l' Duhatnel JE l1I! ll\J I:~ ft it

NJ: !il:-~tll' llt l4 Jlll T Duhamel \E.f!l!EIJ'll:$ 311ltl't. Jtr-f< ~'1'1'1* fi'l 1!! iji. ti\'% .1*
\E.f!l!(IJ 'll: "J'.l'!Jt>t iif ~ l!!-:Wi'il! it. Tllif 5J' ~Ll 'f VkJti'e.
ll!-f'l!1tlJI, ~lJJlil JE.JJ ;;,,'!'. it'E ;}f'F'f'". mu>t c5. 7. 8JI!! it~
p(r,t) =

f'

""

iita_<P(r,t r,r)dr"

(5. 7. 25)

ll!::f'i11>Ji'. ~t;J li1 !E.!J ;IJ:<I' , Er 11 il'J iiI!'?JJ\ l'f'/lllJi'J'ilXA'I 7\ 'lljj'it:lllll q Ct! fiilf./ 1'1"
iL Jtrl!;f<i'tiJJ!\. "'llil! l'iiJ l!i!"'! Jlll:
(5. 7. 26)

i!J'l-

o,
1 "r!f>IO .1'f "l!<riiJ m<s.
p(r,t) ~

111 1.~ !II s. 7.


l!i! !) J'.!ey Ji!.

V'w1 (r,t,r)

l
+ Aq(r)

11 ~i<;;;; ~.!.!.?.

il>1(r,t,t)=O,

s. J: ' > 0

o
C5. 7. 281
cs. 7. 2a1 tfl mil'l 1ll! WJ Iii! m<l1! 1'E ie t1' llll WJ l'iiJ
IZl!il R r'l ,1

7. 2c1 -

1 dfll (r,t r)
X
,ft -
1

h,<P1 (r,t,r) = O,

(5. /. 27)

>o

CS. 7. 291

i!IJ'l-S, ;J:, t

(5. 7. 30)

t=O

(5.7.31)

IZl!il R

r'l,

l[~Rr*J,

Ill llfr i!if IJT ~ iif '){] , llil! t!i 4>, Cr .t. r) k'L Fn, j!J i't A l't <5. 7. 251 PP i* )l! llil! Iii! Jill cs. 7. 261 c5. 7. 28J (1'J Ill p ( r , t ) , ill. cl! l'J' f j;t "11'1' 1* 1f jf; 7\ :!! :>!< llil! ][~ /!! iji. fi'l llll W1 Iii! l!i! 2, W: llll ll!J liiJ
J!i!j.;

.5. 7 Duha1nel ~JI

245

o~
)
v w:tr,t

+ l). -_ lX '*1>2(1',t)
at

I 1 iJltl~(r,t)
....

+ h~
;wz ( r,t )

<P2(r,t) =

cm1

(5. 7. 32)

-- 0

{ES,J:,
:(18'.~

R r:Jg ,t = 0

(5. 7. 33)
(5. 7. 34)

.!\\ t\ .1ll! WJ liiJ llJl 2 lt1ll! WJ l\ill'! I !Ii! llf .\j'l.j-i! $, 12: A'J!JI: it:J'Mli!!'f'1itlli:, ll'!'i' fiij llliT' /iii lil.~ft r, '@:
1"liE !ill , 1ll! J!!J l\il !Ill 1 A'Ji!'i' <!>, (r ,t, c) J1ll! WJ fiijl'j 2 A'JWI <!>, (r ,t) Z f'llili )i!. TJilJ'l<;,l\
.P1 (r,t,r) =
l);

(5. 7, 35)

q(r).P2(r,t)

M' J: , iili:!!l:J1'1~A!ll: 1if I' ili , '<! <!>, (r ,1"l1i1i Ji'. '!rill< 5. 7. 29 l - <5. 7. 31 l , ITT1J <!>, (r, tl -

<!>, (r,t,r) /q(cJ-!Elilt/Ji'!rllHs. 7, 32)-(5. 7. 34) ,Ji.<;ll);~.


tli Jlti1i>ili !i!;Ji'o, \i] l'! (5. 7. 26) - ( 5. 7. 28) A'lll p(r,t) jjf flf WJ r1ll! WJ fiij llli (5. 7. 32) (5. 7. 3411!11!'1 <!>,(r.tlflllllliCllllli' q(r)'1J.jf;1'J

( ) f'-q()

<*Pi<r,t -

p r ,t =

iJt

r)d

(5. 7. 35)

ill:1\1. ~ 11!Ji'il llll it:l!il llt !fllit r~ 11:ii: fl'J f'l !!l U;llll; *Milli it:ll!lli'1' 1itltfl'J r1 !!l JAW if* f1'1 ilJ:
l!i!x1allrit.
ll!:::Ofl!i'#>:ll. 'lf 1'JJM! IE.fl :O!l!li', 111 iCllllli'oF ;!;$:, ftli!!li\'l!IJ'l.!l<i'f 9'1f -1' <W: 11 Ji; i 1' l
li!! '" 1f ix A'l , El.., at n<i 1 :/l ~ ;it; 'E l!IJ'I. Jr< f'f ~ li!! 4' :ll'lX A'l ~t ri.B: f>i'tf 1l' ,:!\I; iE !111\il llil 14 Ill!;
vip(r,t) = l Jp(r.t)'
(5. 7. 37)
~

I,

iJt

it
a.,, + h,p(r,t) --

8,f.(t),

(5. 7, 38)

B:J!ttRrig,1-0

p(r,1)-0,

(5. 7, 39)

fl: Jill Ji; s. 7. I 1'i Ml!\ , :!\I; 1'1l l!Z fl'J41il WJ \ii llil <i.B:JI!. Vl '1:f\llilil WJ (1lJ l'! D iiJ '!'!ti~

IB:lli! R Pl, t >

<P1(r,t,r)=O,

llij: ili <!>, <r ,t, r l !;.{ Fn.

(5. 7. 40)

l!IJ'I. S, J(J: ,t > o

(5.7.41)

L'[~Rftg,t=O

(5,7.42)

re E ftA'1: (5. 7. 25J , IP i1i> ;J! llij:fiill!f <5. 7. 37)- <s. 7. 39 l fl'J Ml p<r ,1 l, J;;

ll!.= f>i'ti!' l!L%>l:!J:s~ .R '!l!Ji'M<)[1Jllf.!flA'llilil1VJ f'll'! 2, 1111WJ r"' l!l 2 .1'


,,,~ (
V

W2

r ,t

x1 a4J at

) _

l JIP2(r,t)
,
dni

2{r,t)

+ h1<!>i(r,t)

>O

(5. 7. 43)

illJ'I. s, J(J:'

>0

(5.7.44)

J3:l!jt R rig ,

t = 0

(5. 7. 45)

B:~

= 0i,

liP1 (,.,r) = o,

R rig,

.!il.M.. lili! llJJ 1'11! I A'Jili' <!>, (r ,t, r )-'"1ll! l JJ fii] llJl 2 fl'Jllij: .z;, (r .t) Z l\iJiilli IE!;.{ T.'<'.l\
<P1 (r,t,r) =

J;l; 1if i1lh':t:!!l:J1'ft Afi'J'!r!IH!!lit !Jl 1t"1JiiE >Ill ,

( )- f'

p r ,t

<R~

c!J~(r,t)f,(r)

(5. 7. 46)

re 'E1tA'1: <5. 7. 25 l RP11J

f 1(r ) <*Pi<r,t 1

1')dr

(5. 7. 47)

ault11!ili!i'iitdiiJll!l(5. 7. 37)-(5. 7. 39lit'Jf!ll p(r,tl1if1111.lliJ'flil!JliJfilJll!l(5. 7. 43)(5. 7. 45) it'Jf!ll<P,<r .t) if1J f/ t ><'<n<Jlll;>t (5. 7. 47) it'JJB>t,
i3: 19'1!1:!eel< l!'FYi'-1'itl l'l'*l'l'llilil'l lllJ t 'Jl;1t fl'J f"J ll!l 1tJlll;el< f!ll ~lt!l'l'1fd'i':li!t11t !li:it'J l'J II!!.
Ill! of< f!lf ii !5! 111 >JJ 1W it .

5. 7. 4 Duhamel

:l'Ell0\Jfilll

Tilii Jif*iJl.HJJ Duhamel ll!.lll!tE~iltlJ '<'!' it'J !'Zfll ,


I) '1t'8!:kJl!!J!l<i'- D!li!i":Jl'!9*iii[ 3i;'11,;kJ1!!1l! 'f'- P Jl'i"':!l!;Jt fl'J ll!f!ll l'il] llifilJ!l' Jlil;
1p +_lap _ _lap
i1r 2

<Jr -

rw<r<cx_>,t>O

X lJt '

(5. 7. 48)

I '!ar,I-- i5lS!l

(5. 7, 49)

2trKh '

p(r,t) =p,,

r-=,

t>O

(5,7.50)

p(r,t)=p,,

r.,.,;:;;r<=,t=O

(5.7.51)

i3::11!o:Yf -1-itl l'l'!lH'l'!til'I flil 'Jl"i!: it'J fiil Ill!. jJ T file!ll Duhamel ll!.lll! 'I' WIll ElifJ

:iJ:, 1if ~ i>p= p,.-p(i .il. 'f:li>fiill!liitjj


a'i>p
dr 1

+ _l ai>p -.. _l ai>p

r.,<r<=,t>O

rar-xar'

