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‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪/‬‬

‫‪٢٠٠٧‬‬
١ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬


، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،( ‫)א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
. ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

Abstract
The study aimed at identifying the effects of the General Agreement of Trade in
Services (GATS) on the Egyptian tourism sector, as well as discussing the challenges
facing this sector. The study presented the results of pool survey, which targeted the
tourism enterprises and establishments working in the tourism and the travel related
services in Egypt and registering in the Egyptian Tourism Federation (ETF). Results
assured low level of awareness of applying GATS in Egypt and its commitments related
to tourism sector, as well as the confusion between GATS agreement and GATT
agreement. On the other side, the study revealed the desire of tourism enterprises and
establishments to know the mechanisms of GATS, its benefits and obligations.
Moreover the study positioned the problems related to tourism sector itself to be the
most affecting problems on the performance of these establishments, and it limited the
effects of GATS to the exposure of sever competition from foreign enterprises working,
resulting in increasing or decreasing local enterprises' scope of work in Egypt. These
findings imply the importance of mergers and acquisition among the Egyptian
enterprises and establishments, and to increase their capabilities of facing competition,
as well as encouraging the expansion of Egyptian tourism and travel related services to
other countries all over the world.
‫‪٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪٤ ...............................................................................................................‬‬

‫‪٦ .................................. :‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٧ ..............................................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١ .١‬‬
‫‪٩ ...........................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢ .١‬‬
‫‪١٢ ......................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٣ .١‬‬

‫‪١٥ .. :‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٦ ..................................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١ .٢‬‬
‫‪٣٠ .......................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢ .٢‬‬

‫‪٣٣ .................................................................................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٣٦ ........................................................................................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٣٧ ...............................................................................................................‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٣٨ .....‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪ :( ١‬א‬
‫‪٤٢ .....‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪ :( ٢‬א‬
‫‪٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫‪............................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−١‬‬


‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫‪................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٢‬‬
‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫‪..........................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٣‬‬
‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫‪.................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −٤‬א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪.................................................‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−١‬‬


‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪...............................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٢‬‬
‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫( ‪.........................‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٣‬‬
‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫‪.................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٤‬‬
‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪.......................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٥‬‬
‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪...........‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٦‬‬
‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫‪..................................................‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٧‬‬
‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٨‬‬
‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−٩‬‬
‫‪٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪،(GATT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬


‫)‪،(GATS‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،١٩٩٥‬‬
‫‪.٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫‪: )،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א (‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫(‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫)א‬
‫‪.٢٠٠٦‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א א‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫( א א א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א ‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،Case Studies‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫(‪.‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‪،‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٢‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣,٤‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١,٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٦/٢٠٠٥‬‬
‫‪.٣‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א אא א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א אא א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٪٤١,٣‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠١/٢٠٠٠‬‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٦‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א אא א‬ ‫‪.٪٥,٩‬‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٦ /٢٠٠٥‬‬
‫‪.٤ ٢٠٠٦/٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠٢/٢٠٠١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٠,٥‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪ " ،(٢٠٠٤‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.٢٣٣‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣‬‬
‫‪.http://www.mop.gov.eg/work.htm ،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪٤‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫אא‬ ‫‪،١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١ .١‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א )‪،(GATS‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א (‪،‬‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪":‬‬ ‫)‪(١٢‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‪.‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:١‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪: M1: Cross Border Supply‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫‪www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/guide1_e.htm ، ٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫‪١٤ ،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
٨ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ : M2: Consumption Abroad ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ : M3: Commercial Presence ‫א‬ ‫• א א‬


. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ :M4: Presence of Natural Persons ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •


. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬
− − ‫א‬ ‫ א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
.١ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬

: − ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ − ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬، ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬
: ‫א‬

‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ : ‫א‬ ‫א‬ −


، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

1
World Trade Organization (1998), "Tourism Services", WTO Council for Trade in Services, Geneva
P.2
‫‪٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢ .١‬‬

‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪٪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.١٩٨١‬‬ ‫‪١٣٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫( א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫‪.٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬
‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:M1‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:M2‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫‪.‬‬ ‫אא‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪:M3‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫•‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬

‫"‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪" ،(٢٠٠١‬א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪١‬‬

‫‪.٤٣ −٤٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢‬‬
‫)‪.(١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:M4‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪:١‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٩٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٠‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫א א‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪" ،(٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫א א )‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.٣٢‬‬
‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٣ .١‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٥ – ١٩٩٠‬‬ ‫א‬
‫(‪.‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪/‬א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٧٥٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٧٩١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫‪١٣٢١‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫‪١١٩١‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א א ‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א ‪١٧١‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫‪٦٥‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‪٣٤١‬‬ ‫א ‪١٢١‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٥‬‬
‫‪.١‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬


‫‪٨,٦‬‬ ‫‪،١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫‪٣,١‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٠,٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.٢٠٠٥‬‬
‫‪.٢٠٠٥‬‬ ‫א ‪٨٥‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א א א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٥‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪Hala Mohamed Sakr (2004), GATS Potential Impact on Tourism (Egypt: A Case Study), PhD Thesis,‬‬
‫‪Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, p. 30-32.‬‬
‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א א ‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫( א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬


‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫א(‬ ‫א‬ ‫) א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫אא‬


‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪Case Studies‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫(‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١ .٢‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(١٤٥٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٪٢٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣٣٢‬א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.٪١٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٪‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٣٣,١‬‬ ‫‪١١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٣٢,٥‬‬ ‫‪١٠٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٤,٤‬‬ ‫‪١١٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א ‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(٢٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٪‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٣٣,١‬‬ ‫‪١١٠‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪١٥,٧‬‬ ‫‪٥٢‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٣,٩‬‬ ‫‪٤٦‬‬
‫‪٩,٦‬‬ ‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٦,٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٤,٢‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣,٩‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٣,٦‬‬ ‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‪١٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א א‬ ‫א‬
‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٩‬‬
‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٪٣٠,٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٪٥,٧‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א ‪،٪٧,٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٪٢٤‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪٪٧٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٪٦٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،٪٦٨‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬


‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٤,٤‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪،٪١٤‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪٪٤١‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٪‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٢,١‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫‪٥٠‬‬


‫‪١٠,٥‬‬ ‫‪٣٥‬‬ ‫‪٢٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٥٠‬‬
‫‪٨,٧‬‬ ‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٢٥٠‬‬
‫‪٢٤,٤‬‬ ‫‪٨١‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬
‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٪‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪١٣,٦‬‬ ‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬


‫‪٤٠,٧‬‬ ‫‪١٣٥‬‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٨٣,٤‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٧ ،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٥‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(٥٥‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٨‬‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א ‪،٪٥٨,٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٠‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١,٥‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٥‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(٢) (١‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٣٣٢‬‬ ‫)א‬
‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫) ‪(٢‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬


‫‪٪١,٨‬‬ ‫‪٪١,٢‬‬

‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٣٩,٥‬‬ ‫‪٪٤٠,٧‬‬
‫‪٪٥٨,٧‬‬ ‫‪٪٥٨,١‬‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬


‫‪ −‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٨‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(١٩٣‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪٪٧٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٦٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫(‪:‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪ ،‬א‬ ‫)א‬
‫)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(١٧١‬‬
‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫) ‪(٣‬‬
‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٤٨‬‬
‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫‪٪٥٢‬‬

‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤١‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫‪١٧١‬‬

‫) ‪(٤‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٪٢٨,٧‬‬
‫‪٪٤١,١‬‬

‫‪٪٢٩,٢‬‬

‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂت اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂت اﻟﻔﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺸﺮآﺎت اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪−‬‬ ‫–א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א ‪٪٢٨‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫)‪(٩٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٪٨٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪،(٦‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫) ‪(٥‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫‪٪١٦‬‬ ‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٤٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٨٤‬‬ ‫‪٪٥٥‬‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٨٢‬‬ ‫א א‬


‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٠‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢٠٠٥ ٢٠٠٤‬‬
‫(‪.‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫( א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٤‬‬


‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٤‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫)‪.(٧‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫) ‪(٧‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬

‫‪٪٢٢,٣‬‬ ‫‪٪٢٣,٤‬‬

‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٥٤,٣‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪.٪٢٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،٪٣٦‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٢‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫–א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬
‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٤‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(٥٨‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫)‪.(٨‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٥‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫‪١٧١‬‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬

‫) ‪(٨‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫‪٪٣٤‬‬
‫‪٪٦٦‬‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪٥٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٠‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(٢٣‬‬
‫‪٪١٣,٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫)‪− (٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٧‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫) ‪(٩‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﻻ‬
‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬
‫‪٪٦٠‬‬
‫‪٪٤٠‬‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬

‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫)‪(٢٧٤‬‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٨٩‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٥٥‬‬


‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(e-mail‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٢٨‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪١٦‬‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪:١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫אא‬


‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫*‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٪‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٧٣‬‬ ‫‪ /‬א א ‪ /‬א א ‪(..‬‬ ‫‪/‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫‪٦٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢‬‬
‫‪٦٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٣‬‬
‫‪٦١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪١‬‬
‫‪.٤١−٣٨‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫‪،(٢٠٠٦‬‬ ‫א א )‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٪‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫‪(...‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٥‬‬


‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٦‬‬
‫‪٣٣‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ../‬א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٧‬‬
‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪٨‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪،(٣٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫*‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪،(٤‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٧٣ ٪٦١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫–‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪٪٤٨‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٣١‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א ‪٪٢٣‬‬ ‫א א ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٪١٣ ٪١٤,٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫(‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬

‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬
‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٢ .٢‬‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪Case Studies‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(١٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬


‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫(‪.‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫‪ .‬א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(e-mail‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪ ،‬א‬ ‫)א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫–‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫•‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬
‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫אא‬
‫–‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪٣٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫(‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫אא‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪١٩٩٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫א אא א‬
‫א ‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،٢٠٠٥‬א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫אא א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬


‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬


‫‪:‬‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪(e-mail‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬


‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪ ،Tourism Satellite Account (TSA‬א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫אא‬

‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫(‪،‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א אא א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ −‬א‬


‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫אא א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
٣٦ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬:

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ " א‬،(٢٠٠٤) ، ‫א‬ •


. ‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬،"
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ " ،(٢٠٠٦ ) ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
.‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،" ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫ א‬،" ‫א‬ ‫א‬ " ،(٢٠٠٢ )، ‫א‬ •
. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ "א‬،(٢٠٠١ )، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ •
‫א‬، ‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،" ‫א‬ ‫א‬
. ‫א‬ ‫ א א‬، ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬:


• Sakr, Hala Mohamed, (2004), GATS Potential Impact on Tourism (Egypt: A Case
Study), PhD Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University.
• World Trade Organization, (1998), "Tourism Services", WTO Council for Trade in
Services, Geneva.
‫א‬ ‫א‬ :
٢٠٠٦ ١٤ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
<http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/gats_factfiction_e.htm>
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ •
<http://www.mop.gov.eg/work.htm>

‫א‬ ‫א‬: ‫א‬


، ‫א‬ ‫ א א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ، ‫א‬ •
.٢٠٠٦ ١٤ ،
‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬
‫‪٣٨‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬

‫‪M4‬‬ ‫‪M3‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫א א א‬

‫א )‪:(MA‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫)‪:(NT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫‪ ١٩٨١‬א‬ ‫‪١٣٧‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫–‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪٪١٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫( א‬ ‫)‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٣٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:‬א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬

‫‪M2‬‬
‫‪M4‬‬ ‫‪M1‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪M3‬‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א )‪:(MA‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫*‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫)‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א ‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪٪٤٩‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫)‪:(NT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬

‫‪M2‬‬
‫‪M4‬‬ ‫‪M1‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪M3‬‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א )‪:(MA‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‪:(NT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٤٠‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ .٣‬א‬

