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Introduction to Robotics

Analysis, Control, Applications





Solution Manual




Saeed B. Niku











Copyrighted 2010.
This solution manual may not be copied, posted, made available to students, placed on
BlackBoard or any other electronic media system and the Internet without prior expressed
consent of the copyright owner.

Copyrighted 2010.
This solution manual may not be copied, posted, made available to students, placed on BlackBoard or any other
electronic media system or the Internet without prior expressed consent of the copyright owner.
2
CHAPTER ONE

Problem 1.1
Draw the approximate workspace for the following robot. Assume the dimensions of the
base and other parts of the structure of the robot are as shown.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 1.14

Solution:

The workspace shown is approximate.




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3

Problem 1.2
Draw the approximate workspace for the following robot. Assume the dimensions of the
base and other parts of the structure of the robot are as shown.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 1.14

Solution:

The workspace shown is approximate.




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4
Problem 1.3
Draw the approximate workspace for the following robot. Assume the dimensions of the
base and other parts of the structure of the robot are as shown.

Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 1.14

Solution:

The workspace shown is approximate.



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5
CHAPTER TWO

Problem 2.1
Write a unit vector in matrix form that describes the direction of the cross product of
5 3 = + p i k and 3 4 5 = + + q i j k .

Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4

Solution:

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
5 0 3 0 12 25 9 20 0 12 16 20
3 4 5
144 256 400 28.28
12
28.28
0.424
16
0.566
28.28
0.707
20
28.28
x y z
r r r


= = = + = +



= + + = + + =





= =








i j k
r p q i j k i j k
r

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6
Problem 2.2
A vector p is 8 units long and is perpendicular to vectors q and r described below.
Express the vector in matrix form.

0.3
0.4
0
y
unit
q



=



q
0.5
0.4
0
x
unit
r


=



r

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4

Solution:

The two vectors given are unit vectors. Therefore, each missing component can be found
as:

1 0.09 0.16 0.866
1 0.25 0.16 0.768
y
x
q
r
= =
= =


Since p is perpendicular to the other two vectors, it is in the direction of the cross product
of the two. Therefore:

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0.3 0.866 0.4 0.346 0.2 0.12 0.307 0.15 0.665
0.768 0.5 0.4
0.146 0.187 0.515
p



= = +



= +
i j k
i j k
i j k


Since q and r are not perpendicular to each other, the resulting p is not a unit vector.
Vector p can be found as:

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.146 0.187 0.515
0.146 0.187 0.515 0.567
8
14.1
0.567
0.146 0.187 0.515
2.06 2.64 7.27
p
p
w
w

= +
= + + =
= =
= +
= +
i j k
p i j k
p i j k


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7
Problem 2.3
Will the three vectors p, q, and r in Problem 2.2 form a traditional frame? If not, find the
necessary unit vector s to form a frame between p, q, and s.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4

Solution:

As we saw in Problem 2.2, since qr is not a unit vector, it means that q and r and not
perpendicular to each other, and therefore, they cannot form a frame. However, p and q
are perpendicular to each other, and we can select s to be perpendicular to those two. Of
course, p is not a unit length, therefore we use the unit vector representing it.

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.146 0.187 0.515 0.567
1
1.764
0.567
0.146 0.187 0.515
0.257 0.33 0.908
p
w
w
= + + =
= =
= +
= +
p i j k
p i j k

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0.257 0.33 0.908
0.257 0.33 0.908 0.918 0.375 0.124
0.3 0.866 0.4
= +


= = +



p i j k
i j k
s i j k


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8
Problem 2.4
Suppose that instead of a frame, a point ( ) 3,5,7
T
P = in space was translated a distance
of ( ) 2,3,4
T
d = . Find the new location of the point relative to the reference frame.

Estimated student time to complete: 5 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6

Solution:

As for a frame,

1 0 0 2 3 5
0 1 0 3 5 8
0 0 1 4 7 11
0 0 0 1 1 1
new
P



= =





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9
Problem 2.5
The following frame B was moved a distance of ( ) 5,2,6
T
d = . Find the new location of
the frame relative to the reference frame.

0 1 0 2
1 0 0 4
0 0 1 6
0 0 0 1
B



=





Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6

Solution:

The transformation matrix representing the translation is used to find the new location as:

1 0 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 7
0 1 0 2 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 6
0 0 1 6 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 12
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
new
B



= =





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10
Problem 2.6
For frame F, find the values of the missing elements and complete the matrix
representation of the frame.

? 0 1 5
? 0 0 3
? 1 0 2
0 0 0 1
F



=





Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4

Solution:

0 1 5
0 0 3
1 0 2
0 0 0 1
x
y
z
n
n
F
n



=





From = n o a
0 0 1
x y z
n n n


=



i j k
i
Or:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
y x
n n + = i j k i , and therefore: 1, 0, 0
y x z
n n n = = =

0 0 1 5
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 2
0 0 0 1
F



=





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11
Problem 2.7
Find the values of the missing elements of frame B and complete the matrix
representation of the frame.


0.707 ? 0 2
? 0 1 4
? 0.707 0 5
0 0 0 1
B



=





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4

Solution:

0.707 0 2
0 1 4
0.707 0 5
0 0 0 1
x
y
z
o
n
B
n



=





From = n o a 0.707
0 0.707
y z
x
n n
o


=



i j k
j

Therefore: 0.707
0 0.707
y z
x
n n
o


=



i j k
j
And
( ) ( ) ( )
0.707 0.5 0
y z x y x y
n n o n o n + = = i j k j

From length equations: 1 = n or
2 2 2
2
0.707 1 0.707
0.5 1 0.707
y z z
x x
n n n
o o
+ + = =
+ = =


Therefore, there are two possible acceptable solutions:


0.707 0.707 0 2
0 0 1 4
0.707 0.707 0 5
0 0 0 1
B



=



and
0.707 0.707 0 2
0 0 1 4
0.707 0.707 0 5
0 0 0 1
B



=





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12
Problem 2.8
Derive the matrix that represents a pure rotation about the y-axis of the reference frame.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.2.

Solution:

From the figure:
cos sin
sin cos
x n a
y o
z n a
p p p
p p
p p p


= +
=
= +
and
0
0 1 0
0
x n
y o
z a
p C S p
p p
p S C p


=









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13
Problem 2.9
Derive the matrix that represents a pure rotation about the z-axis of the reference frame.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.2.

Solution:
From the Figure:

cos sin
sin cos
x n o
y n o
z a
p p p
p p p
p p


=
= +
=
and
0
0
0 0 1
x n
y o
z a
p C S p
p S C p
p p


=








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14
Problem 2.10
Verify that the rotation matrices about the reference frame axes follow the required
constraint equations set by orthogonality and length requirements of directional unit
vectors.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.4.5 and 2.6.2

Solution:

For
1 0 0
( , ) 0
0
Rot x C S
S C



=



we have:

0 = n o i or n
x
o
x
+ n
y
o
y
+ n
z
o
z
= 0
0 = n a i
0 = a o i
1 = n
2 2
1 S C = + = o
( )
2
2
1 S C = + = a

( , ) Rot y and ( , ) Rot z will be the same.

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15
Problem 2.11
Find the coordinates of point (2,3,4)
T
P relative to the reference frame after a rotation of
45

about the x-axis.



Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.3.

Solution:

2 1 0 0 2 2
( ,45) 3 0 0.707 0.707 3 0.707
4 0 0.707 0.707 4 4.95
U
P Rot x


= = =





Note that the rotation is written in a 3 3 , not homogeneous form, because we are only
concerned about the rotation part.

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16
Problem 2.12
Find the coordinates of point (3,5,7)
T
P relative to the reference frame after a rotation of
30

about the z-axis.



Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.3.

Solution:

3 0.866 0.5 0 3 0.1
( ,30) 5 0.5 0.866 0 5 5.83
7 0 0 1 7 7
U
P Rot z


= = =





Note that the rotation is written in a 3 3 form not homogeneous form, because we are
only concerned about the rotation part.

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17
Problem 2.13
Find the new location of point (1,2,3)
T
P relative to the reference frame after a rotation of
30

about the z-axis followed by a rotation of 60

about the y-axis.



Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.3.

Solution:

( ,60) ( ,30)
0.5 0 0.866 0 0.866 0.5 0 0 1 2.531
0 1 0 0 0.5 0.866 0 0 2 2.232
0.866 0 0.5 0 0 0 1 0 3 1.616
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
U
U
P Rot y Rot z P
P
=



= =




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18
Problem 2.14
A point P in space is defined as (5,3,4)
B T
P = relative to frame B which is attached to the
origin of the reference frame A and is parallel to it. Apply the following transformations
to frame B and find
A
P. Using the 3-D grid, plot the transformations and the result and
verify it. Also verify graphically that you would not get the same results if you apply the
transformations relative to the current frame:
Rotate 90

about x-axis, then


Translate 3 units about y-axis, 6 units about z-axis, and 5 units about x-axis. Then,
Rotate 90

about z-axis.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.3.

Solution:

( ,90) (5,3,6) ( ,90)
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 5 1
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 3 10
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 0 4 9
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
A B
A
P Rot z Trans Rot x P
P
=


= =






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19
Problem 2.15
A point P in space is defined as (2,3,5)
B T
P = relative to frame B which is attached to the
origin of the reference frame A and is parallel to it. Apply the following transformations
to frame B and find
A
P. Using the 3-D grid, plot the transformations and the result and
verify it:
Rotate 90

about x-axis, then


Rotate 90

about local a-axis, then


Translate 3 units about y-, 6 units about z-, and 5 units about x-axes.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.4.

Solution:

(5,3,6) ( ,90) ( ,90)
1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2
0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 2
0 0 1 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 8
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
A B
A
P Trans Rot x Rot a P
P
=




= =







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20
Problem 2.16
A frame B is rotated 90

about the z-axis, then translated 3 and 5 units relative to the n-


and o-axes respectively, then rotated another 90

about the n-axis, and finally, 90

about
the y-axis. Find the new location and orientation of the frame.


0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
B



=





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.4.

Solution:

( ,90) ( ,90) (3,5,0) ( ,90)
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
new
new
B Rot y Rot z BTrans Rot n
B
=


= =



0 0 1 6
1 0 0 4
0 0 0 1







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21
Problem 2.17
The frame B of problem 2.16 is rotated 90

about the a-axis, 90

about the y-axis, then


translated 2 and 4 units relative to the x- and y-axes respectively, then rotated another
90

about the n-axis. Find the new location and orientation of the frame.


0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
B



=





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.6.4.

Solution:

(2,4,0) ( ,90) ( ,90) ( ,90)
1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3
0 1 0 4 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
new
new
B Trans Rot y B Rot a Rot n
B
=


= =



0 0 1 5
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1







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22
Problem 2.18
Show that rotation matrices about the y- and the z-axes are unitary.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.7.

Solution:

0
( , ) 0 1 0
0
C S
A Rot y
S C



= =





2 2
det 1( ) 0 1 A C S = + + =
1 0 0
0
0
T
A C S
S C




=





1
0
adj 0 1 0 /1
0
T
minor
C S
A A A
S C



= = =





1 T
A A

=

Exact same is true for rotation about the z-axis.

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23
Problem 2.19
Calculate the inverse of the following transformation matrices:


1 2
0.527 0.574 0.628 2 0.92 0 0.39 5
0.369 0.819 0.439 5 0 1 0 6
and
0.766 0 0.643 3 0.39 0 0.92 2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
T T



= =





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.7.

Solution:

Since transformation matrices are unitary, we calculate the inverses simply by
transposing the rotation part and calculating the position part by:

0.527 2 0.369 5 0.766 3 0.601
0.574 2 0.819 5 0 3 2.947
0.628 2 0.439 5 0.643 3 5.38
+ =
+ =
+ + =


Therefore:

1
1
0.527 0.369 0.766 0.601
0.574 0.819 0 2.947
0.628 0.439 0.643 5.38
0 0 0 1
T





=





And similarly,

1
2
0.92 0 0.39 3.82
0 1 0 6
0.39 0 0.92 3.79
0 0 0 1
T


=





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24
Problem 2.20
Calculate the inverse of the matrix B of Problem 2.17.

Estimated student time to complete: 5 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.7.

Solution:

0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
B



=





1
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
B


=





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25
Problem 2.21
Write the correct sequence of movements that must be made in order to restore the
original orientation of the spherical coordinates and make it parallel to the reference
frame. About what axes are these rotations supposed to be?

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.9.3.

Solution:

1 0 0
0 1 0
( , , ) ( , ) ( , )
0 0 1
0 0 0 1
sph
rS C
rS S
T r Rot o Rot a
rC





=





As shown, the rotations are relative to o- and a-axes in the sequence shown. These
rotations must be relative to the current moving frame in order to prevent changing the
position of the frame.

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26
Problem 2.22
A spherical coordinate system is used to position the hand of a robot. In a certain
situation, the hand orientation of the frame is later restored in order to be parallel to the
reference frame, and the matrix representing it is described as:

1 0 0 3.1375
0 1 0 2.195
0 0 1 3.214
0 0 0 1
sph
T



=




Find the necessary values of , , r to achieve this location.
Find the components of the original matrix , , n o a vectors for the hand before the
orientation was restored.

Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.9.3.

Solution:

a) The equations representing position in a spherical coordinates may be set equal to the
given values as:
i. 3.1375
ii. 2.195
iii. 3.214
rC S
rS S
rC

=
=
=

I. Assuming S is positive, from i and ii
35 =


from ii and iii 50 =


from iii r=5 units.

II. If S were negative, then 215 =


50 =


r=5 units.

