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I HC QUC GIA H NI

TRNG I HC CNG NGH

--------

Nguyn Quc i

PHNG PHP XY DNG


H THNG HI P TING VIT
DA TRN ONTOLOGY

KHA LUN TT NGHIP I HC H CHNH QUY


Ngnh: Cng ngh thng tin

H NI 2009

I HC QUC GIA H NI
TRNG I HC CNG NGH

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Nguyn Quc i

PHNG PHP XY DNG


H THNG HI P TING VIT
DA TRN ONTOLOGY

KHA LUN TT NGHIP I HC H CHNH QUY

Ngnh:
Cng ngh thng tin
Ging vin hng dn: TS. Phm Bo Sn

H NI 2009

To My Family

Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Li cm n

u tin, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh nht ti TS. Phm Bo Sn. Thy


hng dn, ch bo v truyn t nhng kinh nghim gip em hon thnh kha lun.
Em cng xin gi li cm n ti TS. Bi Th Duy. Thy to iu kin thun li
v c nhng kin ng gp cho em.
Ti xin cm n cc bn Nguyn Quc t, Nguyn B t, Trn Bnh Giang,
Phm c ng. Cc bn gip , cng nh chia s nhng nghin cu ti c th
p dng trong kha lun.
Ti cng xin cm n cc bn Ng Th Tho, T Th Bch Hin, Nguyn H
Phng gip ti khi kh khn.
Cui cng, con xin gi li cm n su sc nht ti b m. B m sinh thnh,
nui dng, quan tm v chm sc cho con. Con xin cm n b m!

H Ni, 24-5-2009
Nguyn Quc i

Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Tm tt

Hi p (question answering) l nhim v t ng tr li cu hi di dng ngn


ng t nhin. Nghin cu cc h thng hi p ang nhn c nhiu quan tm trn
th gii. Cc nghin cu hin nay s dng nhiu phng php x l ngn ng t nhin
cng vi Ontology c s dng lm c s tri thc. Nhu cu tm kim thng tin ting
Vit di dng hi p l rt ln nhng cc h thng hi p cho ting Vit cn cha
c nhiu nghin cu ng dng c th.
Chng ti gii thiu mt h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology. H thng
ny c th p dng i vi nhiu min ng dng c th. Chng ti thit k mt
Ontology th nghim. S dng Ontology ny, chng ti a ra cch trch rt cu tr
li cho h thng hi p ny. Cc nh gi cho thy h thng lm vic tt khi tr li
cc cu hi c a ra.

Keywords: hi p, nh x Ontology, trch chn cu tr li.

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Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

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Mc lc

Li cm n ................................................................................................................................i
Tm tt..................................................................................................................................... ii
Mc lc ................................................................................................................................... iii
Danh sch t vit tt .............................................................................................................vi
Danh sch hnh v ............................................................................................................... vii
Danh sch bng ......................................................................................................................ix
Chng 1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................................1
Chng 2. Tng quan v hi p.......................................................................................3
2.1 Tng quan v h thng hi p da trn Ontology ...................................................3
2.2 Khi nim v hi p (Question Answering QA) ...................................................6
2.2.1 Khi nim hi p ..................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Kin trc hi p ....................................................................................................6
2.2.3 Cc phng php hi p ......................................................................................7
2.3 Giao din ngn ng t nhin min ng ....................................................................9
2.4 Cc h thng QA min m ..........................................................................................10
2.5 Ontologies trong QA....................................................................................................12
Chng 3. Ontology Sesame..........................................................................................14
3.1 Khi nim v Ontology ................................................................................................14
3.1.1 Khi nim ..............................................................................................................14
3.1.2 Tng quan v Ontology .......................................................................................14
3.1.2.1 Cc thnh phn ca Ontology ......................................................................15
3.1.2.2 Cc thc th....................................................................................................15
3.1.2.3 Cc lp ............................................................................................................16
3.1.2.4 Thuc tnh ......................................................................................................17

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3.1.2.5 Cc mi quan h ............................................................................................17


3.2 Ngn ng Web Ontology (Web Ontology Language) ............................................19
3.2.1 OWL Ontology .....................................................................................................19
3.2.2 Mi quan h logic m t (Description logics DLs).......................................20
3.2.3 Cc dng OWL .....................................................................................................20
3.3 Sesame ...........................................................................................................................21
3.3.1 Khi nim v Sesame ...........................................................................................21
3.3.1.1 Sesame Server................................................................................................21
3.3.1.2 Kho d liu v suy lun (Repositories and Inferencing) ..........................22
3.3.1.3 Tng quan kin trc Sesame ........................................................................22
3.3.2 Ci t Sesame ......................................................................................................23
3.3.2.1 Ci t th vin Sesame ...............................................................................23
3.3.2.2 Ci t my ch Sesame...............................................................................24
3.3.2.3 Qun tr my ch ...........................................................................................25
3.3.3 Giao din web ca Sesame ..................................................................................27
3.3.3.1 ng nhp ......................................................................................................27
3.3.3.2 Thm d liu vo mt kho d......................................................................28
Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology.......................................29
4.1 Kin trc tng quan ca h thng..............................................................................29
4.2 X l cu hi ngn ng t nhin ................................................................................32
4.3 Thit k Ontology bng Protege ................................................................................34
4.3.1 Thit k cc lp trong Ontology .........................................................................35
4.3.2 Thit k thuc tnh trong Ontology ....................................................................36
4.4 nh x Ontology ..........................................................................................................38
4.4.1 nh x Ontology cho cu hi n gin .............................................................39
4.4.1.1 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi NORMAL.....................................42
4.4.1.2 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi UNKN_REL .................................43
4.4.1.3 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM .............................44
4.4.1.4 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG ............................46
4.4.2 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi THREETERM .................................47
4.5 Trch chn cu tr li..................................................................................................51

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Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

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4.5.1 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL ..........52


4.5.2 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi UNKN_TERM ...............................54
4.5.3 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi AFFIRM_N EG ..............................56
4.5.4 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi THREETERM................................57
Chng 5. Kt qu thc nghim v tho lun ...............................................................59
5.1 Kt qu thc nghim....................................................................................................59
5.2 Tho lun ......................................................................................................................61
Chng 6. Kt lun ..............................................................................................................62
Ph lc A ................................................................................................................................63
Ti liu tham kho ...............................................................................................................66

Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

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Danh sch t vit tt

STT
1
2
3

K hiu
NLP
QA
API

T ting Anh

Ng ngha

Natural Language Processing


Question Answering
Application program interface

X l ngn ng t nhin
Hi p
Giao din chng trnh ng dng

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Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

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Danh sch hnh v

Hnh 2.1. Tng quan v h thng hi p da trn Ontologies [2] ...................................4


Hnh 3.1. V d v lp trong Ontology [58] ......................................................................16
Hnh 3.2. V d v lp t ....................................................................................................18
Hnh 3.3. Sesame server [59] ................................................................................................21
Hnh 3.4. Kin trc ca Sesame [59] ...................................................................................22
Hnh 3.5. Cu hnh Sesame ...................................................................................................25
Hnh 3.6. Cu hnh kho d liu c sn trong Sesame ........................................................26
Hnh 3.7. Giao din web ca Sesame ..................................................................................28
Hnh 4.1. Kin trc tng quan ca h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology ......29
Hnh 4.2. Kin trc ca thnh phn tm kim cu tr li ..................................................30
Hnh 4.3. Cc lp trong Ontology v trng i hc ........................................................36
Hnh 4.4. Cc thuc tnh trong Ontology v trng i hc ............................................37
Hnh 4.5. Tng quan v nh x Ontology i vi cu hi n gin ................................40
Hnh 4.6. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi NORMAL ...............................................42
Hnh 4.7. nh x Ontology tng tc vi ngi dng i vi loi cu hi
UNKN_REL........................................................................................................................43
Hnh 4.8. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM .......................................44
Hnh 4.9. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM .......................................45
Hnh 4.10. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG ........................................46
Hnh 4.11. Tng quan nh x Ontology vi loi cu hi THREETERM ...................47
Hnh 4.12. V d hi p i vi cu hi v s lng.......................................................51
Hnh 4.13. Trch ch n cu tr li i vi loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL ..52
Hnh 4.14. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL ................53
Hnh 4.15. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM ...54
Hnh 4.16. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM .....................................55
Hnh 4.17. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM .....................................55
Hnh 4.18. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG ..56

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Phng php xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

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Hnh 4.19. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG ....................................56


Hnh 4.20. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi THREETERM ....57
Hnh 4.21. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi THREETERM......................................58

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Danh sch bng

Bng 5.1. nh gi h thng i vi cc cu hi tr li c .........................................59


Bng 5.2. nh gi h thng i vi cc cu hi li .........................................................60

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Chng 1. Gii thiu

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Chng 1.
Gii thiu

Trong tm kim thng tin, hi p (Question Answering QA) l nhim v t


ng tr li cu hi di dng ngn ng t nhin. Cc cu hi trong mt min ng
dng c th c th c tr li thng qua cc k thut x l ngn ng t nhin. Nhng
cc h thng gp phi vn : lm th no m t c tri thc trong min ng dng.
Cc nghin cu hin nay tp trung vo s dng Ontology lm c s tri thc, do
Ontology c kh nng m t mt tp cc khi nim trong min c th v cc mi quan
h gia cc khi nim. Hin nay, nhu cu tm kim thng tin ting Vit di dng hi
p l rt ln nhng cc h thng hi p cho ting Vit cn cha c nhiu nghin cu
ng dng c th.
Trong kha lun ny, chng ti xut Phng php xy dng h thng hi
p ting Vit da trn Ontology. Phng php ca chng ti c th p dng cho
nhiu min tri thc. Da vo phng php ca mnh, chng ti xy dng mt h thng
th nghim trn min tri thc trng i hc, m c th l min tri thc v i hc
Cng Ngh. Chng ti thit k mt Ontology th nghim cho min tri thc ny. Cc
cu hi lin quan n min ny sau khi phn tch [1], c nh x vo trong
Ontology thit k. Ri t , chng ti hnh thnh nn cc b m t tng ng vi
Ontology. Tip n, chng ti trch chn ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th cho
cu hi ca ngi dng. Nhng kt lun v nh gi v h thng hi p ting Vit
cho thy h thng hot ng tt vi cc cu hi c hi.
Phn cn li ca kha lun c chia thnh:
Chng 2: Chng ti gii thiu tng quan v h t hng hi p da trn
Ontology, v nhng khi nim lin quan. Ngoi ra, chng ti a ra mt vi tm hiu
i vi cc h thng hi p hin nay.

Chng 1. Gii thiu

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Chng 3: Chng ti gii thiu cc khi nim c bn v Ontology, ngn ng


Web Ontology (Web Ontology Language OWL). ng thi, chng ti cng gii
thiu v Sesame, c s dng lu tr cc Ontology OWL cho min ng dng c
th.
Chng 4: Chng ti a ra kin trc ca h thng, cc thnh phn x l cho h
thng. Tip n, chng ti gii thiu cch thit k mt Ontology OWL cho mt min
tri thc trng i hc Cng Ngh. Da vo Ontology ny, chng ti m t chi tit
trch rt cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th cho mt cu hi.
Chng 5: Chng ti a ra nhng nh gi thc nghim ca h thng.
Chng 6: Kt lun li ni dung kha lun, v nhng kt qu m h thng hi
p ting Vit da trn Ontology t c.

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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Chng 2.
Tng quan v hi p

2.1 Tng quan v h thng hi p da trn Ontology


Trong tm kim thng tin, hi p (Question Answering QA) l nhim v t
ng tr li cu hi di dng ngn ng t nhin. tm cu tr li cho mt cu hi,
mt chng trnh my tnh c th s dng mt c s d liu tin cu trc hoc s dng
mt tp cc vn bn ngn ng t nhin.
Trong khoa hc my tnh, Ontology l biu din hnh thc ca mt tp cc khi
nim trong min c th v cc mi quan h gia cc khi nim. Ontology c dng
suy lun cc thuc tnh trong min, c th c dng nh ngha min [56].
a s cc phng php ph bin trong vic xc nh thng tin cn thit l s
dng cng c tm kim. Vi cu hi u vo, cc cng c ny a ra cu tr li n
gin vi vic so khp cc t kha. X l ngn ng t nhin (Natural Language
Processing NLP) c s dng nhn ra cu trc c php v ng ngha ca cu
hi, v cc ti liu thch hp cha ng cc cu tr li cho cu hi s c tr li. y
l i vi cc cu hi n gin, nhng cc cng c ny s kh c th thc hin c
vi cc cu hi phc tp gm cc cu hi how, why hoc what.
Vn chnh y l cc ng dng hi p duy tr vic hon thin cng c tm
kim da vo t kha cho n khi i hi NLP hiu cu trc ng ngha cng nh cu
trc c php ca cu hi. Vic biu din r rng cc ng ngha ca d liu trong min
ng dng c th to kh nng cung cp mt dch v mc mi.
Phn tch v nghin cu nhng suy lun trong Ontology cho h thng hi p to
kh nng m t ng ngha cho min ng dng. Trong Ontology, cc thut ng cng
vi quan h c nh ngha r rng trong min c th cho php chia s v s dng
li tri thc. Vi u im c a ra, Ontology c s dng miu t mt min

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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ng dng c th. Cc khi nim v cc mi quan h c nh ngha trong min cng


vi ngha ca chng c s dng mt cch nht qun trong min c th .

Hnh 2.1. Tng quan v h thng hi p da trn Ontologies [2]

Da vo kin trc trong hnh 2.1, Ontology xc nh cc khi nim c lin quan,
bng phng php tip cn lai, hoc kt hp cc phng php c php v cc phng
php thng k c s dng trch ra cc khi nim t cc ti liu.
Phng php da vo c php pht hin mu cc danh t ghp v min cu trc
c th. Pht hin mu ph hp vi cc phng php trch chn khi nim khc. Cc
cch tip cn thng k cho vic trch chn khi nim thng nhn bit s xut hin ca
cc t vng trong mt hoc nhiu tp cc ti liu xc nh. Mt khi nim xut hin
nhiu trong mt ti liu, th khi nim ny c ngha v c trch chn.
Gn nhn t loi c dng ci tin vic nhn dng cc khi nim. Cc t
c gn nhn lun da vo u tin c trch chn. Cc t loi khc chng hn
nh gii t lin kt, gii t nhn dng s b loi tr v chng khng mang thng tin v
min khi nim. Cc khi nim c hnh thc ha s thch hp d dng cu trc

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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nn Ontology. Tuy nhin, cc khi nim c tch ring l v ngha do khng th


truyn t ni dung quan trng. Do , vic trch chn quan h gia cc khi nim
di dng quan h ch th -quan h - i tng.
Mi quan h ng ngha c th c nhn bit vi s h tr ca WordNet.
WordNet l mt c s d liu t vng trc tuyn cng vi mt tp cc ngha. Wordnet
c s dng tm kim quan h (lin kt is-a v part-of) gia cc khi nim i vi
cc t ng m, cc t ng ngha gim s d tha v nhn. Quan h thng biu
din di dng cc ng t, v c th c trch ra bi so khp ng t v cc khi
nim trong cu.

