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4QD-TEC: PWM speed control

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The circuit uses a 3524, a 'regulating pulse width modulator' so a brief description of the IC seems to be in order. The chip is aimed at power
supplies and it has dual alternating outputs (pins 11 & 14) each of which can be on from 0% to 45% of the cycle time. But these outputs can be
connected together as we have done here. Connected thus the output is a regular pwm output (as described at the top of this page) with a fixed
frequency and an on time variable from 0% to 90%. Which, incidentally, is one of the chip's main shortcomings - a 90% on time means that you can
only get 90% of full speed, not 100%. This is the main reason 4QD stopped using it.

The oscillator frequency is controlled by the resistor and capacitor connected to pins 6 & 7. The oscillator's output, as well as being internally
connected, is available on pin 3. The oscillator output is used to drive a voltage doubler for the hi-side MOSFET gate supply. More about that later.

There is also an on-board regulator: power input is to pin 15 (pin 8 is 0v), pin 16 is a regulated reference voltage output of 5v. This is used to drive
the speed control pot (the 3 pin connector). It is also used to drive under-voltage shutdown into pin 10. More on that later!

The oscillator's ramp is internally connected to a comparator which compares it to the speed control signal. The output of this comparator is the
pwm signal.
The demand speed input from the slider of the pot is fed to pin 2. This is the input of a conventional op-amp, output from pin 9 and negative
feedback is taken via a preset to pin 1: the preset then adjusts the gain. However this op-amp is unconventional in that its output is also connected to
a second 'op-amp' in such a way that the second can over-ride the first and pull the its output down. The second then is used for current limiting. Its
positive input is on pin 4 and its inverting input is pin 5 (which is connected to 0v).
The PWM output signal from the 3524 is fed to a pair of emitter followers to give adequate gate drive. The 47R gate resistors slow down the rise

22-05-2014 1:21 PM