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Nouns

Nouns () 2
1. Countable nouns >
Common nouns >
Proper nouns >
Collective nouns > a herd of (...)
1. Uncountable nouns >
Material nouns > water, rice
Abstract nouns > cleverness
(Plural) s boys, girls
louse > lice, mouse > mice en oxen, deer, cod
news, ashes
trousers, glasses
=
a glass of the water, two glasses of water

1) Some of, Most of, Half of, .of of


A lot ofmen are here. A lot of the equipment is new.
2) A number of + N
A number of dogs are too much. The number of dogs in here is bad.
3) =
The price of those books is overwhelming.
4) everyone, nobody, anyone

Nobody goes with you.

5)

Ten bath is enough.


6) ics
Mathematic is too difficult.

7) English Chinese

English is very easy.


The Japanese are nice.
8)
The poor are pitiful.
9)
news, mumps, measles the United States.
10)
people, police
11) many a + N
Many a boy likes basketball.
12) and
You and I are friends.
13) or
John or his friend are sick. His friend or John is sick.
14) with, together
Sister, together with her friends, goes shopping.

Determiners
Determiner = noun adjective 2
Group A : the , my , this

:
- Article : a / an , the
- Possessives : my , your , his , ther , ones , whose.
- Demonstrative : this , these , that.
Group B : some , each , much , enough

: (quantifiers)

:
Some , any , no , each , every , either , neither , much , many , more , most
(a) little , less , least
(a) few , fewer , fewest , enough , several , all , both , half , what , whatever ,
which , whichever
Article 2
1.Indefinite Article a , an
2.Definite Article the
A / An
1. an ( ) an umbrella , an hour
2. A horse runs quickly.
3. () I have waited for you for an hour.
4. a , an half half a year , half an hour
5. a headache, a cold, a pain

The

He is the boy whom I saw yestere.

1.
2.
3. The sun
4. The Alps , The Indian Ocean.
5. , The Browns ()
6. (superlative degree) The most popular
(a , an , the)
1. a , an , the
2. a , an , the ( English) , ( Football) , / (
Monday , January )
3. a , an , the
4. a , an , the at , by ,from , in ,out , of , to
He is at home now ( He is at a home)
His house is on fire ()

Adverbs & Adjectives


1. Adverbs = 3
2. Simple Adverbs = Adverbs
(manner) fast, slow, hard
(place) here, above, around
on the street, at school
(time) today, last week, at once
(frequency) always, often, seldom
V.+to be V. To have
very, too, enough
Adjectives Adverbs
bad > badly, beautiful > beautifully
ue e i ly true > truly
y y i ly ready > readily, dry > drily
ic ally automatic > automaticaily
le e y possible> possibly
nouns ly month > monthly
3. Interrogative Adverbs = Adverbs Where? Why? How?
4. Relative Adverbs = They came when he had gone.
5. Adjectives = nouns pronouns
big, small, could,etc. 2
6. Proper Adjectives = proper nouns England > English
7. Descriptive Adjectives = brave, beautiful

8. Quantitative Adjectives = a little, any


9. Numeral Adjectives = one, two, first, second
10. Demonstrative Adjectives = This. That, These
11. Distributive Adjectives = nouns each, either, neither
12. Possessive Adjectives = my, her, his
13. Interrogative Adjectives = nouns which, whose, what
Adjectives 2
1) He is good boy.
2) That boy is good.
Adjectives
Adj.
somewhere, somebody, anybody
Adj. able ible
Adj. elder > older
He is my elder brother > My brother is five year older than I.
Adj. V. To be become, feel, look, seem
She looks hungry, We felt tired.

Pronouns
Pronouns = 5
1. Subjective > I, you, we, they
2. Objective > me, her, him, them
3. Possessive adjective > my, your, her
4. Possessive pronoun > mine, hers, yours

Your book is red, but mine is green.
Whose shirt is that? It is his.
of ...
John is a friend of music.
Nouns Possessive pronoun
That is a good work of Soontorn Poos
5. Reflexive pronoun > myself, themselves, ourselves
()
She washes herself.
Preposition ()
That girl talks to herself.
by
He is in that house by himself.