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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2.2 Khi nim v hi p (Question Answering QA)


2.2.1 Khi nim hi p
Trong tm kim thng tin, hi p (Question Answering QA) l nhim v t
ng tr li cu hi di dng ngn ng t nhin. tm cu tr li cho mt cu hi,
mt chng trnh my tnh c th s dng mt c s d liu tin cu trc hoc s dng
mt tp cc vn bn ngn ng t nhin.
Nghin cu QA nhm mc ch x l cc loi cu hi: s kin, danh sch, nh
ngha, cc cu hi nh th no, ti sao, cc cu hi mang tnh gi thuyt, cc cu hi
hn ch v ng ngha v cu hi s dng a ngn ng. C hai khi nim trong hi p
l hi p min ng v hi p min m.
Hi p min ng (closed-domain) x l cc cu hi trong mt min c th, v
c th xem nh mt nhim v n gin v cc h thng x l ngn ng t nhin
(Natural Language Processing NLP) c kh nng khai thc tri thc min c th c
biu din bi Ontologies.
Hi p min m (open-domain) x l cc cu hi c ni dung v mi th v ch
c th da trn cc Ontology tng qut v tri thc tng hp t khp ni trn th gii.
Ni cch khc, cc h thng ny thng lu tr mt lng ln d diu c sn t
trch chn ra p n cho cu hi tm kim.
Hi p (Question Answering QA) cn s dng nhiu phng php NLP phc
tp hn cc tm kim thng tin phc hi ti liu. Do , cc cng c tm kim ngn
ng t nhin c nh gi vt xa cc cng c tm kim hin nay.
Trong mc 2.3, chng ti a ra tng quan mt s h thng hi p c phn
loi da trn min ng v min m.
2.2.2 Kin trc hi p
H thng QA u tin pht trin vo nhng nm 1960 [64]. Cc h thng ny v
c bn l cc giao din ngn ng t nhin i vi cc h chuyn gia - nhng h thng
c xy dng ring cho tng min ng dng c th. Nguc li, cc h thng QA
ngy nay li s dng cc ti liu vn bn lm ngun tri thc c bn v kt hp vi

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nhiu k thut NLP khc nhau tm ra cc cu tr li. Cc h thng QA hin nay


thng bao gm mt module phn loi cu hi, gip xc nh loi cu hi v loi cu
tr li tng ng. Sau khi phn tch cu hi, h thng s s dng mt s module p
dng cc k thut NLP phc tp ln mt lng vn bn c gim bt nh module
phn tch cu hi. Tip theo, mt module phc hi ti liu s dng cc cng c tm
kim, module ny dng nhn dng ti liu hoc on vn bn trong tp ti liu c
kh nng cha cu tr li trong . Sau , mt b lc s chn sn mt on vn bn
ngn c cha chui k t cng kiu vi cu tr li c ch i. V d, nu cu hi l:
Who invented Penicillin?
B lc tr li vn bn c cha tn ngi. Cui cng, mt module trch chn cu
tr li tm kim thm cc lin kt trong vn bn quyt nh xem trong s cc p n
uc lc ra th u l p n thc s.
2.2.3 Cc phng php hi p
Hi p (Question Answering QA) ph thuc rt nhiu vo tp ti liu tm kim
c tt hay khng. Nu h thng khng tm ra c cc ti liu c cha cu tr li th
gn nh khng c h thng QA no thc hin c. V vy, quy m tp ti liu cng
ln th cng c ch cho qu trnh tr li cu hi, tr trng hp lnh vc m cu hi
cp n khc hon ton so vi ti liu sn c.
Trong cc tp d liu ln, khi nim v d tha d liu l s lng ln thng tin
c kh nng c din t theo nhiu cch khc nhau trong cc ti liu v ng cnh
khc nhau. iu ny dn n 2 li ch sau:
(1) Thng tin thch hp xut hin dui nhiu hnh thc khc nhau s gip h
thng QA thc hin cc k thut NLP phc tp mt cch d dng hn.
(2) Cc cu tr li ng c th c lc ra bi cu tr li thch hp s xut hin
nhiu ln hn trong cc ti liu so vi cc trng hp tr li khng chnh xc.
Phn tch b ni: Mt vi phng php tr li cu hi s dng cc k thut da
vo t kha xc nh v tr ca cc on vn bn hay cu ng ch trong cc ti
liu uc tm kim. Sau , h thng tm kim da trn s c mt ca p n cn tm
ang nm trong nhng on vn bn hay cu . Vic sp xp cc p n c thc
hin ngay sau da vo cc c im c php ca cu hay on vn bn, chng hn

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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da vo trt t t, v tr ca cu hay on, v nhng im tng ng khc ca cc cu


hay on ny so vi cu hi tm kim.
Khi s dng nhng tp d liu ln vi s d tha d liu tt, nhiu h thng
dng cc mu tm ra p n cui. Nu t ra cu hi:
What is a cat?
H thng s tm ra chui con What is a X? v ri thc hin qu trnh tm kim
cc ti liu bt u vi X is a Y. Phng php ny thng lm vic tt i vi cc
cu hi n gin nhm tm kim cc thng tin thc t nh tn, ngy thng, a im v
s lung.
Phn tch chiu su: Nhng trng hp phng php da vo t kha khng
p ng c, th h thng dng cc x l phc tp nh phn tch c php, phn tch
ng ngha v ng cnh ca cu hi. Da vo , h thng tch ra hoc cu to nn cu
tr li. Nhng k thut ny c th bao gm k thut nhn dng thc th c tn, phng
php nhn bit mi quan h, phn tch t ng ngha, cc k thut bin i c php,
phng php loi b nhp nhng v ngha ca t, phng php bin i hnh thi
logic, Nhng h thng ny cng s dng tri thc trong cc Ontology suy lun
thng qua cc khi nim v cc lin kt ng ngha.
Nhiu dng cu hi kh nh dng cu hi why, how, cc cu hi gi nh, cu hi
gii hn v khng gian v thi gian, cc cu hi hi thoi, cc cu hi nhp nhng cn
tt c nhng phng php phn tch chiu su nh trn h thng nhn bit cu hi.
Tng t nh vy, nhng on vn bn phc tp hoc nhp nhng cng cn c p
dng nhiu phng php NLP nhn ra c ni dung vn bn.
Hi p (QA) thng k gii thiu cc module x l cu hi da vo thng k v
trch chn ra cu tr li. Nhiu cng c NLP nh k thut nhn dng thc th c tn,
phn tch c php, gn nhn t loi, nhn dng ranh gii cu v phc hi ti liu c th
s dng nh l cc ng dng thng k.
Mc di y, chng ti tm hiu mt s h thng hi p da vo phn loi
min ng, min m, gii thiu vi h thng hi p c s dng Ontology. Chng ti
m t qua mt s u nhc im ca cc h thng , ng thi cng gii thiu qua
cc phng php m cc h thng ny s dng tm kim cu tr li cho cu hi.

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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2.3 Giao din ngn ng t nhin min ng


Giao din ngn t nhin (Natural Language Interface) min ng l cc h thng
hi p da trn c s d liu. Cc cu hi c t ra di dng ngn ng t nhin,
t truy vn vo c s d liu. Phn ln cc h thng NLIDB (Natural Language
Interface to Database) u tin c to ra vi mt c s d liu c bit. Do vy, cc
thng hi p ny khng th sa i d dng s dng km vi cc c s d liu
khc, v cng kh p dng i vi cc min ng dng khc. Mt vi h thng NLIDB
s dng k thut so khp mu, Androutsopoulos [6] a ra v d cu hi c cha t
capital theo sau tn nc, th h thng ny a ra tn th tng ng vi tn nc
, v t tm cu tr li cho cu hi:
what is the capital of Italy?,
print the capital of Italy, hoc
Could you please tell me the capital of Italy.
Cc phng php thng s dng trong cc h thng khc thng da vo tnh
tng ng v ng ngha hoc da vo thng k. V d, FAQ Finder [12] l mt h
thng tr li cu hi ngn ng t nhin, trong n s s dng cc file c sn ca
FAQ lm c s tri thc (Knowledge Base KB). H thng ny cng s dng
WordNet nng cao kh nng tm kim cu tr li thch hp cho cc cu hi c
a ra. FAQ Finder [12] s dng hai phng php o: s tng ng v ng ngha v
s tng ng da vo thng k. Tuy nhin, phng php thng k c v khng hu
ch v phng php ny thung ch c ch i vi cc ti liu di vi lng d liu ln,
c cc t cho so snh thng k [12]. Cn phng php o tng ng v ng ngha
li da vo cc mi lin h gia cu hi ca ngi dng v cu tr li. Mi quan h
ng ngha c th c nhn bit vi s h tr ca WordNet. WordNet l mt c s d
liu t vng trc tuyn cng vi mt tp cc ngha. Wordnet c s dng tm
kim quan h (lin kt is-a v part-of) gia cc khi nim i vi cc t ng m, cc
t ng ngha. Vn chnh trong phng php o tng ng v ng ngha khng
th x l c cc t vn khng c trong KB.
Cc th h NLIDB tip theo s dng ngn ng biu din trung gian. Ngn ng
ny phn nh c ngha ca cu hi ngi dng da theo ngn ng bc cao v c
lp vi cu trc c s d liu [6]. Chng hn, h thng ngn ng t nhin i vi c

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

s d liu da trn ng ngha hc hnh thc [19], to ra phn bit r rng gia thao
tc u v thao tc cui trong qu trnh x l ngn ng t nhin ( Natural Language
NL). Thao tc u cung cp mt nh x gia cc cu ting Anh ti cc biu thc ng
ngha hc, v thao tc cui nh x cc biu thc ny vo trong cc biu thc ngha
i vi min cu hi. TEAM [41] l mt h thng NLIDB th nghim, linh hot c
pht trin vo nhng nm 1980. H thng hi p TEAM, bao gm hai thnh phn
chnh: (1) thnh phn nh x cc biu thc NL thnh cc biu din hnh thc, (2) thnh
phn chuyn i nhng biu din ny thnh cc cu lnh i vi c s d liu. TEAM
[41] to ra s phn tch gia qu trnh ngn ng v qu trnh nh x ln KB.
PRECISE [47] l chng trnh nh x cc cu hi ti truy vn SQL tng ng
bi vic nhn dng cc lp cu hi n gin. Cc cu hi l mt tp cc cp thuc tnh
gi tr v cng vi mt quan h. Mi thuc tnh trong c s d liu c lin kt vi
mt wh-value (what, when, where,). Trong chng trnh PRECISE, mt b t vng
c s dng tm cc t ng ngha. Tuy nhin, trong chng trnh PRECISE, vic
tm mt nh x da theo t vng cho c s d liu i hi mi t vng phi ring bit
vi nhau. H thng ny khng th phn tch c ng ngha cc cu hi c cha cc t
m h thng cha bit, v th chng trnh khng th x l c cu hi ny. Ni cch
khc, chng trnh PRECISE s khng tr li cc cu hi m cha nhng t khng c
sn trong t in ca n.

2.4 Cc h thng QA min m


Cc ng dng QA dnh cho vn bn thng gm 2 bc, c trch dn bi
Hirschman [26]: (1) Nhn dng cc kiu ng ngha ca i tng c tm kim bi
cu hi, (2) Xc nh cc rng buc b sung cho i tng tr li. Cc rng c th l
cc t kha (s lng t kha c th c khuch i do vic s dng cc t ng
ngha hoc cc bin th hnh thi) dng so khp i vi cc cu tr li. Cc rng
buc cng c th l cc mi quan h c php hoc ng ngha gia mt i tng tr
li v cc i tng khc trong cu hi. Do vy, nhiu h thng khc hnh thnh
phn cp loi cu hi da vo dng cu tr li tm kim.
Trong chng trnh LASSO [45], phn cp loi cu hi c hnh thnh t vic
phn tch d liu hun luyn TREC-8 (Text Retrieval Conference 8). Khi nhn c

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mt cu hi, LASSO t ng tm kim: (a) loi cu hi (what, why, who, how, where),
(b) loi cu tr li (person, location), (c) trng tm cu hi, l thng tin chnh c
yu cu bi cu hi. Ngoi ra, phn cp loi cu hi cn gip nhn dng t kha trong
cu hi. i khi, nhiu t c trong cu hi s khng xut hin li trong cu tr li. Cc
h thng min m c gng tm kim cc t ng ngha, cng vi cc bin th hnh thi
ca t ng ngha cho cc thut ng hoc cc t kha.
Trong TREC-9 [18], h thng FALCON c m t bi Harabagiu et al. [25] cho
cu tr li ng ngha c nh x bi cng c nhn dng thc th c tn. Nu khi
nim trong cu hi cho bit loi cu tr li, h thng FALCON s c nh x cu hi
vo trong phn loi cu tr li. Tt c cc danh t (v cc bin i hnh thi t vng)
c lin quan ti cc khi nim xc nh loi cu tr li th u c nhn bit thng
qua cc t kha. FALCON a ra cu tr li c lu tr nu c mt cu hi tng t
c hi trc .
START [33] ch trng vo cc cu hi v a l v thng tin phng th nghim
ca MIT. START s dng gi b ba l i tng thuc tnh gi tr. y l mt
h thng ln c nh gi cao trong cc h thng hi p (Question Ansering QA)
bi kh nng phn tch v tng hp cu hi. Vi mt cu hi dng phc tp, START
c c ch chia cu hi ny ra thnh nhng cu hi nh, mi cu hi nh s tm c
cu tr li trc tip trong c s d liu. Sau START tng hp kt qu t nhng cu
tr li ca cc cu hi nh . Ngoi ra START cn c bit hu dng trong vic tm
ra cu tr li bi kh nng phn tch ng ngha rt tt ca n.
Litkowski [38] a ra h thng DIMAP, h thng ny trch chn cc b ba quan
h ng ngha sau khi ti liu c phn tch c php v cy c php c kim tra.
Cc b ba trong DIMAP s c lu li trong mt c s d liu vi mc ch dng
tr li cc cu hi. B ba quan h ng ngha c cp trn bao gm cc i tng
(SUBJ, OBJ, TIME, NUM, ADJMOD), c mt quan h ng ngha m t li vai tr ca
i tng, v mt t trong cu c lin quan ti i tng ny. Mt b ba thng tng
ng vi mt hnh thi logic. Cc i tng l thnh phn ch cht ca cc b ba
trong DIMAP, cc thnh phn quan trng (cc danh t chnh, ng t chnh v bt c
tnh t hoc danh t b ngha no) uc xc nh cho mi loi cu hi. H thng phn
cc cu hi ra lm su loi cu hi: thi gian, a im, ai, ci g, kch c v s lng.