I,"t"I

~~~~

*"'fll Ill it'J "

(5. 7. 52)
(5. 7. 53)

Ap(r,l) =O.

r-=,

Ap(r,t) = Q,

r.,

t>O

"< r < =,t =

(5.7.54)
(5. 7. 55)

i!1"f fnlfl ilii E'iii$ fl'J ll! :=':l'Ptllllll .ltc!ll file it'J lill l!IJ fiil l!!i 2 :li>of<f!lf Pl it! J'f *14' :tJ 711'!& it'J fiil IJ , RP

r.., <r< =,t >

<ZJ~(r,t)

= O,

4'3(r,t)

O,

l'!:.l! ll! 4. 1. 2 ll"lt foJil. i3: 1"-lill JliJ rJl!!iit'Jll1\


(J)

,,

Jt9t ,u= 4if 'du= -

,.,
4

r,.

~-

'

t)=-

(5. 7. 56)

r=r..,:2J::,

t>O

(5. 7. 57)

r-c..-,

t>O

(5. 7. 58)

r.,

~r<

a<P(r,t - r) =

at

7. 47l!l'i:c.{E

-I
-du
Z L u

lf'
2., o

(5. 7. 59)

(5. 7. 60)

'"

X12 dt. ~p

=,t =

I I f" ,-

I . - -r'
-E1
2
4Xt

t,l)2(r,t)

~ l:>tf\:A(S.

I I

exp - -r'

4Xt dr

iJJ- .,.-zy;.' dr

2ai~

f(r) ~Q/2Kh.~Hll

(5. 7. 61)

= e-~

t-r:

(5. 7. 62)

5. 7 Duhamel ;tJ.t

247
p(r,t)

p, -

, Kh

Q(r)
,'
-e-:rrn:::<!dr

J'

not-r

':ttr:

(5.7.63)

llll!i'i!1-lil!lilJi!Jillit*B'iJiliiJll i!tff l!lJ J!l:fi ff :li!Ji2! J'f'l'i?! ;% R. W!<ii [;/J ;%~, Pl ill!
lit ff iWlC, t>O HttE r~ R olJ:!l'J)< jlilJ.-.![:tJ p~ f (t). ;Aoj< t >O :li!J)j! Pl ff'J ffi:tJ:iJ' 1)i p(r, t) ,
Xi 'P iZ #ti!IJ!l , JE i! roJ Ill! nf '.!lf lit
i1p + l ".e - l ".e
O<r<R,t>O
(5. 7. 64)
2)

Jr

rdr--Xat.'

p(r,t) = f(t),

r = R,

p(r,t) = O,

>

(5. 7. 65)

r~R,t=O

(5. 7, 66)

itlll & ff'J :\iii Wi r'il Ill! 2 nf '.llr JJ<


:fl!J2 !

tti!li~

.!. ~.~ - .l

d4'>2

O<r<R,t>O

(5. 7. 67)

~.(;,t)=l,

r=R,

t>o

(5. 7, 68)

{t)!(r,t) = O,

O~r:>:;;;R,t=O

(5. 7. 69)

dr-~

ri1r-Xi1t'

9. 2 ;1"9' Ml, NP~';!:< 4. 9. 35) 9' p, ~ J , W:llfll!IJ r<iJ !\!!!<) 1!:\ll


ifli(r,t) = 1_1_ ~

J~({i.r)

p,J, </J.RJ

R .-

e-P!t<

(5. 7, 70)

ct! J1!":#f#ill (!<] i''il: (5. 7. 4 7) ilJlll !tt:tJ :it 1\i


p(r,t)

~ ~i;e~p, f'(~;ZiJ'J(r)e'~'dr
~~)

(5. 7. 71)

lt'I' .P. Jilt J, <#.Ill~ o ff'J ii!.


~{Et,< J!i:f!J!: C5. 7. 71):11:1'} tB ~ Gibbs ~ ;t..

f r~ R ft All: ( 5. 7. 7Jl , '!'i!ll <m .!>ii\ tB

p(r ,t) ~ j(t) , :\l1 Jt, X~>\ ( 5. 7. 71l !<J~:iJ'i1ffi:iJ'llillj:(:iJ', j1!

(5.7.72)

(5. 7. 73)
p)f J;l 5'\(5. 7. 71) "Jill<'.!!' lit
p(-r,t)

= /(t)

1.
~ JQ(/l,r) [f(O)e-ill! + J'e-x~{i-)d/(r)J
R :={ f:J.J1 (j3,.R)
.
Q

(5, 7. 74)

24-8

6
1ltr1lif IL lll: '!' '11' Jl\ lilf 'IE ill'1*ill.ii$ fL fr!!! 8'J illi "'1 ,;;: 111'.141 ~ :i: Jj1tH"I:1* 8'J jj} illill! ii: . "( 1* 11}
illi "lli 1* jj} !I: 8'J :t'll' fi<1J1Y. , ill ?'a,"( 1* 8'J PT Bi!ii!!t 'A .11.*rll<1*. ~ ilif "( 1*8'1 :lft"51rl'i!liJ
ill' i* 8'J %3': ;i; lilJ i:l:14!!if l/E- o!\JlJ ;ielt. 1'ti1:. "\1*8'1:1\\ ilOil!Bi::IJ 8'J :il' lt1JC*. ;j;(llif&t11ill 1*$
mt. 9' ~' i1' i1I it!"! f1' 'ii! t\::11:!!1! it' ff , i& $ !'Ii 1t l!l'llf ~ l'!i 4' Darcy iii' illi.;l!: l"Z , '11 8f Jf 'llf ~!!\ill tt
110 ~' ~ Jtt "\ II< ii; illi 1lii it7t 1rl!il 8'J 4F ~tt l!il !i'.11! ho 'A fill. i\!! !ill 8'J illl'.1111!If1'J111 'llt il!1r l!1 lfl. m
4F !j( f 1r l'1
4: Ii'Ill'mt !!I! J{;Jl\ 7' Iii\"\ fll !Iii ll:! "'\: 7f ;it Ei'J!!I! ii: ll!ilill 111'. ll' iilit 7' Ii!\"\ 8'111!'% lltrrii xt
lt 'E "(ii< (/JO CO, l Bl 7f ;itl!!<tEA, ~ll!i4<.i!l.!IL 11!i4<J.!ll li: Jl\ffl fill 8'J. ~y.m;Jl:! 'I' J;\l"'{ Bl ill' mti'f
1fJil 1u11: 9' llt--&ii:i T ll'i Ft %fr it! :>till 't 8'J il!'IJ!ll! 1' ttf!l "\ 1*~ ill 8'J lili4< 1r l!il , '! 1lll'ltl !l\::IJ
(!!' i~ 1 lit ti!' 1lL T PTi'f "\ 1*111' illi 1l?t 1r 1'1 lt Jllt E; lli 11' jj} ill 1'E JI!"' JAii fill 8'J 1rlll , Iii\ Iii lilf 'ii:"(

1*~$illi~$R~17'~"1:7f~9'8'Jl"Z!!I.

Rff.i~l11f?JJJ.'ll!.lf';Ttt

6. 1

3' !"; "!. i~ il!'iJ !!111'l'ttxt f' lif! Jl: .it iiMit: (] W!!ll lll!!ii 1'11 ~'I' Ill !W ; lk "\1* !tlllt: 8'J !II! ii: ll! !i::i: 'F
nf !ik 1-' 8'J 7' Iii\ "\ 8'J l!J !II! 11'/tt PT J!.I :fE !!;!Ii'.!;'. 9' ill.ii '9;1/i:li~!ll li! ,ill BJ J!.I i!J B~ 8'J "(Ii' it 'I'!!!.
7t fll 1'Ft-lll JJ-8'1 il'll llJl tt !liti!I' rrit Jil: "!";"I: 8'J Jl!l!Y l!l?t l>l. Jt il'll !!I! tt!ll J\I. 'iii 6. 1, nr :ll;'!l'ii ~ 'il
[11],

lll;t

'lt'ft

1ta;,w: EEJ:J

llii~illf

P~(MPai

T,,(K)

ifJtU;.~ Y,

(ml "/ml

cT--1'"/m')

N,

28.013

3.399

126. 26

((Ji

44, 01(1

7. 384

304. 21

535. 7

...

ll1S

34.0i6

9. 005

373. 54

660. 8

5651. 5

Ho

4. 003

o. 229

5. 444

....

CH,

16.042

4. 604

190. 58

533.1

8987.9

C1H~

30. (J/0

4.

aao

305.42

337.9

15693. 4

C1Hs

44.097

4. 249

369.82

328.2

19664. 6

iC,111~

58. 124

3. l:\48

408.14

276. 2

28858.

rf: ,H,,

58. 124

3. 797

42~.

286. 6

28941. 9

,c,H11

72. J 51

3. 3i\1

460. 43

24~.

35491. 4

..c:~H1:

12. 151

3. 369

35f;i72. 4

C,H"

3.012
2.486

469.65
507.43
568.83

249. 3

86. 178

~C1Hi'i

114.

~32

)8

Jli:)

.~.bu!!\ill

219. 6

42197.9

176. 4

55447. 9

* mmk:.!L.11*1.ll#:llltffl*~it"-J~lllltt~t\:*

'iii 6. I 9' Ji! l Jll i fll n 7t~U'i!iii<lf f!lJE. #lJ ~o, iC,H,,'J!iif'Jf T iiil, #<!J;';l!L Ji! s JJJ fll 6 u!~tf.

6. I

J:. .ti'\.'? :/IJJ!# a

249

lftii( ~ T dl.lf! 6 :YiJ JL;lil 'IE 'f :liliii(~ T !'!ii! ..l!l. tn Ii\ 11Lllt !Iii$:>fd'f T 411 Jl: :If 'I':"\ fl<J$!!1! ~ i!itit
/lj itJ .~. Ii\ !I!: -f'Pi~ 'i!J lilt!'! Iii Jr. JI :t.J jE x. :% 111: tll 1'11 'ttll lill ~'!"~;it' ff !'! ii!; ffi fJ -f'Pll!i 'i!J lilt
i'J ll~Jr. llil: Ji! 5C ;\J 111: ti! f~ "\~fi Iii~'!" 1if j1; ff itJ :li: il!i lll1l!' , ll!iJ''i!J i'J JU Iii JI! Efi.fJ P, fQ JU Iii J'l-111

1l!' T,

:)f~IJ;\I

P,

l;x.P"

T,

l;X,T,

'

(6. !.

!)

:fl;cp .X, ,!!;1$'1J'Jl''li:, IM?l''i!Ji'J:)f'filt M= L;x.M,,


'
6. i. 1 "t i* ti'. i1!:i JJ' il ilil II ~ !:!ii 7
"\ l*ii::l>Jfl!i 'IElf!L 2. 111' 'PI if.fl:Jll! 11<1i'!ll .1' T ri!litJ Ii\:.~ :lr1!!. J:!l:!ll.1'l''.Ef llJ frnr,
1!I! !ii!"\ i*a<J ~~~)il!itJ
KT

P = MP

<6. 1. 2)

;I; cp ,M """' fl<a<J:)ff'I; R= 83! 4m' I Cs' Kl ;Ii!"\ i*itJ t'Jll:1it'li: ,R ~ l'A '\ti,f )i!"'\ J<F !'! str:I:
M fl: ;\ljf<i,f A!"\ J<FitJ "'\ J<F1itfil:o f;1J:IJ1 , ljl il'!itJ "'\ i*lit'li:;\I RIM, =518. 2m' I(,' K),

xr f

;II;!);"\ ii<. ilJ~ IJlf-1-fl\IIE L!il

+ z Xt1!1! ill"\ ii<!'! J!R;l;)il!1< 6. ]. 2) tn l'.( fl\IIE' l[J :fl;ii(

~ 1i Iii 1'ililt

+"'

~=KTZ
p
M

(6. J. 3)

+.

fl; "' ' z #>Ii fltl ;!ll llil


ffi!iii L!il 'E Ji!"\ ii< l!lt1l!' fQ Efi. fJ itJ Jiii 'Ii:')( ;il;"\ ii"' L!il z ,,, !!! 1l!' fQ
ffifJ [1'1 '*~ B lit!l!Jll'J lilt ll'I , :In ll'l 6. !Ffr;R, ll'I 'P Ii(~ l~ Efi. p. C'1!l1'1! jij;, Ii( Jt ~ llilll!' T. ::<!~'Ii:,
~ ~ ffi fJ fQ ~;!' ~ l!l1l!' A! X.::<i );!(~lit 1l';I; JU Iii Jiil !I!: Z ~ , NII

~ E.
T
P' p
< ' ,T. = T,'

<6 1 4)

,,

!'! , ~r r 11" ff & I: 4>@1 ll; it il''l!J itJ ;X Iii"\ 111.;!!dli Ill [1'1, iii 1it fl: J1
Standing~Katz ilia~ (;l5i T Im. Xrr-T ~l:J"fttf ~ 1*-<Yu COz, HzS, Ni) 09 7C ~!.\,Wichert, Aziz
<1972 >1'1:ili M!Whtli'I- ffifJ p, fQ !WI!; l'l-IJl1l!' T, ill'rrf!iIE itJtt;lt:lf !t. Ill {(ti1if itJ p', fU T', ft
ti' i!: ( 6. 1. 4) cp itJ p, fQ T, l:illif .jlj''lf ll'l 6. L
~ ll'I :li!i~'I!~ ~J< l'/.t "!: lill!J

6. L 2 "\ i* JI !11ft I: , r II iliJ Jt!l Ji!! i* ~ 1ft I:


-f'P'l!J lilt itJ i!ji l!I ffi!41i .!\ 'Ii: A!)(::<!
:11;

*.rF r

Cg""

~(~)T

li!lf;l!ltll!'.l'~n~,r.f'f .ti!:< s. 1. 3li~A

,P> =

; -

fl~ Ill Ml~ ffi!41i .II 'Ii: ,., 'I! JE)(JJ ffi!iii"' 'Ii: "
c, =

c~p,

(6,J,5)

ti!:. !l!lit!l;'t J<FitJ Efi.!iii .!\'Ii: ' :JiJ

zip) Id~~)

I.

cs. 1 s)

,, Iii JI! ffi 1J p, !'! !lll1!!1. JiJf Ii(

= ;, -

Z(lp) ( :;;) T

(6. 1. 7)

250

(6.1.8.J

Xofltffij;J

1!16. I

7<:!11"\mlil!lllli'l'l!!I

<!' f "\ 11L!ll '>! "1:1111i'II'll!llliI!"\1*, f ;tt <6.


28. 97, NU 1if f iili "'{ 1*6'! 7 {1[1' ;Jt

J. 2l fi;A <6. 1. 7l , '1' 1 ill: !lJ '2 "\Ii'! :fr'f :I: ::9

251

(6, L 9)

;ll; <!' ,
=

lO< ii< jji 111! il\ f'f, p, = 0, I 013Z5MPa, T, = 15'C = 288. 16K, (ff H;j' IJ1l Ell !!! ill T,
293K , J J:;;J:; 'I' J1l WJ ti< 111l#d'f r llilc:!f! 11i1 -f Z "' 1

6' 1. 3

jji "

~ 1111 "t ll5J *Ii !{

-#!~ll/J lilt B'J 1\'iI.I!'. II<~ T

J>ll!.Jlfll ffijJ, X&'f "i;i* B'J Ill. if 1!!1!lJl7'~'"\, .Jl;1\'i Jl if l/(

'1(1\ 'f ilil itll/J B'J !!!:St

it)f.:'Rf&"CB'J 1\'i!l ill'!;! JI! J1l Can, Kob.\y,hi, Bunows ( 1954) Will tll B'J tilt;. l!<itilt;1' lll!it
tll 0. IMPa r ::R~"Cfl'J 1\'iJl, ~!' ~ltJ\!'.'f' i'J ffi;iJ r!'J :(\\If, O. lMPa r *fll'llll/J lilt ('1i-i!lJt"C
0.024,--,,--,~..,..,-~

"
=
~

0.01

60

110
!ll{('C)

160

210

lll6. I o. lMP ffi:ti"F'tf*~!.111


f*) !'11\'i Jl!illll!.JlB'J ~{tji)J ill 6. 21'!f ffe, 'if [ '1l-!'1'1i-!!!Jt"C f*J(\\ I.I!'. ,, [ilj Htlinilt*1-!!!Jt ;("\!*
ilil frll/J '!' Jili<t B'J !$! if> Jt'l!t Xu ~p "fJ'.11 r li! :<;;;l:;it Ji!: "i;f*l!l frll/J ;( 0. IMPa r il'J :(\\I.I!'. ,
(6. L 10)

r , il'J ll "f lli IOl r1flt;!t tll ff fl: ffi;!J -r 'Rll!t"Cil'J Ji\i ir. 7tlli'll: c6. i. 1l Ji!: tll "'<: <im ft
wil'lm 1h);J11- ffin p, :!llm 1hl;J'l-ll!.Jt T, iJ!j'.lli'I\ c6. 1. 4) K- m~ "tltl!ill.I!'. r r *fl ffi;!J etil'J xt tt
ff

!Ji;!J p, fO X& ltll!.Jt T. dili'i ill fll 6. 3lll' tll 1\'iI.I!'. It,,/,.. jjijjf J11J19f~;J< il'J"C !*:\\ii.I!'., ,1\'i Jjf il'J
'1'{f[)!j iii lilt!> (mPaos) ,
Jlt~C,Lee,G<Jnzalez,Eabin(l966) ~f'f '!'~ H,S,CO,:jll N,B'J 'R?&"Cllttll T -1''!'~00:il'J
rrli' 11'1I.I!'.*5'I: .1*11"' :i;
~ =

;I; 'I',,,

Kexp(XpY)

B'J'1i-U1'J; mPa. s, \l'i!lf p il'J'1'{f[J; g/cm',

(6.1.11)

252
K ~ (9. 4 + 0. 02MlCJ. 8T)'" ,lJi!Jt T 1jl.JiL;IJ K
209 + ! 9M + J. ST
X

~0

3. 5

+ 19 ~~ + 0. O!M. Y ~

2. 4

O. 2X

3': H'.1'11'1f ""- , J!! "Fit J'4:. fUl\ :fJ:lilll "Flll!f 't1*.

4.0
,a
<

""' 3 0
"
20

~,trt/HIJ(

T,

Ill ' "<.l016111 ~t,.,; ~t JJ.lll'ln!li" e<i ;u1

6. J. 4 T "it , ii "'I: fO & ~ )I 'IJT "'I:


l'E ii! 1. 2. 111' .P !i 1l'i 'll :Ir !B ii:tillli ii1i !* fl'J ;\fl '.ll' JL i:!;!i!'-t"t~ttf JI ili-J:li :Ir Ill$ !ll5NM
i' It! fl'J .I!; 00
'f "\
~x!i.\ 'l.fl'J !J!?t :E'l'tli!c 'I' !ilfU 01-':!li iC ill, Jlt!'r. llJ(lll1J":fl1~01-':!t fl'J fij ill fU ;!l; t: Jl!; 5t, tll "F
.It mt;\ 5l-'f ~!II: :fIE h\: 1'1'41.1* 111! 1' It! :f ii': Jl1, l'EM! "iID il\-14' .i; 5t Ii! ff ill-14 T llll:f J ~aJI El: iii' U:
WU i2; l'l'x!i.\'"\l*J1 'f 'I.. 'f 'I. fl'J .Ill i&i 00 PCT l'!I 6. 4<aJ IJi 7' 00 9' S\ Htl'I. iii! !\if JI< f'f, .S\ c Jj!; 1}~ Ji'
.S\ , l!ti:Jl 1-Ht1'1.1:!!lEl!!JltT~'li''l. l*Jf 1l1 lm!lf .P II.h T~fl'J JJtll, .S\ I litl 5t //Orff fl'J !l!ffefi:llft
1'I. 't~M.lm !'! l'1Jllli 'it-!'! ~rj 5t II< ff )Ji)g, Bi !'l Eli )J fU l!!ilt5!\i'f II! i11J !il;jj!;lt .St ii< !ft li'J!I-41\- 'ii; illl
i/<Jj!;l@.S\i:Jl. It S\i:ll 'JI!! .S\!i<Z.1"1Jlri!'i tll:l\'fl' 13'.. tll 00 6. 4(, J'if ili , X&"PJC~ 'I. ;ti 'f "(!'J li!'!!L
:f Jf:Jlr'l'Eiiii !'! 51\lt .;!<5)- ~ff ildt T. t:: '!'El!! :ii l!Lt'/!119i"Fl"i t~ 13'.Z. jf !'J :ti 1'! . ~ :f "f filtll' }j\(Jll:
ii'
6. 1. 4. I

ill "t
**Ji\'"\ t'l!f i1!5l-:'IJ 1)>~5t i'fl'J !'E!il!il!:&t 11!1. 'l'E '{ fii:J1' tl1 il'J !111:1' ffi;}J '1t.llillt 1.P iiii !\if .p
lit1*Jc\J ~"\ii' !'JJli'\if 1'. I~ '!'Elm Wilf 14 T if if 'l'E lE !'J iii' U:. ~~h\:# ?<Ji\'\ 1*1' 1"61:. Jttl ilif
J!!llt fl'J Jll: l4' JF:'IJ ~-llillli il!"\!'J l!l:ti 00 im 00 6. 4<b l Jiif?F 00 9' ;!:\ Ht'1i!iiii !\if 51\f'f t- 1A\!:JO!'J 1'I X
Jvlitr ;\fl rJ rn l'fl "I fil, '11l~l!!i>tll! <P ili "I: l4' fil;IJ r ~. <:1#! r ~ 1' "l:;ffi. ill '!'EM! im :tr //Orff
41\-lt r. lit lt; 9irlll. B-W fl'J l"i ;\fl g i*I, Jtt;<lm w51\ It T 'tll-Xi!!ll: fi'J ii< 1*. ;sw 1.1"\1*1!'.<i:
:'IJ ~ 1'li "!;. l'i' "l i! ~ , i2; 111.JiJf ill. !'J" i!lc'ffi "'f "5i 71< 5t 7i;'li: , ml JiH!i '!'Elm ml il\-14 T (lll i!i if Jilt ill'. ii'
6. L 4. 2

253

lll/Jf
[b)

M."t*glJ

*!11itil~"'!9"6'1illl

Ill. 4

Jittl.llltll"t
il'f 7( ~ "\ (J'J fiji Ji! l!!!f!: ;( 7( ~ 't (J'J Ila; Jll /ii .tj' llaiJll ii tli iilil!ff ( !11. li! I. 2. 11' l Z l'iiJ .!fi lJ ~lj Ji!! ilii
(J'J 00: < t'J ff 25 % (J'J,. II' 5t!!Ji:"' ii<< hi. ;tf'l'J&!)i; ii it~ "' 1" lJ (J'J llX ff; 1't"' ii tJi til llt "\ < ll! tJi
til. im 1" iii 8'1"\ l*!l; !'1 iltJi"\. ;t;;ffi ?.ti 001m 1!'16. 4 CcJ
IE 'I'll l lll1"t!i!ijijj Ji! '*!if. tE jijj !! cp
.I!! 1~ :il ljt;!!J "flt> !II:# ii!' IMd:t
flt> A'1 ll Ji!!!! LEf1 r""' !lJ.11< 2'5!\lJ11 .\\\ 7f ii!JB ":11; l!X
JEJJ ""'1"hl. \\\ 2'i1J.11< 3A'1 iii!!"' , jijj Ill cFl!Xtil!liJf! bu .1'.\\<3 r.lf xt 0A'11E fJ r, lfX l*~tt:li :k.
;t fl' JEJJ T""' iJ Iilll "tfij'fli{t 1:1 l!Xill ll'J !ll ~ !l; 1:1 Ji ttl.111 *11 ill.ii! lTJ.llltlf . !E fJ Jill' -:JV
.:14Fl Iml
111:ii'lli:Klf 1"! :Jt.
;t# "IA'fj( 1:1 lli'tli"U\l , 00: flt; cf l9i ~t!i:llt (J'J ml 5t'f It I!!"\ cf JI! ill' iii' lit! 10' t jlj'J1I il'Jf!
11t:f jlj'Jlo''lll .1' fiji 1,;;'fdif r :lllll' <. fl(!i' m<
ll FEJJ '11<11f. "l ffiJJ ""':: l!!R.c FE::IJ (:.( T. m~
:ff "i'. l*il!lJ l!llil! lJ~ ill' 'I: f*;(J'J ffli'til !l;JJ il!ii&!il! !ii( lb 'l!ll~ iii 25 %-35 %
;t~"ttt< (J'J !l<ilil
