You are on page 1of 42

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

MC LC
MC LC........................................................................................................................1
1. Tng quan v cng ty...................................................................................................3
2. Chin lc kinh doanh quc t......................................................................................7
2.1. Sc p gim chi ph...............................................................................................7
2.2. Sc p t a phng.............................................................................................8
2.3. Chin lc quc t................................................................................................11
2.3.1. Nhn hiu Apple :..........................................................................................11
2.3.2. Vn................................................................................................................11
2.3.3. Mt CEO c uy tn.........................................................................................11
2.3.4. To lp uy tn v lun i trc mt bc......................................................12
2.3.5. Chin lc khc bit ho sn phm trong cnh tranh....................................13
2.3.6. Chnh sch bn hng......................................................................................23
2.3.7. Chnh sch gi c...........................................................................................24
2.3.8. Mng li phn phi ca Apple:...................................................................25
2.4. Tnh kinh t ca a im ....................................................................................26
3. Chin lc thm nhp th trng.................................................................................27
3.1. Tng quan:............................................................................................................27
3.2. Phn tch nhng chin lc thm nhp th trng:..............................................27
3.2.1. Lin minh chin lc:....................................................................................27
3.2.1.1. Lin minh chin lc ca Apple & Microsoft:......................................28
a. C s hnh thnh lin minh:........................................................................28
b. Ni dung lin minh Apple-Microsoft:........................................................28
c. Li ch t lin minh:..................................................................................29

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 1

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


d. Li ch chung:..............................................................................................30
e. Kt qu ca lin minh:.................................................................................30
f. Yu t dn n thnh cng ca lin minh:...................................................31
3.2.1.2. Lin minh chin lc: Apple Inc & Motorola Co..................................31
a. C s hnh thnh lin minh.........................................................................31
b. Gii thiu lin minh:...................................................................................32
c. Li ch khi hnh thnh lin minh.................................................................33
d. Li ch chung:.............................................................................................33
e. Kt qu :......................................................................................................34
f. Nhng tc ng khi lin minh tht bi........................................................34
g. Phn tch nhng yu t dn n tht bi ca chin lc lin minh.............35
3.2.1.3. Lin minh Apple v HP:.........................................................................36
a. Gii thiu v HP:.........................................................................................36
b. Gii thiu v lin minh:..............................................................................36
c. Li ch t lin minh:....................................................................................37
3.2.1.4. Lin minh Apple v Google:.................................................................37
a. Gii thiu v cng ty Google:......................................................................37
b. Hnh thnh Lin Minh:................................................................................38
c. Li ch t lin minh:....................................................................................38
3.2.1.5. Nhng Lin Minh khc:..........................................................................39
3.2.2. Gia cng quc t:...........................................................................................40
3.2.3. Xut khu gin tip thng qua cc nh i l y qun:..............................40
3.2.4. Xut khu trc tip thng qua ca hng i din::........................................41
4. Kt lun........................................................................................................................41
5. Ti liu tham kho.......................................................................................................42

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 2

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


1. Tng quan v cng ty

Apple Inc. l tp on cng ngh my tnh ca M c tr s chnh t ti thung


lng my tnh (Silicon Valley) Cupertino, bang California. Apple c thnh lp ngy
1 thng 4 nm 1976 di tn Apple Computer v i tn thnh Apple Inc vo u nm
2007. Hai sng lp vin ca Apple l Steve Wozniak v Steve Job.
Doanh thu 32.47 t USD , li nhun 4.83 t USD ( nm 2008 ) Xp hng 71
trong Fortune 500 (Fortune 500, http://www.cnn.com, 2009) Lng sn phm bn ra
ton cu hng nm l 13,9 t la M(2005), m chng khon trn th trng
NASDAQ ( National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System )
l AAPL, ti LSE ( London Stock Exchange ) l ACP. C 14.800 nhn vin nhiu
quc gia; sn phm l : my tnh c nhn, phn mm, phn cng, thit b nghe nhc v
nhiu thit b a phng tin khc. Ni bn hng v dch v ch yu l M, Canada,
Nht Bn v Anh.
Sn phm ni ting nht l Apple Macintosh, iPod nghe nhc v chng trnh
nghe nhc iTunes, sn phm m Apple m kho ng dng iTunes v tr thnh mt
trong nhng kho ng dng ln nht m nhiu hng cng ngh ang bt chc theo. Kho
ng dng ca Apple c khong hn 100.000 ng dng.im ni bt hn c l t khi b
nh hng nng n ca nhng nm 90, Apple tr thnh cng ty c li nhun khng
l cng vi s kim sot th trng ng khm phc.

Iphone 3G nm gi v tr dn u trong vic bn ra lng sn phm 1 triu chic nhanh


nht u nm 2009
LCH S HP TC V PHT TRIN CA APPLE

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 3

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


1991
Lin minh Apple-IBM-Motorola ( AIM ) c thnh lp nhm nghin cu pht trin h
thng PowerPC.
1998
Apple mua phn mm Macromedia's Final Cut. y l tn hiu u tin trong vic thm
nhp th trng k thut s ca h .
19/5/2001
Apple m cc ca hng bn l chnh thc u tin ca mnh ti hai bang Virginia v
California. Sau l s xut hin Ca hng Apple, bng knh trong sut vi thang my
hnh tr v cu thang xon dn vo bn trong, trn i l s 5, New York. S kin ny
lm sng st c cc nh u t ln ngi tiu dng lc by gi.
2002
Apple mua Nothing Real v nng cp thnh Shake, Emagic thnh Logic. Hai ng dng
ny v iPhoto hon chnh b su tp ni ting v cc phn mm dnh cho ngi tiu
dng ph thng c tn gi l iLife ca hng Apple.
2004
Apple hp tc vi IBm sn xut mt loi chip tng hp c kh nng duy tr hot
ng ng thi ca nhiu h iu hnh (o), cho php my tnh c th cng mt lc x
l nhiu tc v hn v b nh c s dng hiu qu hn.
2006
DISNEY hp tc cng APPLE pht trin tng CNG VIN CA TR TNG
TNG.Trong d n ny Apple a cc ng dng v cng ngh c trng phong cch
Apple vo trong dch v gii tr.
Disney l mt ngi khng l trong lnh vc thng mi vi lng sn phm tiu th
c ghi nhn nm ngoi chim ti 30 t la gi tr hng ha bun bn ton cu.
Con s ny 1 thp nin trc t khi ng Mooney gia nhp hang l 12 t la. Nhng
Apple li l vua ca cc khu ph mua bn ln. theo ng Charlie Wolf, mt phn tch
vin cho Needham & Company, chui ca hng ca hng ny sn sinh doanh thu trung
bnh 4 700 la trn mt foot vung nm 2008, vt qua mc doanh thu nh ca bt
c chui ca hng bn l no.
9/1/2007

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 4

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Steve Jobs thng bo thay i tn tp on t Apple Computer Inc. thnh Apple Inc.,
cng lc l bui gii thiu mt sn phm Apple mi, mt ln na s lm in o c th
gii: iPhone. D iPhone ch c tung ra th trng vo thng 6/2007, nhng ngay lp
tc, c phiu ca Apple tng ln mc k lc l 97,80 la v vt qua mc 100 la
M vo thng 5/2007.
Thng 2/2007, Apple c bn nhc qua iTune Store m khng phi tr tin bn quyn
nhc s nu cc tn tui ln trong ngnh thu m chu t b cng ngh chng sao chp
trc tuyn. Tuy nhin, ch c Hng thu m EMI ng hp tc vi Apple vo thng
2/2007 qua mt tha thun c hiu lc k t thng 5/2007.
09/2009
Nhiu nm lin, Apple c mi quan h tt p vi Google. Th nhng mi chuyn
thay i vo nm 2009. Cui thng 7, Apple t chi a ng dng Google Voice ln
iTunes App Store. Sau , Apple ln ting rng, Google Voice khng b "ght b" m
n ch ang c xem xt do c th thay i chc nng thoi quan trng ca iPhone.
Vi ngy sau, Tng Gim c Google l Eric Schmidt t b v tr l thnh vin trong
ban Gim c ca Apple. Gia thng 10, Arthur Levinson cng c ng thi tng t
vi ban Gim c ca Google.
Thi gian gn y, Google ang t t mnh vo v tr i u trc tip vi Apple bi l
hng va trnh lng h iu hnh Chrome, Android v chun b l 1 ch d "ng mc"
Google
2010
Vi s xut hin ca iPad gip Apple t c khon doanh thu khng l, v s hi
lng ca hng triu khch hng. Khng dng , vi gi thnh cc linh kin thp n
mc bt ng, iPad thc s em li mt mn li nhun kch x cho Apple.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 5

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Bn cnh l s thnh cng ca ch ng dng App Store. Ra mt t trc y, nhng


nm 2010 nh du s pht pht trin ca App Store, vi hn 5 triu lt download
ring trong thng 6 (tng ng c 5 triu USD m cc nh pht trin ng dng thu
c).
Doanh thu ca Apple tng trng mt cch thn k trong nm 2010. Thng 10, cng ty
cho bit t mc doanh thu 20 t USD, v tin li sau thu l 4 t. Apple vn ln
tr thnh cng ty c gi tr ln nht th gii hin nay.
Cng vi s ra i ca iPhone 4, chic in thoi hot c yu thch hng u hin
nay, h iu hnh iOS 4 dnh cho di ng c nh gi gip ngi dng c th khai
thc y tnh nng v sc mnh cc thit b ca Apple.
Qu 1 nm 2011
Apple va cng b kt qu kinh doanh qu u tin trong nm ti chnh 2011 , h gi
y l qu kinh doanh thnh cng nht t trc n nay vi doanh thu 26,74 t la v
li nhun thun 6 t la. Nu xt n doanh thu 15,68 t ca nm ngoi th tc
tng trng ca Apple tht khng khip. Doanh thu ca Apple cng th hin vic h
ang quc t ha mnh m khi m c n 62% n t th trng quc t.
Nhn chung, trong qu va qua th Apple bn c 4,13 triu my Mac, tng 23% so vi
cng k nm ngoi. Trong s ny th ngi dng chu ng gp kh ln khi mc tng
trng my Mac th trng ny l hn 50%. S my iPhone bn c tng 86%
t 16,24 triu my. S my iPad bn ra l 7,33 triu my cn iPod l 19,45 triu, gim
7% so vi cng k nm ngoi, tip ni xu hng tt gim trong nhng qy gn y.
Cho d vy th Apple c v cng vn rt hnh phc khi m doanh thu t cc thit b iOS
chim ti 2/3 doanh thu ca hng v mt thng k t bn th 3 cho thy cng ty ny
bn ra hn 90 triu chic iPhone k t thi im n ra mt trong nm 2007.
Tuy Apple khng cng b r nhng theo kt qu tnh ton th gi trung bnh ca 1 chic
iPhone m Apple thu v l 624$ M (doanh thu iPhone mang li cho Apple chim
39%). Tnh trung bnh, mt ngy Apple bn ra khong 366.666 thit b iOS (khng tnh
Apple TV), vt qua con s 300.000 m Google cng b trc y. Kt qu kinh doanh
ny cng ng thi bin Apple tr thnh nh sn xut in thoi ln nht th gii xt v
doanh thu trong qu 1/2011, vt c Nokia.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 6

