You are on page 1of 27

I HC NNG

TRNG I HC BCH KHOA

KHOA CNG NGH THNG TIN


Tel. (84-511) 736 949, Website: itf.ud.edu.vn, E-mail: cntt@edu.ud.vn

BO CO TIU LUN MN HC
CNG NGH TRI THC

NGNH KHOA HC MY TNH


TI
Knowledge representation Trai c nh nhau

Nhm HV : 1. ng Th Dung
2. Nguyn Hunh i
3. Nguyn Minh Tun

Lp Cao hc KHMT Kha 28 (2014 2015)

NNG, 11/2014

LI M U
Cng ngh tri thc (Knowledge Engineering) c th xem l mt nhnh nghin
cu ca tr tu nhn to, phn tch tri thc lnh vc v chuyn n thnh nhng m hnh
tnh ton a vo my tnh phc v nhng nhu cu cn thit.
Cng ngh tri thc (Knowledge Engineering) l cc phng php k thut c
nhng k s tri thc (Knowledge Engineers) dng xy dng nhng h thng thng
minh nh: h chuyn gia, h c s tri thc, h h tr quyt nh...
Cng ngh tri thc l nhng phng php, k thut dng :

Tip nhn, biu din tri thc.


Xy dng cc h c s tri thc.
Khm phi tri thc.

Khoa hc v sng to, qun l, khai thc, s dng tri thc da trn s kt hp ca
khoa hc thng tin (tr tu nhn to) v khoa hc h thng cng vi khoa hc x hi (kinh
t).
Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng, vt bc ca ngnh cng nghip my tnh, nhu
cu ca ngi dng i vi my tnh ngy mt cao hn. Khng ch gii quyt nhng cng
vic lu tr, tnh ton bnh thng, ngi dng cn mong i my tnh c kh nng thng
minh hn, c th gii quyt vn nh con ngi. V t tr tu nhn to ni chung v
c bit l cng ngh tri thc ra i v pht trin.
Cng ngh tri thc ng vai tr ht sc
quan trng trong vic pht trin cng ngh thng tin, nng cao s hu dng ca
my tnh, gip con ngi gn gi vi my hn.

Cng ngh tri thc cn gp phn thc y nhiu ngnh khoa hc pht trin, kh
nng pht trin khoa hc da trn tri thc lin ngnh.
Mt trong nhng mc tiu quan trng ca lnh vc nghin cu ny l lm cho my
tnh c kh nng tip nhn, gii quyt vn ging nh con ngi, thm ch hn c con
ngi.
Trong h thng o to i hc v sau i hc v Cng ngh thng tin, cc ch
v Tr tu nhn to, h chuyn gia, dch t ng u lin quan n tri thc. Nhiu
ng dng v Cng ngh thng tin v ang s dng tri thc nh d liu meta, iu
khin qu trnh x l d liu. Tri thc v x l tri thc khng nhng ch c trong
cc mn hc m cn c trong cc hot ng qun l v cng tc dy v hc. Vic s
dng cc phn mm thu thp, x l d liu, tri thc l cn thit. Vic lp lun trn cc
d liu v tri thc v ang tr gip trong cng tc hoch nh chnh sch lu di,
cng nh quyt nh cc nhim v tc nghip.
Trong khun kh ti ny chng em ch trnh by nhng hiu bit v mt phn
ca Knowledge representation v v vn dng lm mt s bi tp. ti gm cc
phn chnh nh sau:
Phn I: L thuyt Dch ni dung Knowledge representation.
Phn II: Bi tp Trai c nh nhau

MC LC
Trang
LI M U.....................................................................................................................

PHN 1:

L THUYT.......................................................................1

Lch s...............................................................................................................................1
Tng quan..........................................................................................................................5
c im............................................................................................................................8
Bn th hc k thut........................................................................................................10

PHN 2:

BI TP.............................................................................17

XY DNG V T T CU CHUYN K TRAI C NH NHAU...................17


Cc v t:.........................................................................................................................18
Dch cc pht biu sang biu thc v t...........................................................................19

Phn 1

L thuyt

PHN 1:

L THUYT

Lch s
Biu din tri thc (KR) l lnh vc tr tu nhn to (AI) dnh cho i din thng
tin v th gii trong mt hnh thc m mt h thng my tnh c th s dng gii
quyt cc nhim v phc tp nh chn on bnh hoc c mt hp thoi trong mt ngn
ng t nhin . Biu din tri thc kt hp cc pht hin t tm l hc v cch con ngi
gii quyt vn v trnh by kin thc thit k ch ngha hnh thc s lm cho h
thng phc tp d dng hn thit k v xy dng. Kin thc i din v l lun cng
kt hp cc pht hin t l t ng ha cc loi l do, chng hn nh vic p dng cc
quy tc hay cc mi quan h ca b v cc tp con .
V d v cc kin thc ch ngha hnh thc i din bao gm li ng
ngha , khung (frame) , ni quy, v bn th . V d v cc l lun t ng bao gm cc
cng c suy lun, nh l provers, v phn loi.
Mt v d c in v cch thit lp mt hnh thc thch hp dn n nhng gii
php mi l v d u tin ca vic thng qua ting Rp trong ch s La M. Ch s
Rp to iu kin cho i din i s phc tp ln hn v nhiu hn na, do nh
hng n biu din tri thc trong tng lai.
Biu din tri thc kt hp l thuyt t tm l hc m tm hiu lm th no con
ngi gii quyt vn v trnh by kin thc. Cc nh nghin cu tm l hc ban u
khng tin vo mt c s ng ngha cho s tht. V d, trng tm l ca ch ngha hnh
vi cc oan thng tr cc trng i hc M t nhng nm 1950 n nhng nm 1980
mt cch r rng loi tr trng thi ni nh khu vc hp php cho nghin cu khoa hc
hoc ng gp quan h nhn qu hp l vi hnh vi ca con ngi. Sau cc l thuyt
trn ng ngha h tr vo ngn ng xy dng da trn ngha.
Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