!j;fgj!j' i&!il! Ll< til.
6. !. 4. 3

Wf"'.

Iii!"'"' *

i* .

r""'

6.

im*

*if(

~1*~im.nfi!

2':1' ctt "1i2fi: $'lll. iii Ji;, 11< lJ "\#>:!$<l'ilL 11il!l'.it$'lll. A'1 -!JV!i >I:.!:& Iii 'JI ilt!f!Jli}J fl'J Ii!~, f
ill' mi: :trw. Jt h
B11J A'111illt Jt :1rw I"! B1 ti! fr *rBin A'1$'1'11ll FEJJ 'f Ji A'1 nlll.

*rm

60 2o 1

li21>7Jl!i

!l~li! 1. 51' "'Jlf>t 0 2fi:il "'JiliiJl.(J'J li!i2fi::lr@:llll1 !ll:I:' "11:1ll l!lllil:C:1-'1'ti!:lrll! 0 Bl 'f <i'ti

mr i\111 >t "\ < A'1 ~iilil ill' mi: F!l f;l Cf Ht~ l!ll 1:$' m.1' iill:lltJrl'il cF 1! atilt :ll!'!' Jll 1' ""' !!)( !\' ,
"filiijl-~1)1'. l:.( Jtt~,

iillltt:to~

iil!!l't:lf1'1-0l Ell ;i: o. 6. >Ill tB .xtr3C~A'1 "~?.!i1"l'ilL1:1


a(~p)

+ '7

(pV) ~ O

(6.2.1)

254

a
a.

-~(rpv)

= 0

(6. Z. Z)

a<ei
+-"-<eul
~o
at
ax

(6.

z. 3)

7'1Jt:lill o!'illt;iJill!JlUZfl!:, Jlll 11! L 5 11' cf' Jllfi .11t;ti!i!!ll!il' lJ , 'lillllll jig
K

V=-~('Vp-pgzD>

$;cf' ,z, 'f;

Z ~Jr rtJ ( rtJ J:) Ji'tffi:9"Jit,

(6.2.4>

Jf T''f'llii 1rtJ iilttu 'f illi 'i'frillt"J' 5J'~IJ '.!\' JJlt

v ~- ~ ~

(6. 2. 5)

~~

(6. 2. 6)

= -

tE fl!:EEJl<i'f r ,3ll';; If. Klinkcnb"g l1)(!\I, ti~<I: ( L s. 24 l Jl)f m.,,.il'l$3ll'f)i IEli'J ~ lE, tE ffl;Jll;
il'l$ <1o m' l~ + ltuil!i lil!ll! IE 1J 0 4MPa 1:.tt lilid'f +, W:%c!\I l!!i~li.lf,
o!'illt iilli!!!Hl'.i11i, 1if F 1: {Iii~ O.rcy xei'l!ti'Jl11!~, l'E 'I' ilif tl! rlJ iill tllllt + ,"J''.!\' nit
dp
de

_E_V
K

= -

{:lpV2

(6. 2. 7)

1t 'I' ,~ tF 'h 1' Darcy !It ~ llil 'f , -l!Utl! , '"I jj\\
K

V = - 8-(\1 p - PKZ.o)

(6. 2. 8)

.J1; 'I' .8 ti<'h r.ttt-il!lll!li' IE iii!:, ;'i .tr!.~ 11th :;l<JiPl"ilif lit ;ti ,{E:MJ mllil!ll! cf'
K

v~-8-'Vp,a~

tE

*11 l'f tt11' mt<!' , !i!!lt<Jit,


6

1+

I
!!!!.

(6. 2. 9)

,
0 0OJ
{j~

lllt61!!~ ~l!f'llltt:E ~:nr1 :fl

(6. 2. 10)

8,

6' 2' 2 "'I. 1* ~ mi lliii !Ilk 5.l' JJ ~ 05J - Ml! ~ 'it


i!U illi !it tB T iJ'i ~:!iii::$: ::Jrllll , HP Jlil'l;tt ::Jr Illtu 'ill :l!t1Jl {Ell! 6. !. I 11' cf' 1l'!il T t'::<5 '!il
Bi i2:4''1illl!l!;;it li'J::Jrl!ilil! T !'I *J){f!ltffi::fJ p. !Jll 131. p tu i!131. v. ;!) T JJt lt!Ji'ill'. Jill 'lit J<::Mf .irlll
11''.itiit p tu v I~;!; .Jlif ll;;;ll;R
EEJ; p B'J-~M~:fr'lilll.
Xt"f JB l9tltl!li! .141'li!ilC6. 2. 9l{.i;A <6, 2. ]) l~c!iJtjjt V ill

J(<;p) iii

'V

[a K P'V P]

(6. 2. 11)

1'11'JJ!l:l*:15Jrmc6. 1. 3Jmc!iJ:>l:'l'B'J\lljjt p,!!He-MJrm


'V

l'E ~ lldH'f + .J:il: l'ill lt jig

P..J

[8KKI'Z
}!, P..9p]~ i!..[~ M
dt
RTZ

(6. 2. 12)

255
17

[a~ ~llP]= ~[,i~]

(6.2.13)

>\ <6. 2. 13 !l!it JI! '1: fit>: ilUii lilt fJ'J -l!liilll lll5t :If!!\\ , ii ilt Ji fl!i Jll !tt li!l:lf l;l;ilf fl'* WI, I!.! le '1'J Jt
1';;';1lli'f I!.! T ~;$:11.illlt, lilt fiti:Jlolf!i'll "\fit>:, !It iii! Jl!i!! fJ'J , fr lB'f !lo.Mi "1 <& rl'1 l"1 tt fJ'J, JL lli!U!tfJi\
ilt!tt 'lltlJ "iiJ ~j $/ffi '1' lt'
:CE tl'ill' wfili ii! I!.! fri . -l!li:lf llH 6. 2. ! 3l llJ i!l'fl'/li1it ilif ~ Jllt'l' l"1 %'6:'1'1 :lfllL
I) ffi:l):l;jl flf'!~Dfli\!!:'
(,) !if:ii!J;ii;Jl!!it. D"cy ~ ~Jllt :Ir. IP o= 1 ,
(bl 1$)!$ K lff!li:IJ'li;"''
<cl !li:IJ Wlll'i&1J' .!ff J't l?:J]l( 11! it< 17 p>' "iiJ I!.! fllf 1',
:CEl!liil<J,(bJ,l<tl'fT,:lf1'!<6. 2. 13l"iiJ~Jllt
Kil [1-11p]=
~
Z

J.-(1-)
Z

(6. 2. 14)

'1f.

J:'<t:tiilfiil!Hf . Jf )j<J Ill !lillil . 'll:~l!i'<t <6. 1. 6 l ~


(6.

~ 11

z. !SJ

[ft 'l pJ= ~ [~ 11,p + 11 p 11 (ft J


1

i.(

K
- dp In Z)
(17 pl']
f 1-[ll'p
Z
p

(6. 2. 16)

iJ::it ( 6. 2. 15 l fll <6. 2. 16 J:j;'lf!lolll'll IP 14


V'p -

i.(
In Z) (17 pl'= fc, 8f!.
dp
p

K i1t

(6. 2. 17)

T "1J il'i f>llff l!L:t - lif fl! :IfIi! <s. 2. 111 it Jlltlll: M.cr111'. ltll> !It fJ'J Jrli!
ll'P-

t1f? ?ff

(6. 2.

18)

ff llil I il!l!lil!Jc) Jlit:iL, ff llL 2 Jl!l!li!t (d) $;J'L


(d) iJ!!iJ! PhZ '1J''filt!/tt,
:If Ii! ( s. 2. 18 ) >);::I; :f!J Ill !li :IJ p ;]'< (i'J "( fiti:JI> ill: :If llil
J: t: .!ff ill:1*1$ !It Ill* :IfIi! lllc ' i!!l!.!11. fll c, llliJi\ ffi :IJ fJ'J ilii !tt , !ii I!.! '10 Ol ;If, qp i11!tt fi'J :Cf I Ii! J: "iiJ!llt c, fJ'J Ji!; f>ll.>f .Mi ill.it
Ill "'ft:lf l*ili' ill( ~JI .
2J !li:ll'l":IJ:IJll :fiJJl! T '1J"'ll\'#f hill< 6. 2. 15 J fll <s. 2. I 6J fi'J1iilfiii!tfl'il>:1'", 1

*"'

(6. 2. 19)

JJW" ( 6. 2. l 7J'.l1:Jll!;
\/ ipt - dln(#) ( 'V pf.)!

dp2

= 1'1-tcg

apt
~

(6. 2. 20)

T '11 il'if>lltll lll. :t - liJ' fl!:lf !ll <6. 2. 20 ! it Ji< Ill p' il!ii< fJ'J % 'll::J:ll/:l!l( 'fill: fiti:~ lilt fill 5l'JrllHIJ
ll:'f
(6. 2. 21)

111151 1 ;!Hl'H~ ccl Ji!; Ji. Ill Ill 2 Jlld!t \\! <e) Ji!; Ji. ,
o

(el ii'iiiit Z J<o111~L


.trli: ce. 2. 21) 19< 1'"1J mEEJ1"' 1i' p' ct!;r; i'1 "I: lti~liliff tt. 'kl !:!It: t!i. li?,~ii'<tti'l f!l '.ij' Ji!;
i! l>i'il'i 5't <'EI ffiLt !!! 'f i!i iJ:J !d: l!!
6 ' 2' 3

"'t {$ )# mt mi jJ;( Ii: 1.J JJ Ii

IElif '!i'. '{ lti~lili et. i!I! 111 'l Ifll -i'Jl.l !EJJ Pl J!: m <p >, ?itil"J:J!J !EiJ. fll JIJ !E:IJ 1l) fl!"\ !ti~
iJ!EfJ\k J!l' ;,\/I"' 111 i'J !d:1!\l 1i' I>; ,
li'J!li :IJ ~ JE:JI. Al-Hu,,.ing ct ,1 (1966) 51 Jlljlj lfj) 8'1111!;~ , )i!R :IJ

m(p) = 2

(6. 2. 22)

Zp dp

'

J't 'I' .p. J<;jf-jt~ !L7J llf 11 Jlit'.%'Jit o. lMPa CAl-Hu,,.ing 1111jg O. 2) ,1Jl1i' J!'i?C:IPlil ii!, t: Xt
Rl:J5!0.lfllll:1llf "~,Ill ;,\l<'Elt:l'l 'l'~~ITTJ<offil!:!~ "ill m, -m,, 'EX>l@z f P - p,.
m <p>E; p zfliJ~IJUl'.*l!I }J T Sll!m If JJ m(p >, ;:Hifi'i!:!tl! m Cpl Ei p ffil~i~:ll'J:'
. ff T i! foi~ :1!1 5<' ,!It1lJ ~J Ell -1' p i11! !fr Wxt M. ITT m Cp >il1! , Liz !11' I:!\ , i!Hi!f ll! )( ,'1 :mW.
!Ej) m( p) ITTl!i;lfl;,\) [ML-'T-']J<t'f-i'ljJll ~ B'J "\l!i, m( p) il'J Pli J!:'K 1'f JU!~ R'J 11' ill' T 1f
1lil 'IE,; n "'\ii! 'I' lili illl i'J Jt II\ '1 tt ft l1'c\'i< IJil rn !f ll."\ltirn m>J- ;pJ<
iln "11 ?Ji'> *JU& 'flt~""'l!i\ ilHriL xt 'f !fr ii! iJ!Jlt Te~ If {BJ 4: 1* ,m Cpl J' p !'J~:li 3:' ii\
iiJ't!i'~) f!f;.!l!Jjt1l!;,
li! .-;IV , tli' E Jli fl'l "\~iJ!Jlt T, JM rlli!r' lliiJ p" j!)rlli !r'l!!Jlt T, flJ ff, 11Jl'd4' TITT itl Ill' ,. Ell
III 6. 1 f\l 6. 3 i:l1>-:l\'9lJ:f lill BiiJ P .'if 't1'\'il'J z i11!"1l fll'. "'Eb :<;~>Rillil:!loJ!: 1lL
ll! !!' X'lllll fJtW<Jt:;;t fl'"11l!i0 ,,i:"' '!'if l1ll 0 ,,i: .if -l!l! m:1fii! rn p. il1!llJ P i!!' n ~ il1!
1'J\ 5t .lit '1 JI: ili - '!\ Y'J p ill!.'ffMS !'J m <p >ii
ll!.:O $ 'xtlt:lf w" iii Jl<;lj wm(p) - p iJ'J""' 111 "'!!"~ m <p) - p rn fl!I ii'<. 'jjjj!Jil' fJ!I flllllill'
xt 'f :f it!li fl'I x!:!\"1; , fll p. - o E Y'J WT :f lill xt It i!lilt r m.- p. ITT~ J'l'.il<. iln ll< 6. 2 m

;r;, JI<'/',
(6. 2. 2.3)

xt'f ii'!lii'J "'\!ti, t!! E Ell z,n,, Thom,,(1970 )!fr tU T m p 8'11!1!:11'!1<111. @j!;' Jli( p. - p,.
-f ilii 'Ii -Iii! Jl'. i!frJ f ,ill. ljlj Jl; it J'I'. 'jj I>;.
A1<:f~*ii1tt.!X~!:( ,:Jt;filljf*fl~ :N2 i!l' l. 38~~ ,CH, ~ 93. O~'O .C2H~ rS 3. 29~~ ,C 3 H~
r!i 1. 36~01i(:,H1ot!i o. 23,%,n(~,H1ot!i o. 37%,iC!Hur!:i 0.12~/o,nCtHut!i o. lOY~.c:,H 1 ,rS
O. 08% .C~ 7 Hi'.; C8!%t~~ J:ggjt) r5 O. 05 ~~ o

11>1i!fl'l_l:ill.)t X,,f!<ll! 6. l l'i1iJ>1'1ll

"'

,.., .

'
!Yf = L.JX1M; = 17. 53,T,
= LJX1Tc1 = 198. 3K

p, - l:X,p, - 4. 578MPa,1- M/28. 97 - 0. 605

6.2

"1.. #.~lf~~:f.

257

----------------

:f'.iiii~J!tlti.li\Ji' T,

~1' ltEE:iJ

p.

I. 05

0. 10
0. 20
0. 30
o. 40
o. 50

0. 0051
0.0208

o. 60
0. 70
0. 80
o. 90
j' 00

J. 10
]. 20
J. 30
j. 40

\. so
1. 60
l
1. 80
1. 90
2. 00
2. 10
2. 20

1. 15

---0. 0051

(). 0475
Q. 08~6

0. 1355
0. 1980
0. 2733
0.3620
G.4638
0.5780
0. 7053
Q. 8525
J, 0318
L 2392
1. 4482
L 6468

1. 30

o. 0051

0.0206
0.0467
ll. 0839
0. 1322
0. 1921
o. 2637
0.3474
0.4437
0. 5529
0. 6746
0. 8083

o. 0204
0. 0461
(I, 0824

o.

1).

~539

t. 50
......................
______1. 75
0. 0050
0. 0202
0, 0456
0. 0813

o. l 293

o.

0. 1869
0.2S56
0. 3355
O. 42U2
0.5276
o. 6400

0.1833
0. 2498
0. 3266
0. 4134
0.$095
0.6154
0.7314
0. 8574
0.9930

0. 7638
8983

I. 1114

J. 0431

1. 2807

I. 1978
l. 3620

l27~

1.1381

2.30

2.8500

r. 461 e
1.6516
1. 8476
z. 0472
2476
2.4499
2.6545
2.8603

2.10
2.50

3. 0074

'.i. 06.58

2.0549

3. 1622
3. 3143
3. 4638
3. 6108
3, 7553

3.2701
3.4726
6. 6'127
3. 8701
4. 0646
4. 2560
4. 7260
5. 1857

3. 1786
3.4060

3.
4.
4.
4.
5.

4. 9183
5. 2430
5. 5622

s. 6338

0.1461

6.0700

6. 7434

6.4913

7.3355

1.2923
1. 4557
1, 6280
1. 8089
1. 9982
2.1954
2.3999
2.6116
2.8302
:l.0554
3, 2872
3. 5251
3. 7690
4. 0185
4.2735
4. '1303
5. 6102
6.3089
7.0228
7. 7491

5.8776
6. 1892
6.4970
6.$011
7.1014
7,3980
7. 6909
7. 931)\i
8.2688
8. 5~46
8.8383
\I. 1198
9. 3992

6.9181
7.3324
7.7399
8. 1406
8. 5345
8. 9218
9.3025
9. 6780
10. 0495
\0.41'.'0
JO. 7805
IJ.1400
11. 4956
l\.8473
12. 1951

7.9228

8.4853

8.5032
9.075B

9.Z289
9. 9772
10. 7283
11.4803

'

2.60
2.70

2.so
2. 9()
3. 0{1
3. 25

3. 50
3. 75
4, 00

4. 25
4, 50
4, 75
5. 00

5.2S

s. so
5. 75
6. 00
6. 25
6. 50
6. '15

7. 00
7. 25

7. 50
7. 75
8. 00

8. 2;,

t. 8359
2.0176
2. 1926
2. 3619
2.5272
2. 6899

3.8974
4. 2456
4, 5859

9.6764
9. 9516
tC>. 2250

z.

J 2. 5399

L 5356
1. 7182
1. 9090
2.1068
2- 310~
.5206
2.7354

z.

3.6367
8100
1056
3129
94l7
5444

9.640~

l0.1951
10. 7409
11. 2773
11. 8066

12. 33\l
12. 8S04
13. 3644
13. 87:JQ
14. 3760
14. 87~5
15. 3655
15. (1527

J2.2Jl8
12. 9815
13.7293
14. 4749
l5.217i
15. 9569
15.6917
17.4219
18.1471
18. 8669
19. 5824

0.0050
0. 0201
(), 0453
0. 0807
(). 1261
0. 1814
O. 24G8

0.3222
0.4073
0.5019
0. 6059
0. 7192
0.8416
0. 9732
J. 1142
1. 2645
1. 4240
L 5923
1. 7695
1. 9553

2.1495
2. 3519
2. 5623

2.7806
3.0067
3. 2403
3. 4813
3. 7297
3. 9851
4. 2474
4. 9299
5. 6466
6.3944
/.1705
7.9713
8. 7933
9. 6339
J0.4907
11. 3616
IZ. 2446
13.13'/9
14. 0397
14. 9488
15.8643
16. 7846
17.7087
18.6356
19.5644
20. 4942
Zl. 4242
22.3501

z. oc

2. 50

3. 00

0. ooso
0.0201
0. 0452
0. 0803
0. 1254
0. 1803
o. 2452
o. 3198
0.4039
0.4974
0. 6003
0. 7131
o, 8.356
Q, 9676
1, 1091
1. 2599
1. 4199
1. 5887
L 7663
l. 9526
2, 1472
2. 3499

0. 0050
o. 0200
0. 0451
0. 0801
0.125()
0.1798
0. 2445
o. 3189
0. 4030
0. 4968
0.5004
0.7136

0.0050
0.0200
0. 0450
0. 0800
o. 1249
0.1797
0. 2441>
0.3187
0. 4029
0. 4\l6i
0. 6003
0. 7134
0.8360
0.9680
l. 1095
L 2602
1-4Z03
L b895

z. ~60~

3, 7783
3.0043
3.2383
3.4792
3. 72'12
3.9824
4, 2444
4. 9296

o. 8362
0. 9681
1.1091
1. 2592
I. 41(13

1. 5362
1. 9492

1.1579
1. 9554

2.1442
3479
5602

2.1519
2.3575
2.5721

l 7GS2

z.
z.

2.7811

2.19~6

3. '.ll 05
3.2482
3.4942
3, '/483
4. 0106

' 0280

3. 2~9l

4. 9903

3.5191
3. i776
4.0449
4.3206
5. 0465

5. 6563

5. 7459

5.8235

G.4224

6.5462

7.2259
8.0629

7.3894

10.1654
11.1682
12, 2073
13. 2811
14.3883
15. 5274
16. 6956
17.8901
19.1096
20 . .'.1527

6. 6503
7.5257
11. 4484
9.4168
10.4297
11. 4859
12. 5841
13. 7232
14.9020
16.1193
17. 3731
18.6617
19.9841
21. 3390

ZJ. G184
22. 9053
24. 2124
25. 538~
26. 8821

24. 1421
25.5882
27. OUZ7
28. 5650

8.92PG
9.823~

10.7437
11. 6870
12.6520

13. 63t\8
14- 6.399
15. 6588
16, 6915
17. 7365
18. 7927
19. 8589
20. 9337
22.0163
23. 1057
24. 2001

4. 280!}

8.2745
9.2004

zz. 7253

258
::r-lil'l~t-tltll.lt T.

:lJb::.!E:fJ

8. 50

s. 75
9. oo
9. 25
9. 50

9. 75
JO. 00
JO. 50
11. 00
J J, 50
11.00
12. 50

13. oO
18. 50
14. ()()
14, 50
15. 00

I. 05

1. 15

1, JO

l. 50

1. 75

z. 00

10. 497l
10.7678
11.0371

12.8826
J3. 2281
13. 5614
13. 8976

16. 3358

20.2946
21.0083
21. 7081
22.4090
23. 1057
23. 7981

23. 2874
24.2205
25. 1539
26.0869
27.0192
27.9602
2$.8?97
30.7359
32.5885

25. 3004
2G. 4040
27. 5107
28. 6200
29. 7311
30. 8437
31. 9570
34.18j3
36. 4211
3S. 6554
40.8873
43, 1147
15. 3355
47.5481

11. 3051
11. 5718
11. 8370
12. 1009

14. 2315

12.6258
13. 14i'6
13. 6552
14.1816
14. 6937
15. 2026
15. 7081
16.2102
16.7087
17. 2039

15, 5473
16.1969
16. 8412
17.4804

16. 8150
17. 2901
17, 7612
18. 2283
18. 6914
19.!50$
20.0604
20. 9615

14. 5632

14. 15928

2). l;l537

22.1361
23. 6105

18. 1145
1$. 7135
19. 3673
\ 9. 9859
20. 5993
21. 2076

21.1750
25. 3303
26.1763
27. 0132
27. 8409

24. 4860
25. 8522
27.2075

28, 5508
29.8815

34, 435Z

31.1992
32. 5036
33, 7943
35, 0712
36. 3344
37. 5837

38. 1035

p(MP11l

1. 000

!---~-~---

36.2740
39. 9223
41. 7295
43.5240
45.3055
47. 0731

49.75~0

51. 9431
54.1231

3. 00

28. 2415

30. 0944
31. 6502
33. 2314
34, 8371
36. 4666
38.1191
39. 7937

29. 6156
31. 0037
32. 4048
33, 8182
35. 2431
36. 6786
39. 5769

43. 1956
46. 6559
50. 1691
53.7299
57. 3337
60. 9161
64. $533

42. 5019
45. 45!8
48.4215
51. 4073
54. 4059
57.4142
60. 4295
~3.4494

68.3614
12. 097)

66. 4718

75. 8571

(m.Pil 1)
~

2. 758

o. 95$

0. 0118

5. 516

0. 914

0. 0125

8.274

(),

o. 0134

11.032

o. 853
o. 83'..

13, 790

z. 50

87~

0. 0145

0. 0156