Since orientation is not specified, no more information is available to check the results.

b) For case I, substitute corresponding values of S , C , S ,C and r in spherical
coordinates to get:

0.5265 0.5735 0.6275 3.1375
0.3687 0.819 0.439 2.195
( , , ) (35,50,5)
0.766 0 0.6428 3.214
0 0 0 1
sph sph
T r T



= =





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27
Problem 2.23
Suppose that a robot is made of a Cartesian and RPY combination of joints. Find the
necessary RPY angles to achieve the following:


0.527 0.574 0.628 4
0.369 0.819 0.439 6
0.766 0 0.643 9
0 0 0 1
T



=





Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.10.1

Solution:

The position is achieved by Cartesian joints. Therefore, the robot moves 4, 6, and 9 units
along the x-, y-, and z-axes. The orientation is achieved by RPY rotations, therefore:

2( , ) 2(0.369,0.527) 35
a y x
ATAN n n ATAN = = =


or 2( , ) 2( 0.369, 0.527) 215
a y x
ATAN n n ATAN = = =



For 35
a
=


( ) ( )
2( ,( )) 2 0.766, 0.527 0.819 0.369 0.574 50
o z x a y a
ATAN n n C n S ATAN = + = + =


For 215
a
=


( ) 2 0.766, 0.643 130
o
ATAN = =



For 35
a
=


( ) ( )
( )
2(( ),( ))
2
2
0.439 0.819 0.628 0.574 , 0.819 0.819 0.574 0.574
0,1 0
n y a x a y a x a
ATAN a C a S o C o S
ATAN
ATAN
= +
=
=
+ +

=



For 215
a
=


( ) 2 0, 1 180
n
ATAN = =



Either solution is acceptable:
35 215
50 130
0 180
a a
o o
n n



= =

= =


= =





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28
Problem 2.24
Suppose that a robot is made of a Cartesian and Euler combination of joints. Find the
necessary Euler angles to achieve the following:



0.527 0.574 0.628 4
0.369 0.819 0.439 6
0.766 0 0.643 9
0 0 0 1
T



=





Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.10.2

Solution:

The position is achieved by Cartesian joints. Therefore, the robot moves 4, 6, and 9 units
along the x-, y-, and z-axes. The orientation is achieved by Euler rotations, therefore:

2( , ) 2( , )
y x y x
ATAN a a or ATAN a a = =
or
2(0.439,0.628) 35
2( 0.439, 0.628) 215
ATAN
ATAN

= =

= =



2[( ),( )]
x y x y
ATAN n S n C o S o C = + +
or
2[0,1] 0
2[0, 1] 180
ATAN
ATAN

= =

= =



2[( ), )]
x y z
ATAN a C a S a = +
or
( ) ( )
2[(0.628 0.819 0.439 0.573),0.643)] 50
2[(0.628 0.819 0.439 0.573 ),0.643)] 50
ATAN
ATAN

= + =

= + =



Then
35 215
0 180
50 50



= =

= =


= =





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29
Problem 2.25
Assume that the three Euler angles used with a robot are 30 ,40 ,50

respectively.
Determine what angles should be used to achieve the same result if RPY is used instead.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.10

Solution:

For Euler angles:

Euler( , , ) ( , ) ( , ), ( , ) ( ,30) ( ,40), ( ,50) Rot a Rot o Rot a Rot a Rot o Rot a = =
=
0.0435 0.8296 0.5568 0
0.9096 0.2635 0.3215 0
0.4134 0.4925 0.766 0
0 0 0 1








2( , ) 2(0.9096,0.0435) 87.26
a y x
ATAN n n ATAN = = =


or 2( , ) 2( 0.9096, 0.0435) 267.26
a y x
ATAN n n ATAN = = =



( ) 2( ,( )) 2 0.4134,0.9106 24.5
o z x a y a
ATAN n n C n S ATAN = + = =


or ( ) 2 0.4134, 0.9106 155.5
o
ATAN = =



( )
2(( ),( ))
2 0.5408,0.8412 32.7
n y a x a y a x a
ATAN a C a S o C o S
ATAN
= +
= =



or 2( 0.5408, 0.8412) 212.7
n
ATAN = =



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30
Problem 2.26
A frame
U
B was moved along its own o-axis a distance of 6 units, then rotated about its
n-axis an angle of 60

, then translated about the z-axis for 3 units, followed by a rotation


of 60

about the z-axis, and finally rotated about x-axis for 45

.
Calculate the total transformation performed.
What angles and movements would we have to make if we were to create the same
location and orientation using Cartesian and Euler configurations?

Estimated student time to complete: 25-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.9- 2.10

Solution:

( ,45) ( ,60) (0,0,3) (0,6,0) ( ,60)
0.5 0.433 0.75 5.196
0.6123 0.4355 0.6596 0
0.6123 0.789 0.0474 4.242
0 0 0 1
U
B
new
T Rot x Rot z Trans Trans Rot n
B
=




=





The Cartesian translations are: 5.196, 0, 4.242
x x x
p p p = = = . Euler angles are:

2( , ) 2( , )
y x y x
ATAN a a or ATAN a a = =
or
2( 0.6596,0.75) 41.33
2(0.6596, 0.75) 138.67
ATAN
ATAN

= =

= =



2[( ),( )]
x y x y
ATAN n S n C o S o C = + +
or
2[0.79, 0.613] 127.8
2[ 0.79,0.613] 52.2
ATAN
ATAN

= =

= =



2[( ), )]
x y z
ATAN a C a S a = +
or
2[0.9988,0.0474] 87.28
2[ 0.9988,0.0474] 87.28
ATAN
ATAN

= =

= =


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31
Problem 2.27
A frame
U
F was moved along its own n-axis a distance of 5 units, then rotated about its
o-axis an angle of 60

, followed by a rotation of 60

about the z-axis, then translated


about its a-axis for 3 units, and finally rotated 45

about the x-axis.


Calculate the total transformation performed.
What angles and movements would we have to make if we were to create the same
location and orientation using Cartesian and RPY configurations?

Estimated student time to complete: 20-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.11

Solution:

( ,45) ( ,60) (5,0,0) ( ,60) (0,0,3)
0.25 0.866 0.433 3.8
0.918 0.354 0.177 3.59
0.306 0.354 0.884 5.71
0 0 0 1
U
B
new
T Rot x Rot z Trans Rot o Trans
B
=



=





For Cartesian coordinates: 3.8, 3.59, 5.71
x y z
p p p = = =

For RPY angles:
2( , ) 2(0.918,0.25) 74.8
a y x
ATAN n n ATAN = = =


or 2( , ) 254.8
a y x
ATAN n n = =



( ) 2( ,( )) 2 0.306,0.951 17.8
o z x a y a
ATAN n n C n S ATAN = + = =


( ) 2 0.306, 0.951 162.2
o
ATAN = =



[ ]
2(( ),( ))
2 0.372,0.928 21.8
n y a x a y a x a
ATAN a C a S o C o S
ATAN
= +
= =



( ) 2 0.372, 0.928 201.8
n
ATAN = =




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32
Problem 2.28
Frames describing the base of a robot and an object are given relative to the Universe
frame.
Find a transformation
R
T
H
of the robot configuration if the hand of the robot is to be
placed on the object.
By inspection, show whether this robot can be a 3-axis spherical robot, and if so, find
, ,r .
Assuming that the robot is a 6-axis robot with Cartesian and Euler coordinates, find
, , , , ,
x y z
p p p .


1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2
0 0 1 4 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
U U
obj R
T T




= =





Estimated student time to complete: 20-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.11

Solution:

a. We want to place the hand on the part. Therefore,
1 R U U
H H obj
T T T

=

1 U U R U R R U U
obj R H R obj H R obj
T T T T T T T T

= = =

Substitute:
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 5
1 0 0 2 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
R
H
T




= =





b. No. The 3,2 element of spherical coordinate transformation matrix should be zero. This
is not.

c. 5, 1, 0
x y z
p p p = = =

2[0, 1] 180 or 2[0,1] 0 ATAN ATAN = = = =


2[ 1( 1),0] 90 or 2[ 1(1),0] 270 ATAN ATAN = = = =


2[ 1( 1),0] 90 or 2[ 1(1),0] 270 ATAN ATAN = = = =


Then
180 0
90 270
90 270



= =

= =


= =





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33
Problem 2.29
A 3-DOF robot arm has been designed for applying paint on flat walls, as shown.
Assign coordinate frames as necessary based on the D-H representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Find the
U
T
H
matrix.

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.

# d a

0-1
1
l
4
0 0
1-2 0 0 l
5
-90
2-H 90 l
6
0 0

1 2 3
1 1 1 5
2 1 1
3 4 6
1 1 1 6 1 5 1
1 1 1 6 1 5 2
4 3
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0
0
1 0 0
0 0 0 1
U U R U
H R H R
T T T T A A A
l C S l
l S C
l l l
C S S l C l l
S C C l S l l
l l
= =



=



+ +

+ +
=
+



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34
Problem 2.30
In the 2-DOF robot shown, the transformation matrix
0
T
H
is given in symbolic form, as
well as in numerical form for a specific location. The length of each link l
1
and l
2
is 1 ft.
Calculate the values of
1 2
and for the given location.

12 12 2 12 1 1
12 12 2 12 1 1 0
0 0.2924 0.9563 0 0.6978
0 0.9563 0.2924 0 0.8172
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
H
C S l C l C
S C l S l S
T
+

+

= =




z
x
y
x
0
z
1
x
1
z
H
x
H
2

z
0

Figure P.2.30

Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.13

Solution:

This example is very simple, with only two degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is really
no need to use the traditional method of inverse kinematic mentioned in Section 2.13.
The joint angles can be determined as follows:

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 12 12
1 2 12 1
2 12 1 1
1 2 12 1 2 12 1
2 12 1 1
1 2 12 1
2( , ) 2(0.9563, 0.2924) 107
/
2 / , /
/
x
x
y x
y
y
ATAN S C ATAN
C p l C l
l C l C p
ATAN p l S l p l C l
l S l S p
S p l S l

+ = = =
=
+ =

=

+ =
=


Substitute:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 12 1 2 12 1
1
2
2 / , /
2 0.8172 0.9563 , 0.6978 0.2924 2 0.1391,0.9902 8
107 ( 8) 115
y x
ATAN p l S l p l C l
ATAN ATAN

=
= + = =
= =


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35
Problem 2.31
For the following SCARA-type robot:
Assign the coordinate frames based on the D-H representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write all the A matrices.
Write the
U
T
H
matrix in terms of the A matrices.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.

# d a

0-1
1
0 d
3
0
1-2
2
0 d
4
180
2-H
3
d
5
0 0

0
0 0 1 2 3
1 1 3 1 2 2 4 2 3 3
1 1 3 1 2 2 4 2 3 3
1 2 5
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
T T T T A A A
C S d C C S d C C S
S C d S S C d S S C
d d d
= =


=
+




Multiplying these matrices will yield the total transformation.

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36
Problem 2.32
A special 3-DOF spraying robot has been designed as shown:
Assign the coordinate frames based on the D-H representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write all the A matrices.
Write the
U
T
H
matrix in terms of the A matrices.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:
Please note that no particular reset position is specified for this robot.

# d a

0-1
1
90 + 0 0 90
1-2 0 l
2
0 -90
2-3
3
0 0 90
3-H 0 l
3
0 0

1 1 1
1 1
0 1
3 3
3 3
2 3 4
2 3
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
U
l S C
C S
T A
C S
S C
A A A
l l



= =





= = =




0
0 0 1 2 3 4
U U U
H H
T T T T A A A A = =
The total transformation can be summarized by multiplying these matrices.

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37
Problem 2.33
For the Unimation Puma 562, 6-axis robot shown,
Assign the coordinate frames based on the D-H representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write all the A matrices.
Find the
R
T
H
matrix for the following values:
Base height=27 in, d
2
=6 in, a
2
=15 in, a
3
=1 in, d
4
=18 in

1 2 3 4 5 6
0 , 45, 0 , 0 , 45, 0 = = = = = =



Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. To express the height from the table, the 27-in base height must be added to
the
z
p value. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified. Therefore, the
results relate to a position and orientation that would correspond to the given
transformations from a reset position. We assume at reset, there is 90 degrees between
0
x
and
1
x . Please note how frames 2, 3, and 4 relate to each other by referring to the side
view of the arm.


(Reprinted with permission from Staubli Robotics.)

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38


1 2 3
4 5
0 0 1 0 0.707 0.707 0 10.61 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0.707 0.707 0 10.61 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0.707 0 0.707 0
0 0 1 0 0.707 0 0.707 0
0 1 0 18 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
A A A
A A



= = =







= =



6
0
6
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 6
1 0 0 1.41
0 0 1 24
0 0 0 1
A
T



=





=





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39
Problem 2.34
For the given 4-DOF robot:
Assign appropriate frames for the Denavit-Hartenberg representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write an equation in terms of A-matrices that shows how
U
H
T can be calculated.
Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.




1
2 0
0 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
3
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
l
l
T T T T A A A A A A A A
l



= = =





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40
Problem 2.35
For the given 4-DOF robot designed for a specific operation:

Assign appropriate frames for the Denavit-Hartenberg representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write an equation in terms of A-matrices that shows how
U
H
T can be calculated.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.



* ( )
4 5
/sin L l l = +
The total transformation for the robot can be determined from:
1
0
0 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
l
T T T T A A A A A A A A



= = =





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electronic media system or the Internet without prior expressed consent of the copyright owner.
41
Problem 2.36
For the given specialty-designed 4-DOF robot:
Assign appropriate frames for the Denavit-Hartenberg representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write an equation in terms of A-matrices that shows how
U
H
T can be calculated.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.


1
2 0
0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
l
l
T T T T A A A A A A



= = =




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42
Problem 2.37
For the given 3-DOF robot:
Assign appropriate frames for the Denavit-Hartenberg representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write an equation in terms of A-matrices that shows how
U
H
T can be calculated.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified. Please also note
that there can be an additional frame between frames 1 and H. In that case, the two joint
variables will be represented by two separate matrices.


#

d a

0-1
1
90 +
3 4
l l 0 -90
1-H
2

5 6 7
l l l + + 0 0

1
2 0
0 0 1 2 1 2
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
l
l
T T T T A A A A


= = =





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43
Problem 2.38
For the given 4-DOF robot:
Assign appropriate frames for the Denavit-Hartenberg representation.
Fill out the parameters table.
Write an equation in terms of A matrices that shows how
U
H
T can be calculated.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.12

Solution:

In this solution, the locations of the origins of some of the frames are arbitrary. Therefore,
intermediate matrices might be different for each case. However, the final answer should
be the same. Please also note that no particular reset position is specified.


#

d a

0-1
1

3
l
4
l 90
1-2
2
90 +
5
l 0 90
2-H
3

6
l 0 0

1
2 0
0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
U U U
H H
l
l
T T T T A A A A A A



= = =






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44
Problem 2.39

Derive the inverse kinematic equations for the robot of Problem 2.36.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes if Problem 2.36 is already solved
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.13

Solution:

We assume all positions are made relative to the base of the robot, and therefore,
0
U
T is
not included in the solution. Using the Denavit-Hartenberg representation and the joint
parameters shown, we get:


1 1 2 2 5 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 5 2 3 3
1 2 3
3 4 6 7
0 10
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1
3 4
1 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0
0 0 1
0 0
0 0 0 1
H H
x x x x
y y y
C S C S l C C S
S C S C l S S C
A A A
l l l l
T A A A A T A A
C S n o a p
l l n o a
S C





= = =
+ +


= =







2 2 5 2 3 3
2 2 5 2 3 3
6 7
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
y
z z z z
C S l C C S
p S C l S S C
n o a p l l




=
+




Multiplying these matrices we get:

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45

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 3 2 3 2 2 6 7 5 2
2 3 2 3 2 2 6 7 5 2
3 3
0 0 0 1
( )
( )
0 0
0 0 0 1
x y x y x y x y
z z z z
x y x y x y x y
C n S n C o S o C a S a C p S p
n o a p l l
LHS
S n C n S o C o S a C a S p C p
C C C S S S l l l C
S C S S C C l l l S
RHS
S C
+ + + +



=



+ +

+ +

=





From 3,3 or 3,4 elements we get:
1
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
0 tan
0 tan
y
x y
x
y
x y
x
a
S a C a
a
p
S p C p
p


= =



= =



From 1,3 and 2,3 elements we
get:
( )
2 1 1
2 1 1
2
( )
2 ,
x y
x y z
z
S C a S a
ATAN C a S a a
C a

= +
=



From 2,1 and 2,2 elements we get:


( )
3 1 1
3 1 1 1 1
3 1 1
2 ,
x y
x y x y
x y
S S n C n
ATAN S n C n S o C o
C S o C o

=




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electronic media system or the Internet without prior expressed consent of the copyright owner.
46
Problem 2.40
Derive the inverse kinematic equations for the robot of Problem 2.37.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes if Problem 2.37 is already solved
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 2.13

Solution:

We assume all positions are made relative to the base of the robot, and therefore,
0
U
T is
not included in the solution. Using the Denavit-Hartenberg representation and the joint
parameters shown, we get:



#

d a

0-1
1
90 +
3 4
l l 0 -90
1-H
2

5 6 7
l l l + + 0 0

1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
3 4 6 6 7
0
1 2
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
H
S C C S
C S S C
A A
l l l l l
T A A


= =
+ +


=


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47
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
3 4 5 6 7
1 2 1 2 1 1 5 6 7
1 2 2 1 1 1 5 6 7
2
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
( )
( )

x x x x
y y y y
z z z z
n o a p S C C S
n o a p C S S C
n o a p l l l l l
S C S S C C l l l
C C S C S S l l l
S


=
+ +


+ +
+ +
=

2 3 4
0
0 0 0 1
C l l








From 1,3 and 2,3 elements we get:
( )
1
1
1
2 ,
y
y x
x
S a
ATAN a a
C a

=



From 3,1 and 3,2 elements we get: ( )
2
2
2
2 ,
z
z z
z
S n
ATAN n o
C o

=
=



From 1,4 elements we get:
1 5 6 7 5 6 7
1
( )
x
x
p
C l l l p l l l
C
+ + = + + =

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48
CHAPTER THREE

Problem 3.1
Suppose the location and orientation of a hand frame is expressed by the following
matrix. What is the effect of a differential rotation of 0.15 radians about the z-axis,
followed by a differential translation of [0.1, 0.1, 0.3]? Find the new location of the hand.