Cng vic u tin trong biu din tri thc my tnh c tp trung vo gii quyt
vn chung nh chung Gii quyt vn h thng (GPS) c pht trin bi Allen
Newell v Herbert A. Simon vo nm 1959. Cc h thng c trng cu trc d liu cho
vic lp k hoch v phn hy. H thng s bt u vi mt mc tiu. Sau n s phn
hy c mc tiu thnh cc mc tiu v sau thit lp ra xy dng cc chin
lc c th thc hin mi subgoal.
Trong nhng ngy u ca AI, cc thut ton tm kim chung nh A * cng c
pht trin. Tuy nhin, cc nh ngha vn v nh hnh cho cc h thng nh GPS c
ngha l h ch lm vic cho lnh vc chi rt hn ch (v d nh " khi th gii ").
gii quyt vn khng phi chi, cc nh nghin cu AI nh Ed
Feigenbaum v Frederick Hayes-Roth nhn ra rng n l cn thit tp trung h thng
v cc vn hn ch hn.
l s tht bi ca nhng n lc ny dn n cc cuc cch mng nhn
thc v tm l hc v cc giai on ca AI tp trung vo biu din tri thc m kt qu
l h thng chuyn gia trong nhng nm 1970 v nhng nm 80, h thng sn xut , ngn
ng khung , vv Thay v gii quyt vn chung, AI thay i trng tm sang h thng
chuyn gia m c th ph hp vi thm quyn ca con ngi vo mt nhim v c th,
chng hn nh chn on y t.
H thng chuyn gia cho chng ta nhng thut ng vn cn s dng ngy nay,
ni h thng AI c chia thnh mt c s kin thc vi thc t v th gii v cc quy
tc v mt phng php suy lun rng p dng cc quy tc cc c s kin thc tr
li cu hi v gii quyt vn . Trong cc h thng u c s tri thc c xu hng l
mt cu trc tng i bng phng, c bn khng nh v gi tr ca cc bin c s
dng bi cc quy tc.
Ngoi cc h thng chuyn gia, cc nh nghin cu khc pht trin khi nim
v khung ngn ng da vo gia nhng nm 1980. Mt khung tng t nh mt lp i
Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

tng, n l mt m t tru tng ca mt loi m t nhng iu trong th gii, cc vn


v cc gii php tim nng. Khung ban u c s dng trn cc h thng hng ti
s tng tc ca con ngi, v d nh s hiu bit ngn ng t nhin v mi trng x
hi m trong s mong i mc nh khc nhau nh gi mn trong nh hng thu hp
khng gian tm kim v cho php h thng la chn cu tr li ph hp vi cc tnh
hung nng ng.
l khng lu trc khi cng ng khung v cc nh nghin cu da trn
nguyn tc nhn ra rng c s kt hp gia phng php tip cn ca h. Khung c i
din cho th gii thc, c m t nh l cc lp, lp con, khe cm (gi tr d liu) vi
kh khn khc nhau v gi tr c th. Quy tc tt cho i din v s dng logic phc tp
nh qu trnh thc hin mt chn on y t. Tch hp h thng c pht trin kt
hp cc khung hnh v Quy tc ny. Mt trong nhng Quy tc mnh nht v cng c
bit l nm 1983 Kin thc Mi trng K thut (KEE) t Intellicorp . Kee c mt
cng c hon chnh vi quy tc v pha trc v chui ngc . N cng c mt khung
da trn c s kin thc y vi kch hot, khe cm (d liu gi tr), tha k, v thng
ip i qua. Mc d thng qua ngun gc trong cng ng hng i tng ch khng
phi l AI n nhanh chng c chp nhn bi cc nh nghin cu AI cng nh trong
mi trng nh KEE v trong cc h iu hnh cho my Lisp t Symbolics , Xerox ,
v Texas Instruments .
S tch hp ca cc khung hnh, cc quy tc, v lp trnh hng i tng c
thc y ng k ca cc lin thng mi nh KEE v Symbolics tch ra t cc d n
nghin cu khc nhau. Ti cng thi im ny xy ra, c mt s cng thng ca
nghin cu l t tp trung thng mi v c thc y bi logic ton hc v minh
nh l t ng. Mt trong nhng ngn ng c nh hng nht trong nghin cu ny
l KL-ONE ngn ng ca gia nhng nm 80. KL-ONE l mt khung ngn ng m
c mt ng ngha nghim ngt, nh ngha chnh thc v cc khi nim nh l mt quan
h. KL-ONE v ngn ng m b nh hng bi n nh Loom c mt cng c l lun
t ng da trn logic hnh thc hn l Nu-Th quy tc. L lun ny c gi l phn
Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