111! :;Jt Ill ti:{]![!!\ ?ti'.!dtJ!I: ~l J:!li:IJ {i![IJf~J El' 8':i !!! !li.fJ m , 'IJ'll;' Si :;!!

6. 2 llf 1118':1 ill!'.{]![ ff! !t 1J1 ,

lll! !-!ll'.11 !!\ ?t :11J l!! Pit T ,


(2)

(j)

p(MPa)

(3)

<z,+J::c:n

2p/Z

I (MP11/mPa s)

2. 758

489

2
2p/Z.lf'.:l\!J{ll.

(4)

(5)

.,

m= (3) X (4)

(M.Pu)

tMPa 1/tnPa a)
0

674. 3

674. 3
5950, 3

15380

5. 5111

9'0

72i. 5

2. 758
2. 158

8. 274

1405

1185. 5

2.758

IL 032

1658

1531. 5

2, 758

2006. 4
3269.6
4223.9

!3. 790

2117

1887. 5

2. 758

5205. 7

'

244.5

T
322
T, = T, = 198. 3 = l. 62 '
~~ = 2(4. 578)2 = 3676. 8 MPa2
1

O. 0114

mPa s

"'

(5J+l:(5)
m

-lfttJ'{l

(MPn'/mPa ~)

2680. 1
10174

259
(9)fj{ljf~

(!)

(1)

( 8)

p(MPal

p,=p/p,

T,=T/T,

0.60
1. 20

o. 1824

570. 7

0. ?253

Z666. S

516
8. 274
IL 032
13. 790

'

J. Sl
2, 41
3. 01

1. 6102

5920. t

2.8051

1031$

4.2605

156~0

st*

1n(!v!Pal/mPa s)

2. 758
j,

6.

14f Ill ltt ill I!\


i!> fJ'J <6i rr ill Ei J!E"" 11' fJ'J <9 ) 1T ill ill It nr x ,ti xt"' & 1113
- o Jffill!il tlJ fJ'J illl!i\iilllOO 6. 5 PJf!i<.

2% ,

<' J

I/
/
/

'

10

12

14

p(MPa)

ltl 6. s lli*'Fil"illli11<1111!

m-, illl>l

ll'l!li:t.J m tf;f-Mllt~ :!;"!l! lll' <'Eltll!: Ill Wlli:IJ 3/;!i<fl'J "\ 1*~/ilt mlilJJ-:lr!ll. 1lG ill Ell !ii'llil
~iiltll'J ~!l\'.:lf lfil <6. 2. 13 l tlJ :At. <'Elli 6. 2. 2 'II' ll'llii* IJ!liJl:ffi <al, (bl fil!iJI: .F, nlfil <6. 2. 13 lit
13

~'7. [(%01pi]~

![zfu]

(6. 2. 24)

ilHWiE51.i\'.C6. 2. 22J ,fi'tT'l:i*

Iii;:.

Elf i:l i\'. c6. 2. 24 l fl'Jti:lilO 'IT


o!\ltt ' o)'.EJil;[o,p/Z]Jp/ilt,

[;;c:;;5t<:5 J'7 p
Dm .... [
2p
]Ji:
iit - CplZCpl iit

'7 m

(6. 2. 25)
(6. 2. 26)

'V <'V ml , ffii ii:< 6. 2. 24l fl'J;t;:llMJt! ii: c6. !. 6l FJf ~ 51. fJ'J !E!lli

T';li;l\:(6. 2. 24ll!Ti'iitll!,
~m
v

~v(P)(p) Jm

at

(6. 2. 27)

2:11!:.lll, .Ill !fl !E:iJ m 3/;ffe 8~ Jllkt)fl;;il; "\ 1* ~!lill'J m1!1:5l'1f!!L 2: 1'1i' Ii 1Jl ii\ Ill !tltt:lr l!l ll'J lf'
'?\:, :tt9' , ltt X, ~K/[k, (p) p( p) ]l'J;jg Jl('l; "\ 1*~ iil[ll'J !tJtto!\lttJl<Jt\ Ji!> !Eo!\ ltt, J21:-i':if!ll'.)J
ii\ JiHe !ilitt fJ'J lllHi'll J1!! lJtJi! :::: !ii JI) !ilitt fJ'J \!<1i' lfil13 .T. Ill $1 Jt! llli#\ T :!;" 1!I!
!ltlM"l;ll'MI P'll1Hllll# ~J _t 1l> tlJ T .Ill !EJJ. JEJ1 'F :if >Ill Jt\ !E)J !i'i ;f, li'J = l'f'"t Ii'~ ffli: 1i'

ll! . t: In 5t~rJJi!: <6. 2. 18) c6. 2. zu fll c6. 2. 27l ol!lltriit 11 !'l(ill(f!'fi\'J!i .=.1*1f!llfa!i 't Iii ill pg jft
!/l- lkl'f. x.t 'f '{ t$ , le {E'fi: ( 6. L 9l , 7t jl'j !ii:il! J~ ftn!t!ll ff.Ill' !fd'f rITT!IE Ii Q"'?<ii<,
!) Xti'Jij;il!:f,>1f!Jl(6. 2. !Sl,i*Ji!Z!/l-li\(f;l;

' up I ~ 'k1:!!.. ~
2irKh

Jr '"

JcZ_ AQ,T

(6. 2. 28)

2;rKh T"p

2l At r !f;j; '!'Ji!'! llt5t Jill! c6. 2. 21) , pg i!!J'i' ifd'f Y,

,,
,"P:.I
Jr

~zp
w

I,.'1')
, . ~=-~r
p Q
irKh T"'
..7

tJr,.,

(6. 2. 29)

>1 xt'f 111llifJill1!!:7}1fll! <6. 2. 21 l , pg l!l'lhlkl'f 1'


'!:J2 Q,,11BW

r Chn I =

Jr lw

Z 2irKh

Q,". f>:'T
irKh 1,,,

"

(6. 2. 30)

" flit )# Jn! fl tlll 5.t 75 ~ ~ ~ i t; 1C !II: l1ll ii:;


;i, r JJil! it i.e.~ &;11. rEn 4' h mBi ;11Jl;c:ofl>11t5t:h' ll!'!j 11t11t: -&i ,t

6. 2. 4

*"

*'

V i41 = 1'11c~ !Jtf?


K Jt

(6. 2. 31)

Ji: 'I' ,<l> iiJP" Ji!; p, p' iii. m <pl,


n!!l 911Ii1t :ff ~>J ;i, r <ll-1f ll! w1 lll (l( lr!;J)f !ill ,1iJlf4f !;( 1:=: 1* '' l!<tt :h'l!Hi! n i'l(i!: iii! 1t
ill d:liii; "1:Ji!:1'! Jf ll! cs. 2. 301' ill !tl!U\ 'ttJ!\:JiH'i'f ;lJ uL ill! 1't *lill1!11!"f,
,
K
tr J1'J ffi .1J fr !'1 'f , JI\: X~ I( I"), ,

trlliJ1'fhn!ll't"J!\'. x~ , __ ,
K

t Hi ;IJ 1f ll! 1' ' ]fl: x~ 1'"' '

'"'

rti '

l't 'I'.
'?t;c !JJ J!iiil! . ilif "' -M:li! !ll l'f #'f J:\J m;IJil! ll<JtlJ:lf ll!m;IJ ii!i T itl'f t1: ill"" 11J
'l1* !1H<t ,
lift ::011911 '1tt~1t o!> .'!\!ill: i1'~!1t 9' ~J ;Ji; JltllHt, #IE:!!: lilJ "( l1'Jil!ll!l*!!t 111'1 ~j :X: ii
i\16. L 9J,ll11f
(6. 2. 32)

!i:'f~Jil! tE "( t$ij}![ 'I' '"' t:JCJ!t!ltlltlnl 'ii! 6. 3,


'l IIll 6. 3 'I' I.Ii l'lJ ill '1tlit!fJI lit!;( Id "t i1'~ !IE ill! ~'.it 1r!ll <6. z. 3D'f '.!' Jtt ;Ji; lit !11 Jfi Ji:

,....,.,.,.,
v wv

2'.Pr,
""
( 'l
Ztn, wv = fftni p, nPo

(6. 2. 33)

ill l!-;!HH1\l '1t t ~1t


1l Pl itl!l-Jkl'f tr 51 Jll :it 6. 3 I.Ii l'lJ EIJ xlt!i'llit Ll Id , )\H!f f!'te/iiliiit ill P'l l!l!/l-Jkl'f PT"\'~
(6, 2. 34)

...
'\Olt

Xo

"tf*:Jt;-iilln:m. "fl mm iJIJ*fll'i'-11:

"'"'~!I!

P'

xix;

xls1

xi.rt

);j:jf;j1lj{,tm'.

'
'

'
'

'

"' or "'11 "'

f./llC,X]

"

('fii;r;}

lflll"fX.loJ ~
1*1f!i11iJ,C,M_
-----

;,c,ri

m,~m

fri~f?

'"'"

p,~p

m,Q,,

plQn

p,Qn

zp,,Q,,T

2p"p;,Q,,T

p,~r

Khm,Tu
........

Khp/T,,_

Khpp.T,.

'I' or 'I'11 "'


lflfii-t:?(i;J~

'"

"

.,

ll"' '1i"'
-f- lli :xv- ff ti

-- ..
Q,

K'

'

K'
Pili'xl-

I~

-------

4'- lli :@ "'1 i'M

__ p,./J,.'I'
"Khm,T,.

p.,&Q,,T

pKp!i!Q,.T

11:KhfiT~

2rrKhpp,1',.

1*m.MG'l'i

p..Q.,T
11:Knn,T"

p"'&Q,,T
1rKrp.1T"

2irK~pp,T"

p"'i:Q,.T

mi Jll> "f mt* i1i l'l r 'Ill !f ll!lf Ji,l'JI! 111 ii!( fF i!-!l> ltl(l; mi T , 'lit ffl(E"\ fi'J/i; lilt 1' 113 li! )(. Si 'i! i1i
~1'119 Iiii! IYJ ii'!!JOE!i ril 11p, jg

_ .JlL
2n:Kh$

j;j,p, -

S _ 2Khi:.p, Qt~

(!:::..p,)v

(6. 2. 35)

Si 'f IE 1 !OJ lilt lllJ I\ tit 1' . Jl!!lll J!i: !f11!1! lilt lllJil!!llJI!!;!: , 'i!lttt-llillilt~ !'Z lttl' '!11 li!. , JI- illi 51 i!!l-1' !10
fill r* i1i ~!'Z IYJ lll<t:lm !Ii fi\\ , f!!J:!: 1' lll<t!JO IE rli 1' ii! 'litil!i , 'E .lij lilt :lll:Jill; 1E It , l'l'I ii!(11!1!1''111 '.'!;!ill' lilf 'I\:
IYJ !iill!'i! '..! J:!: 1' JG :Ill: mIYJ ii'J!Jc Bi fi\\ lif Ei Jill;
(l::.P1r) v

= DQ"'

(6. 2. 36)

;II; 1', Tiff. IT *mlll!tt-lli!liltj!j:!\1 , D !!<jg l\~IYJllJ!tt-llillilt;\!!lll\il!i .Jlif 11.IYJ *lt IZJ '!' S' j;
S' - S i-- DQ" = <Ap,)/) i-- (!:::..Prr)n
(6. 2. :37)

!lll JIH!L'!if *! i!lf llll :5l- ii'J!Jc JI fi\\ '-" 'i! &'. Ell r:5l-Jf 1if k'.l ii ii il'i1' 1' liif fl'! lilt :Ill: Q., 'Ill Q,, 3f<' ll!l li! .@ *
!ILl'l r S' , Sil! i"i1':1ffilll!:i'LBP 1if 1!1't!J 75 lll*&'. Ell r S 'lllt!ttt-llillilt'i!B<:*l& D, J:!: D JI. cff
11 :111:m!l. t?:[!'J:t:m1:cL -T J.
*'T!tl!if iiff :!l!'litl&. tlill lf!! 4. 6. 2
ll!.::::#11116". li! ,11,jf jij 1*:!1!#ii!( c :Jg

11'"'

C = V.,c.,

(6. 2. 38)

(6. 2. 39)

(6. 2. 40)

Pwll = Pn ( rn = l ) ....

C'/

~)

dp

arD

(6.2,41)

(6. 2. 42)

J}\;:r\'. l:f 'i\ <4. s. sD f1'I

2) !'hi!l'!'%<f'i'

m'i\'ii!c:il: m11'1
~''f:t'1l:!cJi!!ll!
,PD = Q,

tf Yr;

X>J T 1f l!-!'J i!tfll illtiEffi 7rlt!l'I'. ?tM~::JJ


dlfln _
dn - 0 '
!fin= O,

__ _,..

= ;{ll::

(6.

z. 43)

1'E ?rit!l'I' s ~

(6. 2. 44)

1'E Jlf it! l'I' s l1l:

(6. 2. 45)
(6. 2. 46)

6. 2. 5 !JI

*""' ti T J!!.f!l "\ {.li!i'mt nmll'J :sl'!';i; reJ 1l!if:1flfi, ap m ffi f.J:lf i'il< 6. 2. 21 l, mp'
7]\Ef)jfjlj\(6. 2. 2l)fll!llffi;IJ p *if:iJjf1'J!(6. 2. 18) ,jf,.Jil;~-ll'Jjfi~(6. 2. 31lfll:t:llt!ll%
:r\'. <6. 2. 33 l , Jt;"" 1-:lfl!i!lilil= !11'J!l~ttililll?l-111L 1!! 1?: fll ll'J ilt!ll Jkf'i''f 31''1!: ;It! 1'1. tt<ffi
;iJ /rlllfUll J'lJ 6. 2. 2 9' l'Tl 1-1l!i* il'!ll!fll fl\!Jrn lJ 11!!1'! ,Y,f'i' <al fll (bl ill ffi;IJ 'l':lf:lf l'<fll !E ,11/r
1'i!lli\ (',( J:ll'J ii'! iJ!J<r, i:!i iii:!!: fllllJ 11!! iJ! ,Y,f'f (e), <d l , <e) 9' Er) J;t-,Y,. Ill illl!l !E;il/rl!!W.lll IP. !II
1!1~, ilii' ffi;iJ'!' 1ffll !E;IJ :lf!IHIJ J'ii'!lllff. !11 J!J ~llJ '1lili1J,
2l T '1lili1Hfd'F Cd l ;f~ <el wattenbarger, Ramey< 1968 l ''T ;lfl;l'I' !il!ll!I Er) :l<M "C <r ii
-o. 66,T.-I. 6JiJ!lfll:!liJIL/JttliT Z fl1mXtp8-)*;!\ill!f\ll,Jml!l 6. 6 !Jfif:. !llitill'lllTfil
X1'f ffl:!El'B'J "'\{.Ii, frU p<l 4MPa, Z Jlijt(::JJ'iltilt. J2: 5f flltjj!j\',f'f (o l ffi1'f, !P if Z ~ p,Z,, Ell
1i

)Ej(J't(6. 2. 22)1;'
0.05
0,04

25000

'

pZ_"' const

-;;

\.

20000
,

~ 0 OJ

-'J.

15000

,,_

0 02

10000

0.01

5000

0 .
0

15

30

"

60

Hi.h p, (MJ'a)

Ill ,, WJffi;IJ m ;in Z llllffin p

~I~

"

!'Jll!!t~;!\

"'"''

"'

263
1
mCp) = 2f' 1dp = ,,
p'
2
2

(6. 2. 47i

~,.,

w,

i!:l! iliFoli'W!Et; :tr1'l c' 2. 21H!lil\n!f11'1"/itr1'! c6. 2. 2u ?Ji r1>t r 1ll:EE r !'! "\ Ill P'
!117" !'! !\!: :)t :tr 1iil Jl!:ill jf !'!)Ii f1')
>t '.f iii !Er !'J "\(.I:, tin p> 14MP, pl Z J!tf1')fJ 11!''!!1 ,j:!;: .!ff ill! ill: >l\ i'f (d) '11J qtl', IP<;' p/ Z
~ p.I ,Z, , ill Jlij Jlifj;.(Ji!!<;'
m = Zpz,

f'

J1i,o

dp

~ Zpz, p

( 6. 2..18)

,,

":11 ~ oll'lll llit; :tr1'l cs. 2. 21' if Iii\ J 11 P !'!tr 1'l c6. z. 1a i , Eli l'l Mr iii !Ii r e<J "!:!*,Ill lli
tJ P 'il1 mEll!\!: ?t tr 1'!!i!:111lf e<J Jlif1'J
El!illli iii , .tii3"*Jf4Pt E!ifl' !'131'11\"\'/lll!l!:ifi 1't A'J. Ill illi -!l!!ll!;!E. I'll p' .ffi p 'il!Ji\ A'J'l:
1*ill illt tr 1li\;iii; '!'tin*" !Ii t; m A'J ill illt tr 1iil l'I' <; ti' A'J El I'll flti1!.
sJ 3"'f llttnnill!ilt>l'ri't col 1 'lif:>ltlliJJ ~llr1111J , vJ
cv PJ' wl1J! .5J;t; t:J1J!11l tt lif l1.i!l
llf :t' tt. i.l.l'El~lli' fl!ll!L r ~ifilll !'J. iflxt<i '"fill& "'~~tlJ!\'lt /iii rul!i''lt:t'JIH!llf !'l i!i'M..
4) tf ii/iii llfJJ!t, !lit; 1'l\IJl'.lll:;k;, ill illi ;frilltii!Jlr t!i,jjj:;k;, tinJll L 5, 2 11'!' J'JfiJ! , i.l.*!lil! !!!1i
J1J! (f)Jl' >~flllfll, rel HtiM!illtXJ:l'LJ\Jl; Rij .ffil:, ;(EI lli'.t;!J/ili l\'!il]1,, Jeli;!;:j!!ff'i'J!i O~ IJ3!J!i ;iJ !'ll-1-m
nn !'J !l!Bi: Ill +*~HI! Ill n!!! tt f1' m.ffi liiitillt f!Z Ill lJ l!I! it /iii llf!i!t illt iill'-1! JJ Ill* ii>: .!ff* Ill 15 JI;
tE lit l>i:t! 51.J: fl ll!: iJ;1 :t !1. { '11'fi"\ Jfil'I: Ji' lill ii! 'il1 Bi:lll -f llt ' :II' Ji'. 'ill ffi !!;,/it& Ill 'f Ej 1111 tt iMI
illt'il!Bi: '!!t?tlf ,g. 1'i Ill i!'i 1'"' li'J !'! ill! ll:il'I: ii ;f RI! lill '.iE

!'

"'*

'*

~1*~~~/iff
tE u -17 '!' , iii if'J Ill JI( EEJJ :tr 1'!;1Eli!fli:JLl>i J)IH!! El'J ~ 1.fit!' illt fiiJ ll!L

6. 3

6. 3. 1

?f i'lii ?f fJ ~ i!:i ~mi

>!!:Jr !Pi!i!:!; '.;) 4l- "'1 li'Jttfl'J ,;II; 1"!tn L. lilt jjljj,11;!J A, ti'~ x= O ,ffi ti~ x ~ L l1 Bit;
~ p, .ffi p mu~iiit:tr 1'!.ffilllJl'.>l'ri't~ iii tin""
d"m

-i

dx

O<:t:<L

(6. 3. ll

,Z,,

x=O

(6. 3. 2)

p.,~ ,
,.Z.

x=L

(6. 3. 3)

=O,
m,

p,'

rn ""'m,.""'

**'J

1J1.!:!l.-Jr1'!16. 3. D<6. 3. 3>e<Jf!!fn


n-i=m.-

m, - mw

p;
,Z,

.x=--

..Z.,p; - ,Z,p~ x
. ,.
L

z z

6.3.4

1"!11. 'f-J;iflo' ~ .z =Z .mtl14


m(p) ... m(p,) =

[~

J
'

(6. 3. 5)

254
1%1;<6. 3. 5)f~A (6. 3. 4), "Ti!!

, (Z
~
J!Z
1x
,z,P-.,Z.,P"' L

P =p,-

(6. 3.

6)

T illiit Will' :IL


X1f"(1*1lli ,1*!!1 llliJllJJft!LiJ'il'it ltil'. a)j Jll , !iJ!tlll ~:l!llli :I! F, 'I': Ji1c :f 'J)' !'JJ!I;, iltill'ii'.
V

'F :t::k , iilt ilbi!l:M. D"''Y i iii!, ~Hf


F-AV--A~Kdp
RTZdx

'1'! P *u

(6. 3. 7)

z ~x '!"#!ii!. mtt xt: ll\ ?:!' 11!'


F'l -

l (

1 .

p,

p.!

1 AlvfK

fi:t RT

(6. 3. 8)

faJf '" i< lf!l'kl'f T J1l! llii'J1*!J1iilt lit Q, 19


F = AKT3 (p' _ p')
Q" = p,,,
Zp"LZT
.,

6. 3. 2

(6. 3. 9)

zi;ifjjf~iqi~~i#mt

!El#! ,!ft 1!11.IB:lf JI'. lllill! 'I' c'~ P'If. lllill! Jll!i!:Jg h, jf'f'li'. r-R ii! ffi.

if~ ii!FJll; Q/t

F , ~ttr !!11'11itlJI'.91<1'1' Jg
d [ r dm]
dr
dr = O,

(6. 3. 10)

m = m,. = m.(p.,),

(6.3.111

m = m, = rn(p,),

(6. 3. 12)

rn-111,.=

m, -

rn,.

R 1n 1n'

(6. 3. 13)

(6.3.14)

RT dr _
F !Yfr

Kl ?,t<le
1{/Z

ict:l!llJ F(R/ M)- p,Q,(p,/p,T,) ,J:Jl:tl\?J-!liJ!!!l\ ili


~p,.T
r
m(p) - m(p,,) = ln ~-

1(KhT,,_.

r.,

(6. 3. 16)

it>\ ( 6. 3. 13) Jcj ( 6. 3. 16) JillM"1l '~ill. llil!itt


Q _ trKhT,,(m, - m.,,)
"p,,Tin(R/r.,)

6. 3. 3

zi;ifiif~iqi~~

Darcy

(6.3.17)

~~i#mt

l!llB~itlJl'.mffi,J1l!'l'~~o'lf!'lmw.m~~<mt!'l-n

( 6. 2. 13) t1J :1t. tt t:llJ

*""

265

c6. 2. 2s) m1J itrti.;i;ifiilt, 4litf.l-:li!llf'I! 1tn

+ Vm

'ii (li\Jrn) = S\1 2 rn

(6. 3. 18)

Y'6 = O

!Elf "il 1'ii l'UJ'.!& h'!.Pnl' !E ~11 llJl,


a1..!(,dm'l+dmd8~o,
rdr dr
drdr

rw

m=m.,,

tfr=r,.)Zl:

(6.3.20)

m=m,,

tfr=Ril:

(6,3.21)

(6.:~.19J

,Iii,!!\ 'ifl!l!tt- ~ii[ I~

if.* 'll: 8 JJ1itfi '.ITTU:lii'<

3. 19) !\till fl'.1' ( 6, 3. 10) -

:9;1'iil:!\t!l\ D"''Y
i!'illt , !!!!it~ i!tr ~ 'J' l\'1Jtilm, J!ll[ iti-e4' Dany if;lili: , J 'JI; IJl[J!Jlf fU !E;IJ fl'~, #; {(] 'l'Jlltli:
ti' t '1<! ti !rill ( 6. 3 19 ) - (6. 3. 2lJ ilil ;Ii!),\. ilLll :If Ill Ill :it'.!& Ill illl lit V 11 $! l': xi: , ~ 10 j~ A1F
D"'Y ;'l';iJ[jj'l'1(6, 2. 7), Pfi1'~ij dp/dr J!l'ifii dm/dc S'J'JC%''c't,
M'f !EJ!lili!llL!lt F 'EF S'J 9:!!', nJ .Jlf if;IJ[J!Jlf v -"5 !Et! p 11~%' ::!I
(6,

(6. 3. :'.2)

(6. 3. 23)

(6. 3. 24)

{3Q?p;,p,.:l'(

rn(p) - m(pw) = Q"p"'I' In_!___+


l.
trKhT,. rw
2Jt h I" , r.,

Q.,p:rl

m(p ) - m ( p, ) = ;r:Kh1',.,

r
R

+ f!Q;,p"p,T(
Zri"hB1tI'"

(6 ..3. 2.5)

(6. 3, 26)

r,

I
I
R - -;:-

~Ct il'i xi: Ill l>il: llJ ill>

(6. 3. 27)

~a+

"

Jat + 4b(m, 2b

m.,)

(6. 3. 28)

(6. 3. 29)
(6. 3. 30)

6. 4

lQ-1( &c:Jt4~fitl~liii