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Doanh thu Apple chia theo thit b

Apple bn khong 90 triu iPhone t thng 7/2007


2. Chin lc kinh doanh quc t
2.1. Sc p gim chi ph
Bt k cng ty no khi kinh doanh cng chu sc p v chi ph, nhng sc p v
chi ph ca cng ty cao hay thp l ty theo tng thi im v ty vo chin lc
kinh doanh tng thi k ca cng ty. V Apple cng khng ngoi l nhng Apple chu
mt sc p v chi ph thp bi v:

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 7

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


-

D kinh doanh trong ngnh thuc v cng ngh thng tin lun bin i lin tc, mt
sn phm khi va ra i chun b phi thay th bng sn phm mi u vit hn,
chi ph v R&D l kh cao u t nghin cu v pht trin nhng sn phm to
tnh nng khc bit trong khi gi sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh li thp
hn nhng Apple ch quan tm n sn xut nhng sn phm c kh nng gy khc
bit, c cng ngh v cht lng cao, c kho ng dng rng ri v hin i nht v
lun a ra mc gi kh cao to s khc bit => V th Apple chu sc p v chi
ph thp.
( a ra v d v gi ca sn phm apple vi li i th cnh tranh chng minh hn
cao hn)

2.2. Sc p t a phng
Apple t chu sc p t a phng bi v:
-

Apple chyn sn xut cc sn phm c cht lng cng ngh cao, kho ng dng
rng ri cho tt c cc khch hng ch khng quan tm n s thch v th hiu ca
tng quc gia ring bit
Apple s dng 2 knh phn phi chnh l bn hng qua mng v cc nh phn phi
chnh thc ti cc quc gia.V vy, Apple c mt knh phn phi rng ln v n
nh trn ton th gii.Apple l trng hp c th ni ngoi l trong quan h gia
nh sn xut my vi nh phn phi. Cc cng ty tun th rt nhiu iu kin cht
ch c th tr thnh nh phn phi chnh thc ca Apple. Tt c cc chnh sch
gi, khuyn mi, quy nh v h thng ca hng, ch bo hnhu phi tun
th theo cc quy nh ca Apple. Trn th gii c nhiu mng di ng tht bi
trong m phn v khng c Apple la chn phn phi my.
-

Cu trc phn phi ca Apple:


Apple
Nh bn s
bn th 3

Lc lng bn
hng trc tip

Ca hng
trc tuyn

Ca hng
bn l

Nh bn l

Ngi mua
cui cng

Ngi mua
cui cng

Ngi mua
cui cng

VAR
Ngi mua
cui cng

Nh bn l
Ngi mua
cui cng

i vi khch hng l t chc, doanh nghip( knh B2B)

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Ngi bn
l

Page 8

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Khch hng B2B

SME (Doanh
nghip va v
nh)
Nh
bn l
vi
dch v
gia tng

Ca
hng
trc
tuyn

Gio dc

Nh
bn l
vi
dch v
gia tng

Ca
hng
trc
tuyn

Doanh nghip v chnh


ph
Lc
lng
bn
hng
trc tip

Lc
lng
bn
hng
trctip

Ca
hng
trc
tuyn

Cho
hng

Trong :
-

SME (doanh nghip va v nh):


+

Khng c bn thng qua lc lng bn hng trc tip do khi lng nh

Mc dch v cao

Knh phn phi vi mc kim sot cao t Apple

Gio dc
+ C nhu cu v t vn v tr gip
+ Vai tr ca vic t vn l quan trng
+ S dng trong mi trng gio dc cng c mt chiu hng qung co

Doanh nghip v nh nc:


+ Knh ngn hn do vai tr tch cc ca Apple trong thit k ca h thng ny
+ Dch v trc tuyn cho cc cng ty tng t nh Dell
+ Chnh ph mua ch yu thng qua h s d thu

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 9

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


-

i vi khch hng l ngi tiu dng (knh B2C

Khch hng B2C

Ca
hng
(274)

i l bn l (3000)

Cung
cp
kh
nng
hin
th

Dch
v cao

Ca hng trc
tuyn (36 nc)

Nh phn phi ln
(320)

H
thng
phn
phi
rng
hn

iu
khin
lu
lng
mu
dch

Khng
c s
khc bit
gia cc
vng

Ty
chnh
khi
lng

Hin th
trn web
v ton
th gii

khng
l

cao
Trong :
-

Ca hng:
+ L nhng ca hng chnh (flagship) vi lng hng ha phong ph
+ 95% khch hng khng cn nhc Mac

i l bn l:
+ Phc v cng ng a phng
+ Khng c u t t Apple
+ C kinh nghim v cht lng cao

Cc nh phn phi ln:


+

Rt phc tp do khch hng khng c kinh nghim mua

Ch nhng nh bn l c la chn (Best Buy)

Khng gian ring bit, c phc v bi nhn vin ca Apple

Ca hng trc tuyn:


+ Vi mt ca hng ph kin???

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 10

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


2.3. Chin lc quc t
V khng chu sc p v chi ph v a phng nn Chin lc kinh doanh quc
t m Apple s dng hin nay l CHIN LC QUC T. iu th hin qua cc
gi tr khc bit ca cng ty so vi cc i th cnh tranh
2.3.1. Nhn hiu Apple :
T khi ra i cho n nay , qua qu trnh hot ng Apple to nn mt v tr
vng chc trong tm tr ca khch hng. Khi nhc n Apple ngi ta ngh ngay n s
sng to, mt sn phm cht lng cng ngh cao, to ra xu hng cho c th gii i
theo, c thit k mu m p v quan trng l n th hin c ng cp ngi tiu
dng.
Mt ci tn d nh: Hy nhn tn cc sn phm ca Apple: iPod, iPhone, iMac
v.v Khng phi ci tn no cng hon ho nhng tt c chng u d nh phi
khng? V hy th so snh nhng ci tn ny vi tn ca cc b phn my mc. y
cng l mt im m chng ta nn hc tp t Apple. Hy t mnh vo v tr ca khch
hng xem h c gp kh khn no trong vic khi nh hoc truy cp a ch website
cng nh din n chung ca doanh nghip mnh khng t c nhng bc i
vng chc v xy dng thng hiu thnh cng cho doanh nghip.
2.3.2. Vn
Khi kinh doanh th vn l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng hng u m cng
ty no cng quan tm. Theo Fortune, mc vn ha th trng ca Apple hin nay trn
300 t USD. (Vn ha th trng bng tch ca gi c phiu nhn vi lng c phiu
pht hnh ). Apple vt qua Microsoft tr thnh cng ty cng ngh c gi tr cao
nht t thng 5/2010 ca M . C phiu ca Apple mt gn 23 nm t 100 t USD
trn th trng chng khon l thng 5/2007 . t k lc mi vi gi tr 200 t USD
v cha ti ba nm sau , thng 3/2010. 10 thng sau Apple t 300 t USD. V vn l
mt trong nhng yu t m Apple hn hn nhng i th cnh tranh khc to nn mt
nn mng vng chi Apple c th tha sc thc hin R&D v lu di, hay nh gc
mt cng ty va mi ra i.
2.3.3. Mt CEO c uy tn

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 11

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Nu lnh o cng ty gii v c uy tn, chc chn mi vic s tin trin tt p. t


nht, nhiu khch hng s nhn vo , Apple chim c tri tim ca h.
Steve Jobs, CEO ca tp on Apple lun a ra nhng sn phm mi trc cc
khch hng v cng lun th hin l mt ngi rt quan tm n mi hot ng ca
cng ty. iu cng th hin rng CEO l mt ngi c ti, nhit tnh v thn thin.
K t khi Steve ln nm quyn iu hnh, mi cng vic u din ra rt tt v chnh
th hin c c tnh ca ng.
2.3.4. To lp uy tn v lun i trc mt bc
Trong kinh doanh, c rt nhiu thch thc v phi cnh tranh vi cc i th ln.
To lp uy tn v lun i trc mt bc l mt chin lc gip cc cng ty tr vng
trn thng trng. to c uy tn vi khch hng i hi mt qu trnh lu di, v
khng phi d dng. Nhng y l iu tht s quan trng v c ngha to ln i vi
s thnh cng ca mt cng ty. Mt trong nhng cch tt nht mt cng c th t
c nhng n lc marketing ca mnh l lun i u trong cc dng sn phm bng
cch chim lnh th trng ln. V khng cn s la chn no khc l cng ty
phi tht s ni bt. Nhn thy iu ny, Apple mt ln na, chinh phc c th
gii tiu dng bng iPhone.
Hin nay, LG, Samsung, HTC, v Nokia, tt c u c nhng tin ch tng t
nh iPhone v gi cn thp hn ca Apple, v 3G hin nay cng cn c cc chc nng
hn hn iPhone. Nhng ti sao ngi tiu dng vn chn sn phm ca Apple v c l
uy tn ca Apple cng gii thch mt phn no cho cu hi ny.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 12

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


2.3.5. Chin lc khc bit ho sn phm trong cnh tranh.
Chin lc khc bit ho sn phm hay chin lc nh v sn phm v dch v l
chin lc lm khc bit cc sn phm v dch v ca cng ty so vi i th cnh tranh,
to ra im c o ring lm sao n chim c mt ch c bit v c gi tr trong
tm tr ca khch hng.
Khc bit ho sn phm nu t c, s l chin lc to kh nng cho cng ty
thu c t l li nhun cao hn mc bnh qun, bi v n to nn mt v tr chc chn
cho hng trong vic i ph vi cc lc lng cnh tranh.Khc bit ho to ra s cch
bit i vi nhng i th cnh tranh v c nim tin ca khch hng vo nhn hiu sn
phm, iu ny s dn n kh nng t bin ng hn ca gi c.
Sau khi xc nh c i th cnh tranh v chin lc tin cng. Cng ty cn
xy dng chin lc nh v nhm xy dng hnh nh khc bit ca sn phm so vi
i th cnh tranh khc.
V xy dng chin lc nh v sn phm l sn phm c cht lng cao nn cht
lng sn phm l yu t quan tm hng u ca cng ty. Khi nh v nh vy th
cht lng sn phm phi thc s tt v y l vn cn c gii quyt u tin, cn
cc yu t khc s tr gip lm hnh nh sn phm tr ln hon thin hn. cnh
tranh trn th trng th gii tt c cc sn phm ca Apple u c cp chng nhn
ISO 9000.
Bn cnh chnh sch kim tra cht lng.Apple cng khng ngng ci tin sn
phm.Ni n Apple, ngi ta ngh ngay n s sng to. Sng to t vic tung ra sn
phm mi, n cch a sn phm n tay khch hng. Bn cnh l s thit k hon
ho trong tt c cc dng sn phm. Ngay c n nhng chi tit mi th gn nh hon
ho v bt mt t thit k, ng gi thm ch n c nhng mu qung co trn truyn
hnh. Bt k i th no c nh cnh tranh vi nhng sn phm mi nht m Apple
va a ra u chng my chc b tt hu v ch su thng ngay sau , Apple a ra
nhng sng to mi v hon thin hn rt nhiu.Nhiu cc th h my mi ra i v mi
mt th h sn phm mi ra i u c s ci tin cc c tnh k thut, hoc b xung
cc chc nng mi lm cho n tr ln u vit hn, s lng chng loi sn phm ca
Apple kh phong ph v a dng. ng lc thc s cho s tng trng ca Apple chnh
l nhng phn mm v dch v hot ng trn cc sn phm ca h: phn mm iTunes
v ca hng iTunes qun l, ti, mua nhc v ni dung truyn thng; phn mm
iPhone v iPad to ng dng v dch v App Store bn ng dng.
Ta im s qua cc sn phm ca Apple hin nay:
Th nht: iMac

