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2-1 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.

02/EN February, 2000
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Section 2
Introduction
2-2 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Main characteristics of the Radio Interface
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Cite the type of information carried on the Radio Interface
- Define a physical channel
- List and briefly describe the impairments on the radio
interface
Objectives
2-3 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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TRAFFIC
SIGNALING
NETWORK
Um
Radio Interface
Air
AIR
The Needs
2-4 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Broadcast Signaling
Dedicated Signaling
Signaling Needs
SYS INFO
2-5 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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890 MHz 915 MHz 935 MHz 960 MHz
UPLINK
DOWNLINK
Frequency
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time
4.615 ms
TDMA frame
A physical channel = the recurrence of one TS on a given TDMA frame
0
Time-Slot
frames repeated
continuously
Frequency multiplexing
Time multiplexing
Time and Frequency Multiplexing
2-6 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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M2
M1 d
1
>>d
2
d
2
BTS Frame reference
MSs transmit
Propagation Delay t
p

TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
Bits Overlapping
Propagation Delays
2-7 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Path Loss
- 91.5 dB
Path Loss
- 97.5 dB
Path Loss
- 111.5 dB
1 km
2 km
10 km
EXAMPLE:
• 900 MHz band
• free space
Signal Degradation (1/4)
Loss of Signal Strength
2-8 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Log (distance)
Path loss
Slow fading
Fast fading
S
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(
d
B
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frequency
obstructions
Time or
distance
Signal Degradation (2/4)
Fading
2-9 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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BTS
Mobile
Multipath
propagation
Signal Degradation (3/4)
Multipath Propagation
2-10 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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Transmitted signal
Negative shift
Positive shift
Received signal
Time
Time
Time
Signal Degradation (4/4)

Doppler Shift
2-11 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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1- What are the Radio Interface needs?
2- Which kinds of multiplexing techniques are used in GSM?
3- What is the Time Slot duration?
4- What is a physical channel?
5- What are the impairments encountered by the signal?
Check Your Learning
2-12 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0109 12.02/EN February, 2000
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