0 0 1 2
1 0 0 7
0 1 0 5
0 0 0 1
R
H
T



=





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6, 3.7.

Solution:

For 0.15, 0.1, 0.1, 0.3, z dx dy dz = = = = we get:

0 0.15 0 0.1
0.15 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 0.3
0 0 0 0



=




[ ]
0 0.15 0 0.1 0 0 1 2 0.15 0 0 0.95
0.15 0 0 0.1 1 0 0 7 0 0 0.15 0.4
0 0 0 0.3 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0.3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0.15 0 1 1.05
1 0 0.15 7.4
0 1 0 5.3
0 0 0 1
R R
H H
R R R
H H H
new old
d T T
T T d T



= = =




= + =


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49
Problem 3.2
As a result of applying a set of differential motions to frame T shown, it has changed an
amount dT as shown. Find the magnitude of the differential changes made
( , , , , , dx dy dz x y z ) and the differential operator with respect to frame T.


1 0 0 5 0 0.1 0.1 0.6
0 0 1 3 0.1 0 0 0.5
0 1 0 8 0.1 0 0 0.5
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
T dT



= =





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.8.

Solution:

[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
[ ]
1
0 0.1 0.1 0.6 1 0 0 5 0 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0 0 0.5 0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0
0.1 0 0 0.5 0 1 0 3 0.1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
dT T dT T

= =


= =





By inspection: d =[0.1,0,0], =[0,0.1,0.1].

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1 0 0 5 0 0.1 0.1 0.6 0 0.1 0.1 0.6
0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0.5 0.1 0 0 0.5
0 1 0 3 0.1 0 0 0.5 0.1 0 0 0.5
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T T
T
dT T T dT

= =



= =





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50
Problem 3.3
Suppose the following frame was subjected to a differential translation of [1 0 0.5] d =
units and a differential rotation of [0 0.1 0] = .
a. What is the differential operator relative to the reference frame?
b. What is the differential operator relative to the frame A?


0 0 1 10
1 0 0 5
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
A



=





Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.8

Solution:
a.
0 0 0.1 1
0 0 0 0
0.1 0 0 0.5
0 0 0 0



=





b.
[ ] [ ][ ]
1
0 1 0 5 0 0 0.1 1 0 0 1 10
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5
1 0 0 10 0.1 0 0 0.5 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0.1 0.5
0 0.1 0 1
0 0 0 0
A
A A




= =








=




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51
Problem 3.4
The initial location and orientation of a robots hand are given by T
1
, and its new location
and orientation after a change are given by T
2
.
a. Find a transformation matrix Q that will accomplish this transform (in the Universe
frame).
b. Assuming the change is small, find a differential operator that will do the same.
c. By inspection, find a differential translation and a differential rotation that
constitute this operator.


1 2
1 0 0 5 1 0 0.1 4.8
0 0 1 3 0.1 0 1 3.5
0 1 0 6 0 1 0 6.2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
T T




= =





Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.8

Solution:

a.
1
2 1 2 1
1 0 0.1 4.8 1 0 0 5 1 0.1 0 0.1
0.1 0 1 3.5 0 0 1 6 0.1 1 0 0
0 1 0 6.2 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0.2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
T QT Q T T





= = = =




b.
( )
2 1 1 1 1 1
T T dT T T I T QT = + = + = + =
Therefore: Q I =
or
0 0.1 0 0.1
0.1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.2
0 0 0 0



=




c.
By inspection: d =[0.1, 0, 0.2] and =[0, 0, 0.1].

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52
Problem 3.5
The hand frame of a robot and the corresponding J acobian are given. For the given
differential changes of the joints, compute the change in the hand frame, its new location,
and corresponding.

6
6
8 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 10 3 0 1 0 0 0 0.1
1 0 0 5 0 10 0 0 0 0 0.1
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0.2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.2
1 0 0 0 0 1 0
T
T J D








= = =









Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:
[ ]
6
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 1 0 0 0 0.1 0.1
0 10 0 0 0 0 0.1 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 0.2 0.3
0 0 0 1 0 0 0.2 0.2
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
T
T
T
T T
T
T
T
dx
dy
dz
D J D
x
y
z






= = = =








Substitute in
6
T
to get:
6
0 0 0.2 0
0 0 0.3 0.1
0.2 0.3 0 1
0 0 0 0
T




=




Then
[ ]
6
6 6
0 1 0 10 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 0.3 0.1
1 0 0 5 0 0 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.2 0
0 0 1 0 0.2 0.3 0 1 0.2 0.3 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T
dT T




= = =





[ ] [ ] [ ]
6 6 6
0 1 0.3 9.9
1 0 0.2 5
0.2 0.3 1 1
0 0 0 1
new old
T T dT



= + =





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53
[ ] [ ]
6
1
6 6
0 1 0 10 0 0 0.2 0 0 1 0 5
1 0 0 5 0 0 0.3 0.1 1 0 0 10
0 0 1 0 0.2 0.3 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0.3 0.1
0 0 0.2 0
0.3 0.2 0 1
0 0 0 0
T
T T





= =






=




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54
Problem 3.6
Two consecutive frames describe the old (T
1
) and new (T
2
) positions and orientations of
the end of a 3-DOF robot. The corresponding J acobian relative to T
1
, relating to
1 1 1
, ,
T T T
dz x z is also given. Find values of joint differential motions
1 2 3
, , ds d d of the
robot that caused the given frame change.
1
1 2
0 0 1 8 0 0.01 1 8.1
5 10 0
1 0 0 5 1 0.05 0 5
3 0 0
0 1 0 2 0.05 1 0.01 2
0 1 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
T
T T J




= = =








Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:

[ ][ ] [ ]
[ ]
1
1
2 1 1 1
1
1
0 0.01 0 0.1
0 0.05 0 0
0.05 0 0.01 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 5 0 0.01 0 0.1 0 0.05 0 0
0 0 1 2 0 0.05 0 0 0.05 0 0.01 0
1 0 0 8 0.05 0 0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T
T
T T dT T T
T dT


= = = =








= = =




Therefore,
1
1 1
1
0.05
0.1
0.01 0.01
0.05
0.1
T
z
T T
x
T
z
D
d


= =


And: [ ] [ ]
1 1 1 1
1
T T T T
D J D D J D


= =



Please see Appendix A for methods to calculate the inverse of a non-unitary matrix.
Substitute to get:

[ ]
1 1
1
1
5 10 0 0.1 0.0033
3 0 0 0.01 0.00833
0 1 1 0.05 0.0417
T T
D J D



= = =






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55
Problem 3.7
Two consecutive frames describe the old (T
1
) and new (T
2
) positions and orientations of
the end of a 3-DOF robot. The corresponding J acobian, relating to , , dz x z is also
given. Find values of joint differential motions
1 2 3
, , ds d d of the robot that caused the
given frame change.

1 2
0 0 1 10 0.05 0 1 9.75
5 10 0
1 0 0 5 1 0.1 0.05 5.2
3 0 0
0 1 0 3 0.1 1 0 3.7
0 1 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
T T J




= = =







Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:

2 1
0.05 0 0 0.25
0 0.1 0.05 0.2
0.1 0 0 0.7
0 0 0 0
T T dT


= =




[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
1
1 1
0.05 0 0 0.25 0 1 0 5
0 0.1 0.05 0.2 0 0 1 3
0.1 0 0 0.7 1 0 0 10
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0.05 0 0
0.05 0 0.1 0
0 0.1 0 0.2
0 0 0 0
dT T dT T





= = =





=





Therefore,
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1
0.05 0.05
z
x
z
d
D


= =

=



Substitute to get:
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1
5 10 0 0.2 0.0334
3 0 0 0.1 0.00334
0 1 1 0.05 0.0467
D J D



= = =





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56
Problem 3.8
A camera is attached to the hand frame T of a robot as given. The corresponding inverse
J acobian of the robot at this location is also given. The robot makes a differential motion,
as a result of which, the change in the frame dT is recorded as given.
a. Find the new location of the camera after the differential motion.
b. Find the differential operator.
c. Find the joint differential motion values associated with this move.
d. Find how much the differential motions of the hand-frame (
T
D) should have been
instead, if measured relative to frame T, to move the robot to the same new location
as in part a.
1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 2 0 0.2 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 8 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
T J








= =









0.03 0 0.1 0.79
0 0.03 0 0.09
0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 0
dT



=





Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:
a.
0.03 1 0.1 3.79
1 0.03 0 2.09
0 0.1 1 7.6
0 0 0 1
new old
T T dT



= + =





b.
1
0.03 1 0.1 3.79 0 1 0 2 0 0.03 0.1 0.05
1 0.03 0 2.09 1 0 0 3 0.03 0 0 0
0 0.1 1 7.6 0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
dT T


= = =





c. [ ] 0.05 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.03
T
D =

Therefore:
1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.05
2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.2
0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0.1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0.03 0.08
D J D



= = =







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57

d.

1
0 1 0 2 0.03 0 0.1 0.79
1 0 0 3 0 0.03 0 0.09
0 0 1 8 0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0.03 0 0.09
0.03 0 0.1 0.79
0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 0
T T
dT T T dT


= = =







=





[ ] 0.09 0.79 0.4 0.1 0 0.03
T
T
D =

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58
Problem 3.9
A camera is attached to the hand frame T of a robot as given. The corresponding inverse
J acobian of the robot relative to the frame at this location is also given. The robot makes
a differential motion, as a result of which, the change dT in the frame is recorded as
given.
a. Find the new location of the camera after the differential motion.
b. Find the differential operator.
c. Find the joint differential motion values D

associated with this move.


1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 2 0 0.1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 8 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
T
T J








= =








0.02 0 0.1 0.7
0 0.02 0 0.08
0 0.1 0 0.3
0 0 0 0
dT



=





Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:

a.

0.02 1 0.1 3.7
1 0.02 0 2.08
0 0.1 1 7.7
0 0 0 1
new old
T T dT



= + =





b.

1
0.02 0 0.1 0.7 0 1 0 2 0 0.02 0.1 0.06
0 0.02 0 0.08 1 0 0 3 0.02 0 0 0.02
0 0.1 0 0.3 0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
dT T


= = =





c.


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59
[ ][ ] [ ]
1 1
0 1 0 2 0.02 0 0.1 0.7 0 0.02 0 0.08
1 0 0 3 0 0.02 0 0.08 0.02 0 0.1 0.7
0 0 1 8 0 0.1 0 0.3 0 0.1 0 0.3
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
T
T T T dT

= = =





= =





Therefore: [ ] 0.08 0.7 0.3 0.1 0 0.02
T
T
D =

1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 0.08
2 0 1 0 0 0 0.7 0.14
0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.07
0 1 0 0 1 0 0.1 0.7
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.1
1 0 0 0 0 1 0.02 0.06
T T T T
D J D D J D







= = = =







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60
Problem 3.10
The hand frame T
H
of a robot is given. The corresponding inverse J acobian of the robot at
this location relative to this frame is also shown. The robot makes a differential motion
relative to this frame described as
[ ] 0.05 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.1
H
T
T
D = .
a. Find which joints must make a differential motion, and by how much, in order to
create the indicated differential motions.
b. Find the change in the frame.
c. Find the new location of the frame after the differential motion.
d. Find how much the differential motions (given above) should have been if
measured relative to the Universe, to move the robot to the same new location as in Part
c.
1
5 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 3 0 0.2 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 8 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
H
T
H
T J








= =










Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:
a.

[ ]
1
5 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.25
2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.2
0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0.1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0.1 0.15
H H
T T
D J D



= = =








Therefore, joints 1, 2, 4, and 6 must move as shown.

b. Substituting values from
H
T
Dto form
H
T
, we get:

0 1 0 3 0 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 0 0 0
1 0 0 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.05
0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.1 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
H
T
H
dT T


= = =




c.


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61
0 1 0 3 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 1 0 3
1 0 0 3 0 0.1 0.1 0.05 1 0.1 0.1 3.05
0 0 1 8 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.1 0 1 8.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 01 0 0 1
new old
H H
T T dT




= + = + =





d.

1
0.1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0.1 0 0.3
0 0.1 0.1 0.05 1 0 0 3 0.1 0 0.1 1.15
0.1 0 0 0.1 0 0 1 8 0 0.1 0 0.2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
H
T
H H
H
dT T T
dT T

= =




= = =





Therefore, [ ] 0.3 1.15 0.2 0.1 0 0.1
T
D =

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62
Problem 3.11
The hand frame T of a robot is given. The corresponding inverse J acobian of the robot at
this location is also shown. The robot makes a differential motion described as
[ ] 0.05 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.1
T
D = .
a. Find which joints must make a differential motion, and by how much, in order to
create the indicated differential motions.
b. Find the change in the frame.
c. Find the new location of the frame after the differential motion.
d. Find how much the differential motions (given above) should have been, if
measured relative to Frame T, to move the robot to the same new location as in Part c.

1
5 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 3 0 0.2 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 8 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
T J








= =










Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.6-3.11

Solution:

a.

1
5 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.25
2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.2
0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0.1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0.1 0.15
D J D



= = =







Therefore, joints 1, 2, 4, and 6 must move as shown.

b. Using D given above to form ,

0 0.1 0.1 0.05 0 1 0 3 0.1 0 0.1 0.55
0.1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0.1 0 0.3
0.1 0 0 0.1 0 0 1 8 0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
dT T



= = =






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63
c.
0.1 1 0.1 3.55
1 0.1 0 3.3
0 0.1 1 7.6
0 0 0 1
new old
T T dT



= + =





d.

[ ][ ] [ ]
1 1
0 1 0 3 0.1 0 0.1 0.55
1 0 0 3 0 0.1 0 0.3
0 0 1 8 0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0.1 0 0.3
0.1 0 0.1 0.55
0 0.1 0 0.4
0 0 0 0
T
T T T dT



= = =








=





The differential motions should have been:

[ ] 0.3 0.55 0.4 0.1 0 0.1
T
D =

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64
Problem 3.12
Calculate the
6
21
T
J element of the J acobian for the revolute robot of Example 2.25.

Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10

Solution:

The robot has 6 revolute joints. From Equation 3.26:

( )
6
2
T
i x y y x
J o p o p = + where for i=1 we use
6 1 2 3 4 5 6
o
T A A A A A A = given in Equation 2.59.
Substitute to get:

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
6
21 1 234 5 6 234 6 1 5 6 1 234 4 23 3 2 2
1 234 5 6 234 6 1 5 6 1 234 4 23 3 2 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
J C C C C S C S S S S C a C a C a
S C C C S C C S S C C a C a C a
= + + +
+ + +

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65
Problem 3.13
Calculate the
6
16
T
J element of the J acobian for the revolute robot of Example 2.25.

Estimated student time to complete: 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10

Solution:

The robot has 6 revolute joints. From Equation 3.26:

( )
6
1
T
i x y y x
J n p n p = + where for i=6 we use
5
6 6
T A = given in Equation 2.57. Substitute
to get:

( )( ) ( )( )
6
21 6 6
0 0 0
T
J C S = + =


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66
Problem 3.14
Using Equation (2.34), differentiate proper elements of the matrix to develop a set of
symbolic equations for joint differential motions of a cylindrical robot and write the
corresponding J acobian.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10-3.11

Solution:

For a cylindrical coordinate (without additional rotation) there can only be 3 variables.
The J acobian will be a 3 3 matrix.

0
0
( , , )
0 0 1
0 0 0 1
cyl
C S rC
S C rS
T r l
l




=




Then
x
y
z
p rC
p rS
p l

and
x
y
z
dp drC rS d
dp drS rC d
dp dl


=

= +



Therefore,
0
0
0 0 1
x
y
z
dp C rS dr
dp S rC d
dp dl




=




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67
Problem 3.15
Using Equation (2.36), differentiate proper elements of the matrix to develop a set of
symbolic equations for joint differential motions of a spherical robot and write the
corresponding J acobian.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10-3.11

Solution:

For a spherical coordinate (without additional rotation) there can only be 3 variables. The
J acobian will be a 3 3 matrix.

( , , )
0
0 0 0 1
sph
C C S S C rS C
C S C S S rS S
T r
S C rC







=





Then
.
.
x
y
z
p rS C
p rS S
p rC

and
. . .
. . .
x
y
z
dp drS C rC C d rS S d
dp drS S rC S d rS C d
dp drC rS d



= +

= + +



Therefore,
. . .
. . .
0
x
y
z
dp S C rC C rS S dr
dp S S rC S rS C d
dp C rS d





=




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68
Problem 3.16
For a cylindrical robot, the three joint velocities are given for a corresponding location.
Find the three components of the velocity of the hand frame.
r =0.1 in/sec, =0.05 rad/sec, l

=0.2 in/sec, r=15 in, 30 =



, l=10 in.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 or 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10-3.11

Solution:

Referring to the solution of Problem 3.14, and dividing both sides by dt, substitute the
given values into the equation to get:

0 0.866 7.5 0 0.1 0.288
0 0.5 13 0 0.05 0.7
0 0 1 0 0 1 0.2 0.2
x
y
z
p C rS r
p S rC
p l




= = =




in/sec

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69
Problem 3.17
For a spherical robot, the three joint velocities are given for a corresponding location.
Find the three components of the velocity of the hand frame.
r =2 in/sec,

=0.05 rad/sec, =0.1 rad/sec, r=20 in, 60 =



, 30 =

.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 or 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10-3.11

Solution:

Referring to the solution of Problem 3.15, and dividing both sides by dt, substitute the
given values into the equation to get:

0.75 8.66 8.66 2 1.067
0.433 5 15 0.05 2.616
0 0.5 17.32 0 0.1 0.134
x
y
z
p S C rC C rS S r
p S S rC S rS C
p C rS





= = =





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70
Problem 3.18
For a spherical robot, the three joint velocities are given for a corresponding location.
Find the three components of the velocity of the hand frame.
r =1 unit/sec,

=1 rad/sec, =1 rad/sec, r=5 units, 45 =



, 45 =

.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 or 20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.10-3.11

Solution:

Referring to the solution of Problem 3.15, and dividing both sides by dt, substitute the
given values into the equation to get:

0.5 2.5 3.535 1 0.535
0.5 2.5 3.535 1 6.535
0 0.707 3.535 0 1 2.828
x
y
z
p S C rC C rS S r
p S S rC S rS C
p C rS





= = =





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71
Problem 3.19
For a cylindrical robot, the three components of the velocity of the hand frame are given
for a corresponding location. Find the required three joint velocities that will generate the
given hand frame velocity.
1 in/sec, 3 in/sec, 5 in/sec, 45, 20 in, 25 in x y z r l = = = = = =


Estimated student time to complete: 10 or 25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.12

Solution:

Referring to the solution of Problem 3.16, substitute to get:

0 1 0.707 14.14 0
0 2 0.707 14.14 0
0 0 1 3 0 0 1
x
y
z
p C rS r r
p S rC
p l l




= =







2.83 in/sec
0.707 14.14 1
0.707 14.14 3 =0.071 /sec
5 5 in/sec
r
r
r
l l


= =

+ =


= =






Please note that this problem could have been solved by calculating the inverse of the
J acobian as well.

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72
Problem 3.20
For a spherical robot, the three components of the velocity of the hand frame are given
for a corresponding location. Find the required three joint velocities that will generate the
given hand frame velocity.

5 in/sec, 9 in/sec, 6 in/sec, 60 , 20 in, =30 x y z r = = = = =



Estimated student time to complete: 15 or 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 3.12

Solution:

Referring to the solution of Problem 3.17, substitute to get:

5 0.75 8.66 8.66
9 0.433 5 15
0 6 0.5 17.32 0
x
y
z
p S C rC C rS S r r
p S S rC S rS C
p C rS l





= =






0.75 8.66 8.66 5 10.647 in/sec
0.433 5 15 9 = 0.039 /sec
0.306 /sec 0.5 17.32 6
r r
r
r



+ = =


+ + =


= =




Please note that this problem could have been solved by calculating the inverse of the
J acobian as well.

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73
CHAPTER FOUR

Problem 4.1
Using Lagrangian mechanics derive the equations of motion of a cart with two tires under
the cart as shown:
k
m
F
x
r, I r, I

Figure P.4.1

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.2

Solution:

I. Kinematics:
Since the rollers are in contact with the block at the top, the contact-point velocity is x .
Therefore:
2
2
x
x r
r
= =


x
v
c


II. Dynamics:

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2 2 4 4
w c
w c c eff
m I
K mx m v I mx x x m x
r


= + + = + + =



where
2
1
2 4 4
w c
eff
m I
m m
r

+ + =



2
1
2
P kx =
Therefore,
2 2
1
2
eff
L K P m x kx = =
2 2
eff eff
L d L
m x m x
x dt x

= =






L
kx
x


2
eff
F m x kx = +

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74
Problem 4.2
Calculate the total kinetic energy of the link AB, attached to a roller with negligible mass,
as shown.
l, I
m
V
o

A
B
C
x
y

Figure P.4.2

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.2

Solution:

First, find the velocity of point C, assuming that the roller has negligible mass too:

/
( ) cos sin
2 2 2
sin cos
( ) cos sin
2 2 2 2
C A C A o o
o o
l l
v
l l l l
v j v




= + = + = + +



= + = +


l
v v v v i k i j
i i i j




2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos
sin sin
4 4 4
C o o o o
l l l
v v v l v v l

= + + = +


2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
sin
2 2 2 4 2
C o o
l
K mv I m v v l I

= + = + +




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75
Problem 4.3
Derive the equations of motion for the 2-link mechanism with distributed mass, as
shown.
x
0
y
0
m
1
m
2
x
1
y
1
l
1
,

I
1
l
2

,

I
2
2

O
C
A
D
B

Figure P.4.3

Estimated student time to complete: 1.5-2 hours
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.2

Solution:

I. Kinematic: First we write equations describing the kinematic relationships.

( )
( )
2 2
1 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 12
2 2
1 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 12
2 2
2 2
D D
D D
l l
x l C C x l S S
l l
y l S S y l C C



= + = +



= + = + +




The velocity of point D will be:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 1 2 1 12
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 1 2 1 12
2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2
2
4
2
4
2
4
D D D
l
v x y l S S l l S S
l
l C C l l C C
l
l l l C



= + = + + + + +
+ + + + + +
= + + + + +





Rearrange:
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
4 4 2
D
l l l
v l l l C l l C

= + + + + +







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76

II: Kinetics:

Kinetic Energy:

( )
( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 1 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
2 3 2 12 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 6 2 2 6 3 2
O D D
D
K K K I I m v
ml m l m v
ml m l m l m l l C m l m l m l l C



= + = + + +

= + + +



= + + + + + +







Potential Energy:

( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 12
1 1 1
2 2
l l
P P P m g C m gl C m g C = + = + +

Lagrangian:

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 12 1 2 1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 6 2 2 6 3 2
2 2 2 2
L K P ml m l m l m l l C m l m l m l l C
l l l l
m g m gl C m g C m g m gl m g


= = + + + + + +



+ + +





Derivatives and equations of motion:

2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
1
2
1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
2
6 6 2 2 3 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
2
6 6 2 2 3 2
1
2
L
ml m l m l m l l C m l m l l C
d L
ml m l m l m l l C m l m l l C
dt
m l l S m l l S



= + + + + +



= + + + + +



1 2
1 2 1 1 2 12
1
2 2
l l L
m g m gl S m g S


= +




Substitute to get:


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77
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2
2
2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 12
1 1 1 1
3 3 3 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
T ml m l m l m l l C m l m l l C
m l l S m l l S m m gl S m gl S



= + + + + +



+ + +






For the second variable:

2 2
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
2
1 1 1
3 3 2
1 1 1 1
3 3 2 2
L
m l m l m l l C
d L
m l m l m l l C m l l S
dt


= + +



= + +


2
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 12
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
L
m l l S m l l S m gl S




Substitute to get:

2 2 2
2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 12
1 1 1 1 1
3 2 3 2 2
T m l m l l C m l m l l S m gl S

= + + + +




The result can be written in a matrix form too.

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78
Problem 4.4
Write the equations that express U
62
, U
35
, U
53
, U
623
, and U
534
for a 6-axis cylindrical-RPY
robot in terms of the A and Q matrices.

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.4.1.

Solution:

For joints 1 and 3:
( )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
prismatic P
Q Q



= =





For joints 2,4,5,6:
( )
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
revolute R
Q Q



= =






0
1 2
.. ..
i
ij j j i
j
T
U A A Q A A j i
q

= =




ijk ij k
U U q =

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 6
62 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
1 2 3 3
35
0 0
0
1 2 3 4 5 5
53 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 62
623 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 53
534 1 2 3 4 5
0 ( )
R
P
R
R P
P
P R
a a
A A A A A A T
U AQ A A A A A
A A A T
U i j
A A A A A T
U A A Q A A A
l l
AQ A A A A A U
U AQ A Q A A A A
l l
A A Q A A A U
U A A Q A Q A A
q q



= = =


= = =


= = =


= = =


= = =




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79
Problem 4.5
Using Equations 4.49 to 4.54, write the equations of motion for a 3-DOF revolute robot
and describe each term.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.4.4.

Solution:

We have:

2 2 2
1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1( ) 1 111 1 122 2 133 3
112 1 2 113 1 3 123 2 3 1
2 2 2
2 21 1 22 2 23 3 2( ) 2 211 1 222 2 233 3
212 1 2 213 1 3 223
2 2 2
2 2 2
act
act
T D D D I D D D
D D D D
T D D D I D D D
D D D




= + + + + + +
+ + + +
= + + + + + +
+ + +




2 3 2
2 2 2
3 31 1 32 2 33 3 3( ) 3 311 1 322 2 333 3
312 1 2 313 1 3 323 2 3 3
2 2 2
act
D
T D D D I D D D
D D D D



+
= + + + + + +
+ + + +





( )
i
D

terms are caused by angular accelerations.


( )
2
i
D

terms represent centripetal accelerations.


( )
i j
D

terms are related to the Coriolis accelerations.
( )
i
D terms are gravity terms.

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80
Problem 4.6
Expand the D
134
and D
15
terms of Equation 4.49 in terms of their constituent matrices.

Estimated student time to complete: 1 hour
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.4

Solution:

a. From Equation 4.44:
max( , , )
( )
n
T
ijk pjk p pi
p i j k
D Trace U J U
=
=


For D
134
we have i =1, j =3, k =4, p =4, n =6. Then:
( ) ( ) ( )
6
134 34 1 434 4 41 534 5 51 634 6 61
4
( )
T T T T
p p p
D Trace U J U Trace U J U Trace U J U Trace U J U = = + +


( )
( )
( )
0
1 2 3 4
4
43 1 2 3 3 4
3 3
1 2 3 3 4 43
434 1 2 3 3 4 4
4 4
0
1 2 3 4
4
41 1 1 2 3 4
1 1
A A A A T
U A A Q A A
q q
A A Q A A U
U A A Q A Q A
q q
A A A A
T
U Q A A A A
q q

= = =


= = =

= = =


From Equation A.11 of Appendix A:
41 4 3 2 1 1
T T T T T T
U A A A A Q =
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2 3 4 5
53 1 2 3 3 4 5
3
1 2 3 3 4 5
534 1 2 3 3 4 4 5
4
1 2 3 4 5
51 1 1 2 3 4 5 51 5 4 3 2 1 1
1
1 2 3 4 5 6
63 1 2 3 3 4 5 6
3
63
634 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
4
61 6 5 4
T T T T T T T
T T T T
A A A A A
U A A Q A A A
q
A A Q A A A
U A A Q A Q A A
q
A A A A A
U Q A A A A A U A A A A A Q
q
A A A A A A
U A A Q A A A A
q
U
U A A Q A Q A A A
q
U A A A

= =

= =

= = =

= =

= =

=
3 2 1 1
T T T T
A A A Q


Substitute to get:

( )
( )
( )
134 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 1 1
1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 4 3 2 1 1
1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
T T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T
D Trace A A Q A Q A J A A A A Q
Trace A A Q A Q A A J A A A A A Q
Trace A A Q A Q A A A J A A A A A A Q
=
+
+


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81
b. From Equation 4.43:
max( , )
( )
n
T
ij pj p pi
p i j
D Trace U J U
=
=


For D
15
we have i =1, j =5, p =5, n =6. Then:

( ) ( )
6
15 5 1 55 5 51 65 6 61
5
( )
T T T
p p p
D Trace U J U Trace U J U Trace U J U = = +


55 1 2 3 4 5 5
51 1 1 2 3 4 5 51 5 4 3 2 1 1
65 1 2 3 4 5 5 6
61 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 61 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
U A A A A Q A
U Q A A A A A U A A A A A Q
U A A A A Q A A
U Q A A A A A A U A A A A A A Q
=
= =
=
= =


Substitute to get:

( )
( )
15 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 2 1 1
1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T
D Trace A A A A Q A J A A A A A Q
Trace A A A A Q A A J A A A A A A Q
=
+


Although a large number of matrices are involved, they are all known.