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 13

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Bin i t nhng chic Apple II,III ca nhng nm cui th k 19 dn bin


thnh iMac ca th k 20 v 21. MacBook Air l sn phm gn y nht m Apple gii
thiu ra th trng. c mnh danh l chic my tnh xch tay mng nht th gii,
Chic laptop siu mng siu nh ny ang c coi l chun thit k cho cc hng sn
xut laptop noi theo. MacBook Air c th c cha trong mt chic phong b kh A4
v theo nh gii thiu ca Steve Jobs th "chi tit mng nht ca MacBook Air ch dy
c 4 mm v chi tit dy nht cng ch l 16 mm". y l c im m iMac c th nh
bt tt c i th cnh tranh trong phn khc ny. Mc d ti c nhiu chic laptop
dp khun theo kiu MacBook Air nhng sn phm ny vn c coi l ngun ci ca
cm hng thit k ly yu t siu di ng lm trng tm.
im ng ch tip theo chnh l n lc nng cao tri nghim s dng my Mac
ca ngi dng. lm c iu ny, Apple to ra nhiu dch v chy trn nhiu
nn tng in ton khc nhau. trung tm ca nn tng ny l iTunes, gip cung cp
ni dung s cho iPhone v iPod. Vi iTunes, Apple c th to ra cc sn phm v tinh
mi kt ni vi dch v ny. Trong s quan trng nht c l l MobileMe, mt
dng dch v m my c kh nng sao lu v chia s ni dung trn cng nn tng.
Apple mun tr thnh nh cung cp chnh cc dch v cc thnh vin v gia nh
truy cp vo ni dung s ca h trn my Mac, PC hoc t m my.
Th hai: I Pad
Apple tm ra mt "chn l" marketing c th gip cho hng ginh li mt phn
th phn v xc nh c ng i nc bc ca mnh. Apple hiu c rng, iu
m iPad tm nim khng phi l vic: tt c cc khch hng u l gii kinh doanh, m
l: tt c gii kinh doanh u l khch hng.
Tuy nhin, Apple cng khng mun iPad phi thay th my tnh notebook tr
thnh mt cng c ph bin v v gi. N c nhng gi tr ring ca mnh. Gii kinh
doanh vn cn gi li desktop v notebook, nhng vn c th c c iPad (vi kh nng
thc hin n 90% chc nng ca notebook) v c th mang li cho ngi tiu dng
nhiu chc nng v s tin li hn.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 14

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


AM Sacconaghi, nh phn tch ca cng ty Sanford C. Bernstein, c tnh rng
iPad ang mang li 15-20 t -la M cho Apple trong nm u tin c tung ra th
trng. Vi mc doanh thu ny, nu iPad l mt cng ty c lp, n s nm trong 150
v tr u ca danh sch Fortune 500 (danh sch 500 cng ty ln nht M da trn thu
nhp do tp ch Fortune tng hp).
Vo ngy 11/3/2011 iPad 2 s bt u c trnh lng ti M v mun hn
vo ngy 22/3 mt s quc gia khc.
iPad th h hai ca Apple c kiu dng tng t iPod Touch. My mng hn
33% so vi bn trc, cn nng ch t 0,6 kg, trang b hai camera v s dng vi x l li
kp Apple A5 mi.iPad 2 thm ch cn mng hn c iPhone 4 l 9,3mm. My tnh bng
mi ca Apple cng c cn nng nh hn vi 0,601 kg (phin bn ch c Wi-Fi) so vi
0,68 kg ca iPad 1.

iPad 2 vi hai mu en v trng. nh: Engadget.

Mt im mi na iPad 2 chnh l phn cng vi "tri tim" l vi x l hai li


Apple A5 c "Qu to" cho bit c kh nng x l nhanh gp hai ln v x l ha
nhanh gp 9 ln phin bn c. Trong khi , A5 vn tiu th in p tng t nh Apple
A4.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 15

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

iPad 2 mng hn nhiu so vi phin bn u tin.


Vi hiu sut tng gp bi so vi trc nhng iPad 2 vn c Apple gii thiu
c thi lng s dng pin ln ti 10 ting ng h v thi gian ch c thng ging nh
bn u tin.
My tnh bng mi ca Apple cng i km vi mt ph kin v case thng minh
vi kh nng va lm chn cho my khi s dng hoc nh mt thit b bo v. Khi
v case y li, iPad s t ng v ch ng hoc t ng bt trng thi s dng li
khi np v m ra. Loi v case thng minh ny c Apple t tn Smart Covers v c
gi bn 39 USD (lm bng nha) v 69 USD cho bn lm bng da.

Phn np da thng minh tng tc vi iPad 2.

Th ba: iStore

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 16

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


iTunes Store l mt kho d liu bn cho khch hng, kho d liu cha hng triu
phn mm c pht trin t chuyn gia cng ngh ca cng ty. Thu nhp hng nm
ca iStore tng ln ng k.
L hng u tin tung ra dng ca hng ng dng trc tuyn dnh cho iPhone v
iPad App Store nn Apple thu c rt nhiu kinh nghim, v quan trng hn l
hng ny kinh doanh rt thnh cng. D kin ti cui nm nay, Apple s thu c 1
t USD hoc hn t tin bn phn mm trn kho ng dng trc tuyn App Store. Nm
2008, Apple thu c 203 triu USD t App Store; v ch ring 30 ngy u tin ra mt
30 triu USD vo kho dch v ny
Vo ngy 6/1/2011 Apple chnh thc m hng kho ng dng Mac App Store
trong ngy u tin khai mc trin lm CES 2011.y l kho ng dng dnh cho cc
thit b MacBook nn tng OS X vi khong 1000 ng dng khi im, bao gm y
cc ng dng cho lnh vc gio dc, game, ha v thit k, sc khe cng nh
nhiu ng dng tin ch khc.
Steve Jobs - CEO ca Apple t tin khng nh: "Vi hn 1000 ng dng, Mac
App Store c mt s khi u tuyt vi. Ngi s dng chc chn s hi lng vi
cch khm ph v la chn cc ng dng a thch ca mnh".
Ngi dng c th d dng xem qua cc ng dng mi, tm kim trong danh
mc, tham kho nhng kin nh gi ca cng ng cng nh bng xp hng cc ng
dng hng u min ph hay tr ph.
Th t: iPod

iPod Shuffle mi, iPod Nano "t hon" cng iPod Touch th h th 4 vi cu hnh
tng ng iPhone 4 l b 3 iPod 2010 va c Apple trnh lng gy xn xao cho
th gii gii tr. Mu iPod Shuffle mi, c thit k cc k nh gn vi kiu dng vung
vn.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 17

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Dng iPod Nano cng c lm mi:. Nh hn, nh hn v tt hn phin bn
trc l nhng c im v mu iPod Nano mi ra. Thay th cho h thng phm iu
khin clickwheel vn tn ti trn cc i Nano c l mn hnh cm ng a chm
1,54 inch (240 x 240 pixel). Nano mi cn i km vi tnh nng radio FM tch hp v
pin s dng lin tc 24 gi. Qu To s pht hnh iPod Nano i mi vi 7 mu sc
khc nhau dnh cho 2 phin bn b nh 8GB v 16GB.
Mu iPod cui cng nhng ng ch nht: thng 9/2010, Apple ra mt lot my
nghe nhc iPod th h mi. Sn phm cao cp nht ca lot ny l nhng chic iPod
Touch vi 3 mc gi: 229 USD, 299 USD v 399 USD v im khc bit duy nht gia
chng l dung lng lu tr v iPod Touch gen 4, mu iPod gii thiu cui cng nhng
li l sn phm ng ch nht trong s kin ca Apple. ng nh k vng v d on
ca nhiu ngi trc , Apple chnh thc cho ra mt mu my nghe nhc "khng"
nht ca mnh vi mt lot cc ci tin mi v n tng. iPod Touch mi s hu mn
hnh Retina Display, chip x l Apple A4, con quay hi quy, h thng Game Center
nh trn iPhone 4.
Th nm: iPhone

4-

iPhone l bc tip theo ca my nghe


nhc cm tay ni ting thi trang iPod,
va l in thoi, va l my nghe nhc,
va xem phim video, va truy cp
Internet khng dy, va l b nh flash
8GB. Cng ging nh cc sn phm
khc ca Apple, iPhone t n nh cao
ca cng ngh vi v p m thut cng
nghip hon ho m tht n gin khi s
dng.

Khng nhm vo s tri nghim cng ngh


cao, gi thnh r, hay nh v th trng c
nh. iPhone a ra mt tri nghim hon
ton mi trong th gii smartphone lc .
Ngi dng iPhone c cm gic v ng cp, s khc bit, thch th, cng nh s
"chiu i" ca Apple vi nhng khch hng ca mnh. PR rt mnh, hng ti khch
hng t khi dng Smartphone, gim gi bn, th hin ng cp... l nhng chin lc m
Apple thnh cng khi pht trin Ipod v Mac. Nu ni mt cu v thnh cng, th
l "mang ng cp cho ngi dng bnh dn".
Ta c th thy cc ng dng ti thiu c Apple gim i gim chi ph
c c mc chi ph mc tiu: Camera km khi chp, khng c led. Phn mm ng
dng rt t, giao tip kiu c gn nh b loi b (thanh trt, bn phm o), Giao tip

