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Problem of evil:
-Mackie: deductive version of reasoning yields 100% certainty for valid
and sound argument.
Evil: Natural evil suffering, accidents, disease, disaster, etc due to
seemingly natural causes.
Moral evil bad things due to intelligent agents (free choices)
1st order VS 2nd order (or higher)
1st order = natural evil
2nd order = goods (responses to evil) and also 2 nd order evil like cruel,
God is omnipotent. If god wants to do something, he can.
God is wholly good. Cant do /want evil. Wants to get rid of Evil.
Modus Tollens (valid)
1. If god existed, there would be no evil.
2. Evil exists.
3. God does not exist.
Determined free willed being.

Focused on Natural Evil.
1. Pains and pleasures.
2. World runs inexorable (impartial uncaring) Laws of nature.
3. Frugality of natural faculties and adaptations (All powers are
distributed to all beings.) Ex If an animal is fast then it will be
less powerful.
4. Mystery of the universe.
4 hypotheses
1. Source is all good
2. Source is all evil

3. Opposing good and evil forces/sources

4. Source is indifferent to good/evil (hypothesis of indifference)