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PiQASso [8] s dng mt php phn loi cu hi phn loi cc cu hi v:


ngi, t chc, thi gian, s lng v v tr (l cc loi c bn). Ngoi ra, PiQASso
cn c thm 23 loi danh t trong WordNet. Loi cu tr li c th c kt hp vi
cc loi danh t ny. V d, trong cu hi c cha who, where th loi cu tr li
s l v person hoc organization. Cc loi cu hi c th c xc nh trc tip
t cc t hi: who, when, where. C nhiu trng hp cn thm cc thng tin
b sung khc. V d, vi cc cu hi how th loi cu hi c tm thy t tnh t
theo sau t how (how many hoc how much) ch s lung, hoc how long,
how old ch thi gian, v.v Loi cu hi what (noun) thng l ng ngha ca
danh t c xc nh bi WNSense. WNSense l mt cng c dng cho vic phn
loi ngha ca t. Cc cu hi thuc dng what (verb) c cng loi cu tr li vi i
tng ca ng t. Cc cu hi what is cng da vo vic xc nh ng ngha ca t
hi. Tuy nhin, PiQASso nhn nh khng phi lc no cng c th ch cn tm ra
ng ngha ca t, bi v tnh trng thiu ng cnh khng cho php xc nh ngha
chnh xc ca t. V vy, mi i tng cng c th c chp nhn nh l cc cu tr
li cho cc cu hi mang tnh nh ngha, min l chng xut hin nh l mt ch th
trong mt cu dng is-a. Nu xc nh c loi cu tr li cho mt cu hi th n s
c chuyn qua b lc so khp quan h trong qu trnh phn tch.

2.5 Ontologies trong QA


Nhiu h thng n gin dng mt Ontology nh mt c ch h tr cho vic m
rng cu hi tm kim trong qu trnh tm kim thng tin. Basili et al. [9] c cp n
tnh kh thi ca vic xy dng mt h trng QA da vo Ontology trong ng cnh ca
mt web ng ngha. Cc tc gi nghin cu phng php ny trn ng cnh mt d
n mang tn MOSES, vi mc tiu pht trin mt phung php lun da vo Ontology
tm kim, t chc, bo tr v thch hp vi nhng ni dung Web c cu trc v ng
ngha. Basili et al. [9] nghin cu xem phng php da trn Ontology ny c th h
tr cho hi p kh ng v nu c th bng cch no. Basili et al. [9] cng a ra mt
cch phn loi cc cu hi, t h thng c tr gip v xem xt ni dung cu hi
mc ln i vi cc khi nim v cc mi quan h suy ra t Ontology.
Phng php da vo tri thc [14] b sung cc vn bn trc tuyn vi mt thnh
phn QA da vo tri thc. H thng suy ra cu tr li tng ng vi nhng cu hi

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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ca ngi dng m nhng cu hi bn ngoi phm vi ca vn bn c ghi t


trc trong h thng. Tri thc c lu tr trong mt c s tri thc v c cu trc
nh l mt Ontology ca min. Ging nh nhiu h thng hi p, [14] cng c mt
tp nh gm cc loi cu hi chung bit lm th no tr li. Cc loi cu hi
c lin kt vi cc khi nim trong KB. Khi mt khi nin a ra, cc loi cu hi
thch hp hoc tng ng chnh l loi cu hi gn lin vi khi nim ca chnh cu
hi . Cc cu hi cung cp ng cnh h thng da vo tm ra p n cho cu
hi tm kim.
Cc h thng hi p (Question Answering QA) cho php ngi dng a ra
mt cu hi di dng ngn ng t nhin v nhn c cu tr li ngn gn, trong
nhiu trng hp cn c km theo ng cnh c th. AquaLog [3] l mt h thng QA
ngn ng t nhin da trn Ontology, v da vo tri thc c m ha trong
Ontology. H thng ny cng da vo chc nng ng ngha hc loi b nhp nhng
v ngha ca cc cu hi v a ra cc cu tr li. AquaLog s dng biu din trung
gian trong sut qu trnh x l, t vic biu din cu hi ngi dng n vic biu
din thnh mt b m t tng ng vi Ontology. Trong AquaLog, s nhp nhng ca
NL c tnh n, v th, nu giai on phn tch cu hi khng c kh nng loi b
tnh nhp nhng ny th n vn s xut hin trong giai on tip theo. AquaLog c kh
nng lp lun v cu trc Ontology to ngha c ho cc lp hoc cc mi quan h.
AquaLog phn loi cu hi cn c trn loi b ba l biu din ng ngha ca cu hi.
Trong khi , hu ht cc h thng QA min m li phn loi cc cu hi theo mc
tiu tr li. Aqualog tm kim cc mi quan h gia cc thut ng, hoc gia mt thut
ng vi gi tr ca n. AquaLog dng mt b ba cho mt mi quan h gia cc thut
ng, cho d mi quan h ny khng r rng.
Chng ti tin tng vo cc u im chnh ca mt h thng hi p da trn
Ontology trong Web ng ngha. Khi so snh cc loi h thng hi p khc nhau,
h thng hi p da trn Ontology c th s dng min tri thc c cung cp bi
Ontology x l cc t khng c tm thy trong c s tri thc v loi b nhp
nhng v ngha ca t. Do vy, chng ti a ra h thng hi p cho ting Vit da
trn Ontology (chng 4). Trong chng 3, chng ti gii thiu cc khi nim lin
quan ti Ontology, cc khi nim v Sesame, cu hnh Sesame server lu tr
Ontology cho h thng ca chng ti.

13

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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Chng 3.
Ontology Sesame

Chng ti s a ra cc khi nim c bn lin quan ti Ontology (mc 3.1), ngn ng


Web Ontology (mc 3.2). Sau , chng ti gii thiu cc khi nim lin quan ti
Sesam, cu hnh Sesame server lu tr cc Ontology cho h thng (mc 3.3).

3.1 Khi nim v Ontology


3.1.1 Khi nim
Trong khoa hc my tnh, Ontology l biu din hnh thc ca m t tp cc khi
nim trong min c th v cc mi quan h gia cc khi nim. Ontology c dng
suy lun v cc thuc tnh ca min, c th c dng nh ngha min [56].
Theo l thuyt, Ontology l mt c t hnh thc, r rng ca mt khi nim
c dng chung [56]. Mt Ontology cung cp mt bng t vng dng chung, bng t
vng ny c th c s dng m hnh ha mt min, cung cp cc i tng v
(hoc) cc khi nim ang c, v cc thuc tnh cng vi cc mi quan h ca chng.
Ontologies c s dng trong tr tu nhn to, Web ng ngha, cng ngh phn
mm, trong tin sinh, th vin hc, v kin trc thng tin nh mt dng biu din tri
thc v th gii hoc mt v mt min ng dng c th.
3.1.2 Tng quan v Ontology
Ontology l m hnh m t tri thc v min ng dng c th, biu din cc i
tng, cc khi nim, cng vi cc thuc tnh v cc mi quan h.

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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3.1.2.1 Cc thnh phn ca Ontology


Ontologies hin nay c chung cc cu trc ging nhau v khng quan tm ti
ngn ng m chng c th hin. Hu ht cc Ontology miu t cc thc th (cc i
tng), cc lp (cc khi nim), cc thuc tnh v cc mi quan h.
Cc thnh phn ph bin ca cc Ontologies bao gm :
-

Cc thc th: cc i tng (cc i tng c bn).

Cc lp: cc khi nim v cc i tng, hoc cc loi vt cht.

Cc thuc tnh: cc c tnh, c trng, cc c im hoc cc tham s m

cc i tng (v cc lp) c th c.
Cc mi quan h: cc cch cc lp, cc thc th c th c lin kt ti
cc lp (hoc thc th) khc.

Cc thut ng chc nng: cc cu trc phc tp c hnh thnh t cc


quan h bit, s dng thut ng thch hp trong mt pht biu.

Cc gii hn: cc m t c pht biu phi chnh xc v hp l.

Cc quy tc: cc pht biu di dng mnh if then (iu kin kt


qu) miu t suy lun logic.

Cc tin : cc khng nh (bao gm cc quy tc) trong mt hnh thc


logic v ng thi bao gm ton b l thuyt m Ontology miu t trong
min ng dng ca n.

Cc s kin: cc thay i ca cc thuc tnh hoc cc mi quan h.

Cc Ontology thng c m ha bi cc ngn ng Ontology.


3.1.2.2 Cc thc th
Cc thc th (cc i tng) l cc thnh phn c bn, mc c s ca mt
Ontology. Cc thc th trong mt Ontology bao gm cc i tng c th nh ngi,
ng vt, bn gh, xe t, cng nh cc i tng tru tng chng hn nh cc
s, cc t. Mt Ontology c th khng cn bt k thc th no, nhng mc ch ca
Ontology l a ra phng php phn loi cc thc th, ngay c khi nhng thc th
ny khng l thnh phn trong Ontology.

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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3.1.2.3 Cc lp
Cc lp c th c nh ngha nh l mt s m rng (extension) hoc nh mt
tng cng (intension) [58]. Theo nh nh ngha m rng, cc lp l cc nhm,
cc b hoc cc tp hp cc i tng tru tng. Theo nh ngha tng cng, cc
lp l cc i tng tru tng c nh ngha bi cc dng gi tr, cc dng gi tr
ny l cc rng buc cho phn t ca lp. Trong nh ngha m rng cho thy mt lp
l mt tp cc lp con. Cn nh ngha theo tng cng, gia cc tp hp v cc lp
c nhiu khc nhau c bn. Cc lp c th phn loi cc thc th, phn loi cc lp
khc, hoc kt hp c hai phn loi. V d v lp:
-

Ngi, lp ton b con ngi, hoc i tng tru tng c th c m


t bi cc tiu chun cho mt ngi.

Mt lp l m rng khi v ch khi lp c m t bi mi phn t ca lp.


Nu mt lp khng tha mn iu kin ny, khi y n l tng cng. Cc lp m
rng hot ng tt hn v x l tnh ton tt hn, v cng t nhp nhng, th li khng
cho php phn bit r rng gia cc lp. Trong khi , cc lp c nh ngha cng
thng c cc iu kin cn lin kt vi cc phn t trong mi lp. Mt vi lp
cng c th c cc iu kin , v trong cc trng hp ny s kt hp cc iu kin
cn v lm cho lp c nh ngha y .
Mt lp c th l lp con (hoc kiu con) ca mt lp no (lp cha) , v to ra
mt h phn cp cc lp. Lp con c tha k thuc tnh t lp cha. V vy, bt c
iu g ng i vi lp cha th cng ng vi tt c cc lp con ca n.

Hnh 3.1. V d v lp trong Ontology [58]

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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Mt phn vng l mt tp cc lp c lin quan cng vi cc quy tc c lin


kt. Cc quy tc c lin kt cho php cc phn chia cc i tng bi cc lp con
thch hp. Chng hn, hnh 3.1 hin th mt phn ca mt Ontology c mt phn vng
ca lp Car vi cc lp con 2-Wheel Drive Car v 4-Wheel Drive Car. Cc quy
tc phn vng xc nh nu c mt Car c th th c phn loi bi lp 2-Wheel
Drive Car hoc bi lp 4-Wheel Drive Car.
Cc quy tc phn vng bo m rng mt Car c th khng th c tn ti trong
c hai lp, khi y, phn vng c gi l mt phn vng ri. Nu quy tc phn
vng m bo mi i tng c th trong lp cha l mt i tng thuc t nht mt
trong cc lp con, th phn vng c gi l mt phn vng y .
3.1.2.4 Thuc tnh
Cc i tng trong Ontology c th c m t bi lin kt ca chng vi
nhng i tng khc, nhng lin kt ny thng c gi l cc thuc tnh, mc d
c th l nhng lin kt c lp. Loi i tng v loi thuc tnh xc nh loi quan
h gia chng. Mt i tng da vo thuc tnh lin kt ti i tng khc. V d:
i tng Nguyn_Quc_i c cc thuc tnh chng hn nh:
-

<c_tn> Nguyn_Quc_i

<c_qu> H_Ni

<hc> k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh

Gi tr ca mt thuc tnh c th c mt kiu d liu phc tp.


3.1.2.5 Cc mi quan h
Cc mi quan h gia cc i tng trong Ontology ch ra cc i tng c
lin quan nh th no n nhng i tng khc. V quan h gia cc lp c th dn
n quan h gia cc i tng trong cc lp .
Cc quan h trong Ontology xut pht t kh nng mun miu t cc lin kt gia
cc khi nim. Tp hp cc loi quan h c s dng th hin ngn ng biu din
Ontology.
Loi quan h quan trng nht l quan h is-a-superclass-of, quan h ny l nghch
o is-a-subtype-of. Cc quan h ny xc nh cc i tng c phn loi do cc lp

17

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

trong Ontology . Vi th d trong hnh 3.2, lp Ford Explorer is-a-subclass-of 4-Wheel


Drive Car, 4-Wheel Drive Car is-a-subclass-of Car v Car is-a-superclass-of 4-Wheel
Drive Car.

Hnh 3.2. V d v lp t

Cc quan h is-a-subclass-of to ra mt cu trc dng cy miu t cc i tng


lin quan n mt i tng khc nh th no.
Quan h ph bin khc l quan h c part-of, m t cc i tng kt hp li
vi nhau nh th no hnh thnh cc i tng ghp. Th d, nu Ontology v lp
t (hnh 3.2) c m rng bao gm khi nim Steering Wheel, th c quan h dng
Steering Wheel is-by-definition-a-part-of-a Ford Explorer. Khi Ontology thm vo
cc quan h part-of th cu trc cy tr nn phc tp v gp nhiu kh khn bin
dch bng tay. Tng t quan h is-a-subclass-of v is-by-definition-a-part-of-a, cc
Ontology thng bao gm cc quan h b sung m t ng ngha cho min ng
dng c th. Chng hn nh cc quan h:
-

Cc quan h gia cc lp.

Cc quan h gia cc i tng.