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 18

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Bluetooth, wifi khng mnh v thng ch tch hp vi chnh Apple v cn rt nhiu
yu t khc nh: chi ph bo dng cao, phi ng k 2 nm thu bao...
Nhng nhng yu t khc li rt tuyt vi, to nn s khc bit hon ton: Cu
hnh tng ng vi 1 my tnh bn cch y 10 nm, cng 8-16GB. Thit k bt
mt vi mn hnh rng. Cm ng a chm u tin gip ngi dng c th giao tip nh
nhng bng ngn tay.
Tch hp vi cc thit b ngoi vi (mc d rt t): iu khin, thit b t. V c
bit l trnh duyt web rt tin li.
Ngoi ra cn c yu t cm xc khi s dng Iphone: ngi s dng n xng
ng ng 1 ng cp khc trong x hi - l l do Iphone a ra nhng chin lc
PR nhiu hn l nhng clip qung co rm r.
chnh l im mnh ca Iphone, lm lu m cc im yu ca n (Iphone 3G
hot ng vi tc 2,5G). Trong khi vn gi c gi rt r: di 200 hoc 300 USD.
c mc gi ny, Iphone cn cn s dng phng php nh gi chia nh bn:
Apple tha thun vi nh cung cp khch hng bt buc phi ng k s dng dch
v vin thng trong 2 nm trong khi chi ph ny Vit Nam gn nh bng 0. Nh vy,
gi thnh thc t ca Iphone c th cao hn nhiu ci gi 200USD m Apple a ra.
V vi chin lc , Iphone thnh cng, ni ln tr thnh chic in thoi bn
chy nht mi thi i: Sau 2 nm, Iphone chim lnh ti 17% th trng
Smartphone, v thm ch c lc bn c hn 1 triu chic ch trong 1 ngy!
Th su: iOS X
Mac OS X ra i nm 1999, n v cc phin bn cp nht tip sau khng ch l s
thnh cng v mt k thut m cn c v mt thng mi. Cho ti phin bn 10.3 di
tn Panther (ra i nm 2003). Phin bn cui cng 10.5 ca Mac OS vi tn Leopard
l mt n lc mnh m ca Apple bin n tr thnh mt h iu hnh hon chnh v
nhiu tnh nng nht trn th trng hin ti. Trong tng lai, OS X s l h iu hnh
khng ch cho my tnh m cn cho c cc thit b s khc ca Apple.
Th by : HDTV
Tham vng xm chim th trng gii tr nghe nhn ti gia ca Apple vn cha
dng li sau khi hng ny cho ra mt Apple TV, mu settop-box gi 99 USD, my
Mac Mini h tr HDMI hay iPad vi kh nng trnh din phim nh ti TV. Theo Cnet,
trnh lng mt mu HDTV thng minh ca ring mnh mi l mc ch chnh ca "Qu
To" trong tng lai th trng nghe nhn.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 19

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Trang Apple Insider dn li nhn nh ca Brian White, chuyn gia phn tch ca
cng ty chng khon Ticonderoga, "Apple ang quyt tm hn nhiu ngi ngh vi
vic gia nhp th trng thit b nghe nhn". Theo ng ny, mt mu HDTV thng minh
ha hn s c hng ny trnh lng ngay cui nm nay. Nhn nh trn c c t
nhng nghin cu ca Ticonderoga v tnh hnh kinh doanh v u t ca Appe thi
gian gn y. Chi tit v sn phm mi ca Apple cha c tit l nhng chc chn s
mang li nhiu tri nghim hn hn mu Apple TV gi 99 USD hin nay.
y cng khng phi l ln u tin m mt nh nghin cu kinh t a ra d
on v vic Apple ang quyt tm pht trin mt mu TV kt ni mng ca mnh.
Piper Jaffray, mt nh nghin cu ti t Gene Munster, tng a ra tng v vic
HDTV ca Apple trc c mt nm. Tuy vy, v chuyn gia ny li cho rng Apple
s phi mt 2 n 4 nm hon thin sn phm ca mnh. 2012 l khong thi gian
thch hp m theo Piper Jaffray, mu TV Apple s xut hin.
Sn phm tng lai
iPhone, iPad v iPod s dng nng lng mt tri

Apple tch hp ng quang in vo trong mn hnh cm ng iPhone, iPad v


iPod c th hp th nng lng mt tri qua mn hnh m khng nh hng n thm
m ca my.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 20

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


iMac mn hnh cm ng

Khi nim thng minh ny em chc nng iPad vo trong h thng mn hnh.
Khi mn hnh thng ng, iMac chy h iu hnh y ca Apple v c iu
khin bng chut, nhng khi mn hnh nm ngang, h thng t ng chuyn sang dng
iOS v bin thnh mn hnh cm ng.
iBike

iBike l Xe p thng minh ca Apple khng ch cho php xem nhng thng tin
nh nhp tim, tc , khong cch,... qua iPod, iPhone m cn c s dng giao
tip theo nhm khi p xe cng vi ngi khc.
iKey

S dng iPhone thnh cha kha nh v xe hi (hin nay nhiu ngi s dng
iPhone thay camera b ti, my nghe nhc MP3, thit b chi game,... ).
iPod Shuffle

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 21

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Apple s gii thiu phin bn iPod Shuffle nh gn v c th eo trn tai (Apple thit
k tai nghe Bluetooth vi chc nng playback c lp - iHeadset).
Wand Remote

iu khin bng cc c ng s l gii php tip theo sau cm ng. Mu sng


ch ny ca Apple gip Tivi c xut xng km thit b iu khin nhn dng chuyn
ng nh Wiimode.
ng dng c th chia s

Apple ang p mt h thng m cc chuyn gia pht trin c th chn xy


dng nhng ng dng cho php ngi dng chia s qua WiFi hoc Bluetooth.
ng knh t

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 22

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Apple vn dn ci tin camera cho iPhone nhng cht lng cha th c nh


. Mu sng ch ny cho php gn ng knh nam chm macro hay zoom ln hn cho
thit b di ng.
MacBook tch hp my chiu

tng th v ny cho php ngi dng trnh chiu ni dung trong my ln mn


hnh ln hn m khng cn h thng projector c lp
Apple cn thit lp s khc bit ca sn phm qua khch hng tui teen da vo
thng ip nt vn ha c nht v nh- iCulture. Cng ty thc hin vn ny vi ba
chin lc chnh l: p ng cc nhu cu c thc; tp trung vo vn thit k; lm cho
fan hm m vin thng marketing cho sn phm; khng cn ni cho gii tr bit rng
bn thc s quan tm n h trong vic ch to sn phm. Apple rt quan tm n thit
k ca cc sn phm, trong tt c cc sn phm ca Apple u c im c bit so vi
i th cnh tranh. V d nh cc sn phm my tnh, in thoi hay my nghe nhc ca
Apple c cht liu rt tt, thit k hon ho: mng, nh c bit tch hp y cc tnh
nng ca mt sn phm cao cp in hnh l iPhone, iPad, iMac, iPod,.. bn cnh ngay
c phn mn cng hn hn i th v giao din sc so.
2.3.6. Chnh sch bn hng
Ngoi ra Apple cn to dng c s khc bit trong chin lc bn hng.
Khi sn phm tr nn ht khch Apple khng nhng khng kp thi cung cp hng m

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 23

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


cn ch ng km hng to cn st hng, chnh t y to c cn st gi, ng
thi thng hiu Apple c khch hng nhc n nhiu hn. Chnh iu ny m
Apple dn thu pht c khch hng th trng Chu , doanh thu hng nm ti khu
vc ny tng ln ng k. .
2.3.7. Chnh sch gi c
Chnh sch gi c ng vai tr rt quan trng trong vic tiu th sn phm. Nhn
chung th gi sn phm Apple khng thc s t vi khch hng chu u, y cng l
iu Apple lun mong mun v li nhun th trng ny vn n nh vi mc gi m
h xc nh trc. Tuy nhin vi th trng chu th chin lc gi cn mm hn
v y hng xch tay rt ph bin v cng ngh nhi hng Apple rt pht trin. V d
s hu mt chic iPhone 3GS Vit Nam bn cn b ra khong 12 triu cng hp
ng hai nm vi nh mng. Chnh v th chnh sch gi ca Apple cng c thc
hin theo vng i ca sn phm bao gm cc giai on: gii thiu, pht trin, chn
mui v suy tn. y chnh l im khc bit r so vi sn phm cnh tranh khc. C
th chng ta thy rng mi sn phm Apple tung ra ngoi th trng u tun th tuyt
i cc bc trn. V d khi iPod Mini tri qua giai on gii thiu th n giai on
pht trin Apple h thp gi xung tng th phn. Khi th trng i vo suy tn b
phn thit k a ra hng lot cc mu mi nhm to mt vng i mi cho sn
phm v d: Aplple tung ra nhiu sn phm trong nm 2010 vi nhiu im c o
nh iMac, iPhone, iPad, iOS X, iPod th h mi vi nhiu tnh nng tuyt vi
Nhn chung trn th trng sn phm th gi ca cc sn phm Apple tng i
cao nhng khng thuc vo hng xa x, iu ny rt ph hp khi khch hng mc tiu
ca cng ty l doanh nhn v tng lp tr.
Chnh sch gi ca Apple rt ph hp so vi chin lc pht trin ca cng ty, nu
nh gi sn phm thp th li nhun thu c gim ng thi thng hiu ca cng ty
cng khng thc s c ch na. Khi sn phm bc qua giai on bo ha, gi c
c xu hng gim c thm khch hng v i u vi cc sn phm thay th khc.
iPhone ca Apple cng p dng chin lc gi ht vng cho i tng tin phong khi ra
mt sn phm vi mc gi 599 la M. iPhone nhanh chng tr v mc gi 399 la
M ch sau ba thng. y l chnh sch linh hot trong gi c ca cng ty, ty theo tnh
hnh th trng m Apple iu chnh gi ph hp.
V c bn, chin lc nh gi l s la chn mc gi bn sn phm trn th
trng. Vic ny da trn nhng phn tch y quan h cung cu, mc chi tr ca
khch hng mc tiu. nh gi tng quan cht ch vi chin lc nh v ca doanh
nghip. Apple p dng nguyn tc trn trong chin lc nh gi ca mnh v kt
qu cng ty thnh cng.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 24

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


2.3.8. Mng li phn phi ca Apple:
Trong lc cc cng ty c chin thut bn hng qua mng Internet, th Steve
li thnh lp h thng ca hng bn l, mt chin thut mang tn dng chy
ngc. H thng bn l gip khch hng tip cn trc tip vi cc sn phm mi
ca cng ty. Cc mt hng c trng by p mt v sang trng, nhn vin sn
sng hng dn s dng cho khch hng mt cch thnh tho.
-

Qu trnh mua sm a knh:


Nhng bc trong qu trnh mua hng
Khch hng A
Nhn
bit nhu
cu

Khch hng B

Web

Nhn
bit nhu
cu

Nhn
bit nhu
cu

Web

Tm
kim

Tm
kim

Tm
kim

So
snh

So
snh

So
snh

La
chn/
mua

Ca
hng

Kt
qu

Khch hng ln u

La
chn/
mua

Kt
qu

Ca
hng,
ngi
bn
l
Web

Ca
hng

La
chn/
mua

Kt
qu

Nguyn nhn Apple nhy vo kinh doanh bn l:


+ S tip xc thp
+ Kinh nghim mua t
+ Khch hng khng th cm nhn c gi tr

Mc tiu ca Apple:
+ Mc tiu tng trng:
95% khch hng khng xem xt Apple
Kh nng tng trng mnh i vi sn phm cao cp

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 25

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


+ Gi tr truyn t:
Ti cc ca hng cc sn phm c trng by y v c th hot
ng c
Thch hp vi chin lc hit product
+ Tiu chun vng
Thit lp tiu chun cho kinh nghim mua hng Apple
Hng dn v h tr cho nh bn l
2.4. Tnh kinh t ca a im
Apple khng t tnh kinh t v a im bi v:
-

Nhng linh kin in t ca Apple u c gia cng ti Foxconn.


