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DNS: Domain Name System

(high level machine


names)
IP

( )
(addresses) (names) (artificial)
,

NIC
( ) flat namespace
: ( ),
: ,
,
- ,
( )

flat namespace:
. - , Internet tehnologii

DNS: Domain Name System


Root


dec.com


purdue.edu


nsf.gov


reston.va.us

Root


.com


.edu


.gov


.us


dec.com


purdue.edu


nsf.gov


va.us

. - , Internet tehnologii

DNS
root name server

surf.eurecom.fr
IP
gaia.cs.umass.edu
1. DNS
server, dns.eurecom.fr
2. dns.eurecom.fr
root name
server,
3. root name server
authoritative name server,
dns.umass.edu,

4
5

local name server


dns.eurecom.fr

authorititive name server


dns.umass.edu

requesting host
surf.eurecom.fr

. - , Internet tehnologii

gaia.cs.umass.edu

DNS
root name server

Root name server:



authoritative name server

intermediate name
server:

authoritative name
server

2
7

local name server


dns.eurecom.fr

intermediate name server


dns.umass.edu

authoritative name server


dns.cs.umass.edu

requesting host
surf.eurecom.fr
gaia.cs.umass.edu
. - , Internet tehnologii

DNS
DNS: - resource records (RR)
RR format: (name, value, type, ttl)
Type=A
name hostname
value IP

Type=CNAME
name is alias name for some
cannonical (the real) name
www.ibm.com
servereast.backup2.ibm.com
value cannonical name

Type=NS
name domain (,
ova.com)
value IP
Type=MX
authoritative name server
value mailserver

name
. - , Internet tehnologii

DNS ,
DNS : query reply , message format
Name, type fields
query
RRs
query


authoritative servers

. - , Internet tehnologii

Telnet
Telnet
Telnet
:
TCP/IP
:
Network virtual terminal
( , 7 8- ASCII )

Telnet
child master
Telnet
:
: (
)

NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)

. - , Internet tehnologii

FTP: File Transfer Protocol


FTP

FTP

file system

FTP

file system

/
/
: (/ )
:

ftp : RFC 959,


ftp : 21
FTP:

( , ASCII)
:
. - , Internet tehnologii

FTP:

TCP
21

FTP FTP
21,
TCP

(browses)


,
TCP

TCP

.

: out of band

FTP
: ,
.

,
(close) .

TCP
20
FTP
FTP

. - , Internet tehnologii

FTP

FTP :
ASCII

USER username
PASS password
LIST

RETR filename
(gets)
STOR filename (puts)


(return codes)
status code phrase (
HTTP)
331 Username OK,
password
125

;

425

452

. - , Internet tehnologii

FTP, NFS
Trivial FTP (TFTP)
FTP,
UDP
( 512 )
(.. )

NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems


, file
access
NFS NFS
RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

:
- FTP
(shared online access) - NFS

. - , Internet tehnologii


:

mail
simple mail transfer protocol:
SMTP


mailbox

mail

SMTP

:
SMTP
a.k.a. mail
, ,
mail
mail

: Eudora, Outlook, elm,


Netscape Messenger
,

mail
server

SMTP

. - , Internet tehnologii

: mail
Mail :

Mailbox-
mail
SMTP mail email
: mail
: mail

: SMTP [RFC 2821]

TCP email , 25
:
:
handshaking (greeting)

closure

/ :
: ASCII
:

7- ASCII
. - , Internet tehnologii

:
4) SMTP
TCP

5) Mail
mailbox

6)

1) UA
to
goran@fakultet.edu.mk
2) UA
mail :

3) SMTP
TCP mail

mail

mail

6
5

. - , Internet tehnologii

SMTP
S = (server); C = (client)

S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
C:
S:
C:
S:

220 fakultet.edu.mk
HELO crepes.fr
250 Hello crepes.fr, pleased to meet you
MAIL FROM: <trpe@crepes.fr>
250 trpe@crepes.fr... Sender ok
RCPT TO: <goran@fakultet.edu.mk>
250 goran@fakultet.edu.mk ... Recipient ok
DATA
354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
Dali doagas?
.
250 Message accepted for delivery
QUIT
221 fakultet.edu.mk closing connection

. - , Internet tehnologii

mail
SMTP:
email
RFC 822:
:
, ,

(header)

(body)

To:
From:
Subject:
( SMTP )

(body)
, ASCII

. - , Internet tehnologii

:
MIME: multimedia mail extension, RFC 2045, 2056

MIME

MIME



, ,

From: trpe@crepes.fr
To: goran@fakultet.edu.mk
Subject: Slika od planina.
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Type: image/jpeg
base64 encoded data .....
.........................
......base64 encoded data

. - , Internet tehnologii

MIME
Content-Type: type/subtype; parameters

: plain,
html

: mpeg,
quicktime

: jpeg, gif


: basic (8- :
u-law ), 32kadpcm
msword, octet-stream
(32 kbps )

. - , Internet tehnologii

mail
SMTP

SMTP

mail

mail

SMTP: /
mail:
POP: Post Office Protocol [RFC 1939]
( <--> ) download

IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol [RFC 1730]


()

HTTP: Hotmail , Yahoo! Mail, .


. - , Internet tehnologii

POP3

:
user: username
pass: password


+OK
-ERR

, :
list:

retr:
dele:
quit

S:
C:
S:
C:
S:

+OK POP3 server ready


user goran
+OK
pass goran123
+OK user successfully logged

C:
S:
S:
S:
C:
S:
S:
C:
C:
S:
S:
C:
C:
S:

list
1 498
2 912
.
retr 1
<message 1 contents>
.
dele 1
retr 2
<message 1 contents>
.
dele 2
quit
+OK POP3 server signing off

. - , Internet tehnologii

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