Cc quan h gia mt i tng v mt lp.

Cc quan h gia mt i tng ring l v mt tp i tng.

Cc mi quan h gia cc tp i tng.

Cc quan h trong mt min c th c dng lu tr cc kiu d liu c th


hoc tr li cc cu hi c bit.

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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3.2 Ngn ng Web Ontology (Web Ontology Language)


Ngn ng Web Ontology OWL (Web Ontology Language) l mt h ngn ng
biu din tri thc cho cc Ontology, v c xc nhn bi W3C (World Wide Web
Consortium). H cc ngn ng ny phn ln da trn hai ng ngha: ng ngha OWL
DL v OWL Lite. Trong khi OWL Full s dng mt m hnh ng ngha mi nhm
cung cp tnh tng thch vi RDF Schema. Cc Ontology OWL a s thng s dng
c php RDF/XML, v OWL l mt trong cc cng ngh nn tng h tr Web ng
ngha (Semantic Web).
Khung m t ti nguyn RDF (Resource Description Framework) l mt h
thng cc c im k thut ca W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) c thit k
c o nh mt m hnh siu d liu. RDF c dng m t khi nim hoc m
hnh ha thng tin [61].
RDF Schema (vit tt khc nh RDFS, RDF (S), RDF-S, hoc RDF/S) l mt
ngn ng biu din tri thc m rng, cung cp cc thnh phn c bn m t
Ontology. RDF Schema cn c gi l t vng RDF, dng cu trc cc ti nguyn
RDF [62].
3.2.1 OWL Ontology
Trong OWL Ontology, d liu c m t nh mt tp cc i tng v mt tp
cc thuc tnh lin kt cc i tng vi nhau. OWL Ontology c mt tp cc rng
buc gia cc lp v cc quan h gia cc lp . Cc rng buc ny cung cp ng
ngha cho Ontology, v c th cho php h thng tm cc thng tin b sung da vo d
liu bit.
V d, Ontology c rng buc thuc tnh hasMother ch c lin kt gia hai
i tng khi thuc tnh hasParent cng lin kt gia hai i tng . Cc i
tng ca lp HastypeOBlodd khng lin quan n cc i tng ca lp
HasTypeABBlood thng qua thuc tnh hasParent. Nu c pht biu Harriet lin
kt ti i tng Sue qua quan h hasMother v Harriet l mt i tng ca lp
HastypeOBlodd. T , c th c suy lun rng Sue khng l i tng ca lp
HasTypeABBlood.

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Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

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3.2.2 Mi quan h logic m t (Description logics DLs)


Vic xy dng Ontology quy m ln thng c sai st trong cc nh ngha v
lp, thuc tnh. Chng hn, vi quan h is-a th c 18 cch s dng khc nhau. Do
vy, OWL x l sai st da vo logic m t. Logic m t (Description logics DLs)
l mt h thng cc quy tc, v Ontology s dng DLs xy dng ln ng ngha.
3.2.3 Cc dng OWL
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) a ra nh ngha v ba dng khc nhau
ca OWL, vi cc mc m t khc nhau l OWL Lite, OWL DL v OWL Full.
OWL Lite h tr cho nhng ngi dng cn mt phn loi phn cp v cc rng
buc n gin. Chng hn, OWL Lite h tr cc rng buc v s lng th ch cho
php s lng c gi tr l 0 hoc 1. OWL Lite cung cp cc cng c h tr nhm
lm n gin cc quan h nhiu ngh a. Tuy nhin trong thc tin, cc c trng
OWL Lite c kt hp hnh thnh nn cu trc c sn trong OWL DL.
OWL DL c thit k cung cp kh nng m t ti a nht, trong khi gi li
tnh y , tnh quyt nh v tnh sn dng ca nhng thut ton suy lun mang tnh
thc t. OWL DL bao gm tt c cc cu trc ngn ng OWL, nhng ch c th c
s dng trong cc gii hn bit.
OWL Full c hnh thnh da trn cc ng ngha khc nhau t OWL Lite v
OWL DL. OWL Full c thit k m bo tnh tng thch vi RDF Schema.
Trong OWL Full mt lp c th c x l ng thi nh mt tp cc i tng, iu
ny khng c cho php trong OWL DL. OWL Full cho php mt Ontology b sung
ngha ca cc t vng c nh ngha t trc. Nhng thit lp di y m t quan
h gia cc dng OWL, nhng iu ngc li khng ng:
-

Mi Ontology OWL Lite hp l l mt Ontology OWL DL hp l.

Mi Ontology OWL DL hp l l mt Ontology OWL Full hp l.

Mi kt lun OWL Lite hp l l mt kt lun OWL DL hp l.

Mi kt lun OWL DL hp l l mt kt lun OWL Full hp l.

20

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

3.3 Sesame
3.3.1 Khi nim v Sesame
Chng ti gii thiu trong phn 3.2, khung m t ti nguyn RDF (Resource
Description Framework) l mt h thng cc c im k thut ca W3C (World Wide
Web Consortium) c thit k c o nh mt m hnh siu d liu. RDF c
dng m t khi nim hoc m hnh ha thng tin.
RDF Schema (vit tt khc nh RDFS, RDF (S), RDF-S, RDF/S) l mt ngn
ng biu din tri thc m rng, cung cp cc thnh phn c bn m t Ontology.
RDF Schema cn c gi l t vng RDF, dng cu trc cc ti nguyn RDF.
Sesame l mt Java framework m ngun m lu tr, truy vn v suy lun i
vi RDF v RDF schema [59]. Sesame c th c s dng nh l mt c s d liu
cho RDF v RDF Schema, hoc l mt th vin Java cho cc ng dng cn tm kim
thng tin bn trong RDF.
Nu mt ng dng cn c mt file RDF ln, tm thng tin thch hp, v s dng
thng tin . Sesame cung cp nhng cng c cn thit phn tch, bin dch, truy
vn v lu tr tt c cc thng tin ny, nhng vo trong ng dng . Ngoi ra,
Sesame cung cp mt cng c cha ng cc tnh nng hu ch i vi RDF.
3.3.1.1 Sesame Server
Sesame c th c s dng nh l mt my ch vi cc ng dng khch c th
giao tip thng qua HTTP. Sesame c th c trin khai nh l mt ng dng Java
Servlet trong Apache Tomcat mt webserver h tr Java Servlets v ngn ng JSP.

Hnh 3.3. Sesame server [59]

21

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

3.3.1.2 Kho d liu v suy lun (Repositories and Inferencing)


Sesame framework c khi nim v kho d liu (repository). Mt kho d liu l
mt b lu tr cho RDF hoc l mt c s d liu quan h. Hu ht cc tng tc ca
Sesame u lin quan ti kho d liu, khi thm d liu RDF th b sung vo mt kho
d liu no , v thc hin truy vn i vi mt kho d liu c th.
Vi mt tp RDF v (hoc) RDF schema, Sesame h tr suy lun RDF Schema
(RDF Schema inferencing). Sesame c th tm thy thng tin n trong kho d liu do
d dng thm cc thng tin n vo kho d liu.
3.3.1.3 Tng quan kin trc Sesame

Hnh 3.4. Kin trc ca Sesame [59]

Tng lu tr v suy lun (the Storage And Inference Layer SAIL API) l giao
din chng trnh ng dng bn trong Sesame (internal Sesame API - Application
program interface) cung cp h tr suy lun (hnh 3.4). Cc x l ca SAIL cung cp
chc nng nh b nh m hoc x l truy cp ng thi. Mi kho d liu Sesame c
i tng SAIL ring biu din cho kho d liu .

22

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

Trong kin trc ca Sesame (hnh 3.4), pha trn SAIL, l cc module chc nng
ca Sesame, chng hn nh cc cng c truy vn SeRQL, RQL v RDQL, module
qun tr, v module trch xut file RDF. Truy cp vo cc module chc nng c sn
thng qua cc giao din chng trnh ng dng truy cp ca Sesame (Sesame's Access
APIs), bao gm hai phn ring bit: Repository API v Graph API. Repository API
cung cp quyn truy cp bc cao vo cc kho d liu Sesame, chng hn nh truy vn,
lu tr cc file RDF, trch xut file RDF, Graph API cung cp nhiu h tr b sung
cho x l RDF, chng hn nh cc cu lnh thm v loi b thc th, v to ra cc m
hnh RDF nh trc tip t code. Hai API ny b sung chc nng cho nhau, v thng
c s dng cng nhau trong cc ng dng.
Access APIs cung cp truy cp trc tip vo cc module chc nng ca Sesame,
hoc truy cp vo mt chng trnh khch (v d, mt ng dng vn phng s dng
th vin Sesame), hoc truy cp trc tip vo thnh phn tip theo l Sesame server.
Sesame server mt thnh phn cung cp cc truy cp da vo HTTP ti cc API ca
Sesame. Sau , trn pha my khch HTTP xa, tm Access APIs, s dng cho cc
giao tip vi Sesame.
3.3.2 Ci t Sesame
Sesame c th trin khai theo mt vi cch. Hai phng php ph bin nht bao
gm vic trin khai nh l mt th vin java, hoc trin khai nh l mt my ch.
3.3.2.1 Ci t th vin Sesame
Th vin Sesame gm tp cc file:
-

Sesame.jar

Rio.jar: Rio (RDF I/O) l mt tp cc b phn tch v b ghi cho cc nh


dng RDF (RDF/XML, Turtle, N-Triples).

Openrdf-model.jar: Cc lp c s dng chung cho cc m hnh RDF.

Openrdf-util.jar: Cc lp dch v c s dng chung.

Nhng lu tr (nm trong th mc lib/) cha cc lp Java c sn s dng


trong cc ng dng ring.
Sesame yu cu Java 2, phin bn 1.4 (hoc mi hn) hot ng ng.

23

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

Nu ci t Sesame s dng m hnh my khch my ch qua giao thc HTTP,


th cn thm cc th vin: Jakarta Commons File Upload, Jakarta Commons IO. Cc
th vin ny c th c tm thy trong th mc ext/ ca m ngun Sesame.
3.3.2.2 Ci t my ch Sesame
Phn mm c yu cu
My ch Sesame yu cu cc phn mm: Sesame, v Java servlet container
chy cc Sesame servlets.
Sesame s c th chy trn bt k Java servlet container h tr cc c im
k thut Servlet 2.2 v JSP 1.1, hoc mi hn. Sesame c th nghim vi
Tomcat, v trong Oracle, vi OC4J.
Sesame c mt s la chn lu tr d liu RDF, Sesame c th lu tr d liu
trong b nh, hoc c th lu tr d liu trn a trong mt cu trc file chuyn dng,
hoc n c th lu tr d liu trong mt c s d liu quan h.
Ci t Sesame trn Tomcat
Cc bc m t quy trnh ci t Sesame trn Tomcat:
-

Ci t Tomcat theo mc nh.

Ti th mc cc ng dng web ([TOMCAT_DIR]/webapps/) v to mt


th mc tn l sesame.

Gii nn file sesame.war (c th tm c file ny trong th mc lib/) vo


trong th mc sesame va c to mi trong th mc cc ng dng web
ca Tomcat.

Sao chp file [SESAME_DIR]/WEB-INF/system.conf.example thnh


[SESAME_DIR]/WEB-INF/system.conf.

Khi ng li Tomcat server v Sesame s bt u hot ng. Truy cp


vo giao din web Sesame ti http://localhost:8080/sesame .

24

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

3.3.2.3 Qun tr my ch
Thay i cu hnh h thng
Cu hnh ca Sesame c thit lp trong file [SESAME_DIR]/WEBINF/system.conf. thay i file cu hnh s dng cng c Configure Sesame! c sn
trong [SESAME_DIR]/WEB-INF/bin/. bt u thay i cu hnh, s dng
configSesame.bat (trn Windows) hoc configSesame.sh (trn UNIX) (hnh 3.5).
Np cu hnh h thng

Hnh 3.5. Cu hnh Sesame

Khi bt u Configure Sesame!, np file system.conf. Nu mun cu hnh


Sesame server ang chy, th c th np file trc tip t server ([File] [Load from
server...]), v nhp mt khu qun tr l admin.
Lu tr mt cu hnh h thng
Khi thay i cu hnh, cu hnh c th lu tr trn a ([File] [Save file as...]),
hoc c th gi trc tip ti Sesame server ang chy ( [File] [Send to server...]).

25

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

Thit lp mt khu qun tr


Nu cu hnh h thng khng thay i mt khu qun tr t trc, thit lp mt
khu, chn tab Server v thay th mt khu qun tr.
Thm v loi b ti khon ngi s dng
thm hoc loi b ti khon ngi dng, thc hin theo bc sau:
-

M tab Users.

Click vo biu tng Add user.

loi b ti khon ngi dng th click vo nt Remove user.

Cu hnh cc kho d liu


Cu hnh cc kho d liu c sn, hoc thm mi, hoc loi b kho d liu bi
vic thit lp cu hnh s dng Configure Sesame! (hnh 3.5).
Chnh sa cu hnh mt kho d liu c sn
M tab Repositories v la chn kho d liu s thay i cu hnh, click nt
Repository details (hnh 3.6).

Hnh 3.6. Cu hnh kho d liu c sn trong Sesame

26

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

Trong ca s Repository (hnh 3.6) c th chnh sa mt s thng s ca kho d


liu. Phn pha trn ca s hin th ngn xp SAIL, phn pha di hin th cc thng
s SAIL c la chn trong ngn xp. Trong hu ht trng hp, cu hnh ch cn
chnh sa cc thng s pha di SAIL trong ngn xp.
Ca s thng tin chi tit Repository cng cho php cu hnh thay i cc quyn
truy cp ca ngi s dng i vi mt kho d liu. thay i quyn truy cp, s
dng tab Access rights, v chnh sa cc quyn ca ngi s dng hin hnh hoc
thm ngi dng mi.
Thm cc kho d liu mi
thm mt kho d liu mi th cu hnh ch cn sinh bn sao ca kho d liu c
sn. S dng nt Clone trn tab Repository thc hin vic ny. Vic ny to mt
bn sao ca cu hnh kho d liu hin thi c la chn, v sau c th chnh sa.
Loi b cc kho d liu
loi b mt kho d liu, la chn tab Repository, la chn mt kho d liu v
click vo nt Remove.
3.3.3 Giao din web ca Sesame
Sesame i km vi mt giao din Web cho php truy cp ti cc kho d liu
thng qua trnh duyt Web thng thng.
3.3.3.1 ng nhp
Trang u vo ca Sesame c t ti http://localhost:8080/sesame. Mn hin
th cung cp cho la chn cc kho d liu thao tc trn . ng nhp vo
Sesame, click lin kt log in v cung cp tn ngi dng v mt khu.Sau khi ng
nhp, la chn kho d liu mun thc hin cc x l.
Sau khi la chn kho d liu, mn hnh hin th giao din chc nng ca Sesame
(hnh 3.7).