Wash it yourself, I myself drew it.

Prepositions
Nouns Pronouns at, by, before, etc.
1) At () at noon, at night, at two oclock
at the bank, at the station, at school
2) On on Songkran day, on Sunday
on the road, on second floor
3) In in an hour, in January
in the room, in the house
Preposition
1) By by four oclock tomorrow
2) By passive voice was burned by sunlight
3) Before havent soon by sunlight
4) After meet me after class
5) Until (till) Wait until I go
6) From till ...... from evening till midnight
7) Betweenand ...... between morning and noon
8) From to ...... Thailand to Japan
9) During during school
Prepositions get on, get off, afraid of, call on,
etc.

Conjunction
7 and , nor , but , yet , or , so , for

and

nor and

addition
Jane plays the violin superbly
,and her sister is good at the
piano.
Jack was upset, nor was his
wife happy.
contrast
but
John love outdoor activities
yet
,but his wife like to stay home.
Sarah is ugly ,yet she is
popular.
alternative
or Stay late and finish work ,or
go home and come early
tomorrow.
result
so
It rained hard ,so the yard got
Hooded.
reason
for
The dogs were long ,for it was
July.()

*nor 2 yes-no question


-Jack was upset ,nor was his wife happy.

...
-Jack was upset.
-His wife was not happy.
nor ( , ) V.to be 2 (...,nor was his wife
happy. )

4 Bothand , eitheror , neithernor , not onlybut(also)

bothand

etheror
neithernor

not onlybut(also)

We discussed about both


and
when the meeting would be
held and where it would take
place.
or Either you go to bed now ,or
you will get up late.
nor Neither did Sue do the
yes-no
homework ,nor did she come
question
to school.

Not only did he love his wife


and ,but he also gave her
everything.
yes-no
question

Conjunction verb ()
Coordinate conjunction

Meaning
addition
Alternative
Contrast or concession

Likeness
Emphasis
Example
Result

Conjunction verb
beside, furthermore,
moreover, in addition
otherwise, instead
however, nevertheless,
nonetheless, still, on the
contrary, on the other hand
likewise, similarly, in the
same way.
in fact, as a matter of fact
for example, for instance
accordingly, consequently,
hence, therefore, thus, as a
result

Notes

and
or

but
yet

so

Gerund
Verb Gerund (Ving)
admit
appreciate
avoid
consider
contemplate
delay
deny
detest
discuss
dislike
endure
enjoy
escape
excuse
face

feel like
finish
forgive
give up
go on
imagine
Involve
Keep
leave off
loathe
mention
mind
miss
pardon
plan on

postpone
practice
prevent
put off (=postpone)
Quit
recall
recommend
resent
risk
resist
spend
stop
suggest
tolerate
understand

Infinitive
agree
afford
aim
appear
arrange
ask
attempt
bother(negative)
care(negative)
choose
claim
condescend
decide
decline
demand
desire
determine
be determined
consent
continue

Verb infinitive
endeavor
expect
fail
forget
guarantee
happen
hate
help
hesitate
intend
learn
like
love
long
manage
mean
neglect
offer
hope

plan
prepare
be prepared
pretend
proceed
promise
prove
refuse
remember
resolve
seem
swear
tend
threaten
trouble
try (= attempt)
undertake
volunteer
row

Infinitive and Gerund


Verb adjective gerund infinitive

1. remember / forget + -ing =


EX - I still remember seeing my first child.
forget Ill never forgeting Ill never forget meeting the Queen.
remember / forget + infinitive =
remember infinitive
EX I forget to buy a shirt.
I remember to visit the museum when I arrive UK.
2. go on + ing =
EX He went on talking until we went to sleep.
go on + infinitive =
EX He stopped talking and went on to sleep with us.
3. regret + -ing =
EX I regret leaving school at 14.
regret + infinitive =
EX We regret to say that we have to close our company.
4. advise , allow , permit , forbid + -ing =
advise , allow , permit , forbid + infinitive =
EX We dont allow smoking in the restaurant.
We dont allow people to smoke in the restaurant.
5. try ing infinitive.
EX I tried to change/changing the wheel.

try+ing I tried sending her flowers ,but she still wouldnt speak to me.