loi. Mt phn loi c th phn tch mt tp hp cc t khai v suy ra khng nh mi, v


d, xc nh li mt lp l mt lp con hoc cha ca mt s lp khc m cha c chnh
thc xc nh. Bng cch ny, phn loi c chc nng nh mt cng c suy lun, suy lun
s kin mi t mt nn tng kin thc hin c.Vic phn loi cng c th cung cp nht
qun kim tra trn c s kin thc (m trong trng hp ca KL-ONE ngn ng ny
cng c gi l mt bn th hc).
Mt lnh vc nghin cu biu din tri thc l vn ngha l lun ph bin. Mt
trong nhng chng ng u tin t c gng lm cho phn mm c th hot ng vi
ngn ng t nhin ca con ngi l con ngi thng xuyn v trn mt nn tng m
rng kin thc v th gii thc m chng ti ch n gin l a cho cc cp nhng
khng phi l tt c r rng mt tc nhn nhn to. Nguyn tc c bn ca vt l
thng thng, quan h nhn qu, nh, vv Mt v d l vn khung , rng trong mt
logic theo s kin c cn phi l tin rng mi th nh nc duy tr v tr t mt cht
thi gian tip theo tr khi h ang di chuyn bi mt s lc lng bn ngoi . lm
cho mt nhn vin tnh bo nhn to ng l c th tr chuyn vi con ngi s dng
ngn ng t nhin v c th x l cc bo co c bn v cu hi v th gii n l iu
cn thit i din cho loi tri thc ny. Mt trong nhng chng trnh y tham vng
nht gii quyt vn ny l d n ca Doug Lenat CYC. CYC thnh lp ngn ng
Khung ring ca mnh v c mt s lng ln cc nh phn tch ti liu khu vc khc
nhau ca ngha l lun ph bin trong ngn ng . Cc kin thc c ghi li trong
CYC bao gm m hnh ph bin ngha ca thi gian, quan h nhn qu, vt l, nh,
v nhiu ngi khc.
im khi u cho biu din tri thc l gi thuyt biu din tri thc u tin c
chnh thc ha bi Brian C. Smith vo nm 1985: [ 7 ]
Bt k qu trnh thng minh th hin mt cch my mc s bao gm cc thnh
phn cu trc a) chng ti l quan st vin bn ngoi t nhin c i din cho mt ti
khon mnh ca s hiu bit rng cc cuc trin lm quy trnh tng th, v b) c lp
Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

vi ng ngha ghi bn ngoi nh vy, chi mt chnh thc nhng quan h nhn qu v
vai tr thit yu trong lng ghp cc hnh vi th hin kin thc .
Hin nay mt trong nhng khu vc nng ng nht ca nghin cu biu din tri
thc l cc d n lin kt vi cc web ng ngha . Cc web ng ngha tm cch thm mt
lp ng ngha ( ngha) trn u trang ca Internet hin nay. Thay v lp ch mc cc
trang web v cc trang thng qua cc t kha, cc web ng ngha to ra ln bn th ca
khi nim. Tm kim mt khi nim s hiu qu hn so vi vn bn truyn thng ch tm
kim. Khung ngn ng v phn loi t ng ng vai tr ln trong tm nhn cho web ng
ngha trong tng lai. Vic phn loi t ng cho cng ngh pht trin cung cp trn
mng khng ngng pht trin ca tri thc. Xc nh bn th l tnh v khng c kh
nng pht trin trn bay s rt hn ch cho cc h thng da trn Internet. Cng ngh
phn loi cung cp kh nng i ph vi mi trng nng ng ca Internet.
Nhng D n gn y c ti tr ch yu bi Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) tch hp ngn ng khung v phn loi vi cc ngn ng
nh du da trn XML. Cc miu t ti nguyn khung (RDF) cung cp kh nng c bn
xc nh cc lp hc, cc lp con, v ti sn ca cc i tng. Ngn ng Web bn th
hc (OWL) cung cp mc b sung ng ngha v cho php tch hp vi cc cng c
phn loi.

Tng quan
Biu din tri thc l lnh vc tr tu nhn to tp trung vo thit k i din my
tnh nm bt thng tin v th gii m c th c s dng gii quyt vn phc
tp. Cc bin minh cho vic biu din tri thc l thng thng m th tc khng phi l
hnh thc tt nht s dng gii quyt vn phc tp. Biu din tri thc lm cho
phn mm phc tp d dng hn xc nh v duy tr so vi m th tc v c th c
s dng trong cc h thng chuyn gia .

Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

V d, ni chuyn vi cc chuyn gia v quy tc kinh doanh hn l m lm gim


khong cch ng ngha gia ngi dng v cc nh pht trin v lm cho s pht trin
ca cc h thng phc tp thc t hn.
Biu din tri thc i tay trong tay vi l t ng bi v mt trong nhng mc ch
chnh ca i din mt cch r rng l kin thc c th l do v kin thc rng,
thc hin kt lun, khng nh kin thc mi, vv Hu nh tt c cc ngn ng biu din
tri thc c mt l lun hay suy lun ng c nh l mt phn ca h thng.
Mt trao i quan trng trong vic thit k mt hnh thc biu din tri thc l gia
biu cm v thc tin. Cc kin thc cui cng i din hnh thc v sc mnh ngha v
rn chc l u tin theo th t logic (FOL). C hnh thc khng mnh m hn c s
dng bi cc nh ton hc xc nh chung v th gii. Tuy nhin, FOL c hai
nhc im nh l mt hnh thc biu din tri thc: d s dng v thc tin thc
hin. Logic th t u tin c th e da ngay c i vi nhiu nh pht trin phn
mm. Ngn ng m khng c quyn lc chnh thc hon chnh ca FOL vn c th cung
cp gn sc mnh ngha cng vi mt giao din ngi dng l thit thc hn cho
cc nh pht trin trung bnh hiu.Cc vn ca thc tin thc hin l FOL trong mt
s cch l qu biu cm. Vi FOL n c th to ra bo co (v d nh nh lng trn b
v hn) c th gy ra mt h thng khng bao gi chm dt nu n c gng xc minh.
Do , mt tp hp con ca FOL c th c c hai d dng hn s dng v
thit thc hn thc hin. y l mt ng lc thc y cc h thng chuyn gia da
trn lut l. Quy tc Nu-Th cung cp mt tp hp con ca FOL nhng rt hu ch m
cn rt trc quan. Lch s ca hu ht cc ch ngha hnh thc AI biu din tri thc
sm; t c s d liu ti cc mng ng ngha chng minh nh l v h thng sn xut
c th c xem nh l quyt nh thit k khc nhau v vic c nn nhn mnh sc
mnh biu cm hoc c th tnh ton c v hiu qu.

Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

Trong mt kha 1993 bi bo v ch ny, Randall Davis ca MIT vch ra nm vai tr


khc bit phn tch mt khun kh biu din tri thc:

Mt biu din tri thc (KR) l c bn nht mt thay th, thay th cho bn thn s

vt, c s dng cho php mt t chc xc nh hu qu ca suy ngh hn l hnh


ng, v d, bng cch l lun v th gii ch khng phi l hnh ng trong .

N l mt tp hp cc cam kt bn th, tc l, mt cu tr li cho cu hi: Trong

nhng iu kin ti nn suy ngh v th gii?

l mt l thuyt ri rc ca l lun thng minh, th hin bng ba thnh phn:

(i) quan nim c bn ca i din ca l lun thng minh; (Ii) tp hp cc suy lun cc
bin php trng pht i din; v (iii) tp hp cc suy lun n khuyn co.

N l mt phng tin tnh ton thc dng hiu qu, tc l, mi trng tnh

ton trong t duy c thc hin. Mt ng gp vo hiu qu thc dng ny c


cung cp bi cc hng dn mt i din cung cp cho t chc thng tin to thun li
lm cho suy lun c ngh.

N l mt phng tin biu hin ca con ngi, tc l, mt ngn ng m chng ta

ni nhng iu v th gii. "


Kin thc i din v l lun l mt cha kha cho php cng ngh cho cc web
ng ngha . Ngn ng da trn m hnh khung vi phn loi t ng cung cp mt lp
ng ngha trn u trang ca Internet hin c. Thay v tm kim thng qua cc chui vn
bn nh l in hnh ngy nay n s c th xc nh cc truy vn hp l v tm thy
cc trang bn cho nhng cu truy vn. Cc thnh phn l lun t ng ha trong cc
h thng ny l mt cng c c gi l phn loi.Phn loi tp trung gp vo cc quan
h trong c s kin thc ch khng phi l quy tc. Mt phn loi c th suy ra cc lp
hc mi v t ng thay i bn th hc nh thng tin mi tr nn c sn. Kh nng ny
l l tng cho bao gi thay i v pht trin khng gian thng tin ca Internet.
Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

Cc web ng ngha tch hp cc khi nim t biu din tri thc v l lun vi ngn
ng nh du da trn XML. Cc miu t ti nguyn khung (RDF) cung cp cc kh
nng c bn xc nh i tng da trn tri thc trn Internet vi cc tnh nng c bn
nh quan h Is-A v thuc tnh i tng. Cc Web ngn ng Bn th hc (OWL) cho
bit thm ng ngha b sung v tch hp vi nhng l lun phn loi t ng.

c im
Nm 1985, Ron Brachman phn loi cc vn ct li cho biu din tri thc nh sau:

Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

Nguyn thy. Khun kh c bn c s dng i din cho kin thc l

g? mng ng ngha l mt trong nhng nguyn thy biu din tri thc u tin. Ngoi ra,
cu trc d liu v thut ton chung cho cc tm kim nhanh chng.Trong khu vc ny c
s trng lp vi nghin cu mnh m trong cu trc d liu v cc thut ton trong khoa
hc my tnh. Trong cc h thng u ngn ng lp trnh Lisp m c m hnh ha sau
khi tnh ton lambda thng c s dng nh mt hnh thc biu din tri thc chc
nng. Khung v Ni quy l loi tip theo ca nguyn thy. Khung ngn ng c c ch
khc nhau th hin v thc thi cc hn ch v khung d liu. Tt c cc d liu trong
khung hnh c lu tr trong khe. Khe l tng t nh mi quan h trong m hnh thc
th-mi quan h v i tng thuc tnh trong m hnh hng i tng. Mt k thut
cho nguyn thy l xc nh ngn ng c m hnh ha sau khi u tin theo th t
logic (FOL). V d ni ting nht l Prolog nhng cng c nhiu mi trng minh nh l
mc ch c bit. Nhng mi trng c th xc nhn m hnh hp l v c th suy ra l
thuyt mi t cc m hnh hin c. V c bn h t ng qu trnh mt lun s s i qua
trong vic phn tch mt m hnh. Cng ngh chng minh nh l c mt s ng dng
thc t c th trong cc lnh vc cng ngh phn mm. V d chng ta c th chng minh
rng mt chng trnh phn mm mt cch cng nhc tun th mt c im k thut
hp l chnh thc.