27

Chng 3. Ontology Sesame

Nguyn Quc i

Hnh 3.7. Giao din we b ca Sesame

Cc cng c trn nh ca mn hnh hin th thng tin ngi dng v thng tin
kho d liu, v cho php la chn cc thao tc khc nhau trn kho d liu ny. Cc
thao tc ny c phn loi trong cc thao tc c (chng hn nh cc truy vn) v
trong cc thao tc ghi (thm v loi b d liu).
3.3.3.2 Thm d liu vo mt kho d
Giao din web cung cp ba la chn thm d liu vo mt kho d liu
Sesame: Add file, Add (www) v Add (copy-paste).
Cc la chn Add file v Add (www) khng phc tp, la chn u tin cho
php la chn mt ti liu RDF trn a thm vo kho d liu Sesame, v la chn
th hai cho php thm cc ti liu RDF qua mt URL ti kho d liu.
Ty chn Add (copy-paste) cho php ti d liu ti Sesame bng cch g (hoc
sao chp v dn) trong vng vn bn. Vn bn c g l ti liu RDF/XML hp l.

28

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Chng 4.
H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Mc 4.1 chng ti gii thiu kin trc tng quan v h thng, cc thnh phn ca h
thng. Mc 4.2, chng ti gii thiu cch x l cu hi u vo ca h thng [1]. Mc
4.3, chng ti a ra cch thit k Ontology, v chng ti thit k mt Ontology th
nghim cho t chc, c th l trng i hc Cng Ngh. Mc 4.4 v 4.5, chng ti
m t h thng trch rt cu tr li bi thnh phn nh x Ontology v thnh phn trch
chn cu tr li. Cc cu hi c a ra trong min ng dng c th da trn
Ontology thit k trong mc 4.3, t chng ti a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt
nht c th ti ngi dng.

4.1 Kin trc tng quan ca h thng


Kin trc ca h thng (hnh 4.1) s gm hai thnh phn chnh, thnh phn x l
cu hi ngn ng t nhin, v thnh phn tm kim cu tr li. Trong kha lun ny,
chng ti s tp trung vo thnh phn tm kim cu tr li. Thnh phn x l cu hi
ngn ng t nhin m chng ti s dng c a ra bi Nguyn Quc t [1].
Cu hi
ngn ng t nhin

Cu tr li
ng ngha

Thnh phn x l
cu hi
ngn ng t nhin

Thnh phn
tm kim
cu tr li

Sesame
server
ONTOLOGY
OWL

B biu din
trung gian

Hnh 4.1. Kin trc tng quan ca h thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

29

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Thnh phn tm kim cu tr li c chia lm hai thnh phn chnh l thnh


phn nh x Ontology v thnh phn trch chn cu tr li. Chng ti s gii thiu v
hai thnh phn ny i vi tng loi cu hi c th trong mc 4.4, 4.5. Chng ti s
dng thnh phn nh x Ontology to b m t tng ng vi Ontology, v dng
thnh phn trch chn cu tr li a ra cu tr li ng ngha nht c th ti ngi
dng.
ONTOLOGY

Sesame server

B biu din
trung gian

OWL

Thut ton
khong cch xu

Thnh phn tm kim cu tr li

Tin x l
Pre-processing

B ba m t tng
ng vi Ontol ogy

nh x
Ontology

Trch chn
cu tr li

Tng tc
Cu tr li
ng ngha

Ngi
s dng

Hnh 4.2. Kin trc ca thnh phn tm ki m cu tr li

Hnh 4.2 m t kin trc ca thnh phn tm kim cu tr li. B biu din trung
gian cho cu hi sau khi c tin x l, l u vo cho nh x Ontology. nh x
Ontoloyg kt hp vi d liu t Ontology lu trn Sesame server, s dng thut ton
khong cch xu. Thut ton khong cch xu c s dng tm cc thut ng
tng ng thch hp trong Ontology v nh x Ontology cng c th tng tc vi
ngi dng c thut ng ph hp vi Ontology. nh x Ontology hnh thnh b m
t tng ng vi Ontology. V thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s dng b m t ny
a ra cu tr li ng ngha nht ti ngi s dng.

30

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Cu hi c x l bi thnh phn x l ngn ng t nhin c Nguyn Quc


t a ra [1], v hnh thnh nn b biu din trung gian. B biu din trung gian ny
m t thng tin cho cu hi u vo. Ty vo cu hi n gin hay phc tp m b
biu din trung gian c cho di dng quan h bc hai gia hai thut ng hoc quan
h bc ba gia ba thut ng. B biu din trung gian quan h bc hai c dng (thut
ng 1, quan h, thut ng 2). Trong , thut ng 1 v thut ng 2 l cc cm t
trong cu mang thng tin v i tng cng nh khi nim mun hi, v quan h l
cm t trong cu th hin quan h gia hai thut ng . Chng hn, vi cu hi:
Nguyn Quc i hc lp no? (lp, hc, Nguyn Quc i).
Trong trng hp ny b biu din trung gian gi l b ba biu din quan h bc
hai. Tng t nh vy, b biu din trung gian quan h bc ba c dng (thut ng 1,
quan h, thut ng 2, thut ng 3), cn c gi l b ba biu din quan h bc ba.
Ty thuc vo tng cu hi c th m b ba biu din cho cu hi c th thiu
thut ng 1 hoc quan h. V d:
hc sinh ca lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh l ai?
(?, hc sinh, lp khoa hc my tnh, trng i hc cng ngh).
nh x Ontology da vo b ba biu din cu hi ny hnh thnh nn cc b
m t cc khi nim, i tng v quan h tng ng vi Ontology. Cc b m t ny
cng c biu din di dng b ba quan h nh trn, nn chng ti gi l b ba m
t tng ng vi Ontology. Sau , thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s dng cc b ba
m t ny a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht ti ngi dng. Tng quan chi tit
v x l ca thnh phn nh x Ontology v trch chn cu tr li i vi cc cu hi
s c chng ti a ra trong 4.4 v 4.5.
Mc di y, chng ti gii thiu v thnh phn x l ngn ng t nhin [1].
Thnh phn x l ngn ng t nhin phn loi cu hi u vo hnh thnh nn cc
b ba biu din trung gian cho cu hi.

31

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.2 X l cu hi ngn ng t nhin


Thnh phn x l ngn ng t nhin [1], phn cc cu hi vo cc loi c th.
Phn loi cu hi cung cp nhng rng buc ng ngha cho cu tr li mong mun, v
cung cp thng tin nh x Ontology da vo hnh thnh nn cc b ba m t,
cng nh h thng to cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th cho cu hi. Cc cu hi
c phn loi nh sau:
NORMAL: cu hi c b ba biu din trung gian l quan h bc hai gia hai khi
nim v c ba thnh phn. V d:
sinh vin no hc lp k50 khoa hc my tnh? (sinh vin, hc, lp k50 khoa
hc my tnh).
UNKN_TERM: cu hi c b ba biu din trung gian l quan h bc hai gia hai
khi nim, nhng thiu thut ng u. V d:
m sinh vin ca Nguyn Quc i l g? (?, m sinh vin, Nguyn Quc
i).
UNKN_REL: cu hi c b ba biu din trung gian l quan h bc hai nhng thiu
quan h gia hai thut ng. V d:
lp khoa hc my tnh c nhng sinh vin no? (lp khoa hc my tnh, ?,
sinh vin).
AFFIRM_NEG: y l cc cu hi dng ng sai. V d:
Nguyn Quc i c qu l H Ni phi khng? (Nguyn Quc t, c
qu, H Ni)
THREETERM: y l loi cu hi phc tp, cu hi c biu din b ba quan h
bc ba gia ba thut ng (thut ng 1, quan h, thut ng 2, thut ng 3). Ty vo
tng cu hi, b ba ny c th y thnh phn, hoc thiu quan h, hoc thiu
thut ng th nht.

32

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

V d:
sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
(sinh vin, hc, lp khoa hc my tnh, trng i hc cng ngh)
trng ca Nguyn Quc i ca Nguyn Quc t l g? (?, trng,
Nguyn Quc i, Nguyn quc t).
Trn y l cc loi cu hi m chng ti a ra hi h thng ny. Sau khi
chng ti thit k xong Ontology (phn 4.3), chng ti a ra tng quan v thnh phn
nh x Ontology v trch chn cu tr li (mc 4.4, 4.5) da trn cc loi cu hi nu
trn. T , chng ti nh gi h thng cho cc cu hi c hi.

33

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.3 Thit k Ontology bng Protege


Nh cp chng 3, trong khoa hc my tnh, Ontology lu tr thng tin
v min ng dng c th. Ontology l biu din hnh thc ca mt tp cc khi nim
v mt min c th v cc mi quan h gia cc khi nim. Trong Ontology, lp l tp
hp cc i tng, cc thuc tnh l cc c trng m cc i tng (v cc lp) c th
c, cn mi quan h l cch m cc lp, cc i tng th hin s lin kt ti cc lp
hoc cc i tng khc.
Hai quan h ph bin trong Ontology l is-a-superclass-of v is-a-subclass-of. V
d, trng is-a-superclass-of khoa, khoa is-a-subclass-of trng. Ngoi hai quan h
trn, Ontology c s dng th hin cc quan h trong min v phn loi cc quan
h, chng hn nh:
-

Cc quan h gia cc lp.

Cc quan h gia cc cc i tng.

Cc quan h gia cc mt i tng v mt lp.

Do vy, vic thit k Ontology l cc k quan trng th hin tri thc v min
ng dng c th.
H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology ca chng ti c th p dng i
vi nhiu min ng dng. Tuy nhin, trong kha lun ny, chng ti thit k mt
Ontology th nghim v mt t chc, c th l trng i hc Cng Ngh. T ,
da vo Ontology c thit k, chng ti s dng Sesame server lu tr v cn c
vo , chng ti s m t chi tit thnh phn nh x Ontology v trch chn cu tr li
(trong mc 4.4 v 4.5).
Chng ti thit k th nghim Ontology cho trng i hc Cng Ngh bng
cng c Protege 3.3.1 [68]. Vic pht trin mt Ontology, bao gm cc bc sau:
-

nh ngha cc lp trong Ontology.

Xp xp cc lp theo mt trt t lp cha lp con.

nh ngha cc thuc tnh, miu t cc gi tr cho cc thuc tnh ny.

in cc gi tr vo cc thuc tnh cho cc i tng.

Di y, chng ti trnh by cch thit k Ontology th nghim v trng i


hc Cng Ngh.

34

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.3.1 Thit k cc lp trong Ontology


Ty thuc vo cch thit k i vi Ontology, c th thit k cc lp mt cch
ring r hoc c th thit k phn cp. Sau khi nghin cu v phn tch cc khi nim
c th lin quan ti trng i hc Cng Ngh, chng ti a ra cc khi nim v cc
lp trong Ontology (hnh 4.3).
- Trng: lp tng quan trong Ontology.
- B_mn: is-a-subclass-of trng, c cc i tng: cng_ngh_phn_mm,
khoa_hc_my_tnh, mng_my_tnh,
- Khoa: is-a-subclass-of trng, c cc i tng: cng_ngh_thng_tin,
in_t_vin_thng,
- Lp: is-a-subclass-of trng, c cc i tng: k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh,
k50_cng_ngh_phn_mm, v l lp con ca lp trng.
- Mn: is-a-subclass-of trng, c cc i tng: hc_my, x_l_nh,
x_l_ngn_ng_t_nhin, _ha_my_tnh,
- Person: is-a-subclass-of trng, lp ny m t cc i tng v ngi, person
is-a-superclass-of ging_vin, person is-a-superclass-of sinh_vin.
- Ging_vin: is-a-subclass-of person, c i tng l cc ging vin ca trng.
- Sinh_vin: is-a-subclass-of person, c i tng l sinh vin ca trng, chng
hn: nguyn_quc_i, nguyn_quc_t, nguyn_b_t,
- Phng_th_nghim: is-a-subclass-of trng.
- which: bao gm cc khi nim v chc v, hc hm, hc v,
- Chc_v: is-a-subclass-of which, c cc i tng nh: hiu_trng,
trng_phng, lp_trng,
- Hc_hm: is-a-subclass-of which, c cc cc i tng: gio_s, ph_gio_s.
- Hc_v: is-a-subclass-of which, c hai i tng: thc_s, tin_s.
- M: is-a-subclass-of which, c cc i tng l m ca sinh vin: s0520097,
- Qu: is-a-subclass-of

which, c cc i tng:

h_ni, hi_dng,

bc_giang,
Hnh 4.3, chng ti m t cc lp c thit k trong Ontology bi Protege.

35

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Hnh 4.3. Cc lp trong Ontology v trng i hc

4.3.2 Thit k thuc tnh trong Ontology


Trong Protege, mi quan h gia cc i tng ca cc lp c m t thng qua
cc thuc tnh. Cc thuc tnh ny c phn vo cc loi nh Functional (mt i
tng ch c th lin kt ti mt i tng khc qua thuc tnh ny), InverseFunctional
(thuc tnh ny c thuc tnh o ngc), Transitive (thuc tnh bc cu), Symmetric.
Cc thuc tnh

c thit k trong Ontology bi Protege c hai trng l

domain v range. Hai trng ny dng m t cc lp trong Ontology lin quan


vi nhau thng qua thuc tnh . Mi thuc tnh s lin kt cc i tng trong cc
lp c t trong trng domain ti cc i tng trong cc lp c t trong
trng range. Lp con c tha k thuc tnh t cc lp cha ca n.

36

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Trong qun trnh phn tch v nghin cu cc mi quan h lin, chng ti thit k
m t mt s quan h thng qua cc thuc tnh (hnh 4.4).

Hnh 4.4. Cc thuc tnh trong Ontology v trng i hc

Sau khi thit k xong cc lp, cc thuc tnh, cng vi cc i tng trong
mi lp. Chng ti in gi tr tng ng cho lin kt i vi mi i tng da the o
thuc tnh. Chng hn:
nguyn_quc_i hc k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh
nguyn_quc_i c_qu h_ni,
Thit k Ontology cn mt qu trnh lu di, nghin cu cc khi nim, phn tch
cc mi quan h cn chnh xc. Sau , chng ti p dng Ontology th nghim ny
cho h thng, ri nh gi hot ng ca h thng da vo cc cu hi c a ra.