6. sorry + -ing = ().


EX Im sorry leaving you alone that night.
sorry + infinitive = ()
.
EX Sorry to disturb you could I speak to you for a moment.
7. interesting + -ing =
EX Im interesting in studying in UK.
interesting + infinitive =
EX Im interested to see both of you going out together.
* / 2
Im interested in finding out / to find out what she did with all that money.

Tenses
1. Present Simple Tense


(Adv. Of frequency ) habits always true
Always , sometimes , seldom , never

S. + V1
V1 to do + S. + V1 (no s )
S. + dont/doesnt + V1 (no s )
2. Past Simple Tense


yesterday, last , ago, once, etc.

S. + V2
Did + S. + V1
S. + didnt + V1
3. Present Continuous Tense

S. + is/am/are + V.ing
Is/Am/Are + S. + V.ing
S.+ is/am/are + not + V.ing

4. Past Continuous Tense


Past Continuous Past Simple

S + was/were + V.ing
Was/Were + S. + V.ing
S + was/were + not + V.ing
5. Present Perfect Tense


since , for
just

S + has/have + V.3
Has/Have + S + V.3
S + has/have + not + V.3
6. Past Perfect Tense


Past Perfect Past Simple (when, after)

S + had + V.3
Had + S + V.3
S + had + not + V.3
7. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

S + has/have + been + V.ing


Has/Have + S/been + V.ing
S + has/have + not + been + V.ing
8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

S + had been +V.ing


Had + S + been + V.ing
S + had + not + been + V.ing
9. Future Simple Tense


soon , shortly, next , tomorrow, etc.
be going to

S + will/shall + V.1
Will/Shall + A + V.1
S + will/shall + not + V.1 / S + is/am/are + not + going to + V.1
10.Future Continuous Tense


at , when I

S + will/shall + be + V.ing

Will/shall + S + be + V.ing
S + will/shall + not + be + V.ing
11.Future Perfect Tense


by by tomorrow, by next , etc.

S + will/shall + have + V.3


12.Future Perfect Continuous Tense


by that time , by next

S + will/shall + have been + V.ing

Active & Passive Voice


Active Voice =
Passive Voice =
Active Voice Passive Voice
Active Passive by
Active Passive
Active V.3 V. to be
V. to be Tense Active
Passive Voice
- They saw me. > I was seen by them.
- She was writing a letter. > A letter was being written by her.
V. to be
- No one will draw this picture. > This picture wont be drawn by anyone.
Active can, could, may, might, must, ought to
Future Simple Tense
- She can speak English. > English can be spoken by her.
2
Question Words Who, Whom, Why, How
Question Words
V. to be Question Words
Active by
Who Active By whom Passive
- Who see you? > By whom are you seen?
Let + Obj. + be + V.3
- Do it. > Let it be done. / Wash the dishes now. > Let the dishes be washed.