Foxconn (l thng hiu ca cng ty i Loan Hon Hai Precision Industry
Co. (Ltd.) Foxconn l mt trong nhng hng ch to linh kin in t v my
tnh ln nht th gii, v ch yu ch to theo hp ng vi cc n v khc.
Hin tp on c hn 100 cng ty chi nhnh ti cc nc nh: Trung Quc, n
, Nht Bn v cc khu vc nh: ng Nam (Vit Nam....), Chu u, Chu
M, vi tng s lng cng nhn vin ln ti hn 600 nghn ngi. Foxconn l
nh sn xut ln nht ca in t v linh kin my tnh trn ton th gii, v ch
yu sn xut theo hp ng cho cc cng ty khc nh l: sn xut cc mini Mac,
iPod, iPad, v iPhone ca Apple Inc, Intel cho thng hiu bo mch ch Intel
Corp, n t hng khc nhau cho cc nh sn xut my tnh M Dell v
Hewlett-Packard...Vi nhng li th nh trn nn Apple chn Foxconn l nh
sn xut cc linh kin in t ca mnh ch khng phi do u th v a im
ca Foxconn.

Mt khc Apple chn Foxconn bi v kh nng bo v b mt ca cng ty l tuyt


i an ton.iu lm gim kh nng b r r b mt v tt nhin, n lm hi
lng Apple v gim c iu hnh Steve Jobs, ngi lun coi b mt tuyt i l
nguyn tc u tin v quan trng s 1 ti hng ny. Chnh v th, nhng sn
phm mang thng hiu Apple u tr thnh tm im thu ht s ch ca gii
truyn thng trong sut thi gian di.
V d: Khu lin hp sn xut khng l nm thnh ph pha nam Trung Quc
trng khng khc g mt pho i. Mi khi n lm vic, nhn vin y u
phi xut trnh th an ninh ngay cng vo. i bo v kim tra cc li xe bng
my qut nhn dng vn tay.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 26

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE

Bn ngoi nh my cung ng thit b cho Apple.


Bn trong khu nh my c hng ro kn mt, cng nhn c cung ng hu ht
cc nhu cu hng ngy ca h ti ch. c k tc x, cng-tin, cc phng
tin gii tr, thm ch c ngn hng, bu in v ca hiu bnh m.
An ninh c tht cht khp mi ni bn trong cc nh my. H s dng cc
my d kim loi v khm xt chng ti. Nu bn mang theo trong ngi bt c
vt kim loi no khi bn ri khi , h s gi cho cnh st ngay lp tc.
- V khng ging nh cc nh sn xut in t khc vn thch s tin li ca chin
lc trn gi, Apple khng nh cy vo mt hng duy nht no cung ng tt c
mi th cho mt sn phm. Cc ngun tin trong lnh vc ny cho bit Apple
thng tnh ton t m n tng chi tit cc d n ca mnh. iu ny m bo
rng ngi duy nht nm trong tay tt c b mt thuc v bt c sn phm no
ca Apple ch c bn thn Apple m thi .
Apple chi hng t USD cho cc b phn v k kt vi cc nh sn xut vi yu
cu Cc nh cung cp phi cam kt xy dng mt mi trng lm vic min c s
quy ri, phin nhiu.
3. Chin lc thm nhp th trng
3.1. Tng quan:
Hnh thc thm nhp th trng quc t ca Apple kh a dng, bao gm hnh thc
xut khu sang cc i l y quyn cc nc, lin minh chin lc vi cc tp
on, hay gia cng quc t cho vic sn xut linh kin in t v lp rp.
3.2. Phn tch nhng chin lc thm nhp th trng:
3.2.1. Lin minh chin lc:
Lin minh chin lc l mt trong nhng phng thc thm nhp quc t ang
ngy cng c s dng ph bin hin nay, c bit l nhng tp on ln. Nh vic
lin kt ny m h bit kt hp khai thc c tim nng ca mi bn cng nh thu
v li ch ca c hai bn. Trong cc lin minh quc t, cng ty ny c th cung cp cc
k nng th trng a phng trong khi cng ty kia cung cp sn phm hoc cng ngh
nhp khu. Cc ng minh cng c th hng li t vic mua tp th, lin kt tip th,

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 27

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


kt hp nghin cu pht trin, ng ti tr hot ng o to hoc thng nht thit lp
cc tiu chun trong mt cng ngh mi. Nhng i tc lin minh ca Apple thng l
nhng ng ln trong ngnh nh IBM, HP, Motorola... hay nhng nh cung cp dch
v sng s nh Google, Microsoft....Nhng khng phi bt k lin minh no cng em
n li ch nh 2 bn mong mun, m i khi cn to ra nhng i th cnh tranh mi
3.2.1.1.

Lin minh chin lc ca Apple & Microsoft:


a. C s hnh thnh lin minh:

Microsoft Corporation l mt tp on cng ngh my tnh a quc


gia tm c th gii ca M, thnh lp nm 1975 vi tn ban u l Micro-soft. Do Bill
Gates lm ch tch c tr s chnh t ti Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington, M.
Nm 1996, CEO ca cng ty lc by gi l Gil Amelio c nhiu c gng
ci thin tnh hnh thua l ca Apple trong nhng nm trc nhng tht bt ng
li l mt trong nhng tht bi ln nht ca Apple. Cng ty thit hi kh nng 740
triu USD vo qy 1 v 33 triu USD vo qy 2.
12/1996, Apple mua li Next-mt cng ty my tnh ca M c thnh lp bi
SteveJobs vo 1985 sau khi ng b buc t chc CEO ca Apple v ng nhin Steve
Jobs c b nhim tr li qun l cng ty.
Trong khong thi gian 1997, Apple ri vo khng hong trm trng khi hng
ngn nhn vin gii ngh vic v ri b cng ty ch trong vi nm.Trong vng 18
thng, Apple thua l n 1.5 t USD. Lc ny Apple v Microsoft l i th ca
nhau 20 nm trn th trng my tnh, nhng Apple v li ch ca mnh bt tay vi
Microsoft ci thin tnh hnh.
V pha Microsoft, vic lin minh vi Apple trong khong thi gian kh khn
ny nh l mt hnh thc u t v gip cho mt khch hng tim nng, chnh yu
ca mnh. V khi Apple thu c ngun li ln t nhng chic PC th Microsoft cng s
kim li khng nh qua nhng hp ng c k kt vi Apple v vic cung cp nhng
b sn phm phn mm, trnh duyt. Hn na h cn thu v c mt khong ng k
khi gi c phiu ca Apple tng tr li.
b. Ni dung lin minh Apple-Microsoft:
Ti hi ngh pht trin phn mm v ngi s dng my tnh Macintosh Boston
1997,Steve Jobs tuyn b Microsoft ng lin minh vi Apple: u t 150 triu
la mua c phn ca cng ty v hai bn i n mt tho thun giy php s dng sng
ch trong 5 nm. Qua , gii quyt mt cch ha bnh nhng mu thun ca Apple vi
Microsoft do chnh ng to ra nm xa.
Ni dung c th ca lin minh nh sau:
Microsoft a nhng phin bn mi nht ca b Microsoft Office, Internet
Explorer v mt s cng c Microsoft vo nn tng Macintosh ca Apple.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 28

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Apple tch hp trnh duyt Internet Explorer vo Mac OS v a n tr thnh
trnh duyt mc nh trong nhng phn mm h thng hot ng tng lai.
Hai hng t cs tho thun rng ri v s dng giy php sng ch cho
sn phm ca hai bn. iu ny m ng cho hai cng ty lm vic cng
nhau thn thit hn v vic dn u cng ngh cho nn tng Mac.
Apple v Microsoft ln k hoch hp tc v cng ngh chc chn s ho
hp gia cc my tnh cho Java hay nhng ngn ng lp trnh khc.
h tr nhiu hn mi quan h vi Apple, Microsoft s u t 150 triu USD
vo c phiu khng biu quyt ca Apple.
c.

Li ch t lin minh:

V pha Apple:
C thm mt s vn khng nh qua 150 triu USD c phn bn cho Microsoft
xc tin nhng k hoch ca mnh sau ny: chng hn nh vic tung ra cc sn
phm Power Mac G3, Power Book G3 vo 11/1997 cng nh l h thng
AppleStore rt thnh cng ca hng.
Nhn thy Microsoft l mt i tc chin lc v l mt tp on phn mm ln
mnh ang s hu nhng sn phm rt c khch hng a chung v dng ph
bin cc my PC nh b Microsoft Office, trnh duyt Internet Explorer, nn
lin minh vi Microsoft s gp phn em li din mo, tnh nng mi tt hn cho
sn phm PC ca Apple v qua nng cao v th cnh tranh ca Apple trc
nhng i th trn th trng my tnh c nhn nh IBM, Sony,
Lin minh vi mt cng ty tm c nh Microsoft lc by gi s l mt du hiu
tch cc em li mt ci nhn tt hn t pha d lun, khch hng v nh vy
cng s ng gp vo vic gip Apple vt qua giai on khng hong.
V pha Microsoft: Hp tc vi Apple l mt c hi u t hp dn cho tp on
ni ting ny:
Khi mua 150 triu USD c phn ch vi gi mi c phiu khong $6, $7 v sau
ny khi m Apple vt qua thi k kh khn v pht trin tr li th gi c
phiu s tng ng k v ng nhin mang v mt mn hi ln cho Microsoft.
Vic lin minh vi Apple l cu ly mt khch hng tim nng, chin lc trong
tng lai gn. Khi doanh s ca Apple tng tr li th tt nhin l Microsoft cng
s thu c nhiu li nhun hn qua nhng k kt license vi Apple v sau ny
Apple c th tr thnh mt khch hng ln trong vic cung cp cc phn mm
tch hp cng nh cc cng c Microsoft.
Ngoi ra, lin minh chin lc ny cn gip Microsoft khai thc nhng th
trng cn ang b ng chng hn nh vo 1998, Apple tung ra iMac nhm n
khch hng cp trung v cp thpvimt gi tin hp l v ng nhin nhng

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 29

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


chic iMac ny cng tch hp cc h iu hnh ca Windows, hay cc sn phm
phn mm ca Microsoft.
d. Li ch chung:
Lin minh vo thi im ny l s b tr hp l v phn mm ca Microsoft v
phn cng ca Apple qua em n cho khch hng nhng sn phm hon
thin nht v cht lng cng nh gi c v nhiu la chn hn nh Power Mac,
Power Book, iMac,
Tng tnh cnh tranh trn th trng gp phn nng cao cht lng sn phm em
li la chn tt hn cho ngi tiu dng.
e. Kt qu ca lin minh:
V pha Apple:
C th thy lin minh chin lc vi Micrsosoft vo thi im lc by gi
em li kh nhiu li ch cho Apple.
Ch ngay khi thng bo v s hp tc mang li cho Apple mt cuc sng mi.
Trong khong thi gian ct gim vic lm v c cu li t chc th c phiu ca Apple
st gim n 50%, nhng sau tin tc v lin minh chin lc vi Microsoft c
mt nh hng ln vo gi c phiu ca Apple y n tng ln gn 35%, t $6.56 n
$26.50.
Vic Microsoft b mt s vn tng i ln vo Apple cng vi vic a cc
phn mm, trnh duyt ph bin c ngi tiu dng a chung vo cc dng my ca
Apple nh Power Mac G3, Power Book G3, em v cho Apple nhng thnh cng
ngoi mong i. Ch trong vng 1 tun AppletStore tr thnh webstite thng mi
ln th ba ti Hoa k. Ti hi ngh Mac ti Sanfrancisco vo thng 1/1998, Steve Jobs,
CEO ti nngca Apple, thng bo rng hng ny ln u tin, trong hn 1 nm,
c li nhun 44 triu USD trong qu u, iu ny vt xa nhng d on ca cc
chuyn gia v a c phiu Apple tr li gi trn $20.Vo thng 4/1998, Jobs tip tc
thng bo 1 qu c li na (57 triu USD) v gy ngc nhin cho hu ht mi ngi v
s hi phc mnh m ca Apple.
Vo nm 1998, trn pht trin, Apple tung ra iMac mt loi PC dnh cho
khch hng cp trung v thp vi mt gi tin hp l v bt ng hn na khi iMac
tr thnh PC bn chy nht trn ton quc gip doanh s Apple tng vt vt mi d
on. 7/1998, cng ty thng bo li nhun 3 qu lin tip vi tng li ln n 101
triu USD.Vo ma thu nm , Jobs tip tc thng bo mt qu na c li v hon
thnh mt nm rt thnh cng ca Apple. V vi s pht trin thun li nh vy, n
thng 7/1999, c phiu Apple chm ngng $70. Chng ta khng kh nhn ra rng
lin minh chin lc vi Microsoft khng nhng cu ly Apple khi b vc ph sn m
cn gp phn em v cho hng mt trong nhng thi k hong kim nht trong lch s
pht trin ca mnh.
V pha tp on Micrsoft:

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 30

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Vic hp tc vi Apple mang li cho h nhng li ch nht nh. Microsoft
c hng triu khch hng l nhng ngi tin cy vo nn tng Mac ca Apple nh vo
lin minh ny. Thng bo v s hp tc y gi c phiu tng 1/8 ln. Qua vic hnh
thnh lin minh chin lc ny vi Apple, Microsoft tng s nhn nhn tch cc ca
khch hng s dng phn mm Internet ca mt tp on khng l tim nng v hn
na bo m s sng st ca mt khch hng trng tm-Apple. Hay ni cch khc,
vic Microsoft mua c phn ca Apple hay nhng tho thun trong vng 5 nm nu trn
l mt hnh thc u t vo Apple- mt tp on y tim nng, v khi m Apple t
c thnh cng rc r vo khong thi gian 97-98 th ng nhin Microsoft cng thu
c nhng ngun li khng nh t vic gi c phiu tng cng nh s lng ln sn
phm m Apple bn c.
f. Yu t dn n thnh cng ca lin
minh:
Hiu r i tc: Apple nhn nhn c Microsoft l mt tp on ting tm c
tm nh hng ln n d lun cng nh khch hng v thy r li ch m Microsoft
mang li cho h l ln hn nhng g Apple em n cho Microsoft.
S iu hnh linh hot sng sut ca ban lnh o m ng u l CEO Steve
Jobs: ng bit cch tn dng ti u nhng sc mnh m lin minh mang li em
v nhng thnh cng lin tip cho cng ty trong giai on 1997-1999.
Hiu r chnh bn thn mnh: Apple t nhn nhn c v tr ca mnh vo
thi im ang rt kh khn v ngun vn v hng i cho sn phm, nn khi lin
minh Apple tung ra sn phm n ng vi i tng khch hng ca mnh.
N lc trong vic xy dng lin minh t hai pha: tho thun rng ri v s dng
giy php sng ch cho sn phm ca hai bn, hp tc v cng ngh chc chn s
ho hp gia cc my tnh cho Java hay nhng ngn ng lp trnh khc, qua to
nn mt lin minh cng c li v vng chc trong thi gian hp tc ca hai hng.
3.2.1.2.

Lin minh chin lc: Apple Inc & Motorola Co.

a. C s hnh thnh lin minh


Motorola:
Tp on Motorola l tp on vin thng a quc gia ca M c thnh lp
1928, c tr s ti Schaumburg, Illinois. Sng lp bi Paul V. Galvin di ci tn
Galvin Manufacturing Corporation Chicago, M. Sn phm u tin ca cng ty l
thit b thay th pin, gip ngi s dng my radio dng pin c th s dng ngun in
nh. Motorola l mt trong nhng nh sn xut cc thit b in thoi khng dy v thit
b c s h tng mng khng dy ln nht ca Hoa K.
Cc sn phm chnh bao gm: h thng ghi nh, in thoi di ng, in thoi thng
minh, in thoi v tinh, h thng mng, radio hai chiu, Ngy 04 thng 01 nm

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 31

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


2011, Motorola c chia thnh 2 cng ty c lp, l Motorola Mobility v Motorola
Solutions sau khi b thua l n 4,3 t USD t nm 2007-2009.
Sau nhng thnh cng ca sn phm bom tn Razr V3, th phn v doanh thu ca
hng thay i mt cch ng k khi qua mt Samsung tr thnh i gia th hai trn
th gii v th phn in thoi di ng (20%) ch sau Nokia (30,4%), vi gic m vn
ti mt v tr cao hn khi c th tung ra nhng sn phm c o v thit k mu m v
tnh nng v cng tip ni nhng thnh qu m Razr V3 em li.
Rork E1 ra i mong mun to n tng vi cng chng yu m nhc v nhngc
im c mt khng hai khi tch hp chc nng nghe nhc trong in thoi => thu li
mt li nhun kh khm ng thi bin n tr thnh ng lc cho nhng sn phm tip
theo ca hng tin n mc tiu xa v cao hn.
Apple:
Steve Jobs, CEO ca Apple ny ra mt tng l to mt ra sn phmiPod
phone cho ring ca hng.Tuy nhin thc hin iu ny s phi tn kh nhiu chi
ph cho vic nghin cu v pht trin sn xut sn phm in thoi ding,(trong khi
Apple l i gia v phn mm v c b thng hiu my nghe nhc trn th
trng.Theo cc thng k cho bit, Apple s hu 80% th trng thit b MP3 v 75%
doanh thu nhc trc tuyn vi k lc 500 triu lt ti bi ht t iTunes).Vic tin hnh
nhng tha thun lin minh vi Motorola l bc th nghim cho d n, tit kim c
chi ph ,to c t ph mi trn th trng in thoi di ng ginh ly nhiu th
phn.Lin minh ny khng ch l vic chuyn giao cng ngh m cn l s hp tc
thng hiu.
Nhn thy nhng nhu cu tim nng ca th trng m nhiu i th khc cha
tha mn c hai hng u hiu r mi quan h ca mnh, hiu c li th v im
mnh ca cc bn cng t c mc tiu: th phn,li nhun, thng hiu
b. Gii thiu lin minh:
Thng 12/2004 Motorola v Apple i n tha thun mi nht v vic lin kt
cng ngh pht trin sn phm in thoi di ng 2 trong 1
Thng 7/2005 Motorola k kt hp ng vi hng Apple v vic hp tc p
ng nhu cu nhc s trn in thoi di ng bng mt lot cc tnh nng m nhc mi
phong ph c th l Apple s pht trin mt phin bn nh gn ca phn mm iTunes
tch hp cho in thoi ca Motorola.
Sn phm: c tn l Rokr E1, c ra mt vo ngy 7 thng 9 nm 2005 trong mt
s kin do Apple t chc ti San Francisco, California.N l mt phin bn mi ca
Motorola E398 Candybar vi cng ngh c Apple cp giy php chi nhc t
Tunes Music Store, chc nng ca n c th hin trnh chi nhc c giao din
kh ging iPod. ROKR E1 cn cho php ngi s dng cun playlist, chn bi ht
v ra lnh chi. lu tr bi ht, bn c th dng th nh microSD (TransFlash)

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 32

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


vi dung lng ln nht c th t ti 512 MB, tng ng vi khong 100 bi
ht. Rokr E1 chi c cc file nhcMP3, AAC v AAC+.
Phin bn u tin ca sn phm c mu bc trng, kch thc 3 chiu l
108x46x21mm v trng lng xp x 110g, hot ng trn cc di bng tn
GSM850/1800/1900 MHz. My c trang b mt mn hnh TFT ln hin th
262.000 mu, phn gii 176x220 pixel.
Cng ngh v thng hiu:
S chuyn giao cng ngh gia hai cng ty c xem l i gia trong ngnh
cng ngh thng tin.Vi th mnh v cc phn mm dn u trong thit b nghe nhc
ca Apple tin ti vic th nghim khi tch hp chc nng nghe nhc khi
download bi ht da trn phn mm iTunes thng qua my tnh c nhn trong mt
chic di ng c li th v cht lng phn cngv c thng hiu trn th trng
nh Motorola.
S kt hp ny khin cho nhng ngi yu nhc hi vng v ch i mt sn
phm c phong cch v c tnh nng c bit so vi cc sn phm khc t trc ti
nay.
c. Li ch khi hnh thnh lin minh
V pha Apple:
Nu lin minh i n thnh cng tc l sn phm Rork E1 tr thnh mt cn st
trn th trng, iu ng ngha vi vic gip Apple tng c li nhun hn 1
tUSD, tng ng 1.14USD/c phiu, tip tc to khong cch cch bit vi cc i
th trong ngnh trong vic dn u v th phn v thng hiu.Theo cc chuyn gia
cho bit, con s s cn n tng hn nhiu khong 2,85 tUSD li nhunv 12,25 t
USD doanh s theo tnh ton nu tnh c cc dch v h tr phn mm iTunes.
V pha Motorola:
Hng ny cng ngay lp tc tm kim mt khon li nhun kh khm nu thng
v i n thnh cng v khi Motorola tip tc cng c v tr th hai khi m trc
h gy n tng vi doanh thu qu II/2005 tng ti 17% so vi 2004, t 8,8 t
USD, trong li nhun t 933 triu USD trong khi nm 2004, h cn l ti 203triu
USD=> s gia tng cch bit v th phn i vi Samsung cng nh thu hp ng k
khong cch ti chnh vi Nokia (nm 2005 Nokia chim 30.4%). ng thi minh
chng cho s mo him to bo khi u t vo mt th trng kh nhiu ri ro cnh
tranh vi Sony Ericsson
d. Li ch chung:
Apple v Motorola l hai cng ty hot ng gn nh nhau tuy nhin mc tiu v
chin lc ca mi cng ty a ra hon ton khc nhau.Apple tm kim nhng li nhun
t phn khc th trng cao cp v s trung thnh ca khch hng l mt trong nhng
li th m hng t c.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 33

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


mt phn khc tng quan hn, Motorola ri rc tt c cc sn phm ca mnh
nhiu i tng khc nhau; nu nh cc dng in thoi ca Razr phc v cho gii snh
iu th ML2 ginh cho gii bnh dnChnh v th m c hai hng nhn thy c
th mnh ca i tc i n nhng tha thun v lin kt chung cho lin minh ln
ny.
y l 2 lin minh chin lc khng cnh tranh trc tip vi nhau, c rt t th
trng chung, c nhng mc tiu khc nhau v c nhng i tng khch hng khc
nhau, vic lin minh nhm hp tc v chia s nhng cng ngh thnh cng ca nhau,
cng hp tc to nn 1 sc mnh vt tri c th p o cc i th khc.
Cng chia s chi ph c nh v ri ro, cng lm R&D, phi hp pht trin cc
th trng mi, khai thc ti a quy m ca th trng. Cc thnh vin c th gin tip
vt qua ro cn quc gia m nhng iu ny tng thnh vin kh c th thc hin mt
cch ring l.
Vi mt mng li hot ng mnh m, mi lin minh c th kim sot th
trng bi nhng cng ngh mi m ch c lin minh mi c
Hc hi kinh nghim t nhau v nhng im cng ty cn thiu st, to thm li
th cnh tranh cho cng ty
C 2 cng ty tham gia vo lin minh c th va theo uimc ch v th trng
ring ng thi cng t mc tiu ca lin minh, iu ny lm cho li nhun tng ln v
th trng ca cng ty c m rng hn.
e. Kt qu :