37

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4 nh x Ontology
nh x Ontology l nn tng trong h thng hi p ting Vit ca chng ti.
Cu hi u vo s c phn tch di dng b ba biu din trung gian bi thnh
phn x l cu hi [1], b ba biu din trung gian ny l u vo cho nh x Ontology.
nh x Ontology hnh thnh nn cc b ba m t cc khi nim, i tng cng vi
mi quan h tng thch vi Ontology. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s dng cc
b ba m t ny a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi s dng.
to b ba m t cc khi nim, quan h v i tng tng ng vi Ontology,
trc tin, t b ba biu din trung gian thu c do [1], nh x Ontology s dng tp
t ng ngha i vi tng thnh phn ca b ba. Sau , cc thut ng c so
khp vi cc khi nim v i tng bn trong Ontology. Nu so khp khng thnh
cng, nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm cc khi nim v
i tng tng t trong Ontology. Nu thut ton khong cch xu tr li nhiu hn
mt kt qu, khi y xy ra nhp nhng v ngha ca cc thut ng, th h thng a ra
tng tc vi ngi dng, yu cu la ch n khi nim hoc i tng thch hp.
Sau khi tm c cc thut ng ch khi nim v i tng tng ng trong
Ontology, da vo chng, nh x Ontology tm kim cc mi quan h so khp vi
quan h u vo. Nu so khp khng c, nh x Ontology s dng thut ton
khong cch xu hoc tng tc vi ngi s dng. Khi nh x Ontology tm c
quan h tng ng trong Ontology, h thng hnh thnh cc b ba m t cc khi
nim, i tng cng mi quan h ph hp vi Ontology. Cc b ba thu u vo cho
thnh phn trch chn cu tr li a ra cu tr li ng ngha nht c th.
Thnh phn nh x Ontology x l ty theo tng trng hp c th, i vi tng
loi cu hi khc nhau c cch x l khc nhau. Cc loi cu hi c phn lm hai
dng, cu hi n gin v cu hi phc tp. Cc cu hi dng n gin c phn loi:
- sinh vin no hc lp k50 khoa hc my tnh NORMAL: (sinh vin,
hc, lp k50 khoa hc my tnh) nh x Ontology (sinh_vin, hc,
k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh).
- m ca Nguyn Quc i l g UNKN_TERM: (?, m, Nguyn Quc
i) nh x Ontology (m, c_m, nguyn_quc_i).

38

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

- Nguyn Quc i c a ch u UNKN_TERM: (?, a ch, Nguyn


Quc i) nh x Ontology (?, c_a_ch, nguyn_quc_i).
- lp k50 khoa hc my tnh c nhng sinh vin no UNKN_REL: (sinh
vin, ?, lp k50 khoa hc my tnh) nh x Ontology (sinh_vin, hc |
c_sinh_vin, k50_khoa_hc_my tnh).
- Nguyn Quc i c qu H ni phi khng AFFIRM_NEG:
(Nguyn Quc i, c qu, H Ni) nh x Ontology (nguyn_quc_i,
c_qu, h_ni).
i vi cc cu hi phc tp, khi chng c phn tch bi [1], th thu c b
ba biu din trung gian quan h bc ba, v c phn loi THREETERM. Ty vo
tng cu hi, b ba ny c th thiu thut ng u, hoc thiu quan h, hoc y
bn thnh phn. Sau khi nh x Ontology kt thc, h thng thu c hai b ba m t
tng ng vi Ontology. Chng hn:
sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
(sinh vin, hc, lp khoa hc my tnh, trng i hc cng ngh) nh x Ontology

(sinh_vin,

hc,

k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh)

(sinh_vin,

hc,

i_hc_cng_ngh).
Di y, chng ti m t cch x l ca thnh phn nh x Ontology i vi
tng loi cu hi c th. Trc ht, chng ti gii thiu cch x l i vi cu hi n
gin, t , chng ti m t hot ng ca nh x Ontology i vi cu hi phc
tp.
4.4.1 nh x Ontology cho cu hi n gin
Cc cu hi sau khi c phn tch bi thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t
nhin [1], c xp vo cc loi tng ng. y, trong mc ny, chng ti m t i
vi mt s loi cu hi nh NORMAL, UNKN_TERM, UNKN_REL,
AFFIRM_NEG. Cc cu hi c biu din bi mt b ba quan h bc hai gia hai
thut ng, v b ba biu din ny l u vo cho nh x Ontology. Nhng ty vo tng
loi cu hi m nh x Ontology s c cch tm kim thut ng thch hp trong
Ontology. nh x Ontology x l i vi cc loi cu hi n gin ny c m t
nh hnh 4.5.

39

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Thng tin trong Ontology

Thut ton khong cch xu

Tng tc ngi dng

Thut ng 1

B
ba
biu
din Quan h
trung
gian

Thut ng 2

Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Thut_ng_1

So khp thng tin trong Ontology


Tp quan h

So khp thng tin trong Ontology


Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Thut_ng_2

Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Quan_h

So khp thng tin trong Ontology

Hnh 4.5. Tng quan v nh x Ontology i vi cu hi n gin

Trong m hnh tng quan ny (hnh 4.5), c s tri thc Ontology c lu tr


trong Sesame Server. nh x Ontology ly tt c cc thng tin v cc khi nim (m t
cc lp), cc i tng, v cc thuc tnh m t quan h trong Ontology. Cc thng tin
ny c s dng so khp vi b ba u vo. Nu qu trnh so khp khng thnh
cng th nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm cc khi nim
(hoc cc i tng, cc quan h trong Ontology) tng t vi cc thnh phn trong
b ba u vo. Nu thut ton khong cch xu tr li nhiu hn mt gi tr, tc l
nhp nhng xy ra, th nh x Ontology yu cu tng tc vi ngi dng la chn
thng tin thch hp tng ng vi Ontology.
Vi mt u vo l b ba biu din trung gian (quan h bc hai gia hai thut
ng) (hnh 4.5), cc thnh phn ca b ba c tin x l v s dng tp t ng ngha
so khp vi cc khi nim (cc lp), cc i tng v cc quan h trong Ontology.
nh x Ontology trc tin s so khp cc thut ng tm kim thut ng tng ng
trong Ontology. Cc thut ng c th mang ni dung ch v mt khi nim hoc mt
i tng c th no .

40

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Nu vic so khp khng thnh cng, nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong
cch xu tm cc khi nim (hoc cc i tng) tng t trong Ontology. Nu gi
tr so snh tng t gia hai khi nim (hoc gia hai i tng) ln hn ngng
cho trc th thut ton tr li khi nim (hoc i tng) tng ng. Hoc nu thut
ton khong cch xu tr li nhiu hn mt kt qu, khi , nhp nhng v ngha ca
cc thut ng vn xy ra. V d, khi thut ton khong cch xu so snh lp khoa hc
my tnh vi cc i tng trong Ontology. Khi y, s nhp nhng xy ra khi kt qu
ca thut ton tr li i tng k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh l thc th ca lp lp v
i tng khoa_hc_my_tnh l i tng ca lp b_mn trong Ontology. Lc
ny, nh x Ontology a ra yu cu tng tc vi ngi dng la chn thut ng
tng ng. Sau khi ngi dng phn hi li , h thng tm c thut ng cn thit ph
hp vi Ontology. Cc thut ng ny chnh l cc thut ng ch khi nim biu din
mt lp trong Ontology, hoc l cc thut ng ch i tng thuc v mt lp no
trong Ontology.
Da vo cc thut ng va tm c, nh x Ontology tm tt c cc quan h gia
hai thut ng ny. Sau , nh x Ontology nu so khp quan h khng thnh cng th
s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm quan h tng ng. Nu nhp nhng v
ngha xy ra do thut ton khong cch xu tr li nhiu hn mt kt qu, th h thng
a ra yu cu tng tc vi ngi s dng. Sau bc ny, nh x Ontology tm c
quan h thch hp gia hai thut ng trong Ontology. Nhng ty thuc vo tng loi
cu hi, chng hn nh cu hi UNKN_TERM (thiu thut ng u tin), c trng
hp tm c mi quan h thng qua thut ton khong cch xu, nhng cng c
trng hp chnh cm t miu t quan h trong cu li l thut ng ch khi nim m
t mt lp no trong Ontology.
Chng ti s a ra v d c th cho tng trng hp xem xt cch gii quyt
ca thnh phn nh x Ontology. Nh vy, kt thc qu trnh nh x Ontology, hnh
thnh b ba m t cc khi nim, i tng v quan h ph hp vi Ontology. B ba
m t ny l u vo cho thnh phn trch chn cu tr li a ra cu tr li ng ngha
tt nht c th ti ngi dng. Di y, miu t cch x l ca h thng i vi
thnh phn nh x Ontology, chng ti a ra mt s v d v tng loi cu hi v
cch x l i vi chng.

41

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4.1.1 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi NORMAL


u tin, vi loi cu hi NORMAL miu t bi mt b ba c to thnh do
mt mi quan h nh phn r rng gia hai thut ng xc nh. V d vi cu hi:
thy gio no ging dy lp k50 khoa hc my tnh?
B biu din trung gian l b ba u vo cho nh x Ontology c cho di
dng (thy gio, ging dy, lp k50 khoa hc my tnh). Trc tin, nh x Ontology
tin x l v s dng tp t ng ngha i vi cc thnh phn ca b ba. Sau , nh
x Ontology nhn bit c thut ng thy gio chnh l thut ng ch khi nim
ging_vin m t lp ging_vin trong Ontology. nh x Ontology s dng thut
ton khong cch xu i vi lp k50 khoa hc my tnh th nhn c thut ng
ch i tng k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh l thc th trong lp lp trong Ontology.
Tip n, thnh phn nh x Ontology s tm cc quan h lin kt gia lp
ging_vin v lp lp trong Ontology. Sau , t tp quan h tm c, so khp
vi thut ng ging dy, nh x Ontology tm c thut ng ch quan h
ging_dy trong Ontology. nh x Ontology hnh thnh b ba m t l (ging_vin,
ging_dy, k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh) tng ng vi Ontology, t thnh phn trch
chn cu tr li a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi dng (hnh 4.6).

Hnh 4.6. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi NORMAL

42

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4.1.2 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi UNKN_REL


Tip n, hiu r hot ng ca thnh phn nh x Ontology, chng ti xem
xt loi cu hi thiu mi quan h trong cu v c phn loi UNKN_REL bi
thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin [1]. Xt cu hi:
trng i hc cng ngh c hc sinh no?
Cu hi trch ra b ba di dng (hc sinh, ?, trng i hc cng ngh). Thut
ng hc sinh sau khi c tin x l, v s dng tp t vng ng ngha th c
nhn bit l sinh_vin biu din cho lp sinh_vin trong Ontology. Thut ng
trng i hc cng ngh c nhn bit l i tng i_hc_cng_ngh ca lp
trng trong Ontology bi vic dng thut ton khong cch xu.

Hnh 4.7. nh x Ontology tng tc vi ngi dng i vi loi cu hi UNKN_REL

Do khng c mi quan h c nhn bit trong trng hp ny, v vy h thng


xt tt c cc mi quan h gia hai lp trong Ontology l sinh_vin v trng, v
a ra la chn ti ngi dng yu cu v quan h mong mun gia sinh_vin v
i_hc_cng_ngh (hnh 4.7). Ngi dng a li phn hi ti h thng mi quan
h la chn l hc, hoc c_sinh_vin, hoc la chn c hai quan h. Khi , nh
x Ontology hnh thnh b ba (sinh_vin, hc, i_hc_cng_ngh) hoc (sinh_vin,
c_sinh_vin, i_hc_cng_ngh). Cu tr li c a ra sau khi h thng gi thnh
phn trch chn cu tr li.

43

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4.1.3 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM


Vi nhng cu hi sau khi phn tch bi [1] th thiu thut ng u trong b ba,
c phn loi UNKN_TERM. y, chng ti a ra cc v d miu t r qu
trnh x l ca thnh phn nh x Ontology i vi cc cu hi ny:
-

m sinh vin ca Nguyn Quc i l g?

Nguyn Quc i c m sinh vin l g?

sinh vin c a ch u?

a ch ca sinh vin l g?

i vi hai cu hi u tin, thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin phn


tch [1] v a ra b ba (?, m sinh vin, Nguyn Quc i). Sau khi b ba c tin
x l, nh x Ontology nhn bit m sinh vin l thut ng m da vo tp t
ng ngha. Da vo thut ton khong cch xu, h thng nhn bit c
nguyn_quc_i l thc th trong lp sinh_vin ca Ontology. Lc ny, nh x
Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu gia m v cc quan h ca lp
sinh_vin trong Ontology, v m c nhn bit khng tng t vi bt k mi
quan h no. M nh x Ontology li nhn ra l khi nim m biu din lp m
trong Ontology. Sau , h thng tm cc mi quan h gia lp m v lp
sinh_vin trong Ontology, v c mi quan h c_m gia hai lp ny. nh x
Ontology hnh thnh b ba m t (m, c_m, nguyn_quc_i). Cu tr li cho cu
hi c thnh phn trch chn cu tr li a ra ti ngi dng (hnh 4.8)

Hnh 4.8. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM

44

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Hnh 4.9. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM


i vi hai cu hi sau, b ba u vo cho nh x Ontology l (?, a ch, sinh
vin). nh x Ontology nhn bit c thut ng ch khi nim sinh_vin biu din
cho lp sinh_vin trong Ontology. Lc ny, khi s dng thut ton khong cch xu
so snh a ch vi cc mi quan h ca lp sinh_vin trong Ontology, nh x
Ontology thu c thut ng ch quan h c_a_ch. nh x Ontology hnh thnh
b ba m t (?, c_a_ch, sinh_vin) tng ng vi Ontology. Thnh phn trch chn
cu tr li a ra cu tr li ti ngi dng (hnh 4.9).
Cc cu hi c x l bi thnh phn x l cu hi [1], do vy, chng ti hon
ton xem xt c cu hi mun hi v vn g, hi v ngi, v v tr Da trn
, chng ti c thm cch x l ph hp vi tng loi cu hi. Xem xt cu hi:
hc sinh ca trng i hc cng ngh l ai ?
Thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin [1] cho bit loi cu hi l
UNKN_TERM v loi t hi l QU Who, th h thng nhn bit c cu hi
s cp ti person no (c th l sinh_vin | ging_vin trong thit k
Ontology). Do u vo cho nh x Ontology l (person, hc sinh, trng i hc
cng ngh). B ba ny c tin x l v s dng tp t ng ngha. Sau khi so khp
v s dng thut ton khong cch xu, thnh phn nh x Ontology x l xong, thu
c u ra l b ba m t (person, c_sinh_vin, i_hc_cng_ngh) tng ng vi
Ontology.