Conditional Forms
& Wish Forms
Conditional Forms 3
1)
2)
3)
1
If + present + future/present/imperative
If I die, you die.
Imperative Verb
Turn the AC on
Play it
2
If + past simple + S + would + V.1
If + S + were to + V.1 + S + would + V.1
- If I were you, I would kill him.
If he were to jump in there, I would scream. Were he to jump in there, I would
scream.
3 ()
If + past perfect + *would* + have + V.3
- If I had known the truth, I would have been better.
*would* should, could, might,

Wish Forms
3
1) Present time
2) Past time
3) Future time
1. wish past tense
wish + S + V.2
* V. to be were S *
2. wish past perfect
wish + S + V.3
V. to be had been I wish I had found my bag month.
3. wish * would + V.1 *
wish + S + would + V.1
V. to be would be He wishes he could cook.
Would could, should, might
wish
If only > If only you were a teacher.
Its the time > Its the time you had lunch.
Id rather > Id rather he had lived there, Last year.

Direct & Indirect speech


Direct Speech =
Indirect Speech =
Direct Indirect 3
1) (statements) 3
2) Tense
3) Present Tense
He said I am reading a book > He says that he is reading a book.
! Indirect
past more past
Present Simple > Past Simple
Present Continuous > Past Continuous
Present Perfect > Past Perfect
Past Simple > Past Perfect
Will > Would, Shell > Should, May > Might, Can > Cloud

He said, I am eating > He said that he was eating.

This > That


These > Those
Here > There
Now > Then

Ago > Before

Today > That day/The day before

Tomorrow > The next day / The following day


Yesterday > The day before / The previous day
Tonight > The night before
(Question)
Direct 2

1) Question Words (What, Where, Why)


2) said asked

Tense Statements
(Can, Are, Is)
2 if whether
Are you doing well?she said to me.= She asked me if (whether) I was doing well.
if whether or not
(Order or Requests)
said, said to Direct
Commanded >
Ordered >
Told >
Asked >
Begged >
Warned >
1 object + to + verb
to

Dont not to
Mother said, Dont get up late. = Mother told her child not to get up late.

Question Tags
24
! > nt
is > isnt , might > mightnt , dare > darent
am > , shall > shant, will > wont, can > cant
Question Tags 2
1) comma ( , )
2)
3)
4)
am not arent I am I not
5) V. to be Tense
6) Pronouns
7) has/have V. to be 5
8) Used to didnt
He drinks coffee, doesnt he?
You cant help him, can you?
Peter sings a song, doesnt he?
They used to live here, didnt they?

Basic Sentence Pattern


(subject) + (predicate)
-

EX The baby is crying.


Sarah has a new dress.
1. S+V : (Intransitive verb)
go , walk , sleep , cry , laugh , smoke .
: Jane smiles.
2. S+V+O : (
Transitive)
: John had breakfast.
3. S+LV+Complement : Linking verb
: Complement 3
3.1 Noun Complement
Subject Complement
Puffy is my cat , my cat is Puffy.
3.2 Adjective Complement .
Jane is very talkative.

3.3 Pronoun Complement


This book is mine.

*** linking verbs : verb



*linking verb + adjective adverb
She looked at the game happily.
: be , seem , appear , look , sound , smell , taste , feel , become , get , grow , go , turn ,
stay , remain , keep.
-The weather is horrible.
-Its getting late.
-He seems intelligent.
-Keep calm.
-The leaves are turning yellow.

Prefixes and Suffixes


The following are some of the most common and useful English prefixes and suffixes.
1.PREFIXES
Prefix
aAngloAnte-

AntiArchAuto-

Mainly added to
Adj.
Adj.
Adj. ,
Verbs ,
Nouns
Adj. , Nouns
Nouns
Adj. , Nouns

Usual meaning
not, without
English
before

Examples
amoral, asexual
Anglo-American
Antenatal,
Antedate,
Anteroom
Antisocial, anti-war
Archbishop, arch-enemy
Automatic,
autobiography
Bilingual, bicycle
Centimeter, centiliter
Co-operate, co-pilot
Counteract, counterrevolution
Cybercrime, cyber
culture
Defrost, deregulate

against
Supreme, most
self

BiCent(i)CoCounter-

Adj. , Nouns
Nouns
Verbs , Nouns
Adj. , Nouns , verbs

two
hundredth
Together(with)
against

Cyber-

nouns

computer, internet

De-

verbs

Reversing action

e-

nouns

Electronic, internet

EcoEnEuro-

Adj, Nouns
Nouns,
Adj
Adj, nouns

environment
Put in
make
European

Email, e-commerce, ebook


Eco-friendly, eco-tourism
Endanger, encircle
Enrich, enable
Eurocentric, europop

Ex-

nouns

former

Ex-husband

Prefix
Extra-

Mainly added to
Adj.
Adj.
Verbs., nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns

Usual meaning
Exceptionally
Outside
before
earth
Extreme(ly)

IllIn(im- before p)
(il- before l)
(ir- before r)
Inter-

Past participle
Adj.

Badly
Not, opposite

Adj., verbs

KiloMal-

Nouns
adj., verbs, nouns

Between
among
Thousand
Bad(ly)

MegaMicro-

Nouns
Adj., nouns

Million
Very small

Mid-

Nouns

In the middle of

MilliMiniMis-

Nouns
Nouns
Verbs, nouns

Thousandth
Little
Wrong(ly)

MonoNeoNon-

Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns
Nouns, adj.

One
New(ly)
Not

ForeGeoHyper-

Examples
Extra-special
Extra-terrestrial
Foretell, foreknowledge
Geothermal, geophysics
Hypercritical,
hypertension
Ill-advised, ill-expressed
Incomplete, insensitive
Impossible
Illegible
irregular
International
Intermarry
Kilometer, kilogram
Maltreat, malformed,
malfunction
Megabyte
Microlight (aircraft),
micrometer
Mid-December, midafternoon
Millisecond
Miniskirts, minicab
Misunderstand,
misconduct
Monogamous, monorail
Neo-classic, neo-Nazi
Non-smoker, nonreturnable

Prefix
OmniOutOverPanPhoto-

Mainly added to
Adj.
Verbs, nouns
Adj., verbs
Adj.
Adj., nouns

Usual meaning
All
Do/be more than
Too much
Right across
Light

PolyPostPrePro-

Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns

Many
After
Before
For, in favour of

PseudoPsychoReSemiSocioSub-

Adj.
Adj., nouns
Verbs, nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns

False
Mind, mental
Again, Back
Half
Society
Below

SuperTeleTriUltraUn-

More than, special


Distant
Three
Extreme, beyond
Not, opposite

Under-

Adj., nouns
Nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., nouns
Adj., participles,
verbs
Verbs, participles

UniVice-

Adj., nouns
Nouns

One
Deputy

Too little

Examples
Omnipresent
Outrun, outnumber (vb.)
Over-confident, overeat
Pan-American
Photo electronic,
photosynthesis
Polyglot, polygon
Post-modern, postwar
Premarital, prewar
Pro-communist, progovernment(adj.)
Pseudo-acadamic
Psycho-analysis
Rebuild, reconstruction
Semi-conscious, semicircle
Socio-economic
Sub-standard,
subconscious, subway
Supernatural, supermarket
Telescope
Tripartite, triangle
Ultra-modern
Uncertain, unexpected
Underestimate, underdeveloped
Unilateral, unicycle
Vice-chairman

2.SUFFIXES THAT FORM NOUNS


Suffix
-age
-al
-ance, -ancy

Mainly added to
Verbs
Verbs
Adj., verbs

Usual meaning
Instance of
Instance of
Process/state of

-ation
-ee
-ence, -ency

Verbs
Verbs
Verbs
Adj., verbs

Process/state of
Product of
Object of verb
Process/state of

-er
-er/or

Nouns
Verbs

Belonging to
Person/thing that does

-ess
-ette
-ful
-hood
-ing
-ism

Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns

Female
Small
Amount held in
Quality, group time of
Quantity of material
Belief, practice

-ity
-ment
-ness
-ocracy
-ology
-phile
-phobe
-phobia

Adj.
Verbs
Adj.
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns

Quality of
Process/result of
Quality of
Government by
Study of
lover of
Hater, fearer of
Irrational fear of