Sn phm tht bi mt cch ton din vi kiu dng bnh thng, chc
nng khng to c s ring bit, tnh nng cn yu km v mt s mng
nh hng n doanh s bn v uy tn thng hiu ca hai cng ty.31
Cng khong thi gian ny, Apple tung sn phm iPod nano (l sn phm
thay th iPod Mini, sau 17 ngy bn c hn 1 triu my. Ipod Nano c
hai phin bn dung lng khc nhau, lu c t 500 n 1.000 bi ht. =>
nh hng nquan h hp tc gia hai bn v Tng gim c Motorola, ng
Edward J. Zandercho rng Apple chi khng p v co buc hng ny
ct t mi quan h vi Rokr.
Thng 1/2006 sau khi lin minh b tht bi, Apple p mt d nh mi trong
lnh vc truyn thng, h lin tc xin c 4 chng nhn, trong c
nhngni dung lin quan n nhc s, in thoi di ng v vin
thng. ng thi trn cho thy Apple ang chun b cho cuc i u trong
th trng in thoi nghe nhc. V ng nh d on, vi bc th nghim
khng thnh cng, Apple tung ra sn phm iPhone nm 2007.
f.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Nhng tc ng khi lin minh tht bi

Page 34

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


V pha Apple :
Li nhun ca Apple gim xung cn 565 triu USD, tng ng mc
li 56 cent/c phiu so vi thi im nm 2004 l 1.58 USD/ c phiu.
Ngay sau khi tht bi, Motorola tung ra sn phm Rork E2, dng sn phm
thay th khng s dng trnh iTunes m k tha SLVR L7 c kh nng ci
iTunes th cng ngay lc Apple nhanh chng rt cc phn mm tch hp ca
iTunes trongRork E1 gim s nh hng ca n.
V pha Motorola:
Theo s liu thng k ca cng ty kho st th trng Gartner(M), th phn
in thoi Motorola trn ton cu gim xung 14,6% so vi 21,9% nm
2006,Motorola cng cng khai thnh thc rng b phn kinh doanh in thoi
ca hng s b thua l cho n nm 2008.
Mc d rt thnh cng vi lot sn phm Razr V3 th nhng nhng tht bi
lin tip khi a ra mu cc sn phm khc bt u t Rokr E1 khin cho c
phiu ca Motorola gim 1,86 USD, hay 7,6%, xung cn 22,49 USD vo phin
giao dch cui cng ngy 20/1/2006 ti S giao dch chng khon New York
n u nm 2007 th phn ca Motorola gim st nghim trng t 23% (2006)
n 12% vi l do l hng khng thnh cng no ra tr t in thoi ngoi tr
bom tn Razr 3V
K t qu 3/2008, Motorola s tch hon ton b phn TD ra khi
cng ty ny thnh lp mt cng ty ring nhm cu vn hot ng sn xut
kinh doanh vn b thua l trong mt thi gian di.
Nm 2008 l Motorola khi nh mt 5.1% th phn (t hn nm 2007 khi
tt gim 7.8% th phn), ch cn nm gi 8.3%. Nm 2009 s l nm nhiu thch
thc cho Motorola khi m cc dng TD siu mng RARZ khng cn t
khch v hng ny ang loay hoay vi cc model TD mi khng my n
tng.
g. Phn tch nhng yu t dn n tht
bi ca chin lc lin minh
Lin minh v ln nhng tham vng v mc tiu ca c Apple & Motorola ng
thi cng cho thy rng i bn u tm hiu v hiu r i tc ca mnh.Tuy nhin li
ch khng t c khi kt qu lin minh l tht bi bi nhng yu t sau:
Apple qu r mc tiu ca i tc chnh v th m i vi Apple y ch l
mt s th nghim cng ngh, hng khng tp trung vo li ch chung m tm
kim ring cho mnh nhng khon li ring, e d trong vic tin hnh chuyn
giao cng ngh

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 35

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Da trn l thuyt l mong mun chia s ri ro khi thm nhp vo th trng
hon ton mi, vi s cn thn n mc d chng trong vic u t vo sn
phm mi ca Motorola.V d : Khi so snh vi Rokr E1, my khng trc tip
download nhc m phi thng qua my tnh c phn mm iTunes, Steve Jobs cho
bit rng s tn chi ph nhiu hn khi download trc tip nhc t in thoi nn
gi s t hn, khong 3USD/bi. Do vy, vic ny l cha kh thi.
Mt phn khc l do Motorola khng tp trung cho vic tm kim mt sn
phm mi, phn tn kh rng nhng tim lc vn c ca mnh khong thi
gian sau ny h cng khng my thnh cng khi tung ra nhng dng in thoi di
ng a nng.
Chng ta t hi rng liu vic Apple hn ch dung lng ca Rokr E1 l bo v
dng my nghe nhc iPod ca mnh v tri ng cho in thoi iPod Phone hay
khng? (trng hp ca iPhone ). Hay l Apple ang p mt d n m rng mt dch
v nhc s mi cung cp nhc cho in thoi ring ca hng.
3.2.1.3.

Lin minh Apple v HP:

a. Gii thiu v HP:


HP l tp on cng ngh thng tin hng u th gii, vi sn phm ni ting v
c a chung nht l my in v my tnh c nhn. Trong nhng nm gn y, HP
vt xa cc i th cnh tranh truyn thng v ginh ly v tr s 1 v cung cp cc sn
phm cng ngh thng tin.
b. Gii thiu v lin minh:
8/1/2004, HP v Apple cng b mt lin minh chin lc cung cp mt my
nghe nhc HP-thng hiu s da trn iPod ca Apple
L mt phn ca lin minh, my tnh HP ca ngi tiu dng v my tnh xch
tay s n ci t sn vi iTunes ca Apple phn mm jukebox v mt biu tng
my tnh bn d tham chiu n im ngi tiu dng trc tip cho cc nhc iTunes
Store, bo m mt tri nghim m nhc n gin, lin mch, cung cp ny l c mt
cch khc m HP ang gip ngi tiu dng c hng nhiu hn t gii tr c nhn
ni dung s ca h.
"Mc tiu ca HP l mang n cho cc ni dung gii tr hp dn nht v kinh
nghim cho khch hng ca chng ti" Carly Fiorina, ch tch v gim c iu hnh
ca HP. "Chng ti khm ph mt lot cc la chn thay th cung cp mt tri
nghim m nhc tuyt vi k thut s v kt lun iPod nghe nhc ca Apple v dch v
m nhc iTunes l tt nht hin nay. Bng cch hp tc vi Apple, chng ti c c hi
tng thm gi tr bng cch tch hp cung cp tt nht ca th gii m nhc k thut
s vo chin lc h thng gii tr k thut s ca HP. "
"Mc tiu ca Apple l c c iPod v iTunes vo tay ca nhng ngi yu
nhc trn khp th gii, v quan h i tc vi HP, mt cng ty tiu dng sng to, s
gip chng ti lm vic ", ng Steve Jobs, CEO ca Apple. " Bng cch cung cp

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 36

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


nhc s c gi trong mt m ng ca cc cng ngh khng tng thch s hu,
ngi tiu dng s c an tm trong vic c c gii php tuyt vi cng m nhc k
thut s ca c HP v Apple, hai nh lnh o trong k nguyn nhc s."
Theo nghin cu ni b ca HP, hn 54 phn trm hin nay ngi tiu dng HP
nhc ti v my tnh ca h.
Hn hai triu chic iPod c bn k t khi gii thiu ca n, cng c v tr
ca n nh l mt trong s ngi chi nhc k thut s trn th gii. Tt c cc my
nghe nhc iPod lm vic lin mch vi iTunes ginh gii thng m nhc k thut s
Jukebox phn mm v iTunes Music Store, trong bn c hn 30 triu bi ht,
cung cp cho ngi hm m m nhc vi nhng tri nghim m nhc k thut s tt
nht trn c hai my tnh Mac hoc Windows .
ITunes Music Store cung cp cho Windows v Mac cho ngi dng mt ca hng m
nhc ca hn 500.000 bi ht, cng mt "tiu chun vng" quyn s dng c nhn v
ng 99 cent cho mi bi ht gi. ITunes Music Store tnh nng chng nhn qu tng
trc tuyn cho cc gia nh v bn b; Apple sng to v cp bng sng ch trc tuyn
"Ph cp" tnh nng, cho php cha m t ng gi tin vo iTunes tr em ca h
'Music Store ti khon mi thng, hn 5.000 audiobooks, c th c mua vi mt c
click v nghe trn my Mac hoc my tnh Windows cng nh my nghe nhc iPod;
Celebrity Danh sch nhc, v cc bi ht c quyn mi t hn 60 ngh s. iTunes
Music Store The cung cp m nhc t tt c nm cng ty m nhc ln v hn 200 nhn
hiu m nhc c lp.
c. Li ch t lin minh:
Thng 7/2005, HP tuyn b quyt nh dng bn sn phm IPod ca Apple.
C hai cng ty khng nh kt thc hp ng ng gp vo khong 5% tng
s l hng ca iPod.
"HP quyt nh rng iPod bn li khng nm trong chin lc hin hnh ca
cng ty gii tr k thut s," pht ngn vin Natalie Kerris ca Apple cho bit. "Kt qu
l, HP d nh ngng bn iPod vo cui thng 9."
Kerris t chi bnh lun v cch thc ca HP quyt nh ny s nh hng n kt qu
ti chnh ca Apple. Li nhun ca cng ty c nh hng ch yu do doanh s
bn iPod - vi 6.200.000 vn chuyn trong qu gn y nht c bo co. Trong s ,
iPod mang nhn hiu HP chim khong 500.000 n v
3.2.1.4.