45

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4.1.4 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG


H thng m chng ti gii thiu cn x l vi cu hi dng ng sai. Chng
hn, vi cu hi:
Nguyn Quc i hc trng i hc cng ngh phi khng?
Cu hi ny c thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin [1] phn loi vo
loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG (loi cu hi ng sai) v b ba u vo cho nh x
Ontology l (Nguyn Quc i, hc, trng i hc cng ngh). Tng t trn, nh x
Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm thut ng thch hp, th nhn
c thut ng ch i tng nguyn_quc_i l thc th ca lp sinh_vin v
thut ng ch i tng i_hc_cng_ngh l thc th ca lp trng trong
Ontology. Tm cc mi quan h gia hai lp sinh_vin v trng trong Ontology.
Sau , h thng so khp vi quan h ca b ba u vo, nhn bit thut ng ch quan
h hc trong Ontology. nh x Ontology hnh thnh b ba m t (nguyn_quc_i,
hc, i_hc_cng_ngh), t thnh phn trch chn cu tr li a ra cu tr li
tng ng ti ngi dng (hnh 4.10).

Hnh 4.10. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG

46

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.4.2 nh x Ontology i vi loi cu hi THREETERM


Cc cu hi phc tp sau khi c phn tch bi thnh phn x l cu hi [1]
c phn loi THREETERM, v thu c b biu din trung gian di dng quan
h bc ba gia cc thut ng. V nh x Ontology phi x l tm cc quan h gia
cc thut ng vi nhau. Thnh phn nh x Ontology kt thc s a ra hai b ba m
t cc khi nim, i tng v quan h tng ng trong Ontolgy. V hai b ba ny
c s dng l u vo cho thnh phn trch chn cu tr li. Qu trnh x l ca nh
x Ontology c m t bi hnh 4.11.

Thng tin trong Ontology

Thut ton khong cch xu

Tng tc ngi dng

Thut ng 1

Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Thut_ng_1

So khp thng tin trong Ontology

B
Quan h
ba
biu
din
trung Thut ng 2
gian
Thut ng 3

Tp quan h

So khp thng tin trong Ontology


Tin x l & tp t ng ngha
So khp thng tin trong Ontology
Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Thut_ng_2

Thut_ng_3

So khp thng tin trong Ontology

Quan_h_1

Tin x l & tp t ng ngha

Quan_h_2

Hnh 4.11. Tng quan nh x Ontology vi loi cu hi THREETERM

47

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Tng t nh nh x Ontology i vi cu hi n gin, h thng lu tr c s


tri thc Ontology trong Sesame Server. T hnh 4.11, nh x Ontology ly tt c cc
thng tin v cc khi nim, cc i tng, v quan h trong Ontology. Cc thng tin
ny c s dng so khp vi b ba u vo. Nu qu trnh so khp khng thnh
cng th nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm cc khi nim
(hoc cc i tng, cc quan h trong Ontology) tng t vi cc thnh phn trong
b ba u vo. Nu thut ton khong cch xu tr v nhiu hn mt gi tr, th nhp
nhng xy ra, v nh x Ontology yu cu tng tc ngi dng la chn thng tin
tng ng vi Ontology.
Cc cu hi trong cc trng hp ny c x l bi [1], c phn loi
THREETERM, v c biu din bi b ba quan h bc ba gia cc khi nim. Cc
thut ng trong b ba mang thng tin v cc khi nim hoc v cc i tng c th
no trong Ontology, cn quan h th m t lin quan gia cc thut ng ny. Ty
thuc vo tng trng hp c th, c trng hp b ba quan h bc ba thiu thut ng
u, hoc cng c trng hp thiu mt quan h gia cc thut ng.
u tin, vi cc thut ng, da vo tin x l v tp t ng ngha, nh x
Ontology s tm cc khi nim v i tng tng ng trong Ontology. Nu so khp
khng c, thnh phn nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm cc
khi nim v i tng thch hp nht trong Ontology. Nu nhp nhng xy ra m nh
x Ontology khng x l c, th a ra yu cu tng tc vi ngi dng la
chn thng tin tng ng vi Ontology.
Sau khi nhn c cc thut ng tng thch, thnh phn nh x Ontology s
dng hai thut ng u tm cc mi quan h gia chng so khp vi quan h u
vo. Nu khng, nh x Ontology s dng thut ton khong cch xu tm quan h
tng ng trong Ontology, nu thut ton tr li nhiu hn mt kt qu th a ra la
chn ti ngi dng. Khi , nh x Ontology s hnh thnh b ba m t th nht t
cc thut ng v quan h tng ng va tm c gia chng.
Tip n, nh x Ontology da vo thut ng u (hoc thut ng th hai ty
thuc trng hp c th) v thut ng cui tm quan h gia chng trong Ontology.
Sau , nh x Ontology yu cu ngi dng la chn quan h thch hp. Sau khi mi
quan h mong mun c ngi s dng phn hi, thnh phn nh x Ontology hnh
thnh b ba m t th hai.

48

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Thnh phn nh x Ontology kt thc a ra hai b ba m t cc khi nim, cc


i tng v cc quan h tng ng trong Ontology. V m t hot ng ca h
thng i vi cc cu hi ny, chng ti a ra cc v d thy r qu trnh m thnh
phn nh x Ontology x l ra sao ty vo tng trng hp c th.
Trc tin, vi cu hi c thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin x l
[1] v cho u ra l mt b biu din trung gian ba thut ng v quan h, v nh x
Ontology ly chng lm u vo tm thng tin tng ng vi Ontology. Cu hi:
hc sinh no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
B ba quan h bc ba hnh thnh bi [1] l (hc sinh, hc, lp khoa hc my tnh,
trng i hc cng ngh). B ba sau khi c tin x l v s dng tp t ng
ngha, c so khp vi cc khi nim v i tng trong Ontology. nh x Ontology
nhn bit c thut ng ch khi nim sinh_vin m t lp sinh_vin trong
Ontology. Khi s dng thut ton khong cch xu i vi lp khoa hc my tnh
tm i tng tng ng trong Ontology th c nhp nhng xy ra do thut ton tr li
hai gi tr. Lc ny, nh x Ontology a ti ngi dng hai la chn l thut ng ch
i tng k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh l thc th ca lp lp hoc thut ng
khoa_hc_my_tnh l thc th ca lp b_mn trong Ontology.
Sau khi ngi dng la chn thut ng mong mun, chng hn, la chn
k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh. Sau , tm quan h cho

sinh_vin

k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh, thnh phn nh x Ontology da vo lp sinh_vin v


lp lp trong Ontology, tm tt c cc mi quan h gia hai lp ny ri so khp vi
quan h hc c thut ng ch quan h hc trong Ontology. nh x Ontology
hnh thnh c b ba m t u tin (sinh_vin, hc, k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh).
Tip n, h thng s tm quan h cho sinh_vin v i_hc_cng_ngh da
vo lp sinh_vin v lp trng, nh x Ontology s tm cc mi quan h gia hai
lp ny trong Ontology. Sau , h thng a li cho ngi dng la chn quan h
mong mun gia sinh_vin v i_hc_cng_ngh. Chng hn l mi quan h
c chn l hc (c th la chn nhiu quan h cng lc theo ngi dng). T
, nh x Ontology a ra b ba m t th hai l (sinh_vin, hc,
i_hc_cng_ngh). Sau khi nh x Ontology kt thc, h thng gi thnh phn trch
chn cu tr li, da vo hai b ba m t ny, a ra cu tr li ti ngi s dng.

49

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

i vi cu hi trn, b ba m t th hai hnh thnh do thut ng u v thut


ng cui. Nhng trong trng hp di y, nh x Ontology li da vo thut ng
th hai v thut ng cui hnh thnh b ba m t th hai. Vi cu hi:
sinh vin ca lp ca trng i hc cng ngh l ai?
B ba biu din cho cu hi (?, sinh vin, lp, trng i hc cng ngh) l u
vo cho nh x Ontology. nh x Ontology nhn bit c thut ng ch khi nim
lp biu din cho lp lp, thut ng ch i tng i_hc_cng_ngh trong
Ontology. Da vo cc quan h ca lp lp, nh x tm c quan h
c_sinh_vin bi gii thut khong cch xu. B ba m t th nht tng ng vi
Ontology c hnh thnh trong cu hi ny l (?, c_sinh_vin, lp).
ng thi, nh x Ontology tng tc vi ngi dng yu cu la chn quan h
gia lp lp v i tng i_hc_cng_ngh. Sau khi ngi dng phn hi li
quan h thch hp (c th la chn nhiu quan h cng lc), nh x Ontology hnh
thnh b ba m t th hai, c th l (lp, thuc, i_hc_cng_ngh), hoc (lp,
c_lp, i_hc_cng_ngh), hoc (lp, c_lp | thuc, i_hc_cng_ngh).
Thm na, i vi cu hi dng ny sau khi c phn tch bi [1], nu h thng
nhn bit c loi t hi l QU Who th cu hi s cp ti person no (c
th l sinh vin hoc ging vin trong thit k Ontology). Do vy, u vo cho nh
x Ontology l (person, sinh vin, lp khoa hc my tnh, trng i hc cng ngh).
T , thnh phn nh x Ontology hnh thnh nn hai b ba m t tng ng vi
Ontology, v thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s dng hai b ba m t ny a ra
cu tr li ng ngha nht c th ti ngi dng.

50

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.5 Trch chn cu tr li


Sau khi nh x Ontology kt thc thu c cc b ba m t cc khi nim, i
tng v quan h tng ng vi Ontology. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li c s
dng a ra cu tr li ti ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi dng.
Ngoi ra, nh qu trnh phn tch cu hi bi [1], chng ti bit c cu hi
thuc dng no, c mu cu l g, hi v vn g. T , chng ti a ra cu tr li
ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi dng.
V d vi cu hi n gin loi NORMAL:
s lng sinh vin hc lp k50 khoa hc my tnh?
Sau khi nh x Ontology, h thng thu c b ba m t (sinh_vin, hc,
k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh). V do [1], chng ti thu c mu cu hi nh hnh 4.12,
v nhn bit c y l cu hi v s lng. Nn cu tr li ng ngha m chng ti
c th a ra nh trong hnh 4.12.

Hnh 4.12. V d hi p i vi cu hi v s lng

51

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Sau khi cu hi c phn tch bi thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin


[1], hnh thnh b ba biu din, v nh x Ontology s dng b ba ny to nn cc
b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology. Chng ti xem xt i vi hai dng cu hi, cu
hi n gin v phc tp. i vi cu hi n gin c phn loi thnh NORMAL,
UNKN_REL, UNKN_TERM, AFFIRM_NEG. Cc cu hi phc tp, khi chng
c phn tch bi thnh phn x l cu hi [1] th c phn loi THREETERM.
Sau khi hnh thnh cc b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology, thnh phn trch
chn cu tr li da vo cc b ba ny a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th.
Mc di y, chng ti gii thiu cch x l i vi tng loi cu hi ca thnh phn
trch chn cu tr li v a ra v d c th i vi tng loi cu hi ny.
4.5.1 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL
i vi cc cu hi n gin c phn loi NORMAL, UNKN_REL, nh
x Ontology hnh thnh nn b ba m t cc khi nim, i tng v quan h tng
ng vi Ontology. V thut ng u trong b ba s m t mt lp no trong
Ontology. Khi , thnh phn trch chn cu tr li ly tt c cc i tng thuc lp
ny trong Ontology. Vi mi i tng tm c, da theo quan h bit, thnh phn
trch chn cu tr li xem i tng c lin kt ti i tng trong b ba m t
khng, tm cu tr li (hnh 4.13). Nu thut ng th hai trong b ba m t l mt
khi nim biu din mt lp no trong Ontology, chng hn l b ba (m, c_m,
sinh_vin), th h thng tm tt c cc i tng trong lp m, vi mi i tng
ny, da vo quan h c_m lin kt ti i tng no trong lp sinh_vin v a
ra cu tr li ti ngi s dng.

nh x
Ontology

Thut_ng_1

Tp i tng

Quan_h

Thut_ng_2

i tng
Cu tr li

Hnh 4.13. Trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL

52

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

V d, vi cu hi
sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh?
nh x Ontology a ra b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology l (sinh_vin, hc,
k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh). Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s tm kim trong tt cc
i tng ca lp sinh_vin trong Ontology, vi mi i tng ny, da vo mi
quan

hc

trong

Ontology

xem

lin

kt

ti

thc

th

k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh. Kt qu tr v s l tt c cc thc th c lin kt vi


k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh. Da vo , a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th
ti ngi s dng (hnh 4.14).

Hnh 4.14. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi NORMAL, UNKN_REL

53

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.5.2 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi UNKN_TERM


i vi cu hi UNKN_TERM, nu nh x Ontology hnh thnh b ba m t
cc thnh phn th thnh phn trch chn cu tr li tm kim tng t nh i vi
hai loi cu hi trn. V da vo mu cu hi cng loi t hi [1], chng ti a ra
cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi dng.
Nhng cc cu hi thuc loi UNKN_TERM c b ba m t thiu thut ng
u, th thnh phn trch chn cu tr li cn c vo thut ng cn li trong b ba m
t. Nu thut ng l i tng trong Ontology, th tm cu tr li da vo i tng
ny theo quan h ti i tng no . Cn thut ng cn li l mt khi nim m t
mt lp trong Ontology, h thng ly tt c cc i tng thuc lp, da theo quan h
bit, xem i tng lin kt ti i tng no, t a ra cu tr ng ngha tt
nht c th li ti ngi s dng (hnh 4.15).

Quan_h

nh x
Ontology

Cu tr li

Thut_ng_2

i tng

Hnh 4.15. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM

Vi cu hi thiu thut ng:


a ch ca Nguyn Quc i u?
Nguyn Quc i c a ch l g?
B ba m t hnh thnh bi nh x Ontology l (?, c_a_ch,
nguyn_quc_i), v l b ba u vo cho thnh phn trch chn cu tr li. Da
vo thc th ch i tng nguyn_quc_i theo quan h c_a_ch s a ra
cu tr li cho cu hi l ng_mai_h_ng_h_ni (hnh 4.16).

54

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Hnh 4.16. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM

Hnh 4.17. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi UNKN_TERM

Nhng i vi cu hi:
sinh vin c a ch u?
Nh phn tch trn, h thng thu c b ba m t (?, c_a_ch, sinh_vin).
Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li tm tt c cc thc th ca lp sinh_vin
trong Ontology da theo quan h c_a_ch lin kt ti thc th no th a ra cu
tr li ti ngi dng (hnh 4.17).

