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HP CHT CUA CROM VA CROM

I. Hp cht cua Crom(III)


a) Crom(III) oxit (Cr2O3)
-L cht rn, mu lc thm, khng tan trong nc.
-L oxit lng tnh, tan trong axit v kim c.
Cr2O3 + HClc => CrCl3 + H2O
Cr2O3 + 2NaOHc => 2NaCrO2 + H2O
-Va c tnh oxi ha, va c tnh kh.
Cr2O3 + Al =t=> Cr + Al2O3
Cr2O3 + O2 + 2NaOH => Na2Cr4 + H2O
-Crom(lll) oxit dng to mu lc cho s, thuy tinh.
*iu ch:
(NH4)2Cr2O7 => N2 + Cr2O3 + 4H2O
b) Crom(III) hidroxit ( Cr(OH)3 )
-L cht rn, mu lc xm.
-L mt hidroxit lng tnh, tan c trong dung dch axit v dung dch kim.
Cr(OH)3 + NaOH => NaCrO2.2H2O (natri cromit)
Cr(OH)3 + 3HCl => CrCl3 + 3H2O
-Cr(OH)3 c iu ch bng phn ng trao i gia mui crom(III) v dung dch baz.
CrCl3 + 3NaOH => Cr(OH)3 + 3NaCl
-Cr(OH)3 b nhit phn
Cr(OH)3 =t=> Cr2O3 + H2O
c. Mui crom(III): V trng thi s oxi ha trung gian, ion Cr3+ trong dung dch va c tnh oxi ha,
va c tnh kh (trong mi trng baz).
*Cr(III) d b oxi ha thnh Cr(II)
2CrCl3 + Zn => 2CrCl2 + ZnCl2
2Cr3+ + Zn => 2Cr2+ + Zn2+
* Mi trng OH- , Cr(III) b oxi ha thnh Cr(VI)
2NaCrO2 + 3Br3 + 8NaOH => 2NaCrO4 +
6NaBr + 4H2O
2CrO2- + 3Br2 + 8OH- => 2CrO42- + 6Br- + 4H2O

II- Hp cht Crom(VI)


a)Crom(VI) oxit(CrO3)
-L cht rn mu thm
-L mt oxit axit. Tc dng vi nc, to thnh axit
CrO3 + H2O => H2CrO4 (axit cromic)
2CrO3 + H2O => H2Cr2O7 (axit icromic)
*chu y: Nhng axit ny khng tch ra c dng t do m ch tn ti trong dung dch. Nu tch ra
khi dung dch, chung s b phn huy tr li thnh CrO3. Axit mnh, km bn.
-CrO3 c tnh kh rt mnh. Mt s cht v c v hu c nh:
P, C, C2H5OH, bc chy khi tip xuc vi CrO3, ng thi CrO3 b kh thnh Cr2O3.
V d:
2CrO3 + 2NH3 => Cr2O3 + N2 + 3H2O
-CrO3 b nhit phn:
CrO3 =t=> Cr2O3 + O2
b) Mui Crom(VI): Khc vi nhng axit cromic v icromic, cc mui cromat v icromat l nhng
hp cht bn.
- Mui cromat nh natri cromat (NaCrO4) v kali cromat (K2CrO4) l mui cua axit cromic, c mu
vng cua ion cromat (CrO42-).
- Mui icromat, nh natri cromat (Na2Cr2O7) v kali icromat (K2Cr2O7) l mui cua axit
icromic, c mu da cam cua ion icromat (Cr2O72-).
-Cc mui cromat v icromat c tnh oxi ha mnh, c bit trong mi trng axit, mui crom(VI) b
kh thnh mui crom(III).
V d:
K2Cr2O7 + 6FeSO4 + 7H2SO4 =>3Fe2(SO4)3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O
-Trong mi trng thch hp, cc mui cromat v icromat chuyn ha ln nhau theo mt cn bng
2CrO4 2- + 2H+ => Cr2O7 2- + H2O
+Khi thm H+ vo mui cromat th s chuyn t mu vng sang mu da cam.
K2CrO4 + H2SO4 => K2CrO7 + K2SO4 + H2O
+Khi thm OH- vo mui icromat th s chuyn t da cam sang vng.
K2CrO7 + KOH => K2CrO4 + H2O
III- Crom
a. Tc dng vi oxi v phi kim khc

4Cr + 3O2 =t=> 2Cr2O3


2Cr + 3Cl2 =t=> 2CrCl3
b. Tc dng vi nc
Crom bn i vi H2O v khng kh nhit thng.
c. Tc dng vi axit
- Crom ho tan d dng trong axit thng
Cr + 2HCl => CrCl2 + H2
- Khi c mt oxi
4Cr + 12HCl + O2 => 4CrCl3 + 2H2O + 4H2
-Crom th ng ha trong H2SO4 c, ngui v HNO3 c, ngui
d. Tc dng vi cht oxi ha trong mi trng kim nng
Cr + 3NaNO3 + 2NaOH => Na2CrO4 + 3NaNO3 + H2O