l'Eli! 6. 2 Ti 9' .\ t!J 9: ll<J1;1ilt ill lll1:5t:li!ll S'J C:l'ilfi 3l:, 'If i!!fi T i1!!1t. *ll'M:: l'i:lrl'IJ!( '1:
II< !!ittill; 'lie S'J 1' [jlj J!l M'!" iJ 11'!!it tB 4 f!'lltlf ~ , 'i1'"5-lilt1~ !i!tt1"!11!7.l-:lil'il S'J 'tt iii'IWIJ!I' 11' 't It

266

6. 4.1

7CilHA!t!laJEFtJ:

1r JtHi!:IJ< ft:l.fl'i! B'J ll'ltrifl'f.. Ji\~ !ill! ii!! ft 8<J iii J!l<l'i>~ Y f!ll fi'iif .!t. ill 1if i:A ;J< 11! ffll!iiM'O<J
'i!!itit . J,Uiiifru!JJ;'!i tl11!1lli.!J 1"tLR;ti ITT 'Jl' it~tlt. [!JJlf{EI!lLt fl -IE 8<J '.);JI! flt 00:,
~i!llf!ll :JC'~ :A:ll!tl!l !i'.i"'fl:!:l!Vl!Jl' ii! ;E fl'f.fiiJ llll Bi :JC fl::l.f!l! i 6 2. 31J , Vi it!J'I. <6. 2. 34 >,Yr
lt!1/-ifdt- C6. 2. 43 l ifll !JJ!fn ill i'f <6. 2. 46 >lit ili , 'till 1"11'."'!i! 'I' MW: i>ftllMilf. l'J Xi' ffl i'iiJ i!Jt\%1':
;!fl ll'l ii'L $;fl

. ,I

rp

Vi

=-1..Ei[!.
2
4tf)

mn. =
~ rbi 4tn<O.

01, ~~ t[l/rt:::.."'.>25

.J.. Eil
2

I,

rb 'I
4tv

(6.4.2)

~t, PJ fflXt~1't:IR/9
n10t

1[1n rL,, + 0. 80907 J

(6. 4. 3)

(6. 4, 4)

"\#ii':# 11i'1flt\'1Ei[!J 'f s O<J#m<!#~ c,. 1ifill1" IE 6. s 1'll s. 6 tti


fil 8'J1!1lif: IE /Jiii, .RJ!JEJiji)i: IE/iiii 'l'B'J LR:!J p, c~JitJfJLR:iJ m" IPlif,
:If~ ll<'i!l!tEllitVI! l'<S<: ,j\ tt, iiIT:f '1T 11! !ffijf;;J:/>Y., m~xt c6. 4. 4>iEl!iilf'Jl!fll:i\1J F'.liff illfl it!\11
iliAn
QT
K
m, - 1nwi: = 0. 01466 Kh (!gt+ lg ~,-l,r~ + 0. 9077 'I' 0. 8686S:
(6. 4. 5)
"~;;'<J!Z;fo#flll

:it 'I' .m.1.fll m, 7t ~IJ j'.Jfil[iJJ BUJ p.,.fll )!\ lilll!!I>! !Iii jJ P r lfrxt Jit'.B'J JfJllUJ CMPa' /mPa ') I"'
J!;Vi!:ll; Cl O'm' Id) ':lt'l':i'!~ifll Jl!ill:1"1'!1! jf Jil' l!itti li'J, Bl ~1J::l\\'JI!<1if J;.( i1!'tr# !it J,i:jf 1} l!i.fll !l'
1i ill! iJ!JfJ. it. # JJ! ITT !Iii l'i>Ul:#'f!Jl!ht l6. ' 5 >, iEi1f fr !Iii .!J l'i>lt Ul:!f lft, oJ1~'9; nil Bi.ti ttll<
6. 2 19!'.l!:"~n!JIWE.fJ m-lgt fl'J ill!iil!, 1$<111! iil!J::i"Zfl-ll''ll<llt, ~ill :lt>i!'f$ m, Ill:, 'tli<t!!l'
r->t (6. 4. 51 '!'tli~muoo w'1\n. rll lit 1if Ji:ili Kh mi, 11.\Fn llkll'ti<lltJ: ":It !!I~!'!< J:: ,_ 1h f1'J
l!1 LR.!J m, iil.!P lif '.W tl1 ~*Ei 1"1-f S' Ill:, :ff 'liP~15 ll!"& .ffl!J!ttlill/li'& Ei ?tlf, illlf/lli"il)Cf leJ
Iii Jilt A11'1:!f , Bi:!J IJ< :l JB:!f .; 1111 !l' 1'1:Jt5(!f~ >/if3' Jf l2i fl'i lJ; il!J LR.ti 19! Ji'." J!( LR.ti .#~ JliiJ "c
Jl'J!(lf.jJ m,,xt lg[ (t, + 6t) i 6t ](!.) ill!!'!<, :JI; 'l':l'JitJi'.i:t!ll!.5) J:l&fll flll,
i'Ei1f frii'1i ill! ~Jrt itlft. [!! J!!! i!:ll'l lili'1<Jt t
LR n :it'l'r<xtJt mat rllJ 8'J XJtxtn
ill! iii! , FJi !:A J;)'.>/if ~Iii# JJii !E.!J 4" 1' Jitfl :ll; !111lU!E .!J & :it .\l' nH'l ill! iii!, ti\ JEi .!:; )!!! ii ll'l lilii1!'filU
it' jfJ it J;.( Fna'J fl'f.*"i:t!l!.SjiJIJ 1tlil' J!Hllll!il'!. !Ui'lc!' 6. 3 'I' FfrY1J 8<J :Ji'llt!\11:111: fl'J Ji' J( iP 1iT,
it !ll iii: 1' ti' i1II UJ; Y ,
fj)J !Gfl: li'lfl:.fllitlli O<JitJ!I'.'

mw n

1f -;i; :;-m!')'\il!<, ;ti;!!l:)J-1!1-:!tfrP 6. 2. 3 1'1'l!:fllJNi;J<, ~Cl '\it J;J Q, - 19. 82 X10'


m' !d!iE i":!I! 'EFT t = 36 1JB1. ii\Jll lfJ ffi:IJ::lfl!, ;J<:Jtta1Jt iJl! iJli ffi p~. "Oii\ it<f !'; '1!1JJlf

imT,
h=11. 9m
K=O, OZOm'

;-o. 15

r,.=O. 12m

M=17. 7

T=322K
p,=4. 58MPa

Z,=O. 838
T=l9BK

,=O. 0158mPa s

c,.=O. 0769MPa- 1

1~00=0.

<-110,,=0. 100Iv1Pa

0146nlPa s

;=O. 0152mPa s

C=O. 0885MPa- 1

Z16oo=O. 853

Z=O. 846

P~ !JtJ If JJ llt!'I! ttJ!I: JIU


_ 3. 6Kt _

f , 1 ~ 1tt!ltilZ l!ll

r"

3. 6(0. 02)36

r/ipcr~ - (0.15)(0. 0152)(0. 0885)(0.12) 2

lv -

m.,,
Qv

p,-13. 8MP

_
-

0 8923 X 1

= 1(lntD+0. 80907) = 1. 255

(6. 4. 6)

78. 55Kh/Q,Tm,

1'1!llJ T,-293K,p,-o. 101325MPa,Q ff'JP/l.&:% lO'm'/d, ll:l!! 6. 2. 31'1''l!'fl1J,p,


-13. 8MPa X~ J;l!'f m,= l 5665MPa' /mPa s. *11! ;X:'l!1JJ1f1\:A1!!> Q, j<;

QD

Qn = 78. 55Kh . . . . (78. 55)(0. 02)(11. 9) =

(19. 82)(3221(1566.5)

Q.Tm,

0 02179
'

I'!!~ m~ = llm/ m,Q,, Jil<l'1 ll!


'.lll,.1

m, - mrnm;Qu

15665 2477 = 13190(MPa"/mPa s)

ltf IE 6. 5 'Till m.,}JliX& J!ZIFJ tr IJl! ilt!E p., -12. 6MPa,


~U

~p 'ti"

36 !}Bj'jf llli!E:IJ Ell 13. SM Pa fij<

12. 6MP,,

:=:fol;IHiit!Jli!i!IU'J ~t*l! liJ l:Jll 1!l !E:IJ ::If IJ;Jt:M' T :Jem:klfil !!; 1' ~ r:i iiE i":!I tr!'! il'J
+. ~!!!\ill iiJ liJ M.ffi:IJ '!':1f:lf1'!;fll ffi:IJ:lftttll '.it i' ;Jtill'l';fll 1+. rilil Wl'I: p' 1"1if1 t :nm. rei
1fi'J; 'f' ~lil'IFJ 'l'!tlJ ill' ill "TliJ :/f;f liil 8'JJll;J!l1fi'J;, A,;, et ol Cl 975 l xr 24 r:J 6t 11'4!-f>l:f liil "1:#
~J!!Jlt1T?tlli, 1)1,'J!! 6. 4, Jf !fl=: fol:f liil::lfl!Jltli' T ilJ!I: ~il'l!'ff'J iii Jilli J!l '1!1ill'Wlili l!lJlttr
It~ j\l,i!{ 6. 5 :i:l: !ll ~ ~ ill'flil'!i\ Jilli t1' Ji!: lit 111 li'i
M. ilij ii) J;J 1t :\Ii :f lei :If I);!'! ill Jlll JI;"' !fl
m: !l!I.
1t 7\sm'I!! 6. s 1'1J'1!1Wlfl'~~lJ! '!L ii< 1' jj!~!'Jlil: 24 o tr El'J!iii"", i:; .'jell! 6. 4 1' 8'J ~11'
;tf! rei , lil:fl:ll!!J; 1!\ltllli:IJ p, !'J:k 1J~~Y'J ifJ. jj>;.:::?1Jlil:l!l '1!1ill'1fl! ;1t1118'J t1' ii;ilt!E p"il!l' iiJ rJ
~ il'lil:il!lll ilill. !i'i s ;flt jj! 4 ?'J Jl!lllm!EJJ::lf/!lt!JEl'J tr lllil.ilL IE. :f lei Z!ll:lil:l!! 3 ?'J of' !if Ill!'!
"' ill'Jl!1Ell!\lt! Hi:IJ p, r'lf ti!!'! , jjjjjf! 4 ?'J 1' ffefr Ill 8'J "' ill'Jil:1 'l'!tlJ ffi:IJ ;;- Cp,+ p,,,) /2 r1J
tlJ ifJ, jf! 5 jj>; 6 i!\i91J J!!J!l p' /! )f 'i!'!'J JfJi!;iffl.ffi, :f liiJ Z l/tJi!:jj>; 5 ?'J <11 Ni Jll il'J c J!ll Z {iJil:;(E
p, Tl!: ili !'! , ilif jf! 6 7111' F!r J!l(t,J c 1ifl Z ill'Jl!;(EJ!;J:!fll!. p- [ <p! + p~) /2]'"T'i!'tll !';. jf! 7 JIJ
' 10 JIJ El'Jlil'l!ilil:J!l p 1f IJ; Ji: ili !'! Jf li;illt!li. :f lei z!ll: :litl!! 7 JIJ 1' !if Jll8'J c >Ill Z Ip Ji!: 'tF. p,

*.

268

TJI t\j !'!,JI! 8 Ji1J 9' F!i /ll pc fU pZ/ p ili"'tE'fIJ EK;IJ p~ Cp.+ p.,) /2 TJI Ill a9, lf! 9 fu 9' fU
c
p, Tl!' tl1ITT1f :f1J 111 Ji~ <p, +P l /2 fU c~ <c. +c., J/Z, iifi l!! Io fu 9' F!i Ill ITT 'f J1Jll!:"1 p~

"'iE

(1;,

+ ,.1,i12 ,r= (c, +cw1) /2 .Z= CZ,+Z.,1) /2 ,p= (p,+ PwJ) /2,

m11 3'11 ft-Jf{~ ~ffe~ 4 3ilJ ffJ:F

Ill: iJUli PfZ !l\itftli!.I'! Bi.;IJ p, Z ffi] ITTTllXt EK"1 .10 &!l'i T J1i1 6. 4 9' r)f i B B'J '1'.f'HtfiiJ :11' !il:EE
:IJ Fil It ITT 1'11 llL J1i19' 'l<iiiit'.\f tlJ ITT EE ;iJ 7'1 flt iii, lliJjjij "'iit1il!X!'J
'II! 6. 4

'

'

Ml'~

49. 7(J

39i

"
--

!ll'F~tlJ!

p,p' 'IC m ?:ii'Pni:!iWiil!!ll!! l4 O"(jfllf!Jj


T.

Kh

'

ill!fl

i:E FritrE!J

:v!Pa

11rnl rn

101m 1 /d

he.

. i5

5. 05

229

JSS5

141. !lb

?Q

3J. 16

314

~-

02

4. 87

257

7. 22

35. 11

403

. 74

J.52

?32

55. 61

$~,

30 . .J5

389

. 96

$.

47

z~.

os

3'9

. 70

5.45

161
226

90. 24

z~.

02

3li7

26. 61

372

24. 37

350

22. 71

lO

22. Z4

'

z. 0
3. 0

20

18, ()

4. 0

280. 7

36.812

20

I 19.0

3. l1

127. 5

70. 792

20

70. 792

JO

7.

"

6. 11

223

. 67

4. 110

200

156. 4.

99.109

71

4. 77

208

8. 9A4

11. 327

'

20

!. 0

20

-LO

356

. 76

4. 73

221

31. 28

21. 238

50

356

73

4. 14

212

31. 28

28.317

'

. 73

222

2l. 36

19.1122

70
:>O

210

291. 8

141.58

20

2. 0

218

.3. 61

1. 416

rn

...
-

\2

20. 17

378

67

13

16. (ll

341

73

15.61

.332

. 10

4.66

214

36. 10

5. 663

15

IJ. J8

338

. 73

4. 53

194

382.0

11.327

100

14

12.94

3.16

. 6'

4. 71

213

105.3

12.4i5

'
18 '
I

"

12. 02

.'

209

41. 51

4. 2411

JO. 03

''

4. 82

327

. 66

4. 62

210

16. 85

10

9. 632

327

. 66

4. 62

200

:0

8. 212

334

. 63

4, 61

192

":z

'! . .J08

323

. 66

4. 031

297

. 58

23

4. 344

292

. 57

'4

3. OGl

292

. 5?

4. 76

6.

fl

i'

342

I JO. 0
12. (J

I'

100

21. 62

15

CO:

634.

II

H,S

11.327

4.59
4.82
4.70

II

I!<"\ stt

(J

4, I)

'
I

7.

(I

6.0

5. ()

4. 0

....

2.0

40

I
I

0. 4

2. 6

I'

2. 832

100

'

4, 31

0. 453

\00

- 207

132. 4

11.327

10

249. 'l

9. 911

20

4. 59

188

1. 14

0.057

!I

4. 61

189

13. 5

0. g66

106

L 50

0.04?5 I'

--
4. G9

I
I

100

I 00
100

II!!!!'!< G. 5 9' ?Ji?~ tlJ i'J ltt!I! ~Ill 'I' fill JltiCJJrlt<.Ef fj({l!ifl'l Elilll!liJl!Tll ttl!<iiTI~ ~J T<liii>: ,
1) lf! 4, I 0 Jll ITTili'il:l!"li Ji!.Ef fj(1J!lif1'laJ11!1J/t, f!.! lll l 0 Jllff91f IJ1it'.\fli!I! it4'(1ff 1llf, lliJ jy
il--t~'lli:\lll'li'llPl"IJ fl!. jjij l!l 4 '1J ITT1f/Jiit:ll'li!l!f.< :"111Pl'-, ;!ill 'A llJ EE .:IJ1f lt<~~X<tmi i'l' !\!:
Ill iii R tll 1!l. ,
'J <E i"l -!!\Jrlt< 9' .fti.!!ll 'fIJ EE;IJ T'.\f t\J ITTt l*i!'tt it'll !!>:itft EE;iJ p, TJi: tll !'J"tl*i\l'tt
1:iit'.lftt ~iit!E'li'lliili !If$ , litJi!dJtl!! 4, 6, s '11 ITTgj; JI! I;\; l!! 3, s, 7 '1J ITT !ilJl!i#il!11' $, ~lll
4, 6, s ;u ITTlliJl!Tll ttt<iiT !i1. ,'1f Ill 'FJ!J EE :IJ T'.\f tl1 f1'1"t l4< ~lit 1:iit '.lfiJll ff ?!+1r1*:11' tlJ !'!!'Ii
Jl!"1~uF,,,1M:A:,

3)

tE fi\1-'l';~CJ! 1r1* 9', fl! Ill 'fiJ EK :IJ T 11i'.lf f1'1'\ l4< 1\ftt~ 'Ill: .t; Ill'\ fil:1\ftt~'lll:a9 'FiJ

iii 1:iit'.\f 1!' lill tit EK, /Ji1l!!i\J1!'1i~Ut!!.'l'"'l~:A:. fill !m ,lf! 8 Jl) fll l!! Io JlJ Ill ITT "'i"l -#!!<l:l'I! 1I

It 'l!llJi\ p 1f;'!, ti;'!'!:A'1lli1Lli'J:!ij[Of l"l , jJlj it F!ii'f !RJIH!l'. 11 ffi lli,


4 ! 1% J!I 3, 5.7 7Ll (1'1111 Ji! 'l''!'tlil'f!11J1!:1TM It 1iJ l!l ff te ,C1l' 1:0#1'J!lJI1fili: 'I' J!J I!!! Ill Jjj(ft!l !E
:tJ p, HliJ!I: (1'J "( 11<1l"l'E~'!'t :l?it:ll>lf' Ji\;il!t !E. X~'f ffi ""~:kA'1ti!i* i/U J!I 2, 8, 11 'l-Jt. R1l !!I
!fl. !E t1 oZ!:iI1f i*Ji\lli ft( 1iJ1T (1'J , Tlll ;It B jjjj # J!lll!! :lrili:Jtj:i: itJ iii Ji! ,p.,@' 1!E 31 Ji\ itt (1'1, ~ Tlll ?i Ji:
:@: 5C J!l 16 ~* ffi ""t!l lt~:k. J!I 5 '7 ylJ!i'i Ji!!!\ ir itt ii[. ill.1' '!'tml!'lf!H~ ;ll;i~oli!t!l.k if tE\ A'
ii< 6. 5 Jr<i 24 O#JI! m,p' up ai'l:lr>t\t!lilfl)\llil!l:#l!lil!ttlll

"

IV

" "'"''
MP>

48. 41

(4)

"'

(S)

'6)

(7)

(9)

(8)

/ij .:::fl':.f IP'J1rft.Jil: dl fr';f'f!'J*l'illfli f..-f(Mp,,)

48. 45

48. 45

48. 48

P~::!.4'
p,

p 11-1*

p' 1rtt.

m 'jff!i

48. 46

48.46

48. 44

( 11 )

(10)

....... .........' ................

48.46

48. 46

. 025
. 584

12. 85

13. 75

14. 54

12. 93

JS. 11

17.06

15. 31

'

22. 81

23. 37

23.58

21. 93

23.46

21. 15

23. 6.5

24. 08

23. fj6

. 328

28. 40

28. 40

28.32

28. 41

28. 43

21!. 41

OS7

22. 24

21.

so

22. 28

22. 39

22. 27

. 234

18. 54

16. 23

18. 84

19. 15

ts. so

. 351

so

'

2!!. 2ti

22. 2H

22. 19

28. 41 ' 28.39


22.26
21. 72

18. 72

18.5\l

18. '{6

J 6. 86

\8. 04

17. 73

17. 8ti

16. 75

16.39

17. 92

IS. 11

17.88

. 32~

'

8. 667

7.660

8. 543

S.017

9. 232

9. 191

8. 874

. 649

13. 98

13. 31

J 3. 50

11. 797

13.42

11. ZS

13. 62

J 3. 56

13. 52

. 40fl

rn

10. 09

9. 094

9. 570

5. 488

9. 342

3. 613

9.935

9. 722

9.680

. 570

6. 502

s. 943

6. 778

6.295

7. 763

6.364

6. 535

. 687

11

'

17.

lL 976

11. 631

1]. 790

10.818

ll. 742

JJ.225

Jl.873

11.

86~

11. 825

. 415

13

JO. 92

10. 811

10. 89

10. 42

10. 89

10.328

10. 935

IO. 811

l0.873

. ~20

14

1.3. i

JJ. 68

13. 69

16.62

13. 69

13. 61

13. 69

13. 69

13. 89

J 23

15

12. tM

IZ. 82

12. 82

12. 82

12. 82

12. 82

12.82

12. 82

12. 82

042

16
17

4.344

4, 523

4.220

2.413

4. 151

1. 717

4. 488

3. 737

4.302

. 6'/ 4

10. 89

J0.87

10. 87

10. 85

11. 56

10. 85

10. 87

10. 87

10.87

. 09~

Ii

7. lil2

7.074

7.102

6. 991

7. 102

6. 977

1, 108

7.033

7. l 02

'292

19

8. 170

8. 143

s. l 56

s. 115

8. J 56

s. 122

8. 156

8. 136

s. J.56

. 154

zo

S.640

5. 6IG

5.640

5. 511

5.640

5. 557

s. 654

f>. Gl2

5. 610

. 313

Zl

8, 329

6. 322

6. 322

~-

30?

6. 322

B. 316

6.322

"

2. 944

2. 972

2.

~51

2. 972

6. 316
2. 937

32~

2. 97fl

2.972

2. 951

2. 972

' 135
. :146

23

2. 811

2. 792

2. 820

2.813

2.820

2. 799

2. S20

~.

799

2.820

' 351

24

I.

~65

1. 931

] . 958

1. 937

l. 944

t. 924

1. 951

1. 93;

1. 965

. 360

12

6.

s > xr'f Bi ~tiuHil'JEi. !Ill J!l 1,4, 1s ~clf'B'Jlleclf'. ffl 'I< 5, 5 '!' l'IJff fiif ~fi<:IJl!dt:ll' te (1'J
t;\ Ji!ll! '1! 1!11 :f J!H~ :k. t!l it;Ii; iJ! ~ ,1, ffi
'If' ~ J!l ii\: l!\O :IfI* 'I' A'1 if fiiJ ~ #1!il;!i; bJ ff (1'J

""li!:

s.4.2 ~w~~*-omF#mmff#
xt 'f I!! *"'JI'l4il!i! *~'J Hie 7rit1 JI' MI'll ffi ?rJII JI' Jl!ffi mlll' (1'J ill: il'J iii
~Hti Jf t.i rfl

ilt ?rJII JI' 'P1'r!::!I R :If!ij[ Ji! l!;;, i'f ar r; lit


<fmn

+ 1. amn =

Chnv

Jr!,

rn !Jro

&n

am"

rn Jrv

=-1,

*.
(6, 4. 7)

rv =

>0

(6. 4. 8)

270
Clnto _

(}rD -

'

(6, 4. 9)

mo(ro,to) = O,

Ro,t = 0

rv

(6, 4. 10)

;i;'f'l,;Ji;:liiifl:lla31!! 6. 3 iER. J:i!lil!IM<riiJl!!itEJli s. 4. l l'i'l'B!\;IM<i:t,!il,'Jl:C5. 4. 6l-C5. 4,


9l , '.Jl;!M< a3 P: cs. 4. 2BJ!li ill , IP'if ifiii; 7t :II !IJJJIJIK:IJ
(6,4.11)

J 1(Roa)1V 1 (a) -

N1

(Rva)J1 (a) = 0

EIJll! ii' .. ,,.'~ ' l1l " ;~'jg o. 25 Rn Ht' l!ll'f i!JP~ Jf !tf;~ll! ill 3fL J;t;I;'-* i'EJJtz lltr'if l'f!l!.!i'!EIJ