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82
Problem 4.7
An object is subjected to the following forces and moments relative to the reference
frame. Attached to the object is a frame, which describes the orientation and the location
of the object. Find the equivalent forces and torques acting on the object relative to the
current frame.

0.707 0.707 0 2
0 0 1 5
[10,0,5,12,20,0] N, N.m
0.707 0.707 0 3
0 0 0 1
T
B F



= =





Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.6.

Solution:

Substitute:

[10,0,5] [12,20,0] [2,5,3]
[0.707,0,0.707] [0.707,0, 0.707] [0,1,0]
T T T
T T T
= = =
= = =
f m p
n o a


10 0 5 ( 25) (20) (50)
2 5 3
( ) 13 50
= = +
+ = +
i j k
f p i j k
f p m i k


7.07 3.54 10.61
7.07 3.54 3.53
0
[( ) ] 9.19 35.35 26.16
[( ) ] 9.19 35.35 44.54
[( ) ] 0
B
x
B
y
B
z
B
x
B
y
B
z
f N
f N
f
m Nm
m Nm
m
= = + =
= = =
= =
= + = + =
= + = =
= + =
n f
o f
a f
n f p m
o f p m
a f p m
and
10.61
3.53
0
26.16
44.54
0
F




=






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83
Problem 4.8
In order to assemble two parts together, one part must be pushed into the other with a
force of 10 lb in the x-axis direction, 5 lb in the y-direction, and be turned with a torque
of 5 lb in along the x-axis direction. The objects location relative to the base frame of a
robot is described by
R
T
0
. Assuming that the two parts must be aligned together for this
purpose, find the necessary forces and moments that the robot must apply to the part
relative to its hand frame.

0
0 0.707 0.707 4
1 0 0 6
0 0.707 0.707 3
0 0 0 1
R
T



=





Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 4.6.

Solution:

Since the robot must be aligned with the object for this operation, then
R R
H O
T T = .
Therefore we have:

[10,5,0] [5,0,0] [4,6,3]
[0,1,0] [ 0.707,0,0.707] [0.707,0,0.707]
T T T
T T T
= = =
= = =
f m p
n o a


10 5 0 (15) (30) (40)
4 6 3
( ) 20 30 40
= = +
+ = +
i j k
f p i j k
f p m i j k


5
7.07
7.07
[( ) ] 30
[( ) ] 14.14
[( ) ] 42.42
H
x
H
y
H
z
H
x
H
y
H
z
f units
f units
f units
m units
m units
m units
= =
= =
= =
= + =
= + =
= + =
n f
o f
a f
n f p m
o f p m
a f p m
and
5
7.07
7.07
30
14.14
42.42
F







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84
CHAPTER FIVE


Problem 5.1
It is desired to have the first joint of a 6-axis robot go from an initial angle of 50

to a
final angle of 80

in 3 seconds. Calculate the coefficients for a third-order polynomial


joint-space trajectory. Determine the joint angles, velocities, and accelerations at 1, 2, and
3 seconds. It is assumed that the robot starts from rest, and stops at its destination.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.1.

Solution:

For a 3
rd
-order polynomial:

2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1 2 3
( )
( ) 2 3
t c c t c t c t
t c c t c t

= + + +
= + +



Substitute boundary conditions to get:

0
1
2 3
2 3
50 0
0 0
80 50 9 27
0 6 27
i
i
f
f
c
c
c c
c c

= = +
= = +
= = + +
= = +



Solve to get:

0 1 2 3
2 3
2
5 0 10 2.222
( ) 50 10 2.222
( ) 20 6.666
( ) 20 13.332
c c c c
t t t
t t t
t t

= = = =
= +
=
=



@t=1 sec
sec
sec
57.78
13.334
6.668

@t=2 sec
sec
sec
72.22
13.34
6.664

@t=3 sec
sec
sec
80
0
20


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85
Problem 5.2
It is desired to have the third joint of a 6-axis robot go from an initial angle of 20

to a
final angle of 80

in 4 seconds. Calculate the coefficients for a third-order polynomial


joint-space trajectory and plot the joint angles, velocities, and accelerations. The robot
starts from rest, but should have a final velocity of
/sec
5

.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.1.

Solution:

For a 3
rd
-order polynomial:

2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1 2 3
( )
( ) 2 3
t c c t c t c t
t c c t c t

= + + +
= + +



Substitute boundary conditions to get:

0
1
2 3
2 3
20 0
0 0
80 20 16 64
5 8 48
i
i
f
f
c
c
c c
c c

= = +
= = +
= = + +
= = +



Solve to get:

0 1 2 3
2 3
2
20 0 10 1.5625
( ) 20 10 1.5625
( ) 20 4.6875
( ) 20 9.375
c c c c
t t t
t t t
t t

= = = =
= +
=
=



The plot is shown:


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86
Problem 5.3
The second joint of a 6-axis robot is to go from initial angle of 20

to an intermediate
angle of 80

in 5 seconds and continue to its destination of 25

in another 5 seconds.
Calculate the coefficients for third-order polynomials in joint-space. Plot the joint angles,
velocities, and accelerations. Assume the joint stops at intermediate points.

Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.1

Solution:

There are two segments to this motion. Therefore:

Segment 1 Segment 2
2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1 2 3
( )
( ) 2 3
t c c t c t c t
t c c t c t

= + + +

= + +



2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1 2 3
( )
( ) 2 3
t b b t b t b t
t b b t b t

= + + +

= + +




There are eight unknowns; eight equations are needed. Known initial and final conditions
are:
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
, , , , , , and
i f i f i f f i
=

. This results in seven equations. The eighth
equation can be generated by making assumptions such as a maximum allowable
acceleration or an intermediate velocity.

For this problem we will assume that the joint will come to a stop at the intermediate
point. Therefore,

0 0
1 1
2 3 2
3 2 3
20 0 20
0 0 0
1
80 20 25 125 7.2
0.96 0 10 75
c c
c c
c c c
c c c
= + =

= + =


= + + =


= = +


0 0
1 1
2 3 2
3 2 3
80 0 80
0 0 0
2
25 80 25 125 6.6
0.88 0 10 75
b b
b b
b b b
b b b
= + =

= + =


= + + =


= = +



Substitute to get:

2 3
2
( ) 20 7.2 0.96
1 ( ) 14.4 2.88
( ) 14.4 5.76
t t t
t t t
t t

= +

and
2 3
2
( ) 80 6.6 0.88
2 ( ) 13.2 2.64
( ) 13.2 5.28
t t t
t t t
t t

= +

= +

= +



The position, velocities, and accelerations are shown:

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87


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88
Problem 5.4
A fifth-order polynomial is to be used to control the motions of the joints of a robot in
joint-space. Find the coefficients of a fifth-order polynomial that will allow a joint to go
from an initial angle of 0

to a final joint angle of 75

in 3 seconds, while the initial and


final velocities are zero and initial acceleration and final decelerations are 10
2
/sec

.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.2

Solution:

For a 5
th
-order polynomial:

2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5
2 3
2 3 4 5
( )
( ) 2 3 4 5
( ) 2 6 12 20
t c c t c t c t c t c t
t c c t c t c t c t
t c c t c t c t

= + + + + +

= + + + +

= + + +



Substitute the given initial and final conditions and get:

0
1 2 3 4 5
1
2 3 4 5
2
2 3 4 5
0
75 3 9 27 81 243
0
0 6 27 108 405
10 2
10 2 18 108 540
c
c c c c c
c
c c c c
c
c c c c
=

= + + + +

= + + +

= + + +



Solve to get:
0 1 2 3 4 5
0, 0, 5, 24.24, 13.33, 1.85 c c c c c c = = = = = = . Substitute to
get:

2 3 4 5
2 3 4
2 3
( ) 5 24.44 13.33 1.85
( ) 10 73.33 53.33 9.26
( ) 10 146.66 160 37.04
t t t t t
t t t t t
t t t t

= + +

= + +

= + +



The position, velocity, and acceleration plots are shown:


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89

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90
Problem 5.5
J oint 1 of a 6-axis robot is to go from an initial angle of 30
i
=

to the final angle of
120
f
=

in 4 seconds with a cruising velocity of
sec
1
30 =

. Find the necessary blending
time for a trajectory with linear segments and parabolic blends and plot the joint
positions, velocities, and accelerations.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-30 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.3

Solution:

( ) 30 120 30 4
1
30
i f f
b
t
t

+ +
= = = sec

( )
( )
( )
2 2
For to For to For to
1 1
30 30 120 30 (4 )
30 1
2 2
30 30 30(4 )
30 0 30
i A A B B f
A
t t
t
t t





= = =

= + =
= +


= = =


= = =






-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1 21 41
Seconds
Position
Velocity
Acceleration
4 2


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91
Problem 5.6
A robot is to be driven from an initial position through two via points before it reaches its
final destination using a 4-3-4 trajectory. The positions, velocities, and time duration for
the three segments for one of the joints are given below. Determine the trajectory
equations and plot the position, velocity, and acceleration curves for the joint.


1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4
20 0 0 0 1
60 0 2
100 0 1
40 0 0
i f
i f
i f




= = = = =
= = =
= = =
= = =





Estimated student time to complete: 50-60 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.5.5

Solution:

Using Equations 5.19 to 5.32 we get the following equations. The same can be found
using the matrix equation of Equation 5.33:

0
1
2
3
0
4
0
1
3 4
2
3 4 1
3 4 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 1
2 3 2
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
2 3 4
20
0
0
80.95
60
40.95
100
79.05
60 20
3 4
6 12 2
100 60 2 4 8
4 12
2 12 2
40 100
0 2 3 4
0 2 6 12
a
a
a
a
b
a
c
b
a a
b
a a b
a a b
b b b
b b b c
b b c
c c c c
c c c c
c c c
=

=
=
=

=
= + +

+ =

+ =

= + + +

+ + =

+ =

= + + + +

= + + +

= + +

3
1
2
3
4
2.85
13.34
92.4
82.875
202.9
87.62
b
c
c
c
c



These equations can be solved by elimination or an equation solver. Substituting the
coefficients into each segment we get:


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92
3 4
1
2 3
2
2 3 4
3
( ) 20 80.95 40.95
( ) 60 79.05 2.85 13.34
( ) 100 92.4 82.875 202.9 87.62
t t t
t t t t
t t t t t

= +
= +
= +


The results are plotted below.


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93
Problem 5.7
A 2-DOF planar robot is to follow a straight line in Cartesian-space between the start
(2,6) and the end (12,3) points of the motion segment. Find the joint variables for the
robot if the path is divided into 10 sections. Each link is 9 inches long.

Estimated student time to complete: 60-75 minutes (with plotting)
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.6

Solution:

The inverse kinematic equations can be found in different ways. We will use a simple
Denavit-Hartenberg representation as follows:

x
0
z
0
y
0
x
1
x
2
z
2
z
1
1

# d a

0-1
1
0 9 0
1-2
2
0 9 0


1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
0
2 1 2
0 9 0 9
0 9 0 9
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
C S C C S C
S C S S C S
A A
T A A



= =



=


Multiplying A
1
by A
2
and setting p
x
and p
y
equal to the components of position for
0
T
2
, we
get:

1 2 1 2 1 12 1
1 2 1 2 1 12 1
9 9 9 9 9 (1)
9 9 9 9 9 (2)
x
y
p C C S S C C C
p S S C C S S S
= + = +

= + + = +



Squaring these equations and adding them together, and then regrouping, we get:

2 2 2 2
1
2 2
1 cos 1
162 162
x y x y
p p p p
C

+ +
= =




Substitute into (1) to get:


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94
1 2
1
2
9
(3)
1
x
p
S S
C
C
+
=
+

Substitute (3) into (2) to get:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 1
1 1
2 2
1 1
9 9
1 1
sin
18 1 18 1
y
x
y x y x
p
S p
S C S S C
p C S p p C S p
S
C C


+ + + = +
+ +
= =


+ +



Next, calculate the slope of the straight line motion:

3 3 6
0.3
12 12 2
y
x

= =



The following table shows the coordinates of the intermediate points and the joint angles
from the above equations. The joint angles are shown on the graph as well:



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95
Problem 5.8
The 3-DOF robot of Example 5.7, as shown in Figure 5.18, is to move from point (3, 5,
5) to point (3, -5, 5) along a straight line, divided into 10 sections. Find the angles of the
three joints for each intermediate point and plot the results.

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes, depending on programming expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 5.6

Solution:

Using the inverse kinematic equations of the robot from Example 5.7, the joint angles can
be found as shown. The values are also plotted:

# P
x
P
y
P
z
Theta 1 Theta 2 Theta 3
1 3 5 5 30.96 48.59 137.27
2 3 4 5 36.87 49.87 142.2
3 3 3 5 45 52.04 146.45
4 3 2 5 56.31 54.87 149.8
5 3 1 5 71.57 57.51 151.98
6 3 0 5 90 99.6 160.82
7 3 -1 5 108.4 122.5 151.98
8 3 -2 5 123.7 125.1 149.8
9 3 -3 5 135 128 146.45
10 3 -4 5 143.1 130.1 142.2
11 3 -5 5 149 131.4 137.27

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
J oint 1
J oint 2
J oint 3





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96
CHAPTER SIX

Problem 6.1
Derive the inverse Laplace transform of the following equation:

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.5 and 6.6

Solution:
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
1 2
2
1
1
2
4
1 1 4
3 3
( )
( 5 4) 1 4 1 4
3 3
1 1
1 4 3
3 3
4 1
1 4 3
1 1
( )
1 4
1 1
( )
1 4
s
s
t t
a a
F s
s s s s s s
a s
s s
a s
s s
F s
s s
f t e e
s s
=
=

= = = +
+ + + + + +

= + = =

+ +


= + = =

+ +

=
+ +

= + =
+ +
L L



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97
Problem 6.2
Derive the inverse Laplace transform of the following equation:
2
( 6)
( )
( 5 6)
s
F s
s s s
+
=
+ +


Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.5, 6.6

Solution:

( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
2
3 1 2
1
0
2
2
3
3
1 2
( 6) ( 6)
( )
( 5 6) ( 5) 3
2 3
6 6
1
2 3 6
6 4
2 2
2 3 2
6 3
3 1
2 3 3 1
1 2 1
( )
2 3
1 2 1
( ) ( )
2 3
s
s
s
s s
F s
s s s s s s
a a a
s s s
s
a s
s s s
s
a s
s s s
s
a s
s s s
F s
s s s
f t u t e
s s s
=
=
=

+ +
= =
+ + + +
= + +
+ +

+
= = =

+ +


+
= + = =

+ +


+
= + = =

+ +

= + +
+ +

= + + =

+ +

L
3 t t
e

+

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98
Problem 6.3
Derive the inverse Laplace transform of the following equation:
2
1
( )
( 1) ( 2)
F s
s s
=
+ +


Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.5, 6.6

Solution:

( )
( )
2 1 1
2 2
2
2 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
2
2
1
2
1
( )
( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( 1) ( 2)
1
1 1
( 1) ( 2)
1 1
1
( 2) ( 2)
1
2 1
( 1) ( 2)
1 1 1
( )
( 1) ( 1) ( 2)
1 1 1
( )
( 1) ( 1) ( 2)
s
s
s
b b a
F s
s s s s s
b s
s s
d
b
ds s s
a s
s s
F s
s s s
f t t
s s s
=
=
=

= = + +
+ + + + +

= + =

+ +


= = =

+ +


= + =

+ +

= +
+ + +

= + =

+ + +

L ( )
2
1
t t
e e

+

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99
Problem 6.4
Derive the inverse Laplace transform of the following equation:
3
10
( )
( 4)( 2)
F s
s s
=
+ +


Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.5-6.6

Solution:

( )
( )
( )
( )
3 2 1 1
3 3 2
3
3 3
2
3
2 2 3
2 2
2
2
1 2 2
2
2
10
( )
( 4)( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 4)
10
2 5
( 4)( 2)
10 10 10 10
2 2.5
( 4)( 2) 4 4
4
1 10 1 10
2 4 2
4
s
s s
s
s
s
b b b a
F s
s s s s s s
b s
s s
d d
b s
ds s s ds s
s
d d
b
ds s ds
s
=
= =
=
=
=
= = + + +
+ + + + + +

= + =

+ +


= + = = = =

+ + +
+


= =

+
+
( )
3
2
1 3
4
3 2
1 2 2 4
3 2
1 20 5
2( 4) 4
10 5
4
( 4)( 2) 4
5 5 5 5
( )
( 2) 2( 2) 4( 2) 4( 4)
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
( )
( 2) 2( 2) 4( 2) 4( 4) 2 2 4 4
s
s
t t
s
a s
s s
F s
s s s s
f t t t e e
s s s s
=
=

= =
+

= + =

+ +

= +
+ + + +


= + = +

+ + + +


L

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100
Problem 6.5
Simplify the block diagram of Figure P.6.5.
+
-
A
G
1
H
3
H
1
G
2 +
-
H
2
+
-
B

Figure P.6.5

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.8.