Knowledge representation

Phn 1

L thuyt

Bin i-i din. iu ny cng c bit n nh l vn ca s phn

nh trong khoa hc my tnh. N cp n kh nng ca mt hnh thc c th truy


cp thng tin v trng thi ca n. Mt v d l phng thc bin i-i tng
trong Smalltalk v Clos cung cp cho cc nh pht trin chy thi gian truy cp vo cc
lp i tng v cho php h t ng xc nh li cu trc ca c s tri thc, ngay c
thi gian chy. Bin i-i din c ngha l ngn ng biu din tri thc c bn thn
th hin trong ngn ng . V d, trong hu ht cc mi trng da trn khung tt c cc
khung s l trng hp ca mt lp khung. l i tng lp c th c kim tra ti
thi gian chy i tng c th hiu v thm ch thay i cu trc bn trong ca n
hoc cu trc ca cc b phn khc ca m hnh. Trong mi trng da trn nguyn tc
cc quy tc cng thng l trng hp ca cc tng lp cai tr. Mt phn ca giao thc
bin i cho cc quy tc l quy tc bin i rng u tin quy tc bn.

Khng y . Logic truyn thng i hi cc tin b sung v hn ch i

ph vi th gii thc nh tri ngc vi th gii ca ton hc. Ngoi ra, n thng l
hu ch lin kt mc t tin vi mt tuyn b. Tc l, khng ch n gin ni
"Socrates l con ngi", m l "Socrates l vi s t tin 50% con ngi". y l mt
trong nhng sng kin u t h thng chuyn gia nghin cu m di c n mt s cng
c thng mi, kh nng kt hp cc yu t chc chn vi cc quy tc v kt
lun. Nghin cu sau trong lnh vc ny c gi l Fuzzy Logic . [ 17 ]

nh ngha v ph qut , so vi s kin v mc nh. Ph qut l bo co chung v

th gii nh: "Tt c mi ngi l cht". S kin l nhng v d c th v cc ph qut


nh "Socrates l mt con ngi v do cht". V nh ngha hp l v ph bin l v
nh lng ph qut trong khi cc s kin v mc nh l v ca ci g tn ti. Tt c cc
hnh thc biu din tri thc phi i ph vi kha cnh ny v hu ht lm nh vy vi
mt s bin th ca l thuyt tp hp, m hnh ph qut nh b v tp hp con v nh
ngha nh cc yu t trong nhng b.

Knowledge representation

10

Phn 1

L thuyt

L lun khng n iu . L lun khng n iu cho php cc loi l lun gi

thuyt. H thng lin kt cc s kin khng nh vi cc quy tc v s kin c s dng


bin minh cho h v nh nhng s kin thay i cp nht cc kin thc ph thuc l
tt. Trong cc h thng da trn nguyn tc kh nng ny c bit n nh mt h
thng duy tr s tht .

Mc y ngha . Cc tiu chun m Brachman v hu ht cc nh nghin

cu AI s dng o lng y biu cm thng l u tin theo th t logic


(FOL). Nhng hn ch v mt l thuyt c ngha l mt thc hin y FOL l khng
thc t. Cc nh nghin cu cn phi r rng v cch biu cm (bao nhiu y sc
mnh ngha FOL) h c nh i din ca h c.

L lun hiu qu. iu ny ni n hiu qu thi gian chy ca h thng. Kh

nng ca cc c s kin thc c cp nht v cc nh l lun pht trin mi trong


mt thi gian hp l. Trong mt s cch ny l mt tri ca y ngha. Nhn chung,
mt i din mnh m hn, cng c nhiu n c y ngha, s km hiu qu ca l
lun t ng ng c s c. Hiu qu thng l mt vn , c bit l cho cc ng
dng sm ca cng ngh biu din tri thc. H thng thc hin trong mi trng gii
thch nh Lisp m chm c so snh vi nhiu nn tng truyn thng ca thi gian.

Bn th hc k thut
Bi chnh: Bn th hc k thut v bn th hc ngn ng
Trong nhng nm u ca h thng kin thc da trn cc kin thc c s l kh
nh. Cc kin thc c s c c ngha l thc s gii quyt vn thc s ch
khng phi lm bng chng v cc cuc biu tnh khi nim cn thit tp trung vo
cc vn c xc nh r. V vy, v d, khng ch chn on y t l mt ch ton
b nhng chn on y t ca mt s loi bnh.

Knowledge representation

11

Phn 1

L thuyt

Khi cng ngh da trn tri thc rng nhu cu cho cc c s kin thc ln hn v
cho cc c s kin thc m-un c th giao tip v tch hp vi nhau tr nn r
rng. iu ny dn n k lut ca bn th hc k thut, thit k v xy dng c s
kin thc ln m c th c s dng bi nhiu d n. Mt trong nhng d n nghin
cu hng u trong lnh vc ny l d n CYC. CYC l mt n lc xy dng mt nn
tng kin thc bch khoa ton th ln m s cha khng ch l kin thc chuyn mn
nhng kin thc thng thng. Trong thit k mt nhn vin tnh bo nhn to l sm
nhn ra rng i din cho kin thc thng thng, kin thc m ch n gin l ngi a
cho cc cp, l cn thit lm cho mt AI c th tng tc vi ngi s dng ngn ng
t nhin. CYC c ngha l gii quyt vn ny. Cc ngn ng m h xc nh
c bit n nh CycL .
Sau khi CycL, mt s ngn ng bn th hc c pht trin. Nht l ngn ng
khai bo , v l mt trong hai ngn ng khung , hoc da trn u tin-trt t logic . M
un-kh nng xc nh ranh gii xung quanh lnh vc v vn c th khng gian, l
iu cn thit cho cc ngn ng bi v nh ni bi Tom Gruber, "Mi bn th hc l
mt treaty- mt tha thun x hi gia con ngi vi ng c thng thng trong vic
chia s." Lun lun c rt nhiu quan im khc nhau v khc nhau m lm cho bt k
bn th hc mc ch chung l khng th. Mt bn th hc mc ch chung s phi c
p dng trong bt k khu vc min v kin thc khc nhau cn phi c thng nht.
C mt lch s lu di ca vic c gng xy dng cc bn th hc cho mt lot cc
lnh vc cng vic, v d nh, mt bn th hc cho cht lng, m hnh phn t gp s
dng rng ri trong vic i din cc mch in t (v d), cng nh bn th hc cho thi
gian, nim tin, v thm ch lp trnh t. Mi trong s ny cung cp mt cch xem mt
s phn ca th gii. Cc m hnh phn t gp, v d, cho thy rng chng ta ngh v
mch v cc thnh phn vi cc kt ni gia chng, vi cc tn hiu chy ngay lp tc
cng cc kt ni. y l mt ci nhn hu ch, nhng khng phi l ngi duy nht c
th. Mt bn th hc khc nhau pht sinh nu chng ta cn phi tham d vo in ng
lc trong thit b: y l du hiu tuyn truyn tc hu hn v mt i tng (nh
Knowledge representation