fM<i :7Gm7<:11t.lll 8'J!M<J>\-ll<B'i. llif i'E '" $Jl;J<:at. >t c6. 4. 11 l 'l'!!U!:J!il'f Ll "*~.Iii Ll w:ru l!!!B'i
'ffim~ mt
I
m.,v = 2(lntv

mwn=
r.~ J:Ji;!!l 1'1EEiJ111*,

p,

p,,

p,Q D

1::_.p,Q~"!.

2tn

~ tn

0. 80907),

<

0. 2sR1

Rb+ nRo-4

oil' l!l lliiJ


1 I

(6.

4.13)

111.t;. m~'if

+ 0. 80907)'

-2 (

~f: + In.Ro ...

Ilfl)

(6, 4. 12)

:ili 10 <

!,

0. 25Rb

(6, 4. 14)

~ tn > o. 25RL

(6. 4. 15)

'iJ --11 ilii , 1iJ ll1 ai 11! Ji!. Ell !W !Dl 'I' ii* ~ 'ii: !Ii ill Ji!, fl! '11 B'J 'F J"J lli ~ l1l
>O. 2SRb at &:<91 'W tl'jJ;tfl<'FliJ EK~, lil l!! Bit.Iii~ 'i&B'Jil! R

tn $Jl;i<:,~JPn tv

(6.4. 16)

(6.4.17)

m, -

m11

----m;Q;----

2tn

Rb

(5. 4. 18)

1lf'Jt(6, 4.17)!ij(6, 4, 15Jffil!<,Jllt<6. 4, !8).!i;f(6, 4, 13)1'!1~. 'fit

p11 - Pw1. = lnRv p,QD

l.
1

(6, 4, 19)

= lnRv -

l.

(6, 4, 20)

ml<

mw1

~n/tJn

6. 4 Ill.Ii. '\.7H><ti!iit->ffi.
____

.....c.._-..-~----------~

Jt 'I' P 1ll m, 1"tcl'Pf J:!JJl!!Jl! ffifljill J>I ffifl


~f ill. J'I. ::E !Ii xt 'f Jrr i!1 J!. li: Iii !i!t if>. 1r f!l ( 6.
rn. 4. 1ol:f5!', Rli!J7ri!lll'!!>l'f Ell (6. 4. 9 Ji:!:;I;

4. 1 J.

mvCrn,fv) = O, rD = Ro,tD

271

-----

pg it! J!. !fd'f <6.

>0

4.

BJ 1ll "1 ltfii'fd'f


(6, 4, 21)

2:1" roJ l!!il'E li'l s. 4. 2 i' 9' B g,11'111 , flJ Ill lJL 'll'liLJlliJ!'J!t! :Jri!i:!lt tlJ rJ'J 11'1 Ell 'it cs. 4. 54 l 'l'<ffi lt
JE !It WI #f JJl; 1111'. 1JIJ J>I !E;iJ m.,. ;la
(6. 4. 22)

Ji ({J.)No(fJ~Rv)

Ni (P~)Jo(fJ"Rv) = 0

ff>t, 1Jl PJ Ill 5f.'17'Ji!!Jl!li'Ji!ifb'JJ!il, !'l to>RL at, jijil;t; ( 6. 4. 22) <J'f1,('(tJ11i WJ
ITT lllf ii , 'f li!liHiiJ I!!! 11 ;Iii' PJ "f !lit
(J'J'iil., !'l to< O. 25Rf,

m.,p = -;;-(

lniv /-

Q,

80907) ,

"

m.o ffi,J:(6. 4. 22) ilft/j'

~to< 0. 25Rb

(6.4.231

0. 25.Rb <to <Rb

(6. 4. 24)

~to>

(6.4.25)

Rb

(6,

I!.(

4, 26)

t!;IJ!!il! PJ Ill p' l.li'fU p :lil.li.'l'<Ji<,

=l!l\l:llliillJ'l'l?!'lll'l'i>llitl!illli:l:i xt r J7ri!IJ!. IE ffill'l!i!tll', !!ii-IJl:ff'l l'iil V-' Fo <im 1,.> RL !


PI I'.(~ ftili\llii>ll!llll'.. i!l.li!X~ 'f 5f."17'Ji!!ll;ffi J1H:i1.J'll J>I ffill!!ll! 9' ii'J!lt 1JIJ , :f PJ (ljj 'Y;JIB'le c'lt~#.<
1Jllll'.1JIJ , #f Jil\ofll Ji!!ll; 'I' 11 ffi;iJ ~li! 11'.'ll"''<:ii'i'" t/j 1lil:f!fi "f lfi'f,. ~llil, ;la T '1t1!!1Iffl."'1J!I 11 Fl rJ'J
M'f lt!l!~!IC 9' 111111'.ilf.J, Pf lll-1" 'i J!rlll.J!. lE!E ~Jtll>O!Jt;t;C 6. 4. 25 J ;!!J!l!11lll'l :lfffl.>O! 7K , RPM
5f."17'Ji!!/frffil'Rl1J!.#ffi~~~fil~~

PR - Pw1 = ln rd
PRn
r.,

(6. 4. 21)

it '11 p, iEX:.:;\l'l<#f JJJ ll!!lfr ffitJ ~ 'f'f~a>tli'Jllifl. t1'5f."17'Ji!!~1ll ?rlt!.l'I- ii! ff ;1g p. 1Jli!!ll!
'11 p, 11.tli!l'f Ji!!Jl! M\!(; ff tI p,. Mr YH12J'lllltffi Ji!!lfr 9' t.- P #fli!t% ,p, ~li!l*llPt':!:iJJi!!lfr ff
11'
'it (6. 4. 27) <J'(J'J r' cfl;;!g ;i!f)(j:ijK ilfJ '!''' T~5i5f.tl:!l'l*riU :'I\ j\j ro I!! /ll. B"' 5<'..;i; jf,jJ M
fr!i~J r !k ti< 00 '11 !E~ illl f1i! p~ pCr l "'i p~ p, 7k 'ffB!:Q:#,\Jilf lt 8' (J'Jjl' "'1 {iLI:. f 'i'*!l! 1ell ;ti
Iii iW ~ 11\!>J:A;igJl!! "! ~ "'i lli!> !it ilf.J;lil' ,i: <6. 4. 25 l lB ;t; t;!!JfiiJ 11111'1: c6. 4. 27 l IJf !Ir tllli'; 'I'll'

'"' *f'i't(6.

4. 27)"J(6. 4, 19l~l:t~'

jj)ilf
R

rd

ln---=lnr.,
4
r,.

(6.4.28)

rd= O. 4:72R

(6. 4. 29)

=_ _

!!_1_1_ __

f'._'!!. = _!_(Into -j-- 0. 80907)

(6. 4. 30)

j),Qf)

51 ,\ <6. 4. 27l ffi lt , L>t l!l iiJ1" !lit


In r,,

r,.

'ff Ill ,o' ifrl'tJll llifJ

1..2 (lnt0 + 0. 80907)

;/Tifr;(1Jj! , 5J Jl: (6.

(6. 4, 31)

4. 27) !Ji;fp), iiJ "f Jill.

,.pl_~
p=~ = lnrd
~

p,Qn

mR -

(6.4.32)

r.,

tilw1

=In

rn,Q0

rd

(6. 4. 33)

r.,

ml '1 J !'Hft JI'. IE IE 111% ,1ifi't <6. 4. 2n 51c6. 4. 25 l !!Ht , iiJilf tEitlill
lnR=lnrd
r.,
r,.

(6.4.34)

(6. 4. 35)

J'r

.~. ';tf itl Jll l'!l'~l Ji!!!il 9' c'- r:l ff'1111%' :jj%( ~g iii! 1 r,
tJ; j<)j , jlj ff!;Jilll&. 1F. {E r, ~ O. 472R, tE 9' Jill
ln rd ""'

r.

1
(lntv
2

+ Q, 80907),

25

M.lf 4i'R>t ff'1

r, ~ r, ~l!ff riiJ 7r

< fn < 0. 25Rb.

mlMrff it!Jl'.IE!iitl1J!L '.jj:<!(~i#J'i'il'. r, M. lf#ff>tff'J r,~r.

(6. 4, 36)

~IJ~Jill tn>R~ ~J JEiff'J r,~R.

9' Jill, VJ :jj ;;\'. ( 6. 4, 36) ' M JC[l[!j;:Ji!!Jll, ill om Jill,,~ r, iiiilli Yr' 'l'J tn>25 Dt 'In

tE

I;: I~ i Or>t,

+o. 8D907),
# ll!ilf: ffi i!1r ml Jililil 8'J l!ilJilt IE F :I:#'! "!i" ~lilt i;JJ tE "I: 'if 'EF 9' , 11 lltJ!k-1- lill IE 8'J fill
llir 'EF iP31' Ill; iJ! BitllJ!\' MT-iXl'i'tltl!! '4i'fi'J f' Iii :f J!k'!t'I!:' ml Jilt~lllir~' 1'; lhtf':lt iiJ
"'Jill. fr~ r JI! ,.i: ,
(6. 4, 36)

p'(r,t) =

f
6' 4 . 3

P~i

T:
(p, -

Pw1.)

~e-~''D Jo(b)No(~r.,) - .Vo(~r)Jo(~rw~- ~-f]


JS($r.,) -+- NQ(i!r)

(6. 4. 37)

.n. fl1l ~ I: ~j'dll ~ ilSJ Mil! ~ Mil!

OOi T ;ltfl!ij;:Ji!!Ji! "111!1Jjj:jjJI!.li!!li9'

c'- r:l #PA ?r ,JX!ll.!lj'. ~i!if iWil itJLl'i'1!1'.!J.!(li'<ii'JtillJ!\0

1".!liliil!Hl!!it#, ;J; ili lt'if VJ 2< ;);# f~l!!t,


:>tll!!xll!!lil <!> :EFml!! !llll# ~t 'f "'1i ~tt # . ~ tt m>r fl' ti: 'F wPf ff oo: iih , ill ~lit
'i'Kill'Y, x1, mull! ~tt ilii '.lJ x 111' Jl!!llff'J ffifJ 1iJ ITT "'i llll.CKa "l!'. 19s 9i

273

(6.4 38)

;It 9' ' Ji; I; li'J :!II: 1I $! 6. 3 lie x '


tE 'if )il: Xo ~ 0 j;J;
Tlt!.11

=Iii

(6.1. 39)

t'- r:J jf;(E t, ~ 0 JIJ t~t, 2.fiiJ 1!.i ii!E:ll Q, 'ti"', tE 1, j!IJ t,
?", <E ' ,>IJ ' 2:riJ 1!.I itll:I: Q. 'tr". 11!llH!:JmlilUJI!. mr'll
~F-~W

111, ---- m,,,1 = 111,

2: CQ, ,.. ,

Q,~1

lilJ 1!.I i!tlt Q, '!'


(6. 4. 40)

t,_,)p

)vmv(t -

J::ol:M T 1l'-1' :;!;Jl1' i"':l!::<J'l"<RP 'X''lf-fl'B1 li] ! tl!JldiUll B'J


!'i~IJJt!l. <E!ll n !!tut r'l:'l''lf ,*'If iltr 'tf'ut lliJ 1,. mlJli> !EJJ 'i!Ot B'J il1!l!>J!:

;n,

m.,,,= 1n,Q1,[ mn(tpn

+ AtD)

...Q(Q, .. ,JomD (trn ~


L.J
+ ""QJD
,-1
\/)

(t,-l ) D + =n
L

1] -

o. )
m, (Q~-- ) vm 0 ( =o

(6. 4. 41)

JIJld< 'If n& .roJ :l\l'. ill! B'J nJr'l ,


x1i' i"'ll:i!J:li:ll'ft B'Jti!J!i, Jtl<11! 4. 2 ll't~ Ill 4. 6. 5 111Jf i7f!f i!ff !ltll!L
.1H<;Jlii"'111ff# tr7GM<:klt!lfil 9':/!1"1 [];If ,1'!J~n. *A 1'11 # B. :ltf'l:?l-*IJ Q, ill
Q,. ITTIJ li!!Jl! 9' ff :\It-..\ M CT, y .t) B'J lf1 Eli :iJ fj!itfl: m (p) 11 jt A 1'11 fr B !Yf iiH!; O~iflZ1lJ J!Z jJI , ~p
;It 9' . &

mv("rnYn,tl))= tn,QAD[

~ Ei( - ~~) J

+ m,QDo[ - ~ Ei(- ~;;:1 J


:11;9'

(6. 4. 42)

.r., 1'11"5)-~IJn# M J;1J# A 1'111' B B'!IE~.


il\'i:~!i!J'I'. ~1Jfr1i'- r:J 'if,

oJ )fj !l!ff !f llftltl:iJ;libUi!1~ 'll:l!l\,


VJt 7fl11t!J. llJ!il!l'lJ:lGM<:;l:'!'-illi 9' ff :11!$ r:J 'if VJ &ll!i!' li:mt l:itlJ'I. pg- r:J 'if B'J Iii!' iii
Jt Ji!!"' 9'-r:J '!fi;l!{lt B'J;/f Jllm ~#ill 7"m$ r:J !l!ff 'If B'J JI;"~ ~JJnilff p1;. fflm rs!:!& l:
., [ 21 ClntD + 0. 80907 l - 21 :2
;c,E(
m.,D = m,(,
~1 - 1"d;,1
4:Kt ]

>(,!)

;It 9'. dN Jlk%!! N 1'!1!ff #.lJ ~ Jt eg 11'7!\\.


l: ;Ill;;/[*
ll!~"\ill!~

tE ~"' riiJ lli 9' l::sJ: B'J !&f11& ~WIJL

(6. 4. 43)
fa)[ VJ Tlitlt

tE!il s. 1. 4 Tr 9' ~ f4lli,:J:'f"\. i!l!"\1'11 Ei.!i'i~ilf"\B'J l!lf.L Mr'f 9: liJ ill!'\


'l:il, li!llii 9'JlkJ1i.ifl! "t l*mtiilJ, illi ~tr llt!i'i~ilf "t.il, lf lilat lt!l Iii 9' JlkJ1i.ifl! 9: ii' i>lE iilJ. ill. 1'E 'It
11!1 mii! !R l>$t 1I r !fi:iJ 1Jlfdl!:1zf' 't lit'1i ilt ilf it It !ill: fl! 'I:#: itll: ;/J ll'J ifll Mill~$ r-\111< .Xt i>lE lllJ '! Iill!
-'rF#JJnB'J !lln i*'H:!J llJl~ !Tl --t-'lltffe: lltt'i! if.. ill. W<'ilt ffe:*tt'I lli:iJ <r :'I'. iE"l'i!!. tlllilL
9' , ~ ilf ill ii! !Ii!% !,it'! IKJ!i!l! 'f Bi :iJ
1EI!ll~J1j! 9' . ifft'lit !Ex @:/jl&(i'J .~. l'tJlli. Ill l'ffli t ,g ,o, w jil: ,>f}tiil1!1i' .(;! B'J, "(;\tl, iJiJ

274
6 !\.1*-~i!~i1e
--------------
;/!! , 1Kf~ Jill !till! $1!. fr ftll El'! tt 1!1t ITTti .It lllE il!'. ;\J

IK)

_ J-:.. + K, + r,
11..

11 ' '

,,

(6. 4.14)

.,

(6. 4. 45)

Q,-Q,+Q.+Q,
lilt '1i' .~.El'! :If l&tti!lt1'1:A 'ii: c6. 2. 33) 9' . ii[1'! Jtili1l'Jlll 'f $;/!! iilr iii.Ir~ l'!L

(6. 4. 46)

f'!i( ~B 'FL (1992, J 993>Jti(>;T1f .Jtlll!'l,lf~ !tl'J iill:'lf ?l-1'1i roJ ll!L

*l'!Jf

*
'f'Jttilllli El'!
'!illmtlr.. IE T .:tf 1'i\El'JJt:IUl! l!io!:
33)
i\'d'f ffi l'1 'l!'*lll llf>;l'J'l'tt!ll'.Oli 'iEl'J'f''J mti Ill 4. 5, 4. 6
Ill 5. 6 l'f 9'

"'~Ill 9' 1f

& fl j(o H'J )i!jjll

~e~r.lii/;Vlt

(6. 2.

jj![.

~"

VJ &

xt fill !t ift 14 El'! !JI JIL Jt 'f 'I: Jt-Ol ~ Jlilll ,

iif l'.< Ill l>UE;IJ 1iit JR ill~ 1'ili <Iii Ell !JI Jf> tJJ,'iiT ; Ill p'
1i Ii :f'11 p 1i111 JR II> ilt "' Ell ili a;i!J\' !IL ;!; iiill! '11, ;f jjj xt i!li IE"!. 11<1'11 jf!; IE~ 1$;j)- zu J1t ff lJf "'

Ii ff "t ii c:p 7]( Zf5 :It


1I$1! 6. 2. 5 Ti 9' ~Iii te .Jf 'f i!li IE "'Cf.:. ilifi:.t fl

6. 5. 1

.f'..._
A
Z- .Z,
m(p)

(6.5.1)

f' 2,~dp ~
o ~~

l'Jlff;J!t:51fl'il(6, !. 3liifflf,l!E:IJ m(pl"f!IJ.


m(p) =

Zpz, p

~.

IRT)

2p, M Zp
;Z;

(6. 5. 2)

(6. 5. 3)

it I::>\ 'f'Mili!!illl'f z llil 'f''J11l .!l!l>!!E:IJ m 5f\'l! il!'. p JiltiE ttJ::: :!\. ll'!wiif:ey JIJ.
m(p) ~ 2p,Z( RT) P
, Z''

m; =

. ,

(6.;:i.4 l

~.( !f[.J p,

(6. 5. 5)

ill:'!! itilll!illl 'l' l!X 'f''J fl!EIJJ!ti~ f, tr.I !E:IJ m El'! ltllt1il'il <6. 2. 31 l iif '.ey Jlll;.Jt 'fa! Jl p El'! It
llt:lrl\\. Ill ml!il 1. 3 Ti 9'it:if El'J ~at.\\\ !1('1lll!it: ~Ill <. 4. 3 11' 9' R'J-!lt.lli;;!I; ~atll!! 0!i tti!<
Mlf.llE 1:J 1ii1 If il!lll. 111 'I<.!::. 'f' ml ~at ,1< !I(!'! nc li1I r;11W ill iif!ii Jlll; 1fl'il <4. 1. 2c >- <1. 1. 2s >%

'ii: . Jt :If~ atil llll


(6. 5, 6)

8m .
A- ..........

4K~X

(6.5.7)

275

;JI; 'f . 8m= p,8V J;!;l!lf at!l;J\Ji!:* ill ( !tMIJxt l\lZ r tEj\ 6. 5. 6 '!' iE 'r l!i< ft\"} l fl'J '1; if;il(/i!t !ii:, 8V
Ji!: Ill: if; ji)1 , ,<Ji 111 'it c6. s. al ilJ"'if Jlll.

P= p, Pi 47r'/JX~~ -

r)exp[-

4X(;~ r)J

(6. 5. 8)

!'Ii' ~j\ <a. s. o 3fll cs. s. s) ili~tt'J:;J!\ ,NP=li'l!lf atj!J(Jll!EJJlll


m"""
AtT iti"' JAat r'l~l\f!il;l'IJ

m,

4X(tr~ r)J

"i, 411:/.Xf:- t)exp[ -

flt..,. ITTtl=i '

t=t . .t>\ erl!lt

(6. 5. 9)

(6. 5. 10)

m,i: ca. s. 9) M~ '" fl'l l!lt at ii lii9 ~ lif 111 mit 111 '!'!! 4. 1 M;'IJ iii *f+"" *111: at ill( lii9 ~ Jll'. l'J Ill

Newman Jli; jiQ!il(!l! 1l]' I'~ 4. 2 p)f Jf1J iii jlj. f'l1 :=.!If W: Iii ~liltl!f:Ji: Bi ~ ,
~tr 7./( 'F !Mil% ,Ji 'lit'!!' >t J!i J& ll! Jl. rlJ J1' tt fl'J Ii 'ffl

ilJ'xt '1h!li Jr rlJ !ll'. f1' -:.G:Jll!

z'=::://i,
h' =h/./K
(6.5.Jl)
;JI; 9' .K = K, I KH i! J!<1'f"'f
4. 5 l\"er Ni'! IIll fl'J l!I Fillo l'L. \lL p 0 996a. 1996b) !Jf Ji: T '1;;\1\
'F'IN1i If.I !En!:<ill\ Ill JJlil:Hir if mJIJi ll' Jll!'8' ;; it Jl~ iii' 3fll 11' jijf $ "~ . rlilf 5t M'I xt II! t
'1'*'1 ?t :.iUj( 'f jfU! ff ill !fl:
x'8!:id&Ei .Plj!.1''1<'1' ill 111 'F!f!f*::!l 2L. Jl'iill!'r li!i OlJ ... lrlll: ~ ~ x. = K, 1c~
<cJJ. x= K" 1c~<c>.J. ~il!llll>t <4. s. s>liflf .t r1ll ffi X'1!.:kJ& fl! er iii 1' 'F!tlltatllll fl'J
If.I IE:iJ ;Iii
m,.,c...-,;c;n
fL+(:c-.r,.)+ fL-(x-x.,)l

"11!

er*

m,/'/i

dV[er

= -

~1X(t

er

r)

-;~=~

.....F.~=+
-/4X(t-r)

./4X(t-r)

~I exp [ - 4(y-y.)'Jll[
X(t-r) lh*" 1+2~exp

'"'Xo<t-t))
""""""Ji{
hi
coshcosh
(6.

s. 12)

(6. 5. 13)

~;;!:<6.

s. 12ntiliC fj;lflfltl\iJIR?t ,!f!J:l!:!TJl*tRlitJE


dV

qdt

_Qdt

(6. 5. 14)

2L

ITTU14Jlt!l! 9' Xll:ll'JJ!UEJJ m, 1t<lioo~


m _ m; b-

!_J' 2L [erf

!!!. __

fnR.v

- 2 14v

1 + C:i:v - x .. p)

.[;;;;,

-1-

erf 1 - (xv - x ..v)]


.[;;;;,

276
1
~L

'\/

exp[ -

r11

. )' J{;;;- l

(YD -

YwD "

~ + z2:exp

I ' I
11

"w 1

1(

t'D

h1 'K
IL'

(6. 5. 15)

(6. 5.17)

l'El:i!: <j114f (c/ ).(pc /p) JC f'F c, ,1'JUHc f'F I, mfilT'l hit

'

l?tn(.::t'DYDZD ,tn)

,;n:-

(6. 5. 18)

= -4-C1l1

?t ::t '!'# Mr "i:lli '11;t501< '1'#1111% >fiJ Ill ~lit.\\\ lfl( ii! fl:i!: <6. s. 9J , i'f
m,-m
1
[
,
J
1n,<JV 11'

47rX(t - r) exp -

4X(t.=r5

(6. 5. 19)

Jit1: Ji! JN ' ti! .!ii j\'; ( 4. 5. 9JIll fill !'] xy

'I' i'!i l: ff :l! ;!:: 1' iiV'Ji'. Ii(!'] lfl( Pi ljj( G,, VJ lit z fl; jj!( ii fl: G.,
'iii c. .!ii G, lll!ifiliiJ'j!; ~"'1 ll!iti<J #};j;j;illjj(, Xilfl(IC fp !lli<J'[lij jig ;t, mil.t11rF lllii#fll!f!li'I! '115)- JUJ<
'I' 'If1111% ti<J l!Hli ti 5t ./ff i;

hJ' [ 1

+ 2 :ijexp( ~ n~.r KL.f,rv)cosn:rrz.,

0 coon1l"ZD

]dr:

(6. 5. 20)

(6. 5, 2Jl

(.:t 0 sina,

+ yDcosa,.)~]
4

, [erf Liv

+ (.:tncosa, + yf1sina, /4;

l,,,,v)

erf Lin - Cxocosa1 + y 0 sina; - J,,, 1n)

/4<

1
J

277

--------------------------
~

..
'Ii' *El'I llfrf, iJ .5;

[ 1 + 2 :Sexp( --- n2n7-KLbr)cosrnr.-.:,.0 cosnn-.<: 0 ]dr

(6. 5. 22)

.It 9' . 3E t!i'I It~ .5jjfJ ffi 1J m


!. 5. 2 11" 9' Ill [liJ .<&'f-J!!ilit ffl f!'J fr !UfC'Ftl'
f!'J 11' )"1, ;J: <f, G' Jlll)J., ;J: (4. 5. 17)- ( 4. 5. 20J1Jll/.l1f l'f[.
X1T1'l:t1'5t iii. f st (6, 5. 22) 9' (xno YD,,,) ll'tii!i"' w, lt. ,<\\ '~p lfl " 6. 6 11" 9' !lfi. np ill
Jt 'l<: Jt 'Ft!' fl'! ti' li\:J!UE:fJ mn ( w ,1,),