Solution:

The following sequence is used to simplify the block diagram:

+
-
A
G
1
H
3
H
1
G
2
H
2
/G1
+
-
B
+
-


+
-
A
H
3
G
2
H
2
/G1
+
-
B
1
1 1
1
G
G H +


+
-
A
H
3
H
2
/G1
+
-
B
1 2
1 1
1
GG
G H +


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101

A
H
3
+
-
B
1 2
1 1 2 2
1
GG
G H G H + +


A
B
1 2
1 1 2 2 1 2 3
1
GG
G H G H GG H + + +

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102
Problem 6.6
Simplify the block diagram of Figure P.6.6.
+
-
G
1
H
1
+
-
G
2
H
2
+
-
H
3
B
A

Figure P.6.6

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.8.

Solution:

The following sequence is used to simplify the block diagram:

+
-
H
3
B
A
1
1 1
1
G
G H +
2
2 2
1
G
G H +


+
-
H
3
B
A
( )( )
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
GG
G H G H + +


+
-
B
A
K


where K is calculated as follows:

( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 1 2 3
1 1 2 2
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
GG
G H G H
GG
K
GG H
G H G H GG H
G H G H
+ +
= =
+ + +
+
+ +


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103
Problem 6.7
Simplify the block diagram of Figure P.6.7.
+
-
G
1
H
1
B
A
+
-
G
2
G
3
G
4
H
3
+
-

Figure P.6.7

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.8.

Solution:

The following sequence is used to simplify the block diagram:

B
A
H
3
+
-
1 2
1 2 1
1
GG
GG H +
3 4
G G +


B
A
H
3
+
-
1 2
1 2 1
1
GG
GG H +
3 4
G G +


+
-
B
A
K

where
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 1
1 2 3 4 3 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 3
1 2 1
1
1
1
1
GG G G
GG G G GG H
K
GG G G H GG H GG G G H
GG H
+
+ +
= =
+ + + +
+
+

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104
Problem 6.8
Write an equation that describes the output of the system of Figure P.6.8.
G
1
H
1
+
+
G
2
+
-
Y U
1
U
2

Figure P.6.8

Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.8.

Solution:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1
1 1 2 2 2
1 2 1
1
1
U YH G U G Y
U G YG H U G Y
U GG YGG H U G Y
U GG U G Y GG H
U GG U G
Y
GG H
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ = +
+
=
+

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105
Problem 6.9
Write the equations that describe the input-output relationships for Figure P.6.9.
G
1
+
+
G
2
+
+
Y
1
U
1
U
2
+
U
3
Y
2
H
1 H
2

Figure P.6.9

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.8.

Solution:

( )
1 1 2 2 2 1
3 1 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 1
3 2 1 1 2 1 2
U G U Y H Y
U U G H G Y
U G U Y H Y
U G U GG H Y
+ + =

+ =

+ + =

+ =



Substitute Y
2
into Y
1
to get:

1 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 2
2 3 2 1 1 2 1
1
1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2
2
2 1 2 1 2
3
1
0
Y U G U U G H U GG H H
Y U G U GG H
U
Y G GG H H G H
U
Y GG H G
U
= + + +

= +


+

=








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106
Problem 6.10
Sketch the root locus for the following:

( 1)( 3)( 4)
K
GH
s s s s
=
+ + +


Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13.

Solution:

Poles are at 0, 1, 3, 4 p p p p = = = =
Number of asymptotes: 4 0 4 = = , angles of asymptotes: 45, 135, 225, 315.
Asymptotic center:
( ) 0 1 3 4 0
2
4
A
p Z


= = =



The root locus, as drawn by MATLAB, is shown:


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107
Problem 6.11
Sketch the root locus for the following:

( 6)
( 4)
K s
GH
s s
+
=
+


Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13.

Solution:

Roots are at 6, 0, 4 z p p = = =
Number of asymptotes: 2 1 1 = = , angles of asymptote: 180.

The root locus, as drawn by MATLAB, is shown:



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108
Problem 6.12
Sketch the root locus for the following:

( 6)
( 10 10)( 10 10)( 12)
K s
GH
s s j s j s
+
=
+ + + +


Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13.

Solution:

Roots are at 6, 0, 10 10, 12 z p p j p = = = =
Number of asymptotes: 4 1 3 = = , angles of asymptotes: 60, 180, 300.
Asymptotic center:
( ) 0 10 10 12 ( 6)
6.5
4
A
p Z


= = =



The root locus, as drawn by MATLAB, is shown:



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109
Problem 6.13
For the system of Problem 6.10, assume that two of the roots are chosen at
5 2.55 s j = . Find the systems gain, damping ratio, and natural frequency. Show that
the angle criterion is met. Can you determine from the root locus whether or not the
system is stable?

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13, 6.14.

Solution:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
5 2.55 4 2.55 2 2.55 1 2.55 236
2.55
180 tan 180 27 153
5
2.55
180 tan 180 32.52 147.48
4
2.55
180 tan 180 51.9 128.1
2
2.55
180 tan 180 68.59 111.4
1
t
i
i
p
z
M
K
M

= = + + + + =

= = =



= = =



= = =



= = =

153 147.48 128.1 111.4 540 3 180


otal
= + + + = =


It meets the criterion.

1
2.55
cos cos tan 0.891
5



= = =




2 2
1 0.891 1 0.891
5 2.55
5.61 /sec
n n n n
n
s j j
j
rad

= =
=
=


The root have to potential to fall on the right side, and therefore, may become unstable..

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110

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111
Problem 6.14
For the system of Problem 6.10, assume that two of the roots are chosen at
4 1.24 s j = . Find the systems gain, damping ratio, and natural frequency.

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13,6.14

Solution:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 1.24 3 1.24 1 1.24 1.24 26.85
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
= = + + + =



1
1.24
cos cos tan 0.955
4



= = =




2 2
1 0.891 1 0.955
4 1.24
4.19 /sec
n n n n
n
s j j
j
rad

= =
=
=


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112
Problem 6.15
For the system of Problem 6.11, assume that the roots are chosen at 3 1.73 s j = . Find
the systems gain, damping ratio, and natural frequency. Show that the angle criterion is
met. Can you determine whether or not the system may become unstable as the gain
changes?

Estimated student time to complete: 30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.13, 6.14.

Solution:

2 2 2 2
2 2
3 1.73 1 1.73
2
3 1.73
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+ +
= = =
+


1
1.73
cos cos tan 0.866
3



= = =




2 2
1 0.866 1 0.866
3 1.73
3.46 /sec
n n n n
n
s j j
j
rad

= =
=
=


0
4
6
1
1
1
1.73
180 tan 180 30 150
3
1.73
180 tan 60
1
1.73
tan 30
3
150 60 30 180
p
p
z
total


= = =



= =



= =


= + =



It meets the criterion.

The roots are always on the left side, and therefore, the system is always stable.

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113

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114
Problem 6.16
For the system of Problem 6.11, find the roots, the gain, and the steady-state error for a
settling time of less that 1 second and overshoot of 4% or less.

Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.14

Solution:

( 6)
( 4)
K s
GH
s s
+
=
+


By trial and error,

( )
2
/ 1
1
% 100% 4% 0.715,
cos 44.4
OS e

= =
= =



The chosen roots must be below this value, therefore choose 4 2.83 s j =
4
( ) 4
1
n
approximate = =
System type: 1 0
ss
E =
( )( )
2 2 2
2 2
4.9 2.83
4 2.83 2.83
4
3.465
2 2.83
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+
= = = =
+


1
2.83
tan 35.28
4


= =


cos 0.816
actual
= =

The root locus, as drawn by MATLAB is shown:


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115
Problem 6.17
For the following system, find the roots, the gain, and steady-state error for the fastest
response and a settling time of less than 2 seconds and an overshoot of less than 4%.

( 1)( 3)
K
GH
s s
=
+ +


Estimated student time to complete: 30-40 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.14

Solution:
For root locus:
1 3
2 and 90
2
A A


= = =


For overshoot of 4%:
( )
2
/ 1
% 100% 4% 0.72 OS e


= =

1
4 4
cos 44 and 2
2
s
n
T

= = = = =


The root locus and the limitations are shown:


Choose poles for fastest response: tan44 1.93
2
l
l = =


Therefore: 2 1.93 s j =

2 2 2 2
(3 2) 1.93 (1 2) 1.93
4.72
1
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+ +
= = =


System type: 0
( )( )
0 0
4.72
lim ( ) lim 1.57
1 3
P
s s
K G s
s s

= = =
+ +


1
0.39
1 1.57
ss
E = =
+


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116
Problem 6.18
For the system of problem 6.17, select the locations and the proportional and integral
gains to change it to a proportional-plus-integral system with zero steady-state error.


Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.15

Solution:

We add 0 s = at the origin and a zero near it (location to be found). Therefore,

( ) ( )
( )( )
0.1
( 1)( 3) 1 3
K s z K s
GH
s s s s s s
+ +
= =
+ + + +

Assume 0.73 = for 4% OS even though the system is not second-order (this is close
enough). Therefore,

43 =

approximately at 2 1.87 s j = .

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 1.87 1 1.87 1 1.87
4.6
1.9 1.87
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+ + +
= = =
+



The gain can be calculated as:

( ) 4.6 0.1
4.6 and 0.46
I
P
P P I
P I
K
K s
s K K s K
K
s s s
K K

+

+
+

= = =
= =


Since this is Type-1, E
ss
=0.

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117
Problem 6.19
For the system of Problem 6.17, we would like to improve the settling time to 1 second
by adding a zero to the system, therefore a proportional-plus-derivative system. Find a
proper location for the zero and the loop gain.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.16

Solution:

Although not accurate, assume that
4
4
1
= = . Therefore, we arbitrarily choose the poles
to be at 4 3.85 s j = .

Angle deficiency:

1
1
1
3
3.85
180 tan 127.9
3
3.85
180 tan 104.6
1
127.9 104.6 180 52.5
3.85
tan52.5 6.95
4
z
z
z

= =
= =
= + =
= =


The loop gain is:

2 2 2 2
2 2
3 3.85 1 3.85
4
2.95 3.85
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+ +
= = =
+



( )
( )( )
4 6.95
1 3
z
GH
s s
+
=
+ +

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118
Problem 6.20
For the system of problem 6.19, add an integrator to the system to make it into a PID
system in order to achieve a zero steady-state error. Find the location of an additional
zero and proportional, derivative, and integral gains.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 6.17

Solution:

Assume:
( )( )
( )( )
6.95
1 3
K s s z
GH
s s s
+ +
=
+ +

Magnitude criterion:

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
4 3.85 3 3.85 1 3.85
4.06
2.95 3.85 3.9 3.85
i
i
p
z
M
K
M
+ + +
= = =
+ +


2
2
4.06( 6.95)( 0.1) 4.06( 7.05 0.695)
P I
D
D D a I
P D
K K
K s s
K K V K
G K K s
E s s
s s s s
s s

+ +


= = + + =
+ + + +
= =

4.06
4.06
7.05 28.6
2.82
0.695
D
D
P
P
D
I
I
D
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K


= =


=


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119
CHAPTER SEVEN


Problem 7.1
A motor with a rotor inertia of 0.030 Kgm
2
and maximum torque of 12 Nm is connected
to a uniformly distributed arm with a concentrated mass at its end, as shown in Figure
P.7.1. Ignoring the inertia of a pair of reduction gears and viscous friction in the system,
calculate the total inertia felt by the motor and the maximum angular acceleration it can
develop if the gear ratio is a) 5, b) 50, c) 100. Compare the results.

I
m
T
m
N
T
l
x
y
z
m=3Kg
0.5m
m=3Kg

Figure P.7.1.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.2

Solution:
2 2 2 2 2
1 1
(3)(0.5) (3)(0.5) 1 Kgm
3 3
load arm mass
I m l m l = + = + =

a) For N =5,
2
2
2 max
max
1 1
0.03 =0.07 Kgm
25
12
171 /
0.07
total motor load
total
I I I
N
T
r s
I


= + = +

= = =



b) For N =50,
2
2
2 max
max
1 1
0.03 =0.0304 Kgm
2500
12
395 /
0.0304
total motor load
total
I I I
N
T
r s
I


= + = +

= = =


c) For N =100,
2
2
2 max
max
1 1
0.03 =0.0301 Kgm
10000
12
399 /
0.0301
total motor load
total
I I I
N
T
r s
I


= + = +

= = =


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120
Problem 7.2
Repeat Problem 1, but assume that the two gears have 0.002 Kgm
2
and 0.005 Kgm
2

inertias respectively.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.2

Solution:

2 2 2 2 2
1 1
(3)(0.5) (3)(0.5) 1 Kgm
3 3
load arm mass
I m l m l = + = + =
2
2 2 2 2
0.005
0.002
1 0.005 1 1.005
0.03 0.002 0.032
gears
total motor gears load
I
N
I I I I
N N N N
= +

= + + = + + + = +




a) For N =5,
2
2 max
max
1.005
0.032 =0.0722 Kgm
25
12
166 /
0.0722
total
total
I
T
r s
I

= +

= = =



b) For N =50,
2
2 max
max
1.005
0.032 0.0324 Kgm
2500
12
370 /
0.0324
total
total
I
T
r s
I

= + =

= = =



c) For N =100,
2
2 max
max
1.005
0.032 =0.0321 Kgm
10,000
12
374 /
0.0321
total
total
I
T
r s
I

= +

= = =


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121
Problem 7.3
The three-axis robot shown in Figure P.7.3. is powered by geared servomotors attached to
the joints by worm gears. Each link is 22 cm long, made of hollow aluminum bars, each
weighing 0.5 Kg. The center of mass of the second motor is 20 cm from the center of
rotation. The gear ratio is 1/3 in the servomotor and 1/5 in the worm gear set. The worst
case scenario for the elbow joint is when the arm is fully extended, as shown. Calculate
the torque needed to accelerate both arms together, fully extended, at a rate of 90 rad/s
2
.
Assume the inertias of the worm gears are negligible.