12

Phn 1

L thuyt

mt in tr) m trc y c xem nh l mt thnh phn duy nht vi mt hnh vi


I/O by gi c th c c mi ngi ngh nh l mt phng tin m rng, m qua
mt ln sng in t.
Bn th hc tt nhin c th c vit trong nhiu ngn ng v k hiu (v d,
logic, LISP, vv); cc thng tin cn thit khng phi l hnh thc ca ngn ng nhng ni
dung, ngha l tp hp cc khi nim cung cp nh l mt cch suy ngh v th gii. n
gin ch cn t, phn quan trng l cc khi nim nh kt ni v cc thnh phn, khng
phi l s la chn gia h vit nh v hoc cu trc LISP.
Cc cam kt la chn mt hoc bn th hc khc c th sn xut mt ci nhn
mnh khc nhau ca nhim v trong tm tay.Hy xem xt s khc bit pht sinh trong
vic la chn xem yu t gp ca mt mch hn l xem in ng ca cng mt thit
b. Nh mt v d th hai, chn on y t xem xt v quy tc (v d, Mycin ) trng khc
hn vi nhim v tng t xem v khung (v d, y hc). Ni Mycin thy th gii y t nh
to thnh cc hip hi thc nghim kt ni triu chng bnh, ni nhn thy mt tp hp
cc nguyn mu, trong cc bnh nguyn mu c bit, c so snh vi trng hp bn
tay.

Cam kt bt u vi nhng la chn u tin


V d y hc cng chng minh rng c cam kt quan trng v khng th trnh khi
bn th hc ngay c mc ca cng ngh biu din quen thuc. Logic, quy tc, khung
hnh, vv, mi th hin mt quan im v cc loi nhng th quan trng trn th
gii. Logic, v d, lin quan n mt cam kt xem th gii v quyn c nhn v mi
quan h gia chng. H thng da trn nguyn tc xem th gii v gp ba thuc tnh i
tng c gi tr v cc quy tc ca suy lun hp l l kt ni chng, trong khi khung hnh
c chng ta suy ngh v i tng nguyn mu. Mi trong s ny do cung cp quan
im ring ca mnh v nhng g l quan trng tham d vo, v mi gi , ngc li,
rng bt c iu g khng phi d dng nhn thy trong nhng iu kin c th c b
qua. y l kha hc khng m bo c ng, v bt c iu g b b qua sau c th
Knowledge representation

13

Phn 1

L thuyt

chng minh l c lin quan. Nhng nhim v l v vng v nguyn tc, tt c cc i


din b qua iu g v th gii do tt nht chng ti c th lm l bt u vi mt
d on tt. Cc cng ngh biu din hin c cung cp mt tp hp cc d on v
nhng g tham d vo v nhng g b qua. La chn bt k ca h do lin quan
n mt mc cam kt bn th hc: la chn s c mt tc ng ng k v nhn thc
ca chng ti v cch tip cn vi nhim v, v trn nhn thc ca chng ta v th gii
c m hnh ha.

Cam kt tch ly trong lp


Cc cam kt ontologic ca mt i din do bt u cp ca cc cng ngh
biu din v tch ly t . Cc lp b sung cc cam kt c thc hin nh cng ngh
ny c a vo lm vic. Vic s dng cu trc khung ging nh trong ni cung cp
mt v d minh ha. cp c bn nht, quyt nh xem chn on v khung gi
suy ngh v cc nguyn mu, mc nh, v mt h thng phn loi. Tuy nhin, nguyn
mu ca nhng g, v s phn loi c t chc nh th no?
Mt m t ban u ca h thng [ 23 ] cho thy lm th no nhng cu hi c
tr li trong cc nhim v, cung cp cc lp th hai ca cam kt:
Cc c s kin thc c bn h thng ni bao gm hai loi c bn ca cc yu t: thc
th bnh v biu hin .... [N] cng cha mt h thng phn cp ... cc loi bnh, t chc
ch yu xung quanh cc khi nim v h thng c quan, c ti cp cao nht th loi nh:
"bnh gan", "bnh thn", vv
Do cc nguyn mu c dng chp cc bnh nguyn mu (v d, mt "trng
hp in hnh" ca mt bnh), v h s c t chc trong mt phn loi c lp ch
mc trn h thng c quan. y l mt tp hp l v trc quan la chn nhng r rng
khng phi l cch duy nht p dng khung hnh vi nhim v; do n l mt lp
cam kt bn th hc.