l'J l:f!'Jltlf':JiHf-XtJ1kli! f!'J l:!ITT f!l T liliiJ 1;7#fllf!'Jtli' lB. x&'f Jt'ttli'JB, flll ~P , 'Ii' Ji!; it f!'Jtl1
JHif>l<f z rliJ !9il!'.>lltt11'1!lfleil'rl!'l!>RP"f i~J-'i'il'i:' ill 'fll! 4. 1 'PVUf!l "f!'J ~U&i!i:1l 2' elf
~UUE/;?\(6. s. 18Jf!l<6. 5. ZD'i'~ttc, tii,ii!1Ji<!~A 2.

*'

6. 5. 2

lt II "'!. i\l c:p 71< ZJ5 :I=!=

M'f i~ !E "< ~ ,ili iCl 'Ii'


Z - ,Z, - 11!"~

m(p)

f'

ZpdZp

;!iJ ffli*iili1JN C6.

(6. 5, 231

~ lz p'

JJ.

(6. 5. 24)

L 3) "f1lil11ffi1J 1" .Qlt


(6,

z. 25)

m~ Z'(RT)'p'

(6. 5. 26)

(RT)'
A1 p/

(6. 5. 27)

,Z,

111

'

Z'

= 1Z,

llil 1iTl :tE!Elili I,!! 'f z ll't 'f'iJil'lil'Jilif~ T, 111 !E:fJ m fl'! Jtllt1J l!l< s. 2. s1 >:tE f~ lE "'~ 'i'"f J;; .olt*
'f p' il'I Jtl!t1J1!1!, 'fJl.'f' iii 9' iliat.<\\illil'J iEllH~ l!!i"f 1" fl!:
i!p'
Jx2

+ i!p'

p'(x,y)

~ ..!_ 3p'

ayi

(6. 5. 28)

X at '

~pf,

t>O

(x,y)-=,

t ~ o
t - O

:(,\\\ M' VJfrf,


:(,\\\ M' oil:,

(6. 5. 29)
(6,

5. 30)

cs.s.:11)
(6. 5. 32)

(J'(x,y,t)

Ill 1.JiA.Jllt* tlH\!ll1"'ttVil 1* am.


7f R1lf "1 illi !JI' I' :!l , mH!I

~pf

(lip)'~

Pi[ i -

~ii* at1'J f!l .rall M'

I~)

'J

(6. ' 33)

<' ,y' loll: ,,g,;fj' Ct>p >'Pi,

J:;J:Ji;

278

2~, (Ap)

p(x,y,t) = p, -

2
2

= p1 -

2p,(tB

r)exp[ 1 - 4X(;

r)J

(6. 5. 34)

fli .!::it# '1J l!l i'ltit'l'l!lliiU!!, llJ' !i! tll .l\!&


p,8m

OV

B ~ 2rr ;x ~pl 2rr >x

P'

(5. 5. 35)

21(x::- r)exp[- 4X(/~ r)J

= rl; - rl;

(5. 5. 36)

1!< .~:it< 6. s. 26 l ff! c6. s. 27) {!<] .iE ~*.II i1f illi1'/illHIJ !i(Jli:!Jf!'f
iri(p) = n1, -

m,

21rX~~- r)~rx:p[- 4X(:-~ r)J

(5. 5. 37)

elf ~JM 111: Bi "\ii!l, ill~tillUl!i !&llJ'1" $:


1

m;-ffi

m,W/=2KX(t

[
r'
r)exp -4X(t

r)

(6. 5. 38)

f J:.;it Ej C6. s. 19 ).jjj ~ jjJ ~ R\Jli "I.ill< 9' illntllt Piii ~tlili!li Bi"\~ 9' {!<Jj!!j ii!. !X!M'1: <6. s. Io l . ll)
11' t\'llt /Ii( {!<]iii 13.:1:1 :!1
m-m
'
m,

,i
- lf'n
-J......e- ;t(-,)dr

(6. 5. 39)

2n:<fXot-r

tEJC:itffi! !ta<! lil!il 9', Xtr illi Bi '1: ~{!<]A <6. 5. 15) 9' !lHt..,,~' {!<] ]\ l& 1/2 ,<Q,. tE ll;ffi "'\ ~ 9'
'!!'$: l/ilQn. f!l illi B "till< 9' A (6. 5. 16) fl'! m, ~ 2pf / ,z,. tE R\ffi "\ill! 9''!!' $: m, ~Pl/ ,Z., P,lf k'.l
i'l:A (6, 5. 13 l 9' iE 5l U~ Qn "3 Ill p,, ,Z, *m11<1, 1\;\ffi '\!Ill i'J Qn !:\:Ji! illi Bi "l.ill!i'J 2Q,,. 11if A 9'
itBtllr!ll l'I 11'.:ittli!ik. illi JE'\iill 9' JG:l:ll'lm ffi:!J {!<] *it::it cs. 5. t 7lf!l cs. s. 1sit11ffi"till!
9'Jf3'1:'1''ll:.
i-tcr xl'Ol *ll!l ll! 9' J!il-1' *'!'"If Jl.J:!IJl 'Ill rm; "I fll!ifJB ,1Jl :fl x ilffilll'l Bi:JJ ?t a<i

*'

m _vi,-rn_ ./1fCI
ptn,Qu 4 11

[ 1 + zl:exp(- n2;r1KLbr)cosn1l'z.,, 0 cosn1fz.o ]dr

(6, 5, 40)

(6. 5. 41)

;;; 'f l"l IF {!<] I! rn xt 'f 5l' x 'f Jt {!<] til' IB . l'li Bi "\ i! 9' '1' 11' a<i JG it ll'l mBi :JJ ?t '1'li t< i!i ,i:
C6. s. 2Dfll C6. 5. 22 JJtr11l:ffi"\iill1Jlli\:fl!&, IP~t'fll:ffi"titl!1Jlfi
(6. 5. 42)

*m.

J't 9' ,lf1?J- I. fli >!: <6. 5. 22)


fl. 1#-. Fl (1996hl iil'!illliJf 'JtT l>:fi'ti!l if.
it\'!: J;J J: i#i 1J'll"liif ~ T Jt~ *"ti< 9' !ll ttl Bi:IJ 111!1 ;Jtf!!f J!il.1' :iJ< 'f' Jf 'Ill Jt x 7J< 'f "If t\l'll'
i'Jf!'f .1'1.f.!1, if<:fj"l!i 'f;f Ill k'.l f i!-fi'ti!l~, R l!!l'li* 4. 2 9' ~ " - XII ' fi P,Jij11Jili"S ii'lli!c!il ;;Y.{!<J ili:Piii
tt!i!JtlP 1'J.
!) :l!f lK 'f'#tEJ!Lli!!Jt!Jl!.mi!t" or l'li!l~lil(.ll!Jl!fi.l'.i:Jll!.

'l-lfaJft!il'..Jf

6. 6

2'19

2l Xj 'f 9'!% "\~'ft llJ7J< 'f #. 1lJ !II ,,/iff rOJ -!It iit jjlJ lll:4<il ii!i ~(l'J lli!l!H!l tB 1\1111* ii!i
~.bl- ilfi>!<il!J!UI::IJ :i} ;/fL
3) j} 'IUJ< 'f lil1 ~ rl; JI! i - jJ! il'd'f T ilJ J!l 'f'R ])( ill "' l'J 11" Q[ IE 111 5. 6,, 'fl e i!I'

1T T ltlf':.

* *.

4 > Jl; ~ J:: ~17J< 11"# l'J !!J:lll!/fl!tlll\l i>:lil: !II 'f Mfa 1t#. >l '!Jfl!il!! 4. t

FJiJlJ lil: !'l ~J>Oil!l

ii!i !'1: IP iii.


sJ vJ t !'.1i il ii!i 111e11!!!It111 a<J ~ ll , o1r :;ic l!l 111 !Ii: l1il 'f 1'll #ii#'lit ~ ,iii l'li: ll! s.
it tElil fl;'\'. fill 'fl J!lfifli IE.

6. 6

s. 3 ,,Iii

"'t#f.Jf"~i1t#

"'\#I" fitlill: # lfJ ~ ll'JJ!i TM"\# l'J F tlJ fitlj) ,lif i!l~ "'\ # F:!l!ill"\illl'iflll illT M'llJ:lnt. l!J
Cl iii! XE"\# llJ:lil:::kft i'f F:ll:. "\ # lfJ Ffl!ilil:#fii.li'i 11 ffi Ul:#lit ii' .it\ 11 ffi m#. ~atlil: #f!lJ!lci!I'
il'J ~at ii(#~ .11il 'J;J tll X1 'f if {a[ - 1'-%' XE li'J'l!f Ii! 11 JI lliiflll lif ~ "( # llJ i'":!I !Iii~ lllJ ffiii( # liit:ft
ffi~ :lit 1' illJ mt:!I <-MJ!iffl I 'Ii 4 1' lit :fl; J T# !iii Ill Vilil!J ffi ::IJ ,illl 11t Jld ill'i'lit ll 'EF'i!IU} at 16
l'l'l!fl JI! mt !E IE i!I' if$ .it\ lllJ !E lil: #at . fl; t 41'1' mt :fl; lfJ '!: F M <;;Jt ~iJt ll:'Jl' F:!i! 1'tr Jill :kl:#Jli:
litffi. l!W:!ll: Fn l'!>t'#, lflJ!lt''iilJ-1-l<ii l'J F:IL :ffFll!llil: #li:T'l! <l''ilf l!J iilJ IJfiN!i'l ~1:lf.!!lillt!lt
(AOF J. 12:ttii'. J(. jg J+ lit 1E1 !E;AJ'li'i>l llJ F"\ IL it1' I""\:!!: 1'111!1i:llll!!J :Iii:. ill f( lll!ffl i'"llllill:
#/fl.!'11! :Ii tJj
r j[j?t ~11 Jr !E F !ill:friii l'J
!>\'<\ ;;:; fn JIA"i 3: !!'Ill ?t iiiIfI!'" 1'

"'*

*.

6. 6. 1

Fmi:S3~ii:if;x~ll:

tr ;t 1" tlJ F llllill: # lfJ ~* 'l'.:~ ;;:; , +E F' 111! lil: # 'fl 3: 'II' l!J It! !E ,71:Iii!1'!l ffi:h 'f:Ii lttlll! :If1*.
1l at!!! 1iJ !Y.!ll l'li! ?tili1*.
lf1!3i:l:J~!t~ :;icl!!:fj .iit ll!IJ!i Jilli! li'J lililti!>Vltiill, 15'1:; (6. 4. 29 l1tA (6. 4. 33) !if ili
(6. 6. 1)

:!l; '1' ,m, li!'fJ:\J Ji!J>!i!UEJJ , 1lT fll 11"llJ Ji!!>! ffi::IJ p, !#!JI. :;Jt 111. !' 11! 6. 3 'fl Xt 11" llif 13' riiJ mt )E! )(.
lfJ Q" ft Ail:; (6. 6. ]) ,#"Ii J!ll!!!li: lil:l.'Zlll'l!l!l'E~lili/it lil:!Y.. llT'l' Ill!;
(6. 6. 2)

p,.TIJ QI
;rKhT" "

(6. 6. 3)

:!l; 'ft, S lll D it~~ 'J;Jliilli!:il:Ji\: l1il Tf!ll!l!~~lili!lit'll!Jli'~ ~. ~~


a

z. 3026p,T[lg o. 472R +
rrKhT.,

rw

b ~ p,TD
7rKhT,

S
2. 3025

(6. 6. 4)
(6. 6. 5)

280
(6. 6. 6)

(6. 6. 7)

!(!xf ;JGllilffi( :Ii! AOF Xf Ji\' 'f :11' l)j;jR ffitlli m,, ~ 0 il'Jl<lt :Ii! Ip 1l
AOF

- a

+ ~~' + #m,

(6. 6. 8)

nl!!tt-1ii\t!!Eii5 '~"I .i $1.0l/l :fit. mJ b- o. 'f >'i!:r mna !i!M7tr.ll l<lt >!:Jt ~rJ :11
Q" """ l_ (mr; - "lwr)

(6.6.9)

(6. 6. 10)

(6.6.11)

i1H1'i!/l! 6. 3 'f''f'iliii.1&Jifit Qa X& p' ll<il'JiE..ii.


=

p,p'ZQ,.T
'JtKhT,,

*~mt 15 JI; \!!Si tol!!tt-illlliil:J&E'Z. m1'tl: <6. 6.

u >UJ''.IW JI<

'Q

Pr

, _

PR

, _ 2. 3026p,Ji'ZT[I
p.,r
trKhT,,.
g

o. 472R +
r,,

(6. 6. 12)

S
2. 3025

]Q"' + p,p;ZTaQ,
trKhT""

<.6. 6. 13)

tE l:'ti: cf' 4- ,!\ 'tt


a' = ~:..3026P!:P.:?.I[tg

o. 472R +

1tKhT,,

r..,

2. 3026

b' - p.p'ZTD
1rKhT"

(6. 6.14)
(6. 6. 15)

mrJ;t(6. 6.13lUJ''.!lfffl(
(6. 6. 16)

- a. 1

+ Ja. + 4b (pi 1

12

P!.i)

2b'

AOF-

ti+

Va'z + 4b'pk
2b'

(6.

6.17)

(6. 6. 18)

I'll~ >t!li~~'ti:

'ti: c6. 6. 1>toc6. s. 11>>tZ~;;, !ll 1l!ffi::IJ :lilt to p' 1:1Hd:;11! rlll:lJtiff ITT;!;!;
'ii'-' i!\l't. 11!1 lf'- H1!1!1.1l A~ll< !~II llf il'I If i8" ili -'!'~ll&0 ll:
Q" = c(p'f< - p~)"

l't 'P ,, :11' rim :tf l'ilil'J Ji\ 'tt. '>"'ltlto ''Ultftt 1'f

*.

(6. 6. 19)

n {;!; rlm:tf I'< ITT Ill flt. 'Oili flli Vii "1 t;:tt'lf

;Ji' fl at Ill J:Ji; llt JJi!&

rilif ltno-riET-1"1 Fli!11u11 .5'\<6. 6. 19lM5'\<6. 6. 1G>!t'1J!fi!'11'.l'\.


:Iii" li! 111.1~ , W~ fl a' Q" J>b' Qi" Tfl!oll: (s. G. 16 l llJ lfr!Wil<iii ;.\J
P~

JciJ'."5(6. 6.19Ht!J(!;l-tll
J!:j 'ii< iii 19

n~l,c~l/a',

- Jl;,1 =

a'Q~

(6.6.20)

l'iF:lliM;lli.WUfl b'Q;,~J>a'Q,,'fJ/;>\(6. 6.16)1lJJl1

!
- b'Q'
P112 - P.,,1
,,

(6,

6. 21)

Jt;J'."5C6. 6. l9llt!J(!;l-tll n~1/z.,~11 fl.


~ Jc i!'i l'Fl!l.!Mitl!Jf' !') ))'lYf <11 llJl , ll>im: lli~ n .!ldl!'irit 1ll'%i'J i!&:ldil. n ~I, 'Jl'llU k ifl.iVli: 111
JI' ~l .Iii: ti'{li n ~ 1 /2. J1Zl"jjjj tfj , i\l.llili' 6. 2. 5 'fi 9' i'Jltil: 1lJ Jill , xJ: (6. 6. 3)"' ( 6. 6. 5) M:iA 19;11\
tt!Jliil <ii! i'J 'ilif "1: (6. 6. 13)"' (6, 6. 15) J1 JlkiE-Ji.f !f,f'F r, la iE mta ill jj((c)'"' ( e) fl! ii'<1'f r;f
Ji!o ill tl' (l.i ; iffl 5'l: C6. 6. 191 JC Jl\M 'il: <6. s. 151 rtJ :i!i'itJ 5'l:, I.If VJ-"; 'il: <6. 6. 5l ffi It,!!;, Ill' 0 'il:
cs. 6. 19l iii !l!:Jl\ :f llifl'J , ll1 !iii Jlt!ll ill fl!l Jlk1l'f<!fl'J At! Fil 'f~!<l!lll'03'\JI' iJ: lt!J(ll! i!J't, ii! !11 !iil!,
1l' at 1lJ Ill !fifF J:i!i!Jc fl'JWtf t'i;l!:,

'*

6. 6. 2

'lii'~i"'fi);tt!=

lit >Jll F flll ht :IH!d~HliHi' IEl llir Ji' i'J f" ill flll :IJ i'J ill: fl' ,IP ii~ ~ liT :f ICI fl! i'" I: <!U J!F I
fF ifilJ It , -!lltJI; 3-4 1- l ct F, 'It .El Ji>!' llJ'-1-i"'lltl!\llHiii!tf ~ l!I fl! ~;r, f'f, Ji' illi ffiilli J!Jt;liU
-1-lt "' fl'J lil' i!f'l'ut 'lt-!lf 1111 "'"'f.11&\ fl! 'I"~ ltb. ll!! EE 1J p, <iE l!l!l!< 'IJJ wi p, tt"' lib.Ii! 11ua 1fn
p, l 'EXt 11l!t'Jlf.( BiJJ 19 m,, l*JJ'!ltft'1 ;Jl;'flllrll!ilt~ jj)Jm r , ff !Iii F Jli Q, ctF1tlllUl:'lt Jlliiilt!li
p.,, iJ!i lit Ji ct F 'l:i: 1J, at :IL!>:'\ tr-ct Fiti>IJ fl!~ llii i!U tlJ 'It illi ffii !Ii fl'J Ill ii! iii t" Jle 'ii .f F:llt IJr
'1)';1J Q, 1f iill :l:Jt-lll:liti EE P co ,:IL'Eitl!J fll!Elil !EJ1 lil' p.,,, fto JtlJi: '.I!' i"li! 3-4 1X, ill'i' Fli!
r illl!EFf1J 1Filli ffii!Eitl!J fllii! 1li!;/9 11:. Ill 6. 7 ii< tlJ T l'.!'.#lit !!! li!:fl'lll\ lfil lli ill: fl'fl! i":llto!il fl'illi

'J

a, I

a, I

PR

a, I

------~---:--

J'-.-_;;Pw/1

-:~--;_~----

:
'

' - - . . . ; : p,,,Jl

IJl 6. 7 iJEliiit!f;f.:t:IJl

/lt IE~ st liJJ Iii '!!'it. it NI""~ fl , i!l'F I" llll ill: 'It M'f !'r:tJl JY-"' Bi ll~ill' ll!Gf: :;!;: 11!: fl'J lib.Ii! Ill :lg
ilii!! Ell ;l,J!'J Ll !ET- Xif<i'J 1>t iiJJ l'l ;it;l!J Ji' .11;/lt!E fl'J ll!il! lil' p~,,
1i!' l!!i"flll ?ttfi '1 JI! :::'."1>\ F flll?tlYi "2!1 iJ: <i!JJ\'ill'J !Eh 1Ll!! o!ll p' l.!<1Ll!! l Ll bl lli 'l:i:>t F
flll5l'!li"2.l'\l'I:. F illi ?t*U :fl'!\l,

=llll>l'.i"'im'.ll-*Jf

ll!r1'lll EB L ;l;lf()ll =ll!i'ti"'~~Jl-i'li, ~- ;\;ft-i1litl ffi:IJ /!;. ;;\'. ( 6. 6. 6) BJ

:s; !ii;
(6. 6. 22)

l'El[ Ill !lt lB' Ill L il!i ii (m, -m.,) !Q-Q U'J 3:1 !ll ill! !J<, *1llf 'l1J-;!t l[!J<, :)l;jlif $jg b. lflltl'E jg a, JS
JI\ l[!J<l'!> jg::: '9li'tril\l ill! '11< , !IP Ill 6. s Ji/f ff, IBI jijj !llffi ffi:iJl!<i!!'1i i"illlJl-i'liU'Jil' !llllPu f,

lfl6. =lli>tl"ll 111 !l


11 Ill ffi:iJ !i< ;![ ::01" CM 111 'f !".I Ji!! Ill ffi :IJ , !IP J(!

s. 4. 3 ii' FJf J! . i'E !tlJ lll wM p, lit Ji!Ji!! Ill l.l\ iii

ffi:iJ p.. E8 p, J!k'lr ii m,. l'Ei"llllill:"l'i11li! '!' M4!);1'!1: :ilil!J ii IUi!ffi :IJ fl! p"', M. lliHll'llJ Cm"'"
Q.).

2) ;(El[ ill fil ~f, Ill L 1'i' ii Jl;ijW ~[ (m, m.,,) /Q. .Q,] U'J ,\\'., ii! llif 111! le5HJT 'JS ,\\:U'J iii!J!J:z
Jil!~;l< l[i!J!, I~ :::Jllj;l'. rim ill! i!I!. tE Ill L ~ii F llllil!J i!I! 0'Jllilt!E a flt l1Liil!llil$ b fl!.
sl rlioJ: <6. 6. s>lt:llJfl 'f x[lllii!L:il
AOF- -

a+ Ja + 4lnnf1
2

:)l; '!' ,m, J1j 'i(!l',;/'f fflli!,f ffi:iJm1J1:J

m,-m(p- 0. !OIMPa),
4l ffi il!l'l:'lt i"J!L fi p, F~'llJ Pm , 'It ll'IO!i:ffi 1i\!.)i! fl!1:1 p.,, ,'t ff]

j'/il'l;(6. 6.

(6. 6. 23)

2b

**'1 XtE'I T

mm ill m,,,

7),J"'Jl!~;l}

Q = -

a+

./a1

+ 4b(m~1

- m..11)

2b

5) EB5J:(6. 6.

(6. 6. 24)

2)ii)'IJlll!f-flij!l'.Jt!!Jll~Ji1'$ K

K -

p,T

rrihT"

[tn r.,..R -

i + s]
4

(6. 6. 25)

"1 !(!?, !J;Jl'!JI< K fl!-,!JtG' Eh ffi:iJ1*<;![ i.i:# :&<1~ , Jt ilHX: fj!;#;~tll tc<Jl,

::!J!'i!U'J ~ ~ a to b tl! BJ /ll J!!uJ>:::.'lli!/!; J!rii , fi

N jg illC'.\l: l"':ll: fl'J !i.: ~ , ~~ 1;'

(6. 6. 26)

(S. 6. 27)

283

----------------Ill ffi:!J'f 1fl*Ji!:fr Ffilj5J-!lii1': Ill\.!!!! fO if !ill!;) l!!Ji:CEE:!J 1111< 3\%:!1H~ l!!Wl il: (6. 6. 16 l .

:IE li:i!J ;!'. 1'ii ll'i t i1!ii ti Cpl- p~ l /Q-Q if.Ht .l\ r11! i11!. 114 JIJ-il\ lW'I' :% b' , .Xl'E' !\I a' B'J J!li11!. ~n
f!l 6. 8(b)Fjfjj\, ;l't'B,..,1"3J!llllfl:!i!f'(6. 6. Z3)f0(6. 6. 24)'fjt)ffi:!Jl!r!Ji\lBi:tJ'fnlPUJ. ffij
K - P"fZ1'
II
ira

"

[in R r,.

1.
+ ']
4

!'ii 111>\i"'Oli>Hlf ft" IW11i:ll: , fr at ii) Ill"' ( 6. 6. 19) J1Hr Iii!.!\'! 5t


!tt. l~

(6.6.28)

if''" i':xt i"i i1!J!IUt

+ lgc
(6. 6. 20)
B'J ~ !\ ii!! iii< , e}f ill- LI'J F fl!; ill! i'\;J\i'.Jlo- !k Ji[!!<, ell;

lgQ = nlg(pk

P~1)

J! ii:! HB {E lR M!tt?h 111' l~Lt iili ti Cpl p:, J -Q


t4'1' !\I I/", !!I lll'!l'.'i'\~.l\Ji!'fr !"' lll5t!lifl'J if !JlllJmT,
11 !ISJ!t li p,, #IE Fiil i:I: #i'J:W 9' Xtlil i'ilii:Jit Q, llil!I# l~lilt If B'J !0"1 fl[ p,,.
2J i'EN<irt'll'.212 !if; ll'I J: !Ji ti !1;00 !ttWl <ti- P< ,Q. l B'J iii, J!;\:iii, B'J J!i11!1'1>:li! *lli'!C. ill:n
Ill '!l'.il: F fill rl1! i1I! >till ii\ rl1! ii!!
3) { ll'i J: i1t ti J'i:'11! B'J f~lji fl[ l / n , li lll!l'l n , 1''.\lCM 'IX fil j.f, ll'i J: B'J *!$ {ll'!Y l'!i- i' Mj&)IJ
WlirJ!I' , 18] at>J< 11' .l\ '!& c-QI <pl- pc,)', J!ll! Q 1'11ffi11 'F 1f'1lllfiiJ':fE.li<~J: if A\ i!i: ti ,
m'It n 1'11.l\ '!)( , ill 1!L "I Xi lg Cpc- p;,,) fO lgQ. Ji!:trliH' IHI 03it:ll:lliili'I.
4l 111. Wl p, B'J IL lli''.11: ti ii! M!i: IIB. ilLllt