Lin minh Apple v Google:

a. Gii thiu v cng ty Google:


Google l mt cng ty Internet tm c th gii c tr s ti Hoa K, c thnh
lp vo nm1998. Sn phm chnh ca cng ty ny l cng c tm kim Google, c
nhiu ngi nh gi l cng c tm kim hu ch v mnh m nht trn Internet. Tr s
ca Google tn l "Googleplex" ti Mountain View, California. Google c trn 15.000
nhn vin, gim c l Tin sEric Schmidt, trc y l gim c cng ty Novell. Tn

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 37

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


"Google" l mt li chi ch ca tgoogol, bng 10100. Google chn tn ny th hin
s mnh ca cng ty sp xp s lng thng tin khng l trn mng. Googleplex, tn
ca tr s Google, c ngha l 10googol.
u nm 2004, khi Google tt nh, Google x l trn 80% s lng tm
kim trn Internet qua website ca h v cc website ca khch hng nh Yahoo!, AOL,
v CNN. Sau khi Yahoo! b Google dng k thut h t sng ch vo thng 2 nm
2004, s ny b tut xung.
b. Hnh thnh Lin Minh:
Tuy hnh thnh lin minh, nhng n thng 8/2007,iMac mi ra mt, n cng
cung cp ci nhn su sc hn na vo mi quan h m cng pht trin gia Apple v
Google, vi vic tch hp tt hn gia cc cng ty hai dng sn phm ny.
C g mi? iMovie '08 b sung thm kh nng ti video trc tip ln YouTube,
v iWeb (trang web ca Apple to ra phn mm) by gi tch hp vi Google Maps v
YouTube, cng vi h tr cho Adsense. Kt hp nhng n lc ny vi iPhone hin ti
Google Maps, YouTube, Gmail - cng vi AppleTV gn y thm h tr cho
YouTube, v chng ta c th xem lin minh Apple- Google c tng cng.
V c nhiu hn th na khi CEO ca Steve Jobs c hi v quan h i tc ca
cng ty vi Google, c bit l trong ti liu tham kho Adsense. "Chng ti ang
lm vic cht ch hn vi Google, h cung cp dch v, chng ti mun gn vo cc
dch v ca chng ti", Jobs tr li. "Google thch cc sn phm ca chng ti, qu."
Vi iWorks '08 thm mt ng dng bng tnh thn thin, ngoi vic x l vn
bn, Google Docs tch hp c th l mt kh nng. Google cng c cho l pht trin
ca phn mm trnh din ca n da trn web, v vy cng c th p dng cho phn
mm ca Apple Keynote. Cng c th thy Google Docs h tr n vi iPhone, v
c iu xy ra, sau bng nhiu cch trong nhiu ni v GPhone c th tn
ti, ngoi tr n s c vit bng "i". Sc mnh thc s ca Apple lun lun c
th hin trong vic pht trin phn cng thanh lch v khch hng d s dng phn
mm, vi Google i u trong "m my" cc dch v, ni d liu v cc ng dng c
th truy cp qua Internet. N khng kh xem hai nng lc ct li c th tip tc b
sung cho nhau.
c. Li ch t lin minh:
Apple Google bng cch to ra cc sng kin kinh nghim ngi dng m
Google c th nhanh chng sao chp li ch. Li ch thu v c t lin minh ny
Apple tng mc tiu th trn th trng in thoi thng minh-gio dc th vi gi tr
ca my tnh di ng, lm tng li nhun, v lm t lit (v do kh nng sng to)
ca i th cnh tranh trc tip ca Apple.
Tuy nhin, sau nhiu nm lin, Apple c mi quan h tt p vi Google.
Th nhng mi chuyn thay i vo nm 2009. Cui thng 7, Apple t chi
a ng dng Google Voice ln iTunes App Store. Sau , Apple ln ting rng,

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 38

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


Google Voice khng b "ght b" m n ch ang c xem xt do c th thay
i chc nng thoi quan trng ca iPhone.
Vi ngy sau, Tng Gim c Google l Eric Schmidt t b v tr l thnh vin
trong ban Gim c Apple. Gia thng 10, Arthur Levinson cng c ng thi tng t
vi ban Gim c Google.
Thi gian gn y, Google ang t t mnh vo v tr i u trc tip vi Apple
bi l hng va trnh lng h iu hnh Chrome, Android. u nm 2010,1 ch d
"ng mc"Google mang tn NeXus one c xem l mt thch thc i vi Iphone
ca Apple.
3.2.1.5.
Nm 1991:

Nhng Lin Minh khc:

Lin minh Apple-IBM-Motorola ( AIM ) c thnh lp nhm nghin cu pht


trin h thng PowerPC.
Nm 2004:
Apple hp tc vi IBM sn xut mt loi chip tng hp c kh nng duy tr hot
ng ng thi ca nhiu iu hnh (o), cho php my tnh c th cng mt lc x l
nhiu tc v hn v b nh c s dng hiu qu hn.
Nm 2006:
Disney hp tc cng Apple pht trin tng CNG VIN CUA TRI T NG
TNG.Trong d n ny Apple a cc ng dng v cng ngh c trng phong cch
apple vo trong dch v gii tr.1
Disney la mt ngi khng l trong lnh vc thng mai vi lng san phm tiu
thu ghi nhn nm ngoai chim ti 30 t la gi tr hng ha bun bn ton cu. Con s
nay 1 thp nin trc t khi ng Mooney gia nhp hang la 12 t la. Nhng Apple lai
la vua cua cc khu ph mua ban ln. Theo ng Charlie Wolf, mt phn tch vin cho
Needham & Company, chui ca hang cua hang nay san sinh doanh thu trung bnh
4,700 la trn mt foot vung nm 2008, vt xa mc doanh thu nh cua bt
c chui ca hng bn l no.
Thng 2/2007:
Apple c bn nhc qua iTune Store m khng phi tr tin bn quyn nhc s
nu cc tn tui ln trong ngnh thu m chu t b cng ngh chng sao chp trc
tuyn. Tuy nhin, ch c Hng thu m EMI ng hp tc vi Apple vo thng 2/2007
qua mt tha thun c hiu lc k t thng 5/2007.

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 39

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


3.2.2. Gia cng quc t:
Gia cng quc t l mt trong nhng hnh thc kinh doanh ngoi thng kh ph bin
hin nay.
Nhng linh kin in t ca Apple u c gia cng ti Foxconn.
Foxconn (l thng hiu ca cng ty i Loan Hon Hai Precision Industry Co.
(Ltd.) Foxconn l mt trong nhng hng ch to linh kin in t v my tnh ln nht
th gii, v ch yu ch to theo hp ng vi cc n v khc. Tp on Hng Hi
c thnh lp vo nm 1974.Hin tp on c hn 100 cng ty chi nhnh ti cc nc
nh: Trung Quc, n , Nht Bn v cc khu vc nh: ng Nam (Vit Nam....),
Chu u, Chu M, vi tng s lng cng nhn vin ln ti hn 600 nghn
ngi. Foxconn l nh sn xut ln nht ca in t v linh kin my tnh trn ton th
gii, v ch yu sn xut theo hp ng cho cc cng ty khc nh l: sn xut cc mini
Mac, iPod, iPad, v iPhone ca Apple Inc, Intel cho thng hiu bo mch ch Intel
Corp, n t hng khc nhau cho cc nh sn xut my tnh M Dell v HewlettPackard, nh sn xut bo mch ch cho my tnh ca Vng quc Anh Zoostorm; cc
PlayStation 2 v PlayStation 3 ca Sony, Wii ca Nintendo, Xbox 360 ca Microsoft,
in thoi di ng ca Motorola, Kindle ca Amazon, v cc thit b Cisco.
Apple c th xem l mt khch hng ln i vi Foxconn, ch ring nm 2010
Apple t Foxconn 24 triu my iPhone 4G.
Thnh 4/2011, nhm phc v tt hn cho nhng n hng ca Apple. Foxconn
chun b hnh thnh mt nh my Braxin vi mc u t l 12 t USD ~ 252 nghn t
ng trong vng 5 nm
3.2.3. Xut khu gin tip thng qua cc nh i l y qun:
Iphone l sn phm cao cp nn Apple a sn phm n cc nc thng qua
nhng cng ty chuyn phn phi c Apple la chn.
M l nh mng AT&T. Tuy nhin, n u nm 2011 Apple v hng vin
thng Verzion (M) gii thiu in thoi iPhone 4 chy mng CDMA vi thit k cng
cu hnh kh ging phin bn u, s xut hin ca sn phm ny chm dt th c
quyn ca nh mng AT&T trong sut nhiu nm phn phi iPhone M (t nm
2007). Hn Quc, l KT Corp, Trung Quc l ChinaUnicom....
Vit Nam, nm 2010, FPT tr thnh nh nhp khu duy nht c nhp
khu Iphone. Sau , Iphone s c bn ra th trng bi 4 cng ty vin thng l: FPT,
Mobiphone, Vinaphone, Viettel......

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 40

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


3.2.4. Xut khu trc tip thng qua ca hng i din::
19/5/2001,Apple m cc ca hng bn l chnh thc u tin ca mnh ti hai bang
Virginia v California. Sau l s xut hin Ca hng Apple, bng knh trong sut vi
thang my hnh tr v cu thang xon dn vo bn trong, trn i l s 5, New York. S
kin ny lm sng st c cc nh u t ln ngi tiu dng lc by gi. Apple
Computer quyt nh m mt lot cc ca hng bn l trng by ton b dng sn phm
my tnh, phn mm v thit b ngoi vi. Mt phn ca quyt nh c ra da trn
c phiu ca Apple ang gim ca th trng my tnh. R rng rng Apple mun kim
sot nhiu hn cc kinh nghim bn l cho cc sn phm ca mnh.
Ti chnh, cc ca hng ca Apple c lin tc ci thin k t khi h ln u
tin m: s lng khch tng u, t 25.200.000 trong 2004-102400000 trong nm ti
chnh 2007. Ca hng thu tip tc tng trong cng thi k, t $ 1185000000 $
4110000000, hin nay tng cng khong 17,1 phn trm tng doanh thu ca cng ty.
Tnh n thng 2 nm 2011, cng ty c hn 320 ca hng trn ton th gii.
Tn Nc

S lng ca 237
hng

Anh Canada c
29

19

10

Thy c Trung Nht


S
Quc Bn
4
5
4
7
4

Php Ty Ban Nha


5

C l quan trng nht, th phn tng th ca Apple c bo co tng ln k t khi


ca hng bn l m, c th vt qu su phn trm. Apple gi y bo co rng: bn
hng thng qua cc ca hng bn l hin nay l hn 50%.
Nm 2011, Apple d kin n cui nm nay s m 25 ca hng gii thiu sn phm
ti th Bc Kinh (hin ch c 1 ca hng). IPhone hin c mt v tr nht nh ti th
trng in thoi di ng cao cp ca Trung Quc v doanh s ca Apple ti th trng
ny trong na nm va qua t 130 triu USD. V Apple cng ang d nh m thm
ca hng trn ton th gii trong nm 2011 ny.
4. Kt lun
Trong 35 nm tn ti v pht trin, Apple lm dy ln cuc cnh tranh trong
cc lnh vc my tnh bn, laptop v smartphone, ginh c s khen ngi cao ca
khch hng trong c im tin cy v im h tr dch v. V n thng 5/12010 vi li
kinh doanh sng to ca mnh Apple c mt nm t doanh thu v li nhun k lc,
v vt qua Microsoft tr thnh k thng tr trn th trng thit b di ng
(smartphone v tablet)
Sau qu trnh tm hiu nhm c th kt lun nhng yu t dn n mt Apple
thnh cng l nh vo li kinh doanh sng to khng ngng, kt hp chin lc tuyt
vi, khc bit trong cch thc qung co, lun to cho khch hng s tri nghim v c

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 41

CHIN LC KINH DOANH QUC T CA APPLE


th ni: Th mnh thc s ca Apple khng phi t chi tit k thut phn cng m l
thit k v nh hng ngi dng.

Steve Jobs l v thnh mang li s thnh cng ca Apple ngy hm nay

5. Ti liu tham kho


- http://www.apple.com/startpage/

GVHD : ThS Hunh Th Diu Linh

Page 42