55

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.5.3 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG

nh x
Ontology

Thut_ng_1

Quan_h

Thut_ng_2

Cu tr li
Hnh 4.18. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG

Cc cu hi c phn loi AFFIRM_NEG, ty vo tng trng hp c th, h


thng a ra cu tr li tng ng. Nu hai thut ng trong b ba m t hai i tng,
h thng da vo chng v quan h bit xem c lin kt khng, ri a ra tr li
ng ngha ti ngi dng (hnh 4.18).
Vi cu hi:
Nguyn Quc i c qu l H Ni phi khng?
Thnh phn nh x Ontology hnh thnh nn b ba (nguyn_quc_i, c_qu |
l_qu, h_ni). Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li da vo nguyn_quc_i theo
quan h c_qu (hoc l_qu, hoc c hai quan h ny) xem c lin kt ti
h_ni khng, cu tr li c a ti ngi dng (hnh 4.19).

Hnh 4.19. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi AFFIRM_NEG

56

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

4.5.4 Trch chn cu tr li cho loi cu hi THREETERM


Sau khi thnh phn nh x Ontology x l vi cc cu hi phc tp (phn loi
THREETERM), hnh thnh hai b ba m t cc khi nim, i tng v quan h
tng ng vi Ontology. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li da vo hai b ba ny, a
ra kt hp ph hp hnh thnh cu tr li (hnh 4.20).

Thut_ng_1

nh x
Ontology

Quan_h_1

Tp i tng

Thut_ng

Thut_ng_2

i tng

Quan_h_2

Tp i tng

Thut_ng_3

i tng

Cu tr li
Hnh 4.20. Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li i vi loi cu hi THREETERM

Ty thuc vo tng cu hi, thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s a ra s kt


hp ph hp gia hai b ba m t. Thnh phn trch chn cu hi i vi mi b ba s
tm cc i tng da theo quan h (tng t nh loi cu hi n gin), ri kt hp
li cc i tng tm thy ty vo tng trng hp a ra cu tr li ng ngha ti
ngi s dng.

57

Chng 4. H thng hi p ting Vit da trn Ontology

Nguyn Quc i

Vi cu hi:
sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
nh x Ontology hnh thnh hai b ba (sinh_vin, hc, k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh)
v (sinh_vin, hc, i_hc_cng_ngh). Thnh phn trch chn cu tr li tm tt c
cc i tng cho tng ng vi tng b ba, tm cc i tng ca lp sinh_vin
theo quan h hc ti k50_khoa_hc_my_tnh, ng thi cng tm cc i tng
ca lp sinh_vin theo quan h hc ti i_hc_cng_ngh. Sau , thnh phn
trch chn cu tr li tm giao ca hai b i tng a ra cu tr li ti ngi s
dng (hnh 4.21).

Hnh 4.21. V d hi p i vi loi cu hi THREETERM

Trong loi cu hi ny, thnh phn trch chn cu tr li tm cc i tng i


vi mi b ba tng t nh cu hi n gin v kt hp ph hp a ra cu tr li.
sinh vin ca lp ca trng i hc cng ngh l ai?
Hai b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology l (?, c_sinh_vin, lp) v (lp,
c_lp, i_hc_cng_ngh). Trc ht h thng tm cc i tng ca lp lp c
lin kt ti i tng i_hc_cng_ngh qua quan h c_lp trong Ontology.
Sau khi tm c cc i tng ca lp, thnh phn trch chn cu tr li da vo
cc i tng ny theo quan h c_sinh_vin tm cc i tng lin kt ti i
tng trong Ontology. T , thnh phn trch chn a ra cu tr li ti ngi dng.

58

Chng 5. Kt qu thc nghim v tho lun

Nguyn Quc i

Chng 5. Kt qu thc nghim v tho lun

5.1 Kt qu thc nghim


Chng ti nh gi h thng da trn tp d liu 50 cu hi v lnh vc c th,
y l cc cu hi lin quan ti trng i hc Cng Ngh. 50 cu hi c chng ti
a ra u c thnh phn x l cu hi ngn ng t nhin [1] x l thnh cng,
hnh thnh nn b ba biu din cho cu hi (ph lc A). nh x Ontology s dng b
ba biu din ny hnh thnh nn cc b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology, ri thnh
phn trch chn cu tr li a ra cu tr tt nht c th li ti ngi dng.
nh gi h thng, chng ti da vo t l phn trm ca cc cu hi a ra
i vi tp d liu 50 cu hi. Chng ti nh gi h thng da vo cc tiu ch sau:
Tiu ch 1: nh gi h thng i vi cc cu tr li c. Trong , chng ti
tnh ton phn trm s cu hi tr li chnh xc m khng cn tng tc vi h thng.
Sau , chng ti nh gi h thng cho cc cu hi tr li c nhng cn tng tc
vi h thng.
Tiu ch 2: nh gi h thng cho cc cu hi khng tr li c. Chng ti tnh
ton phn trm i vi cc cu hi li do thnh phn nh x Ontology, thnh phn
trch chn cu tr li.
STT

nh gi h thng

S cu hi

T l %

Thnh cng khng cn tng tc vi h thng

25

50%

Thnh cng cn tng tc vi h thng

10

20%

Tng s cu hi thnh cng

35

70%

Bng 5.1. nh gi h thng i vi cc cu hi tr li c

59

Chng 5. Kt qu thc nghim v tho lun

Nguyn Quc i

Bng 5.1 l nh gi ca h thng i vi cc cu tr li c trong qu trnh


thc nghim. Chng ti nhn thy c 25 cu tr li ng m khng cn tng tc vi
h thng. V cc cu hi ny ch yu l cc cu hi n gin, khng gy nhp nhng,
thnh phn nh x Ontology a ra c b ba m t m khng cn tng tc vi
ngi dng. Ngoi ra, c 10 cu hi yu cu tng tc vi ngi dng hnh thnh
nn cc b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology, t h thng a ra cu tr li ti
ngi s dng.

nh gi h thng

S cu hi

T l %

STT
1

Li do nh x Ontology

10

20%

Li do trch chn cu tr li

10%

Tng s cu hi li

15

30%

Bng 5.2. nh gi h thng i vi cc cu hi li

Bng 5.2 a ra nh gi h thng i vi cc cu hi li, khng c kt qu tr


li. Chng ti phn tch nguyn nhn dn n li ca cc cu hi:
C 10 cu hi li do nh x Ontology, do h thng cha th x l c i vi
cc cu hi kt hp do thnh phn x l ngn ng t nhin [1] a ra. Hoc b li khi
nh x Ontology khng so khp c cc khi nim, cc i tng trong Ontology.
V d cu hi:
sinh vin no c qu h ty?
Vi cu hi nu trn, thut ng h ty khng tng t vi bt k thut ng ch
khi nim hay i tng no trong Ontology. Do vy, nh x Ontology khng th hnh
thnh c b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology.

60

Chng 5. Kt qu thc nghim v tho lun

Nguyn Quc i

C 5 cu hi li do trch chn cu tr li, nhng li ny do qu trnh thit k d


liu trong Ontology. V d vi cu hi:
lp ca Nguyn Quc i l g?
nh x Ontology hnh thnh b ba m t tng ng vi Ontology l (?, c_lp,
nguyn_quc_i). Nhng i tng nguyn_quc_i trong Ontology theo quan h
c_lp khng lin kt ti i tng no, do khng c cu tr li c a ra.

5.2 Tho lun


Mc d h thng gp nhiu kh khn trong vic a ra cu tr li ti ngi dng,
nhng chng ti s c gng hon thin h thng. i vi nhng cu hi li do thnh
phn v trch chn cu tr li, chng ti s thc hin thit k, cp nht d liu vo
Ontology. i vi nhng cu hi m kt qu d tha thng tin, chng ti c gng x
l loi b nhng kt qu d tha. V d i vi cu hi:
Nguyn Quc i hc trng no?.
Do qu trnh thit k Ontology, lp trng l lp cha ca lp khoa, lp
lp, lp sinh_vin, v do lin kt gia cc lp ny nn cu tr li d tha thng
tin. Nhng chng ti s x l bi vic tm lp cha ca cc i tng c a ra so
khp vi trng a ra cu tr li chnh xc.
i vi nhng li cu hi do thnh phn trch nh x Ontology, ngoi vi c cp
nht d liu, chng ti x l thm i vi cc loi cu hi khc c phn tch bi [1].
Chng hn, vi cu hi:
Nguyn Quc i c qu u v hc lp no?
Thnh phn x l cu hi [1] s a ra hai b ba biu din trung gian cho cu hi
(?, c qu, Nguyn Quc i) v (lp, hc, Nguyn Quc i). V thnh phn nh x
Ontology cha x l c vi cc cu hi nh vy.
Cc kt qu thu c tr li kh tt i vi cc cu hi n gin. Trong tng lai
gn, chng ti s x l i vi cu hi phc tp hn hon thin h thng ny.

61

Chng 6. Kt lun

Nguyn Quc i

Chng 6. Kt lun

Vic xy dng nn mt h thng hi p thc s kh, cc nghin cu hin nay


tp trung vo vic xy dng mt h thng nhm a ra mt cu tr li ng ngha tt
nht c th. Nghin cu xy dng h thng hi p ting Vit l mt nhu cu tt yu
cn thit i vi cuc sng, nhng hin nay vn cn cha c c nhiu quan tm.
Trong kha lun ny, chng ti gii thiu mt phng php thit k h thng
hi p cho ting Vit da trn Ontology. H thng ny c th p dng tr li cho cc
cu hi thuc nhiu min ng dng c th. Chng ti thit k mt Ontology th
nghim cho min tri thc c th l min tri thc v i hc Cng Ngh. Mt b biu
din trung gian cho cu hi c hnh thnh thng qua qu trnh phn tch bi [1]. B
biu din trung gian ny c cho di dng quan h bc hai gia hai thut ng hoc
quan h bc ba gia ba thut ng. nh x Ontology s dng cc b biu din ny
hnh thnh nn cc b ba m t cc khi nim, cc i tng v cc quan h tng ng
vi Ontology. Sau , thnh phn trch chn cu tr li s dng cc b ba m t ny
a ra cu tr li ng ngha tt nht c th ti ngi s dng.
Phng php ca chng ti t c cc kt qu tt khi tr li cc cu hi c
a ra. Trong thi gian ti, chng ti tip tc hon thin h thng x l cc cu hi
phc tp hn v a ra cu tr li mang nhiu ng ngha hn ti ngi dng.

62

Ph lc

Nguyn Quc i

Ph lc A

Danh sch 50 cu hi dng thc nghim:


1. Nguyn Quc i c a ch u?
2. a ch ca Nguyn Quc i l g?
3. M sinh vin ca Nguyn Quc i l g?
4. Nguyn Quc i c m l g?
5. Nhng sinh vin c qu H Ni l ai?
6. Ai l nhng sinh vin c qu H Ni?
7. Sinh vin no c qu H Ni?
8. Mn hc c hc bi Nguyn Quc i l g?
9. Qu ca sinh vin no H Ni?
10. Nguyn Quc i hc lp no?
11. Lp no c sinh vin l Nguyn Quc i?
12. Nguyn Quc i hc lp no?
13. Ai l sinh vin ca lp khoa hc my tnh?
14. H Ni l qu ca ai?
15. Ai c qu H Ni?
16. Qu ca nhng ngi no H Ni?
17. Nguyn Quc i c m sinh vin l g?

63

Ph lc

Nguyn Quc i

18. Danh sch cc sinh vin ca lp khoa hc my tnh?


19. Lp no c sinh vin Nguyn Quc i?
20. S lng sinh vin ca lp k50 khoa hc my tnh l bao nhiu?
21. Nguyn Quc i c qu H Ni phi khng?
22. Sinh vin no hc lp no?
23. Lp no c sinh vin no?
24. Khoa no c sinh vin no?
25. Sinh vin c a ch l g?
26. a ch ca sinh vin l gi?
27. Sinh vin c m l g?
28. M ca sinh vin l g?
29. Sinh vin hc lp no?
30. Sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
31. Sinh vin ca lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh l ai?
32. Trng ca Nguyn Quc i ca Nguyn Quc t l g?
33. i hc Cng Ngh c khoa no?
34. Khoa no thuc i hc Cng Ngh?
35. Lp k50 khoa hc my tnh thuc khoa no?
36. Thy gio no ging dy lp k50 khoa hc my tnh?
37. Trng i hc Cng Ngh ging dy mn no?
38. Mn no c ging dy bi trng i hc Cng Ngh?

64

Ph lc

Nguyn Quc i

39. i hc Cng Ngh c hiu trng l ai?


40. Ai l hiu trng ca trng i hc Cng ngh?
41. Lp khoa hc my tnh c lp trng l ai?
42. Ai l lp trng ca lp k50 khoa hc my tnh?
43. Qu ca Nguyn Quc i l H Ni phi khng?
44. Nguyn Trn Ngc Linh c chc v l g?
45. Sinh vin no c qu H Ni v hc lp k50 khoa hc my tnh?
46. Ai l sinh vin ca lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc Cng Ngh?
47. Tn ti sinh vin c qu H Ty v hc l p khoa hc my tnh ng khng?
48. Lp c sinh vin Nguyn Quc t l lp no?
49. Sinh vin no hc lp khoa hc my tnh ca trng i hc cng ngh?
50. Sinh vin lp khoa hc my tnh l nhng ai?

65

Ti liu tham kho

Nguyn Quc i

Ti liu tham kho

[1].

Nguyn Quc t. Phng php phn tch cu hi cho h thng hi p ting


Vit. Kha lun tt nghip 2009 i hc Cng Ngh - i hc Quc Gia H
Ni.

[2].
[3].

Goh Hui Ngo, Dr Somnuk, Ontology-based Question Answering.


Vanessa Lopez, Victoria Uren, Enrico Motta, Michele Pasin, AquaLog: An
ontology-driven question answering system for organizational semantic
intranets.

[4].

AKT

Reference

Ontology,

http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/akt/ref-

onto/index.html.
[5].

I. Androutsopoulos, G.D. Ritchie, P. Thanisch, MASQUE/SQLan efcient


and portable natural language query interface for relational databases, in: P.W.
Chung, G. Lovegrove, M. Ali (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International
Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Articial Intelligence
and Expert Systems, Edinburgh, UK, Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1993, pp.

[6].

327330.
I. Androutsopoulos, G.D. Ritchie, P. Thanisch, Natural language interfaces to
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