AOF

=cf>~"

(6.6.30)

m.mu Pi !Yl.l:!it<J>,-o.101'l.
1'E i!i:i11!J: ff Jji( ""' M 'J!H1!

p, ilt1l1a~!!!xt!li11 MPa

s)

j';j ~I '1::11' )"'I;'

c<Pk - P~i-)'.:t
(6.6.31)
1'E ;i; fllJ ~ '[L#Jlil!Jl! !E11 h "f'f! :;i; fill (1'J i"':I:'
IPR !Iii~:& lt!'LF!J IPR Ji!# ll!;im: Aii!J il:i rl1! i1I! (1'J fljjij:, 1!!,~Jl,'lf"' liltffi p,,Ej !"I: Q a~ 9'
.!\ illJ i1I!. B JlHf'M-lE !~ 'l:f:!l!llil Fllti9' .!\ il:J!I' ill B'J :;r: i'! 'f #J lli:!J p, r )'ll"f 1' 1811~ If!!""
Hi m1111 ti B'J F :!IL ;;\'. -- .!\ JIJ.\\\ (p,,,, Q, l B'Jil'1i!lf!::llk-JI\ p.,-Q illJ jolt , 'I' 181 B'J p, 1l f' fill B'J ill!
i1I! ,ml1it r11! J!<if1., Ell J>;illJ ii!<IX nJ llf ti !"' filj , !fl JI! 'l: #lit i:EI ft 1111 II!:.
Q,.

6. 6. 3

i!fB'l'FMlJ.it:J:t

J: - ,I, 11 MJJ: fl'Jlit~JilF ill U\#'llf '1< xi <11 F':llllllZl~YlJ #Ill; VU: ffi LI'J llliE ill !:If *J!I! '\
i!C 1'1rna !lfi!i'l'>it i* ~'l:ii'V 9' , ep ~ '11!'1'Jlil!ll i~f~ B'Jlilt If lll!I! ilirR\IW~ llt1e1 t!t of fill IN~, iE
tttl<ffl"' r. i!l'rrlitlll\1"1f il<'f' tJJit ei; ~rr1 . wii!: tr lit ~.!ili"' ~5t f!Tit:i11 ti li'< B'I !f Ji!. Ill 1'1'
at"' filli:I: # BJ'!3< <H:.i !!If~.
'1f DtF'llti iol:Jt B'Ju ll!Jlrlfl
i' 'I" I'! B'J Flll: Oi lit !Ir 4 1" J 'ti"'< Jbl ftJDtlilJ d!!# Ii!: ffi)J
1t*l! '1J 11!."1 iii . Oli' F lil; 't F-""' at llil Ill* 1t ~ ffi 11 Ii<:!!' l!lJ ~ill' 'l: !l!'f{11 !E:IJ ~ 1':9' 1t at
r<ll '1''!1''1<>10'1'' ft!' V) ;Iii;~ <EF:ll 'EF'tll'. ~ atlliJ ']["#~!It If J!>;IJ f,\jjl ii!' :Ji; i"'lll# Ill; !It EE
:il'ft* i!\Pnlll 6. 9 lfrm,
'1f Htf'illl iol:1tJlr1liri! i'f' B'J Jii(llf ' 1'f -'i"lili jj1 B'J"\ i!l 'f', f[;tt !JI! iilJ 'J'{a '' fl J1o JC Ji!;!PJ fit
f'1 '" B'J i<i !tt. Jm oJ: <6. 4. 3ll IJ17J\, E "5 F:li Q :!i:*, M'I' 181 B'J VU:ii!J ~ ilt1'11'!'1'1 B'J tn iii. 1iT l!J 14

*f

284

otj:fll!J ifJ ,, /,. i1L l!!xt llll -iJILiJIJ ffiilt. RP-1-llili Ji! "till<<!' li\1- rl 11' lfl iJILiJIJ. R to ~@: -;.E ,
, ,; ifJ Ul:t!!~z lill iE. f!J J1t-11tcll!:t: 1&1 ill 'tr" it rlil 11! ~il'l !ii: :1ttt1i!l 11lf!l !11'"' oo <!' 11'1 w
(m,-m.,) /Q-Q !111.Cp>- p;.) /Q- Q li'J ="1xl:i""1'1! illll'!l&~-iltl'lll! !111.'i!f!)(l(~t~!j:cj\j; 00
Q,

--r--- -,---- -- --.


I
I

I
I
I'\ I

1In,
I

Ill ' '

'~I P,.14

"'otf' ii1li;l:itlmx Ill

'I' illi tf: Cpk- PC<) -Qfl'J lll~x\:FlllH!li ll!t!!.&~-ilil'll'!l.


rllij Jt~U 11-'l!'!i'Rt r" llllil: 1t Ill =111! ll:Flli illl !l!flllll~il:i'"lll illl !l!i!tl'iJt!lf li'J :lil!ic!b Ill,
=lll!iti"'"#*/f
1 > !'i!'Rtilt +fnl'l '1' iWl:!lt 11Ht1il:111im p.,,Jt Jt ~t& a~ i"':!lt Q,. j- 1, 2. 3,4 . 1F>cf -.rci1 F ll!P/f 1i!l~ B'I +flilOiJIL!lil\l.J:E{l[. illI!m ,Q, fll p.,,.
2) !l'llli!!Oti"OO <!'Mt!: 4 1-"ll!.~ii1Ul1.s\CQ;. tm,-m,,) /Q)!lJt (Q,. Cpl-p,,,J /Q), j~
I , 2, 3, 4, 1hlll il IJi! lj3 l'lii\\, RP =rll! Jl: 1F l!l~ r1'1! illl l'!l. .!!;~$!'.EllUl:\JJ 00.t1:1 b~ tgo !111.!m
i1 'f n oo .t:i, b' ~ tgJ 1m oo s. 1o lfii!<. 12'.fll"i 11l':l!lrllllil:1t'1' =rll!i'\Flill illlii\\ oo .tl'll'lli4$
;ftlfiil . f!J 1:1 ffi ~ b !lJt b' R EJ !It iJIJtt!lli1! ~, EJllOllJ Rt ll!J 7L'*.
3l t!J Jll:Fn " 1-!l[lf lliii! fl!l.\\\ 'Q, , Pn l 1l]' it;!!: ill =lll! xl:F
l\xl: (!iJ ;'il-1- .l\'!Y a !lJt a'
6. 6. 3. I

illl*

(6. 6. 32)
(6. 6. 33)

1f !!'Jl: (6. 6. 6) fll (6. 6. 16) Jt~lj '.&II! mffiJJ m fO ffijJ'f :Ii 1i<iJ<fl'J ='1Jisl:i"'l!il Je.l\ iO\,
4) lt--Fw'-.\'I 'ii\': c' Ul. IE 6. !O)fj;-*Ej~~l!li!>i"'lil! llll~ ti 'ffrB'J]![ii\\. !m 00 6. 1O<!'
E~ rn !Iii. c'a', 9P1'Jli!.i5=tmi'\i*'~iilllll!. 11:0'lll1itl1:=rll!.ti"'lll*.l\i!.:a~.l\'IY a ii\': a', t!J
lit 1lf mr -/J. ll' <!'nm JI: wre fll !il xt x rm. mt :1:

6. 6. 3. 2

llllll:JJ:i"'llll#*li

D ;f<lJ!ll !!Hl~1i!l!)(l(xf'IY'1'#i'IE .l::!Jiiil ;\\ OgQ,.lgC p>- p,,,J l, j~ 1. 2. 3, 4. :iit <1' .\\< (!iJ
nlii\RP 1:1 jjjitti'\~' l!l.'5 Flillllll lii\, !m 00 6. 11 '!' .lll:"'l AB f.liil<,
2) ttA <tgQ, <p>-p:.,, >) fii-ili1' ie ll! ot Fiil illl lii\11!'f rrrn l'lii\\ . tm oo 6. 11 '1' 1l:!!<

.1.

?
'
1

'

'

'

"

( b) ff. }J "F' j;(/i::

1116.10

lfif~Jut:::lli:O:Fl!illll!OO

3> Ill -'i ..t - 1J 11' 'P l.Ji>l\ ~AAll"iill>l:#Wl&>ti'"iill?tliiJ\l "'1'11 l"l B'JJf#i, r1 I&( it!'l: tli it:"\
1fB'Jlll~t'\Sm1 lfii.:11:1'lllll! ~i"\ # l"JI.
100

!".~:..
110

6. 6. 4

100

1000

illUlt llll i; et F If lit :It

>&ill ~J '!'lit i"'iillli\ #:Jl<M ..t>l\ '!'lit i"' lill li\ # fl'l i!l-tl' liilft 1'E !ii' at l"iill li\ # 'P . iit-lk 3t
li'll!>Jtffi.fJl!<JJllJl.!'iii"\ !!Ut'J 'F~ Bi.fl Ill Jlt-!Jlti#.Jit, jj.l);g;,1fat liiJ:JI< 'l''fll l'il fi<J # 1.xt'f
41.lli:ll'i fl'l-'1:!11<1i! lil:f m?t 'l<Fii'fl'J. tr1i!!fl'l '!'lit?" illli\# 'P 4'-IX ~* llt i'iiJ '11! li'il 'E: BJ I&( !il-'i
l"at fiiJ jfj '!' .1!1, il) i~ :f '111'!', :f ll!;J< 1f /J'tlfii. lli l9<;!1t1J.ij!!ii!'F~ ffijJ. :liiili31i!V~ :11;-JlU"'Jl'E
i"'lll J;: a&rl ][3'# Jill/lli&i!sl'J-i'lll!l! ii. J9lJl1U p.,.
l'i:i!l!'J '!'at!'" iill>l:1f'iil':i. '!!?l!tttl!l!, !l/:1' I"'~ 8'J l!! l1':111ililll Jl< FiF Ill 'f l'F $ 41: Jtli\!lful'!
'fl $~trf 1~ iE:!I:'\> A 1'11:11 fi<J.
it: l"iill m# a<J 7t tr, Jf lii ;fll it ll! 1' !ii' at F' iillli\ # 11'17t liiJf lii ;fll 11' l!l i* l!l "" l!f;r; "" 9 :11:
Ill< \f ;J<il!J tli f"!i;)l!Uf fi<J JtJilllfii.ffi p,,,jf' iEll!!li tli ~# 3i'M fl'l Jt I~ ffi.fJ p,,, Ill m.,, -m,d~
11iltr~ Jj> "\tr "fl ft\J 1flR -rrlw!j 'm p~.;- P~rjft~mr ~ Jj\ 17' "fl A'~ pk- pf.,,11 'Jt:1R'Yezf't ;ffi IWJ "

6. 7

~#-i'f.J Eli .1J ~ti f.ll !ft 11~ 1(~#-

..t ,.,- fi!f i JJ iil'J i"' lllliJ!:Jt;!i'dJ! iii:'\# J"':li Ej ffi liifcz lliJ B'J*-* , '1' 'II' !li'llf fr!~B'J Jli.fJ liifcl&
li\#-'i llii:lj:j\,l[ ili:#:!l:'llf T 11"1:11<fl1 'l: Jtfl'J !l'tt, /fl I&( iit tli Jl!llll1'f<fl1 JtlfJ :!i:lli'., "\ #8'! 4P ~-

286

:;; \ill ue

*"i1l1 1t 1ili*w,11m,r1 , " f1'J :n1.1;& !Ill! ti!


a~

'1.. #.~ik-.J!'.it

7'1~'1!1 flll 1! Ell 'f 't #'. tt iilt.., illl ll'J ttiilt 11

1~:k l':~1J , #Ji 1'E 'ttt 9' 51 J1l T l!UEJJ f1'J II!;:\; . !ilf l'J 9:tt '&<1'1 f1'Jlri1lL!:ji111 #f1'Jlll l'Eilll 1' J: VJ
.f.f-f:Y~liJIJ"

Tliif ?t~1J 1ri~ 'ttl' f1'J ffi.11 r<l\111 lil:J1'1ll lli.11!i:Jl: iS\#,

6. 7.1

JI1Jl!.!Jiw;AAJW:#

"It llH~ltli: f1'J 'Cilll!il'lJili J' Jll 6. 2. 2 1' 9' II'! '!i!::j;: II!! ll! VJik llFtbU II!! t\! Ca) mt iilJ :illl! lilt f1'J , 8
~ l fJ (b) lj}i!f K .., If 1176!<'. :/Ei3: ;!; JlH'f T' 'ttriilUE p.,!l[atrilJ fl'111'it!l'tt:kii' "T Jt .=:: 1'
'1r llL 1!i! Wr lll:J!.lf.Wlliii: iilJ !'!! ,!!'Ii!&: Ill 'f 1'11# ill! iiilJI! 'lit~f1i!IJ illl ~1"'. :Ii II'! llft llL Jll::: 'it Ill:!!
1P 1"slilt i',JJ ~fy flt' 'll<i'Y 9' JtJi Vff,iilJ Ill:. i!l: - !ii Ill:!>!: J!.-'lf lli!i!:i ''1 r<l\n'l'Ht'1J :If il:ti ?!':!'fi&.11-11' 'M Vii' iilJ
Htlli ii!, l'EJ!-'it flt 9' , J1' lil;liii:illl ffi BiiJ ".'JHtl'ilJ A'J !<'* lfll!;J!9P (m, m., J -!gt illl ~l'E '!' M~
'le j;f, Ill J:JI;- Jl'!;l!l'ii, i!l: Ht ill l'Hi!J'r !!l '~ ~ 1'iltio Ill , '(;; 1' 'ICl'!!:k:li!!.ll! 9' f1'Jillt '9J*\'tt*1l l'J ,
1rr ~j tl!lt CIJ xm I\; Ill Wr Ill:' l!l 'Ollit flt:li!!H!i!lll iii! i,IJl'ii. ;(Ejz: llit lll:Fn AA ' 7Ht!l'f !!li~ ~l!IJ T "( ii'll'J
mt ?!J!l'f 'xt'f i'f i& J'f MI'll tilf JB' :: l'llltl Itri i,l:;l!i: illJ 'IP "\ill< 9',., ,Ii\ ffifJ ;I.:#' Ll l'J l'f II'! im!lt r~ '
ti' Iii:!~ illl1H ffi.11 '!115i atrllJ f1'J !\'.<\ill! !ile!P (m, -m.,) - t illl !;I! l'El: Ill 'le iii ITll J:j!- l:!ilelll M'f
Yfi& \';IE ffi l!flB , Hi JJ!ll! "5 iiii. illJ , PP Ii!! fl! 9' i'r .1'1ffiffii1{1!tlfn1'!&.
'!\' J.'1! iS\ 11- t111'U Ill l!l c-Jit Ill: 1'11 l!l :=:~~flt II'! 1U\l Ji' %d!'IT7t .fli it ;i: r4\ i'1f lit #>II: Jff 1! l'E if Jt
'11'1J!i'Bi 11 i:!ifiJ'iE'f{jj . 1/1 Jt, xt'f ~llUHll*tt Hli\lJ IE.~!< ~A l!l:ll!1''Ulll!E fJl'Jij( 4"ilif1'J
till lB Ill ll'Hli lit JI' >II: ~J iii 1L
'1' It/I Ii il!'IU!IM< " II? :Ii mt illJ !Ir1'it 11'1 ffi :IJ "1' 11! W:# :i:ll!i 'f Ji' *it C6. 4, 4l , "l' lll l'lJ 1t1 'i'!EZ
Ill i s ~ s+ DQ F!i 51 il!l f1'J mta a:~. !1'ri!' 7Gltli'Jffi lliJJ r<l\iiiif '.l;f IA\

tn.,,, =

l'EtT;lll'.'f!lf!.'il'JT' '11!!1'.if
m; -

m, - Qn-1..i
m,-

-1 (I nt,,
2

+ Q. 80907 ) + S'

(6.7.l)

p. ~o. l 01325MPa 'T. ~ 2oc~293K. '.!;I IA\'fl:!lli'JJB>t::<J

mwf

= 0. 01466

~f (lg ~:c:,.~ + 0. 9077 + 0. 86865

1
)

(6. 7. 2)

Jt cj.1 ,Jlj flifJ JI). f.V: MPa' I mPa "Q,Jl).{il.1.J 1O'm' Id, T $ {ll' 1g K; !E!iii 'I\ !Ii "~,,,., !p "'(ii' JI
!JiL'l\ 'Ill !iliH~ Jjj\ fra 11' "( ~ if!l ilL
"( 11' # ;~ lli llil\ ill: #?l- 111 f1'J :IJ'!!dli ll1Hm r ,
1 > *!-'9<il J#lltiI.11 p l'Et~lfl:~-W:il'JT!!l;Jl'llZJH!EfJ p.,,J'E'f'Jt~'it!if,ITllJ:litilllll< m.,lgt *JI; illl !!<
2 l \1J: tli 9' Jlll J!i:!iltlll:it; fr4'1' tga, t!J ;;' ( 6. 7. 2 J PJl~ J1!!12! lllil!'$ ::<J
1

K ~ 0. 01466Q.T
htga

(6. 7. 3)

3) :if j( 6m, ~ ( m, - m,,,) .;i; 9' ,m.,, 1.19' l!llfltli:i:i<J:i\IG.;1;111 i;J!.t t ~ 1 !Jfft mxt lill'J #
Jll:li[ffi\1L 'fJ!irEil;tC6. 7. 2J'fillltlil'.Jliill'f

sI ~
~p

K
1. 151 rtim1
- 1g ~
-

_ tga

'l',c,rw

o. 9077 J

(6, 7. 4)

Ell Wl'i!Jli lll'f S' ?Ji 5Iii llJ illltu lrt !lir<l\ t=, 1.1
i:Jm, = 0. 8686tgaS1

(6. 7. 5)

ill 'f!r.t!liil m ) Biil p 1' .li'<tt!k .<l , fiRVJ l'flil ill m- p 'lb!\ il!i Ii'< 9' "1 t>m, l'HJHI: ill t>p" llii
;i-)!lill m,.,+l>m, cfU m.,Jt~IJ>ltlfJ<>t@'B'J p,,+t>p, fll p.,11!. i!'ifi';fll~l~ !!.p, 11!.
4J 1l'Ut ~ liPl<ll! !;( 'f ti!1il dil: ;IJ5()[ 1" FE, lll!!!Ht DR. i!l! !mt :!I!; Q,, jlj!~lj '161 ro. :it'!' ,
FE=

1n, -

Q,

Wn, = _l ,DR= _J,


mw1
DR
FE

(6. 7. 6)

(DR)Q.

(6. 7. 7)

mw1 -

1n, -

Q./FE

' Kt ' \IZ


r, - 3. 795(
~!IJ!IJlit'IFWlJ

?)
'l'f'-,-C,

(6.7.8)

jf Jll l'i' :It fll Ji!! Ii! ~Mm Ii!.:5 mt !&Iii B'I lfllffc<!I; 'f 2: l'\ <6. 4. 13 l

~it\ l'IJ

l!J ~Jlt I>! T S' 1 f Jl!l lt'J ~~Ul!J!Ji r4 !!.m,. OJ E/ q~


3
2tv
S'
mv--+nRv--+
w
Rh 1
4

~1273Xl0.,Q.T[7.2Kt+I
Kh'R'"

m,mwl

__

m,

mw1

r,c,

9.166 )( 10 1Q,.T
{>hRi;c,
t

(6. 7. 9)

R_3+>']
!'

r.,

(6.7.10)

'

+ 1. 273 XKhio- 2Q"T( In O. 472R


+ S'
r.,

.tl'\11! UJl , l!J Ill ili. !Ii !Ii' llt fl'J Ji( Bi !If illl Ii'< 11W'iiEl'E1i: llHIZ Iii' IILt
ll: ;it Rif .:19

'*'

m.,- t "1 !k

. . lll
15 7

*i1!i li'<Jlo-][ !!!


(6. 7. 12)

(6. 7. 13)

(6. 7. 14)

*.

il!-ti' 1lJ 1'l Jt llf "'tif 3'.!Ji Ji! B'J 11'! Ill! d 'E lj' !Ji Ji! "1jfj;fR1'
ill!.Alil<liitif #llJ 1'1 l:Jlolli 1'!1i :!IB'I !If !If li\Jf Klllil\. t 4~ liiili.mtrefi' ll:. <ittt!l'.111 ii'
mt :lil:!A'IF. jj]JJm 'Ii " 1'!1i lit Q, , Q,. .. .,Q." !fl. !lirlihaJ](l'll, m~ !lir4~ i\:'.I!

~o...Q..~.~! =

O. 01466

lh [~ 9.!..~.9,,_-:.!tg(t

"

J'"l

1i!i r .tl'\. iiJf

'"'!!l tt!!f tJ!i'f!I *ti'l'l'l l:i~ JJt

- t 1_ 1 )

+ lg '1'/);C,r
, K , + O. 9077 + 0, 86868']
w

(6. 7.15)

288
7'

o. 01466 h~
tga

K =

(6,7.17)

l'\1utw;ili1UJ<lll: lf:J 111lff!! b, 11 ili S' ~J


~ 1. 151 r .l>.. - 1g ._K_ - o. 9077]
Ltga
1~.r1r~
oi'f 4!1~/~ift iit(ft)li;\\;li li\Jt-lili:i<i~ S', J ~I 2, "' '", 9~ 'If

1
1

= S

+ DQ,,S

1
2

= S + 002,,S',, = S

(6. 7. 18)

+ DQ,

'i'J Ill !Ii' ;J<::jJi; 1Jf'ilf1l! fii ll!'il!J!l Fili' s f!l l!J!l't liliili. l'l.ll'Jl 'l!r D :fr .WU;!;

2._;s,2._;Qj 2._;s1Q,L_;Q,
s~ ~Qi L;Q,L;Q,
j)

@'ii

N'' ~ Q .... >' S'


Li~ ~'

.'!./

Q! -

(6. 7. 19)

'VQ

~~

(6. '/, 20)

Q,,WQ!

mili ,1'J!ll li;\\>li'!!rt\Ht'iit ll!:frlli at, llJ iEl:lil<lll: lf:Jill! <i\ Jt1e '111!>.

lilHtl g. (ftJ jj( xt 'I'.! ~ .t It! iE , #'> !B Ill ~u 1iU"1 :fr Iii .t jjij Bl 'lit ll! li\'. Jt-11" fi'J K
~j!j if lfell!(ft)!I; JI!'
6. 7. 2

l!ii 1it Jl\ltfl'1!it Hli


f!l S' l'! JI! Iii lilt illi

II:t.J~Slii!iAA!in:#

iii""

!li;IJ 1l\t1 J!'. 'iit ,\Ji; li\'. Jt- llT !;.( 11: i1Ml! :% ii'J 3 if:J 'l!r J!il , .!:J
li\'. o/Hll !!;' !PJ, ,_EE .:IJ Ill! ~i:!l llT :fr ;Jg 1f!
llillll:. 9' Jlillltf!l ~Jllll'L i!!utle) Fil EEP\'dl!if> (ft).jf Jt-'.E.l"BtlilJ t I.~;!; ;J<Jt-1)\t(J( at1ilJ /:.t. EE 1J 19(,!(
1it ll! li\'.Jt 3' J' Ill *Ill !Eli!!Jl!fi'Jjjlc~$, .~.'ill 11' E'il 'f S' !;.( !l.lll YHtli: fill" 'f i!J"\~EE:IJ ~. 1f!
Jl'l Ill: EE ;IJ illi ti< -!'I: 'II' li1i ;J; iii. f!l 'ill ll' 3'i:l.il!' a~ ii !lif Ill !1'11< Hli ~J!l -ltit! ii:fr Iii TilJ 1r !B '1' Jiil llt f!l
~ Jllllll:(ft) EE:IJ :fr Iii, 4' Jl!lllt ~f ;JC~ f\; Ill 'ii Ill: 3'J'1'rlll Hom" Iii. ~Jl!llltnP 'If fl! i!Il'H\; IN ll'r liii .
\lf Jll MBH :li'l'!'Jt!f'ij}lfi.
'P It! fill: !E :IJ ~ 11: lJ: 'If lie)< Jt- ut ~J CDP :E. !'" at lilJ >;lg t, . /:.t Ji!<)< Jt- !;.( Fo !Pi lit iilJ , !!! J\il lfl
4. 6. :l 11' Jjfi. ii'f Ri rt ( 6. 7. 2Hl1Ji1J1>\t1:!!:1.'fl:!ll iJFlllHllJJli. flZ 'illffi jg
Q,TI
m, - rn,,,, - O. 01466 Kh g

0 /:.t t:.l

(6. 7, 21)

,_ 9'. m.,,iJE iii J< 'II' rif Jt JI< iii, ii!Jlf.I EE;IJ Jl J'f, :fli >':: C6. 7. 2>Ill 'f t= t,, ITTIJ14'
rn, -

1nwi(tp)

= O. 01466

<