Wormgear
N=5
Motors
m
2
=0.5 Kg
m
4
=0.5 Kg
m
3
=0.5 Kg
I
1
=0.01 Kgm2
N=3

Figure P.7.3.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.2

Solution:

Total gear ratio 5 3 15 N = =
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
1 2 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
1
1
0.01 2 2
3
1 1
0.01 1 0.44 0.5 0.2 0.01038
3 15
0.01038 90 0.934
total rotor arm motor
arm motor motor
I I I I
N
m l m l
T I Nm
+
= + +

= + +



= + + =


= = =


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122
Problem 7.4
Repeat Problem 3, but suppose the maximum torque this motor can provide is 0.9 Nm.
Therefore, a new motor must be picked. Two other motors are available, one with the
inertia of 0.009 Kgm
2
and torque of 0.85 Nm, one with inertia of 0.012 Kgm
2
and torque
of 1 Nm. Which one would you use?

Estimated student time to complete:15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.2.

Solution:

For 5 3 15 N = = ,

For case 1:
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
1 2 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
1
1
0.009 2 2
3
1 1
0.009 1 0.44 0.5 0.2 0.00938
3 15
0.00938 90 0.844
total rotor arm motor
arm motor motor
I I I I
N
m l m l
T I Nm
+
= + +

= + +



= + + =


= = =



For case 2:

( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
1 2 2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
1
1
0.012 2 2
3
1 1
0.009 1 0.44 0.5 0.2 0.01238
3 15
0.01238 90 1.114
total rotor arm motor
arm motor motor
I I I I
N
m l m l
T I Nm
+
= + +

= + +



= + + =


= = =



The smaller motor is better.

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123
Problem 7.5
Estimate how much the torque/inertia ratio of a disk motor might be if it can go from zero
to 2000 rpm in one millisecond, and compare it to the motor of Problem 1.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.2

Solution:

2
2 2 1
2 1
2000 2
209.44 /sec
60
209.44 0
209440 /sec
0.001
rad
rad
t t

= =

= = =


The torque/inertia ratio is:

209440
T
T I
I
= = =


For the motor of Problem 1:

2
12
400 /sec
0.03
T
T I rad
I
= = =


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124
Problem 7.6
Using a timer circuit, design a pulse generating circuit that will deliver a range of 5-500
pulses per second to a stepper motor driver.

Estimated student time to complete:15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.6.7.

Solution:

We will pick a 50% duty cycle for each signal. Therefore:

1
2
low high total
t t t = =

total
t ranges between 0.002 and 0.2 seconds. Therefore 0.001
low
t = sec or 0.1
low
t = sec.

Pick
2
0.1 C F = . Therefore:

( )
( )
2 2
6
2 2
6
2 2
0.693 ( )
0.001 0.693 0.1 10 14,430
0.1 0.693 0.1 10 1,443,000
low
t C R
R R
R R

=
= =
= =

Therefore, a potentiometer with
2
1.5 R M = enables us to achieve the desired values.
For 50% duty cycle, as shown above,

2 2 2 2 1 3 4
0.693 ( ) 0.693 ( ) 0
low high
H H
t t
C R C R R R R R R
=
= + = + + =


Pick
1 3 4
1 R R R K = = = . Therefore:

2
1
2
3
4
0.1
1
1.5
1
1
C F
R K
R M
R K
R K
=



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125
Problem 7.7
Calculate the gear ratio for a Harmonic drive if N
L
=100, N
F
=95, N
2
=90, N
3
=95.

Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.11

Solution:

From Equation 7.25:

( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
2 3
2
90 100 95 95
1
90 100 360
L F L
A L
N N N N
e
N N


= = = =

The gear ratio between the Arm and the Last gear (with Arm as input) is:

360
A
L

=

The minus sign indicates that the input (Arm) and the output (Last) gears rotate in
opposite directions.

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126
Problem 7.8
Write a program to generate a variable pulse stream to drive a motor with pulse-width-
modulated voltages of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 volts for a 5 volt input.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.7.

Solution:

The accuracy with which this program will work depends on the processing speed of the
microprocessor. It also depends on the level of programming language and how
efficiently it is written. We assume that the processor can accept and run a compiled C
program, and that it is fast enough such that the execution of commands will not
negatively affect the accuracy of the output timing. Since only five distinct output
voltages of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 volts are desired, we only need to generate 5 variations in the
timing loops. We assume the output level will be indicated by an input port. Therefore, if
input port 1 is high, the desired output level is 1 volts, etc.

The following program is written in C language for execution by a Mini-Board
microprocessor. It is the essentials of the program that are important here, not the actual
program and the way it is written. This program must be modified for use for any other
specific microprocessor with its own unique programming syntax and requirements.

In this program, the command motor(1,n) indicates that the output port 1 is turned on at
n
15
CC
V . If the input voltage is 5 volts, for n=15, the output is 5 volts, etc. The command
msleep(m) indicates a stop in execution for m milliseconds. Off(1) means output port
1 is turned off.


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128
Problem 7.9
Write a program to generate a sinusoidal pulse-width-modulated output for a constant
input voltage.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 7.7.

Solution:

The accuracy with which this program will work depends on the processing speed of the
microprocessor. It also depends on the level of programming language and how
efficiently it is written. We assume that the processor can accept and run a compiled C
program, and that it is fast enough such that the execution of commands will not
negatively affect the accuracy of the output timing. Since a sinusoidal out put is desired
for a 5 volt input voltage, we need to generate a variable control timing for the pulse
width modulation. We calculate the sine value for each degree between zero and 90
degrees. This allows for approximately 10 pulses per second.

The following program is written in C language for execution by a Mini-Board
microprocessor. It is the essentials of the program that are important here, not the actual
program and the way it is written. This program must be modified for use for any other
specific microprocessor with its own unique programming syntax and requirements.

Since Mini-Board can generate voltages in both polarities, the program can generate a
full sine wave. The program must be modified accordingly if the microprocessor cannot
do this.

In this program, the command motor(1,n) indicates that the output port 1 is turned on at
n
15
CC
V . If the input voltage is 5 volts, for n=15, the output is 5 volts, etc. The command
msleep(m) indicates a stop in execution for m milliseconds. Off(1) means output port
1 is turned off.

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130
Problem 7.10
If you have access to a microprocessor and electronic components such as transistors,
make an H-bridge and write a control program to drive a motor in either direction or to
brake it. Be mindful of the problems associated with an H-bridges transistors turning on
and off at inappropriate times.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s)

Solution:

The following program is written in C language for execution by a Mini-Board
microprocessor. It is the essentials of the program that are important here, not the actual
program and the way it is written. This program must be modified for use for any other
specific microprocessor with its own unique programming syntax and requirements.

In this program, the command motor(1,n) indicates that the output port 1 is turned on at
n
15
CC
V . If the input voltage is 5 volts, for n=15, the output is 5 volts, etc. The command
msleep(m) indicates a stop in execution for m milliseconds. Off(1) means output port
1 is turned off.

It is assumed that an input to the microprocessor equal to 1 indicates rotation in the CCW
direction, 2 indicates CW rotation, and a 0 means the motor should be braked.

/************************************************************/
/* H-Bridge Controller */
/************************************************************/
.
.
main( )
{
int direction
while(1)
{direction =digital(0); /* motor rotation direction input */
if (direction ==1) {msleep (1); /* CCW rotation */
motor (1,15); motor (4,15);}
off (2); off (3);

if (direction ==2) {msleep (1); /* CW rotation */
motor (2,15); motor (3,15);}
off (1); off (4);

if (direction ==0) {msleep (1); /* brake the motor */
motor (3,15); motor (4,15);}
off (1); off (2); }}

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131
CHAPTER EIGHT

There are no problems in Chapter 8.

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132
CHAPTER NINE

Problem 9.1
Calculate the necessary memory requirement for a still color image from a camera with
10 megapixels at:
8-bits per pixel (256 levels)
16-bits per pixel (65536 levels)

Estimated student time to complete: 5 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.5

Solution:

For an 8-bit per pixel system, each pixel requires 1 byte. The total memory needed is 10
megabytes.

For a 16-bit per channel system, each pixel requires 2 bytes. The total memory needed is
20 megabytes.

The assumption here is that the pixel count given is the total number for all three colors.
The actual memory is greatly influenced by the format in which the image is saved. A
bitmap image needs much more memory than J PEG.

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133
Problem 9.2
Consider the pixels of an image, with values as shown in Figure P.9.2, as well as a
convolution mask with the given values. Calculate the new values for the given pixels.

4 7 1 8
3 2 6 6 1 0 1
5 3 2 3 1 1 1
8 6 5 9 1 0 1

Figure P.9.2

Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:

4 7 1 8
3 3.3 5 6
5 4.6 4.4 3
8 6 5 9



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134
Problem 9.3
Consider the pixels of an image, with values as shown in Figure P.9.3, as well as a
convolution mask with the given values. Calculate the new values for the given pixels.
Substitute 0 for negative grey levels. What conclusion can you make from the result?

5 5 5 7 7 8
5 5 5 8 8 9 1 0 1
10 10 10 10 10 10 0 -4 0
5 5 5 9 9 8 1 0 1
8 8 8 9 9 10

Figure P.9.3

Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10.

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:

5 5 5 7 7 8
5 10 12 0 3 9
10 0 0 0 0 10
5 16 17 1 3 8
8 8 8 9 9 10


This can be an indication of an edge.

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135
Problem 9.4
Repeat Problem 9.3, but substitute the absolute value of negative grey levels. What
conclusion can you make from the result?

Estimated student time to complete: 5 -10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:

5 5 5 7 7 8
5 10 12 0 3 9
10 20 13 13 6 10
5 16 17 1 3 8
8 8 8 9 9 10

When absolute values of negative pixels are shown, edges are no longer discernable.

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136
Problem 9.5
Repeat Problem 9.3, but apply the mask of Figure P.9.5 and compare your results with
Problem 9.3. Which one is better?

-1 0 -1
0 4 0
-1 0 -1
Figure P.9.5

Estimated student time to complete: 5 -10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:


5 5 5 7 7 8
5 0 0 0 0 9
10 20 13 13 6 10
5 0 0 0 0 8
8 8 8 9 9 10

This mask also shows the edge, but unlike the one in problem 9.3., the pixels are brighter
than the neighboring pixels.

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137
Problem 9.6
Repeat Problem 9.3, but apply the mask of Figure P.9.6 and compare your results with
Problem 9.3. Which one is better?

0 1 0
1 -4 1
0 1 0
Figure P.9.6

Estimated student time to complete: 5 -10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s)9.10

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:


5 5 5 7 7 8
5 5 8 0 2 9
10 0 0 0 0 10
5 8 12 0 0 8
8 8 8 9 9 10

At least for this image, the effect is similar to the mask in problem 9.3.

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138
Problem 9.7
Repeat Problem 9.3, but apply the mask of Figure P.9.7 and compare your results with
Problem 9.3. Which one is better?

1 1 1
1 -8 1
1 1 1
Figure P.9.7

Estimated student time to complete: 5 -10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:


5 5 5 7 7 8
5 15 20 0 5 9
10 0 0 0 0 10
5 24 29 0 3 8
8 8 8 9 9 10

At least for this image, the effect is similar to Problem 9.3, but darker.

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139

Problem 9.8
An image is represented by values shown below.
a) Find the value of pixel 2c when mask 1 is applied.
b) Find the value of pixel 3b when mask 2 is applied.
c) Find the values of pixels 2b and 3c when a 3 3 median filter is applied.
d) Find the area of the major object that results when a threshold of 4.5 is applied
based on a +4-connectivity (start at the first on-pixel).


a b c d e

1 4 9 6 2 6 1 1 1 0 1 0
2 4 3 7 4 6 1 1 1 1 -4 1
3 6 2 6 5 3 1 1 1 0 1 0
4 1 6 5 9 2 Mask 1 Mask 2
5 2 8 4 4 7

Figure P.9.8.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 -15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10 and 9.17.

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:

a) For 2c:
R =(91 +61 +21 +31 +71 +41 +21 +61 +51) / 9 =4.9 (or 5)

b) For 3b:
R =(40 +31 +70 +61 +2-4 +61 +10 +61 +50) =13

c) For 2b: 2,3,4,4,6,6,6,7,9. The median is 6.
For 3c: 2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,9. The median is 5.

d) The resulting image after the application of the threshold is:


a b c d e
1 X X X
2 X X
3 X X X
4 X X X
5 X X

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140

Applying the +4 connectivity rule starting at the first on-pixel results in: 1b, 1c, 2c, 3c,
3d, 4c, 4d, 4b, 5b, for a total of 9 pixels.

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141

Problem 9.9
An image is represented by values shown below.
a. Find the value of pixel 3b when mask 1 is applied.
b. Find the values of pixels 2b, 2c, 2d when mask 2 is applied.
c. Find the value of pixel 3c when a 5 5 median filter is applied.
d. Find the area of the major object that results when a threshold of 4.5 is applied
based on a 4-connectivity (start at the first on-pixel).


a b c d e

1 8 9 6 2 5 0 1 0 1 1 1
2 4 6 2 4 6 1 4 1 -2 -2 -2
3 6 7 5 6 5 0 1 0 1 1 1
4 1
10
5 9 4 Mask 1
Mask 2

5 2 8 4 3 2

Figure P.9.9.

Estimated student time to complete: 10 -15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10 and 9.17.

Solution:

The mask will only affect the middle pixels. The remaining pixels on the perimeter will
not be affected. Depending on how a new image is formatted, the pixels on the perimeter
may be set to zero or the current values.

The new values for the image, assuming that the old file is copied into a new file, are:

a) For 3b:
R =(40 +61 +20 +61 +74 +51 +10 +101 +50)/8 =6.875 (or 7)

b) For 2b:
R =(81 +91 +61 +4-2 +6-2 +2-2 +61 +71 +51) =17

For 2c:
R =(91 +61 +21 +6-2 +2-2 +4-2 +71 +51 +61) =11

For 2d:
R =(61 +21 +51 +2-2 +4-2 +6-2 +51 +61 +51) =5

c) For 3c: 1,2,2,2,2,3,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,6,6,6,6,6,7,8,8,9,9,10. The median is 5.


d) The resulting image after the application of the threshold is:


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142

a b c d e
1 X X X X
2 X X
3 X X X X X
4 X X X
5 X

Applying the 4 connectivity rule starting at the first on-pixel results in: 1a, 2b, 3c, 1c,
3a, 4d, 4b, 3e, for a total of 8 pixels.

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143
Problem 9.10
Write a computer program for the application of a 33 averaging convolution mask unto
a 1515 image. Refer to the note on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on the expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.

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144
Problem 9.11
Write a computer program for the application of a 55 averaging convolution mask unto
a 1515 image. Refer to the note on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on the expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.


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145
Problem 9.12
Write a computer program for the application of a 33 high pass convolution mask unto
a 1515 image for edge detection. Refer to the note on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.



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146
Problem 9.13
Write a computer program for the application of an nn convolution mask unto a kk
image. Refer to the note on page 415 for more information. You should write the routine
such that the user can choose the size of the mask and the values of each mask cell
individually.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.10

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.