Examples
Breakage, shrinkage
Refusal, dismissal
Reluctance, performance,
expectancy
Exploration, starvation
Organization,foundation
Payee, employee
Independence,
presidency
Teenager, Londoner
Writer, driver, starter,
editor
Lioness, waitress
Kitchenette
Spoonful, cupful
Brotherhood, childhood
Carpeting, tubing
Communism,
impressionism
Elasticity, falsity
Government, arrangement
Meanness, happiness
Democracy
Sociology
Anglophobe
Anglophobe
Arachnophobia

3.SUFFIXES THAT FORM NOUNS OR ADJECTIVES


Suffix
-ship
-ese
-(i)an
-ist

Mainly added to
Nouns
Place nouns
Nouns
Nouns

Usual meaning
Status, state, quality of
Inhabitant of, language of
Supporter of, related to
Practitioner of

Examples
Friendship, dictatorship
Chinese, Vietnamese
Darwinian, republican
Pianist, racist

4.SUFFIXES THAT FORM ADJECTIVES


Suffix
-able
-al
-centric
-ed

Mainly added to
Verbs
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns

Usual meaning
Can be (done)
Related to
Centred on
Having

-ful
-ic
-ical
-ish

Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Adj., nouns ,
place nouns
Verbs
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Nouns
Adj.
Nouns

Full of, providing


Related to
Related to
Rather (like)
Inhabitant of, language of
Can do, does
Without
Like
With the quality of
Having
Protected/-ing against
Towards
Like, characterized by

-ive
-less
-like
-ly
-ous
-proof
-ward
-y

Examples
Washable, drinkable
Accidental
Eurocentric
Wooded, pointed,
blue-eyed
Useful, helpful
Electric
Philosophical , logical
Scottish, Turkish
Attractive, selective
Careless, homeless
Childlike
Friendly, motherly
Virtuous, ambitious
Bullet-proof, waterproof
Backward, northward
Creamy, wealthy

5.SUFFIXES THAT FORM ADVERBS


Suffix
-ly
-ward(s)

Mainly added to
Adj.
Adj.

Usual meaning
In an (adjective) way
Towards

Examples
Calmly, slowly
Backwards,
northward(s)

Examples
Orchestrate,
chlorinate
Deafen, ripen, harden
Simplify, electrify
Modernize, symbolise

6.SUFFIXES THAT FORM VERBS


Suffix
-ate

Mainly added to
Nouns

Usual meaning
Causative

-en
-ify
-ise/-ize

Adj.
Adj., nouns
Adj.,nouns

Make, become
Causative: make
Various


VOA Special English Word Book

http://www.manythings.org/voa/words

AIDS

any

assist

a lot of

aim

apologize

astronaut

able

air

appeal

astronomy

about

air force

appear

asylum

above

airplane

appoint

at

accept

along

approve

atmosphere

accident

already

April

atom

accuse

also

archeology

attach

across

although

area

attack

act

aluminum

argue

attempt

activist

always

arm

attend

actor

Alzheimer's

arms

automobile

add

ambassador

army

autumn

around

average

administration amend
admit

ammunition

arrest

avoid

adult

among

arrive

awake

advise

ankle

art

award

affect

announce

artillery

away

agree

another

as

agriculture

answer

ash

aid

antibodies

ask

bed

blind

brave

baby

before

block

bread

back

begin

blood

break

bacteria

behind

blow

breast

bad

believe

blue

breathe

balance

bell

boat

bridge

ball

belong

body

brief

balloon

below

boil

bright

ballot

best

bomb

bring

ban

betray

bone

broadcast

bank

better

book

brother

bar

between

border

brown

barrier

big

borrow

budget

base

bill

both

build

battle

biology

bottle

building

be

bird

bottom

bullet

beat

bite

botulism

burn

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