‫‪M2‬‬
‫‪M4‬‬ ‫‪M1‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪M3‬‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א א א‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫א )‪:(MA‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬


‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬
‫)‪:(NT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א )‪:(MA‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬


‫(‬ ‫א‬

‫א א‬ ‫‪.‬א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬


‫(‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٤١‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫‪M2‬‬
‫‪M4‬‬ ‫‪M1‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪M3‬‬
‫א א א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬

‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ ،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬


‫(‬ ‫א‬
‫‪٤٢‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺗﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬

‫א ‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.............‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫א‬


‫(‪.‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‬ ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬


‫א‬
‫‪.١‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬
‫‪/‬‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬
‫א‬ ‫אא ‪/‬‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬
‫‪.٦‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫‪.٧‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٨‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬
‫‪٤٣‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬


‫‪ ....‬؟‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫‪،‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫‪(١٢‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٦‬‬


‫‪(١١‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٧‬‬


‫‪..................................................................................................‬‬
‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫"‬ ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٨‬‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬
‫א א א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫‪ .٦‬א‬
‫א (‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪)−‬‬ ‫–‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٧‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.٨‬‬
‫‪.٩‬‬
‫(‪............................................................................‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪.١٠‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.٩‬‬


‫‪(١١‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א ‪،‬‬ ‫"‬ ‫؟‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٠‬‬


‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪.١‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪ .٢‬א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪.٣‬‬
‫‪٤٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪ .٤‬א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪ .٥‬א‬
‫ˆ ‪ .٦‬א‬
‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪ .٧‬א‬
‫(‪.......................................................................‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫ˆ ‪.٨‬‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١١‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‪(١٤‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪.١٢‬‬


‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬
‫‪(١٦‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‬ ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٣‬‬

‫‪(١٦‬‬ ‫)א‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪.١‬‬
‫ˆ ‪.٢‬‬
‫ˆ ‪ .٣‬א‬
‫א א‬ ‫ˆ ‪.٤‬‬
‫(‪...........................................................................‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫ˆ ‪.٦‬‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‬ ‫אא‬ ‫‪.١٤‬‬


‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬ ‫ˆ‬
‫ˆ ‪.٢‬‬
‫א א‬ ‫ˆ ‪.٣‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ˆ ‪ .٤‬א‬
‫(‪.........................................................................‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬ ‫ˆ‬

‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٥‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬
‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫‪،‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٦‬‬


‫؟‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬


‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬
‫‪(....‬‬ ‫‪ /‬א א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ .٥‬א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫‪.٦‬‬
‫‪ /‬א א ‪ /‬א א ‪(..‬‬ ‫‪/‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪ .٧‬א‬
‫‪(...‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٨‬‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.. /‬א‬ ‫‪/‬‬ ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٩‬‬

‫"‪.‬‬ ‫؟"‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٧‬‬


‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫(‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)א‬

‫"‪.‬‬ ‫؟"‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.١٨‬‬


‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬

‫א‬ ‫‪ .١٩‬א‬

‫‪...................................................................................:‬‬ ‫‪ .١‬א א‬

‫‪/‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬


‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬
‫‪٤٦‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬

‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪.١‬‬
‫‪٢٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬
‫‪٢٥٠‬‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬
‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬
‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬
‫‪.٦‬‬
‫‪.٧‬‬

‫"‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪":‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٤‬‬

‫‪(.....‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)א‬ ‫‪.١‬‬


‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪.٢‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‪.٣‬‬
‫‪.٤‬‬
‫‪(.....‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬
‫‪:‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٥‬‬
‫) (א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫א א א‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬
‫‪/‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٤‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٣‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‰ ‪ .٦‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‰ ‪.٥‬‬
‫א‬ ‫‰ ‪ .٧‬א‬
‫א ؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪.٦‬‬
‫‰ ‪.٢‬‬ ‫‰ ‪.١‬‬

‫‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ‬

‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.................................................................................................................‬‬