Knowledge representation

14

Phn 1

L thuyt

Ti lp th ba (cui cng v trong trng hp ny), thit lp ny la chn c khi


to: bnh s c bao gm trong v cc chi nhnh ca h thng phn cp chng s
xut hin? Cu hi Ontologic pht sinh thm ch cp ny c th kh c bn. Hy
xem xt v d xc nh no sau y s c xem l bnh (tc l, cc quc gia khng bnh
thng i hi phi cha bnh): nghin ru, ng tnh luyn i, v hi chng mt mi
mn tnh. Cc cam kt ontologic y l r rng v y quan trng l n thng l
mt ch tranh ci trong lnh vc ring ca mnh, hon ton c lp xy dng reasoners
t ng.
Cc loi tng t ca cc quyt nh phi c thc hin vi tt c cc cng ngh
biu din, bi v mi ngi trong s h cung cp ch l mt th t u tin on v cch
nhn th gii: h cung cp mt cch nhn nhn nhng khng cho bit lm th no
nhanh chng quan im . Nh khung ngh nguyn mu v phn loi nhng khng
cho chng ti bit nhng th la chn nh nguyn mu, quy tc ngh suy ngh v
suy lun hp l, nhng khng cho chng ti bit suy lun hp l tham d vo. Tng
t lun cho chng ta xem th gii v cc c nhn v cc mi quan h, nhng khng
xc nh m cc c nhn v cc mi quan h s dng.
Cam kt n mt ci nhn c bit ca th gii do bt u vi s la chn ca mt
cng ngh biu din, v tch ly nh s la chn tip theo c thc hin v cch nhn
th gii trong nhng iu khon.

Knowledge representation

15

Phn 1

L thuyt

Ti liu tham kho


1. Maynard Smith, John (1986). Problems in Biology. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-19-219213-2. "We can treat the brain as a black box into
whose contents it is not efficient to enquire... This is in effect the behaviorist
approach."
2. Hayes-Roth, Frederick; Donald Waterman; Douglas Lenat (1983). Building
Expert Systems. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-10686-8.
3. Mettrey, William (1987). "An Assessment of Tools for Building Large
Knowledge-Based Systems". AI Magazine 8 (4).
4. Brachman, Ron (1978). "A Structural Paradigm for Representing
Knowledge". Bolt, Beranek, and Neumann Technical Report(3605).
5. MacGregor, Robert (June 1991). "Using a description classifier to enhance
knowledge representation". IEEE Expert 6 (3). Retrieved 10 November 2013.
6. Lenat, Doug; R. V. Guha (January 1990). Building Large Knowledge-Based
Systems: Representation and Inference in the Cyc Project. AddisonWesley. ISBN 978-0201517521.
7. Smith, Brian C. (1985). "Prologue to Reflections and Semantics in a
Procedural Language". In Ronald Brachman and Hector J.
Levesque. Readings in Knowledge Representation. Morgan Kaufmann.
pp. 3140. ISBN 0-934613-01-X.
8. Berners-Lee, Tim; James Hendler and Ora Lassila (May 17, 2001). "The
Semantic Web A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers
will unleash a revolution of new possibilities". Scientific American.

Knowledge representation

16

Phn 1

L thuyt
9. Knublauch, Holger; Oberle, Daniel; Tetlow, Phil; Evan (2006-03-09). "A
Semantic Web Primer for Object-Oriented Software Developers". W3C.
Retrieved 2008-07-30.
10. Hayes-Roth, Frederick; Donald Waterman; Douglas Lenat (1983). Building
Expert Systems. Addison-Wesley. pp. 67.ISBN 0-201-10686-8.
11. Levesque, Hector; Ronald Brachman (1985). "A Fundamental Tradeoff in
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning". In Ronald Brachman and Hector
J. Levesque. Reading in Knowledge Representation. Morgan Kaufmann.
p. 49. ISBN 0-934613-01-X. "The good news in reducing KR service to
theorem proving is that we now have a very clear, very specific notion of what
the KR system should do; the bad new is that it is also clear that the services
can not be provided... deciding whether or not a sentence in FOL is a
theorem... is unsolvable."
12. Davis, Randall; Howard Shrobe; Peter Szolovits (Spring 1993). "What Is a
Knowledge Representation?". AI Magazine 14 (1): 1733.
13. Berners-Lee, Tim; James Hendler and Ora Lassila (May 17, 2001). "The
Semantic Web A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers
will unleash a revolution of new possibilities". Scientific American.
14. Macgregor, Robert (August 13, 1999). "Retrospective on Loom". isi.edu.
Information Sciences Institute. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
15. Knublauch, Holger; Oberle, Daniel; Tetlow, Phil; Evan (2006-03-09). "A
Semantic Web Primer for Object-Oriented Software Developers". W3C.
Retrieved 2008-07-30.
16. Brachman, Ron (1985). "Introduction". In Ronald Brachman and Hector J.
Levesque. Readings in Knowledge Representation. Morgan Kaufmann.
pp. XVIXVII. ISBN 0-934613-01-X.
17. Bih, Joseph (2006). "Paradigm Shift: An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic". IEEE
POTENTIALS. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
18. Zlatarva, Nellie (1992). "Truth Maintenance Systems and their Application for
Verifying Expert System Knowledge Bases".Artificial Intelligence Review 6:
67110. doi:10.1007/bf00155580. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
19. Levesque, Hector; Ronald Brachman (1985). "A Fundamental Tradeoff in
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning". In Ronald Brachman and Hector
J. Levesque. Reading in Knowledge Representation. Morgan Kaufmann.
pp. 4170. ISBN 0-934613-01-X.
20. Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2010), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 013-604259-7, p. 437-439

Knowledge representation

17

Phn 1

L thuyt
21. Hayes P, Naive physics I: Bn th hc for liquids. University of Essex report,
1978, Essex, UK.
22. Davis R, Shrobe H E, Representing Structure and Behavior of Digital
Hardware, IEEE Computer, Special Issue on Knowledge Representation,
16(10):75-82.
23. Pople H, Heuristic methods for imposing structure on ill-structured problems,
in AI in Medicine, Szolovits (ed.), AAAS Symposium 51, Boulder: Westview
Press.