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148
Problem 9.14
Write a computer program that will perform the Left-Right search routine for a 1515
image. Refer to the note on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.13

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.


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150
Problem 9.15
Using the Left-Right search technique, find the outer edge of the object in Figure P.9.15:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

Figure P.9.15

Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.13

Solution:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

The edge consists of: 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g, 2h, 2i, 2j, 2k, 3k, 4k, 5j, 6j, 7k, 7j, 8i, 9h, 10h,
11h, 12h, 12g, 12f, 11f, 10g, 9g, 8f, 8e, 7e, 7d, 7c, 6b, 5b, 4b, 4c, 3c.

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151
Problem 9.16
The x and y coordinates of 5 points are given as (2.5, 0), (4,2), (5,4), (7,6), and (8.5,8).
Using the Hough transform, determine which of these points form a line and find its slope
and intercept.

Estimated student time to complete: 20-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.15.

Solution:

y x x,y m,c
0 2.5 0=2.5m+c c= -2.5m+0
2 4 2=4m+c c= -4m+2
4 5 4=5m+c c= -5m+4
6 7 6=7m+c c= -7m+6
8 8.5 8=8.5m+c c= -8.5m+8
The following graph shows the lines and where they intersect. Line 3 (for point 5,4) does
not intersect the remaining lines.

The approximate slope and intercept of the line on which the other four points lay are 1.4
and -3.5.

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153
Problem 9.17
Write a computer program that will perform a region growing operation based on +4
connectivity. The routine should start at the 1,1 corner pixel, search for a nucleus, grow a
region with a chosen index number, and after finishing that region, must continue
searching for another nuclei until all object pixels have been checked. Refer to the note
on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.17

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.

In this program, when a nucleus is found, all the pixels connected to it based on a +4-
connectivity that are on (have a value in them and therefore, are part of the image not
the background) are placed in a stack by changing the value of the cell form zero to 1 in
an array of 256x256. The cells value is later checked until all are found and the cells are
all zero. Each corresponding pixels value is changed from 1 to the region number. At the
end of execution, the original image is changed to as many regions as necessary. Since
there will be no cells (pixels) left with a value of 1, execution ends. All segments will be
2 and larger in value.


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155
Problem 9.18
Write a computer program that will perform a region growing operation based on 4
connectivity. The routine should start at the 1,1 corner pixel, search for a nucleus, grow a
region with a chosen index number, and after finishing that region, must continue
searching for another nuclei until all object pixels have been checked. Refer to the note
on page 415 for more information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise.
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.17

Solution:

Please see the solution for Problem 9.17. The program for growing a region based on 4
connectivity is very similar to that program, except that the search will follow the 4
sequence given in Equation 9.7.

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156
Problem 9.19
Using +4 connectivity logic and starting from 1a pixel, write the sequence of pixels in
correct order that will be detected by a region growing routine for the object in Figure
P.9.19:
1
3
4
+4-connectivity
2
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
f g h a b c d e

Figure P.9.19

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.17

Solution:

The sequence of pixels detected is: 2d, 3d, 3e, 3f, 4e, 3g, 4f, 5e, 5f, 5d, 5g, 6d, 6c, 7c, 7b,
8b.

The remaining pixels are not connected to this region and will not be detected.

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157

Problem 9.20
Using 4 connectivity logic and starting from 1a pixel, write the sequence of pixels in
correct order that will be detected by a region growing routine for the object in Figure
P.9.20:
1
3
4
x4-connectivity
2
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
f g h a b c d e

Figure P.9.20

Estimated student time to complete: 10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.17

Solution:

The sequence of pixels detected is: 2c, 3d, 4e, 4c, 5f, 5d, 3f, 4b, 6g, 6c, 7b.

The remaining pixels are not connected to this region and will not be detected.


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158

Problem 9.21
Find the union between the two objects in Figure P.9.21.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Figure P.9.21

Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.18

Solution:

The union is shown:

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159

Problem 9.22
Apply a single-pixel erosion based on 8-connectivity on the image of Figure P.9.22.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

Figure P.9.22

Estimated student time to complete: 10-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.18

Solution:

The result is shown:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

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160

Problem 9.23
Apply a one-pixel dilation to the result of Problem 9.22 and compare your result to
Figure P.9.22.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-25 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s)9.18

Solution:

The result is shown. As you notice, the image is different from the original.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

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161

Problem 9.24
Apply an open operation to Figure P.9.24.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

Figure P.9.24

Estimated student time to complete: 10-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.18

Solution:

The result is shown:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g h i j k l m a b c d e f g

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162

Problem 9.25
Apply a close operation to Figure P.9.24.

Estimated student time to complete: 10-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.18

Solution:

The result is shown:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

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163

Problem 9.26
Apply a skeletonization operation to Figure P.9.26.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

Figure P.9.26

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.18

Solution:

The result is shown:
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1
h i j k l m a b c d e f g

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164

Problem 9.27
Write a computer program in which different moments of an object in an image can be
calculated. The program should ask you for moment indices. The results may be reported
to you in a new file, or may be stored in memory. Refer to the note on page 415 for more
information.

Estimated student time to complete: Variable depending on expertise
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.21.

Solution:

The following program is written in C language. It is the essentials of the programming
that are important here, not the syntax. You may use the proper syntax for the program
you are using. This program may be written in countless other languages, both graphical
and scientific.

In this program, the assumption is that the image input file is read from a data file or it is
entered after initializing the array.


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165

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166
Problem 9.28
Calculate the
0,2
M moment for the result of Problem 9.8d based on +4-connectivity.

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.21.

Solution:

The resulting image after the application of the threshold is:


a b c d e
1 X X X
2 X X
3 X X X
4 X X X
5 X X

Applying the +4 connectivity rule starting at the first on-pixel results in the following
area:



a b c d e
1 X X
2
X
3 X X
4
X X X
5 X

x
y

The moment, calculated relative to the first row and column of pixels with whole-number
distances is:

0 2 2 2 2 2 2
0,2
1(1) 2(2) 3(3) 1(4) 52 M x y y = = = + + + =


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167
Problem 9.29
For the binary image of a key in Figure P.9.29, calculate the following:
Perimeter, based on the Left-Right search technique.
Thinness, based on
2
P
Area
.
Center of gravity
Moment
0,1
M about the origin (pixel 1,1) and about the lowest pixel of a rectangular
box around the key (2,2).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y

Figure P.9.29

Estimated student time to complete: 15-20 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.13, 9.21.

Solution:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y

The left-right search result is shown. The perimeter based on the pixels on the search line
is P =23.

The area may be calculated by
0,0
M , by region growing or by counting.

Thinness:
2 2
23
17
31
P
Area
= =

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168
The 1
st
moments are:

1 0
1,0
0 1
0,1
2(1) 3(2) 4(3) 4(4) 5(5) 5(6) 5(7) 3(8) 150
2(1) 4(2) 4(3) 5(4) 5(5) 4(6) 4(7) 3(8) 143
M x y x
M x y y
= = = + + + + + + + =
= = = + + + + + + + =




Center of gravity is:
1,0 0,1
0,0 0,0
150 143
4.84 and 4.61
31 31
M M
x y
M M
= = = = = =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y
x'
y'


0 1
0,1
0 1
0,1
@(1,1) 143
@(2,2) 4(1) 4(2) 5(3) 5(4) 4(5) 4(6) 3(7) 112
M x y
M x y
= =
= = + + + + + + =


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169
Problem 9.30
Using moment equations, calculate
0,2
M and
2,0
M about the centroidal axes of the part in
Figure P.9.30.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y

Figure P.9.30

Estimated student time to complete: 20-30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.21

Solution:

The moment values for the image are:

0 0
0,0
1 0
1,0
0 1
0,1
1,0 0,1
0,0 0,0
2
2 0 2 2 2 2
2,0
16(1) 16
1(2) 3(3) 3(4) 4(5) 2(6) 3(7) 76
3(2) 2(3) 4(4) 3(5) 3(6) 1(7) 68
76 68
4.75 and 4.25
16 16
1(2) 3(3) 3(4) 4(5) 2(
M x y
M x y x
M x y y
M M
x y
M M
M x y x
= = =
= = = + + + + + =
= = = + + + + + =
= = = = = =
= = = + + + +

2 2
0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0,2
6) 3(7) 398
3(2) 2(3) 4(4) 3(5) 3(6) 1(7) 326 M x y y
+ =
= = = + + + + + =




The second moments about the centroids can be calculates as follows:

( )
2
2
2,0 2,0 0,0
@ 398 16(4.75) 37 M x M M x = = =
2 2
0,2 0,2 0,0
@ ( ) 326 16(4.25) 37 M y M M y = = =

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170
Problem 9.31
Using moment equations, calculate
0,2
M and
2,0
M about the centroidal axes of the part in
Figure P.9.31.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y

Figure P.9.31

Estimated student time to complete:20 -30 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 9.21

Solution:

The moment values for the image are:

0 0
0,0
1 0
1,0
0 1
0,1
1,0 0,1
0,0 0,0
2
2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2
2,0
18(1) 18
3(2) 2(3) 4(4) 4(5) 2(6) 3(7) 81
4(2) 5(3) 5(4) 4(5) 63
81 63
4.5 and 3.5
18 18
3(2) 2(3) 4(4) 4(5) 2(6) 3(7) 41
M x y
M x y x
M x y y
M M
x y
M M
M x y x
= = =
= = = + + + + + =
= = = + + + =
= = = = = =
= = = + + + + + =

0 2 2 2 2 2 2
0,2
3
4(2) 5(3) 5(4) 4(5) 241 M x y y = = = + + + =




The second moments about the centroids can be calculates as follows:

( )
2
2
2,0 2,0 0,0
@ 413 18(4.5) 48.5 M x M M x = = =
2 2
0,2 0,2 0,0
@ ( ) 241 18(3.5) 20.5 M y M M y = = =



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171
CHAPTER TEN

Problem 10.1
Develop a fuzzy inference system for a robot, where the force exerted at the hand and the
velocity of the hand are the inputs and the % power to the actuators is the output.

Estimated student time to complete:--------
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Force; Small, Average, Large
Velocity; Slow, Fast, Fast, Very-Fast

Outputs: Power; Low, Medium, High, Very-High

The fuzzy sets are (arbitrary numbers):


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172




The rules are:

The resulting output is:

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173


Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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174
Problem 10.2
Develop a fuzzy inference system for a washing machine. The inputs are how dirty the
fabrics are and how much clothes are being washed, and the output is the wash time.

Estimated student time to complete:--------
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Dirty; Not-Much, Some, Very.
Clothes; Small, Med, Much, A-Lot.

Outputs: Wash-Time; Five, Ten, Twenty, Thirty

The fuzzy sets are:



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175




The rules are:

The resulting output is:

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176


Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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177
Problem 10.3
Develop a fuzzy inference system for a barbecue. The inputs may be the thickness of the
steak and how cooked or rare it is desired to be. The output may be the temperature of the
flame and/or the time of cooking.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Thickness; See-Through, Average, Hefty
How Cooked; Rare, Medium-Rare, Medium, Well-Done

Outputs: Temp; Low, Medium, High
Time; Three, Five, Eight, Ten

The fuzzy sets are:




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178






The rules are:

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179

The resulting out puts are:

And


Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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180
Problem 10.4
Develop a fuzzy inference system for an automatic gearbox. The inputs are the speed of
the car and the load on the engine, and the output is the gear ratio of the transmission.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Speed; Slow, Medium, Cruise, Fast, Maximum
Load; Low, Average, High

Outputs: Gear-Ratio; Fourth, Third, Second, First

The fuzzy sets are:



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181





The rules are:

The resulting out put is:

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182

Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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183
Problem 10.5
Develop a fuzzy logic system for a vision system in which the inputs are the intensities of
the three colors of red, green, and blue (RGB) in a color image and the output is the
relationship of the combination to the colors of the rainbow.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Color-Red; Red-Off, Red-Medium, Red-High
Color-Green; Green-Off, Green-Medium, Green-High
Color-Blue; Blue-Off, Blue-Medium, Blue-High

Outputs: Color; Black, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, Violet, White

The fuzzy sets are:



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184



The rules are:



The resulting out put is:

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185






Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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186
Problem 10.6
Develop a fuzzy inference system for grading a robotics course. The inputs are your
effort level in the course and your exam grade, and the output is your letter grade.

Estimated student time to complete:
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) 10.3-10.9

Solution:

As in any other design problem, the solution is not unique. For example, different inputs
and outputs may be selected, different fuzzy sets may be chosen, the ranges selected may
be different, and alternate rules may be assigned. Therefore, not only the solution is not
unique, the result will also differ. This suggested solution may only be used as a guide.

This solution is implemented on the MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox. You may use this or any
other available system.

In this solution, the inputs, outputs, the sets, and the rules are as follows:

Inputs: Effort; Low, Medium, High
Exam-Grade; eA, eB, eC, eD, eF

Outputs: Course-Grade; A, B, C, D, F

The fuzzy sets are:




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187



The rules are:

The resulting out put is:

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electronic media system or the Internet without prior expressed consent of the copyright owner.
188


Changing the rules or the membership functions will change this result.

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189
APPENDICES

Problem A.1
Show that the determinant of a matrix can be calculated by picking any row or column.

Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) A.1

Solution:

For an arbitrary matrix:

a b c
A d e f
g h i


=





( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
det
det
det
A a ei fh b di fg c dh eg
aei afh bdi bfg cdh ceg
A d bi ch e ai cg f ah bg
dbi dch eai ecg fah fbg
A b di fg e ai cg h af cd
bdi bfg eai ecg haf hcd
= +
= + +
= +
= + + +
= +
= + + +


They are all the same.

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190

Problem A.2
Calculate the determinant of the following (4 4) matrix.


1 1 0 0
0 1 2 0
3 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
A



=





Estimated student time to complete: 5 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) A.1.

Solution:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
det 111 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 1 0 0 0 1 4 5 A = + + = + =

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191
Problem A.3
Calculate the inverse of the following matrix using method 1:

=
3 0 2
0 1 0
2 1 1
B

Estimated student time to complete: 5-10 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) A.1.

Solution:

1
det 1(3 0) 0 2( 2) 3 4 1
1 0 2
1 1 0
2 0 3
3 3 2
0 1 0
2 2 1
3 3 2
0 1 0
2 2 1
T
B
B
adjB
B

= + = =


=





=





=




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192
Problem A.4
Calculate the inverse of the following matrix using method 2:


1 0 1
0 2 1
3 1 0
C


=





Estimated student time to complete: 10-15 minutes
Prerequisite knowledge required: Text Section(s) A.1.

Solution:

11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
11 31 11
21 31 31
11 21 21
12 32 12
22 32 22
32 12 22
1 0 1 1 0 0
0 2 1 0 1 0
3 1 0 0 0 1
1 1/ 7
2 0 6/ 7
3 0 3/ 7
0 1/7
2 1 3/7
1/ 7 3 0
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x


=



+ = =

+ = =


+ = =

+ = =

+ = =


= + =

31 33 13
23 33 23
13 23 33
1
0 2/ 7
2 0 1/ 7
3 1 2/7
1 1 2
7 7 7
3 3 1
7 7 7
6 1 2
7 7 7
x x x
x x x
x x x
C

+ = =

+ = =


+ = =