Knowledge representation

18

Phn 2

Bi tp

PHN 2:

BI TP

XY DNG V T T CU CHUYN K TRAI C NH NHAU


Mt ngy p tri n, nh nng du dng chiu ln bi bin, mt con Trai ln b
ln b, m toang hai cnh v cng hnh bu dc ra n nh nng. N ung dung nm
trn b bin, trong lng cm thy rt vui v thoi mi.
Trong mt lm c cch khng xa, c mt cn C nh ang i do bng hai
chn va nh, va di ngong ca n. C trn chic m di nhn ra tm kim thc n.
Bng nhin, n thy con Trai nm trn b h ming ra. Tht Trai va ngon va bo
y hp dn, mi nhn thy chy nc ming ri. C xut xoa: n tht n chc ngon
lm!
C nh nhng i n gn, th ci m ln nhanh chng m tht trong v cng ca
con Trai. Trai t nhin b tp kch lin khp ming v li, lp v cng nh mt cy kim
kp cht chic m di ca C.
C dng ht sc rt ci m ra nhng b Trai kp cng ngc. i bn khng ai chu
nhng ai. C ni vi Trai: Mi khng h ming ra, tri nng th ny s b phi cht kh
y!. Trai ni: Nh ngi cng c th b nght th m cht!.
C v Trai khng ngng ging co nhau, c nh th li qua ting li. Lc , c
mt lo ng ng i qua nhn thy, khng cn tn nhiu sc lc, bt c c hai, vui
mng mang v.

Trai c nh nhau

19

Phn 2

Bi tp

BI LM
Cc v t:
Mt ngy p tri(X)

B m tht(N,M)

Con trai(N)

Kp m(N,M)

nh nng(Y)

Ngh n tht ngon lm(M,N)

Bi bin(Z)

M tht (M,N)

B ln(N,Z)

Rt m(M)

M toang 2 v(N)

Tht bi(M)

n(N,Y)

Khng m tht(M,N)

Ung dung nm(N,Z)

Khng kp m(N,M)

Cm thy vui v thoi mi(N)

Ging co(M,N)

Con c nh(M)

Lo ng(X)

Trn m di(M)

i qua(X,MN)

Kim thc n(M)

Nhn thy (X,ging co(M,N))

M toang 2 v(N)

Bt c(X,MN)

Nhn thy(M,N)

Trai c nh nhau

20

Phn 2

Bi tp

Dch cc pht biu sang biu thc v t


Mt ngy p tri n, nh nng du dng chiu ln bi bin.
nh nng(Y)
Bi bin(Z)
Mt ngy p tri(X) Chiu(Y,Z)
Mt con Trai ln b ln b, m toang hai cnh v cng hnh bu dc ra n nh
nng.
Mt ngy p tri(X) Con trai(N) Bi bin(Z) B ln(N,Z)
Con trai(N) B ln(N,Z) M toang 2 v(N)
Con trai(N) M toang 2 v(N) nh nng(Y) n(N,Y)
N ung dung nm trn b bin, trong lng cm thy rt vui v thoi mi.
Mt ngy p tri(X) Con trai(N) M toang 2 v(N) Ung dung nm(N,Z)
Con trai(N) Ung dung nm(N,Z) Cm thy vui v thoi mi(N)
Trong mt lm c cch khng xa, c mt cn C nh ang i do bng hai chn
va nh, va di ngong ca n. C trn chic m di nhn ra tm kim thc n.
Con c nh(M) Trn m di(M) Kim thc n(M)
Bng nhin, n thy con Trai nm trn b h ming ra. Tht Trai va ngon va bo
y hp dn, mi nhn thy chy nc ming ri. C xut xoa: n tht n chc
ngon lm!
Con c nh(M) Kim thc n(M) Nhn thy(M,N)
Nhn thy(M,N) M toang 2 v(N) Ngh n tht ngon lm(M,N)

Trai c nh nhau

21

Phn 2

Bi tp

C nh nhng i n gn, th ci m ln nhanh chng m tht trong v cng ca


con Trai. Trai t nhin b tp kch lin khp ming v li, lp v cng nh mt cy
kim kp cht chic m di ca C.
Kim thc n (M) M toang 2 v (N) M tht (M,N)
B m tht(N,M) Kp m(N,M)
C dng ht sc rt ci m ra nhng b Trai kp cng ngc. i bn khng ai chu
nhng ai. C ni vi Trai: Mi khng h ming ra, tri nng th ny s b phi
cht kh y!. Trai ni: Nh ngi cng c th b nght th m cht!.
B kp m(M,N) Rt m(M) Tht bi(M)
C v Trai khng ngng ging co nhau, c nh th li qua ting li. Lc , c mt
lo ng ng i qua nhn thy, khng cn tn nhiu sc lc, bt c c hai, vui
mng mang v.
Khng m tht(M,N) Khng kp m(N,M) Ging co(M,N)
Lo ng(X) i qua(X,MN) Nhn thy (X,Ging co(M,N) Bt c(X,MN)

Trai c nh nhau

22