Reservoir and Production

. Fundamentals




The study of Petroleum Engineering covers a broad spectrum of geology, physics and applied matherratics spanning the geological processes by which hydrocarbons, are formed and accumulated into reservoirs, the properties of reservoir rocks and the behavior of formation oil, water and gases during the process of extraction.

This booklet was distilled fran the mass of literature available on the subject with the objective of providing the incaning engineer with an overall view of the industry and with the fundamentals of reservoir and production that a Schlumberger general field engineer requires.

The reservoir and wells are interacting elements of a composite system in which the well provides access to the reservoir and is the means by which measurements (and our revenues) are made. Considerable emphasis is placed on well perfonnance and testing as these are areas of direct involvement with our Production logging and well completion services.

With the advent of ccmputor log processing, field integrated log analysis has bec~e possible and reservoir mapping of reserves is a developing extention of our logging activities into reservoir management.

The study of fractured reservoirs would normally be considered beyond the scope of an introductory petroleum engineering course. Hcwever , due to the great importance of this unconventional type reservoir to Middle East oil production, Chapter 10, written by Prof. Van Gold Racht of the University of Trodheim, has been included summarizing the subject.

We would like to thank Manfred Wittmann and Dr. G. Stewart of EHS Marketing PR for their help in reviewing the draft of this booklet.


• Aitken July 1980




1.- Introduction


A. Conditions favorable for hydrocarbon reservoir fornation 1-1

B. Oil field units of measurement 1-2

C. SI oilfield units 1-3

2.- Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations


A. Introduction (geological terminology)

B. Historical geology

C. Structure of the earth

D. Classification of rocks

E. The origin and habitat of oil

F. Hydrocarbon reservoirs

G. Sub-surface mapping

H. Reservoir temperature and pressure

2-1 2-2 2-4 2-7 2-11 2-13 2-16 2-17

3.- Reservoir Fluid behaviour


A. Classification of oil and gas

B. Phase behaviour in hydrocarbon reservoirs

C. Reservoir fluid properties

3-1 3-4 3-11

1) source of fluids data 3-11

2) compressibility of gases 3-12

3) conversion factors between surface and downhole volumes 3-16

a) gas format.Lon volume factor, Bg 3-17

b) oil fornation volume factor, Bo 3-19

c) water formatrion volume factor, Bw 3-23

4) fluid density correlations 3-24

5) viscosity correlations 3-26

D. Rock compressibility

E. Appendix - Fluid Conversion Charts

3-28 3-29

4.- Reservoir Rock properties


A. Porosity

B. Perrreabili ty

C. Measurerrent of penneabili ty

D. Measurerrent of porosity

E. Measurerrent of capillary pressure (rrercury injection)

4-1 4-3 4-6 4-8 4-9



5.- Surface-tension-wettability-capillarity-saturation


A. Surface tension 5-1

B. Wettabili ty 5- 3

C. Capillari ty 5-4

D. Repartition of saturation in reservoir rocks 5-6

E. Irreducible water saturation 5-7

F. Displacement pressure 5-8

G. Displacement of oil 5-9

H. Residual oil 5-11

I. Relations between pe:meabilities and fluid saturations 5-13

~--~ Relative permeability - Saturation correlations 5-15

servoir drive rrechanisms


A. Oil reservoirs

B. Solution gas drive reservoirs

C. Gas cap expansion drive reservoirs

D. Water drive reservoirs

E. Discussion of recovery efficiency (including gravity drainage)

6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5

7.- Well performance


A. Natenclature and rrode l, for ideal cylindrical flCM

B. Radius of drainage

C. ~i]ell pressure drawd.CMn

D. Productivity index and specific productivity index

E. Fonnation damage

F. Fonnation ilTproverrent

G. Skin factor

H. Skin in perforated corrpletions

I. InflCM production relation - IPR

J. Evaluation of a formation treatment with IPR

K. Carposi te IPR of multi-zone ccrnpletion

L. Cross flCM between zones

M. Water cut vs. production rate

N. Performance of flCMing oil wells o. Simulator - single well rrodel

7-1 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-20

8.- Reservoir Estimates


A. Volurretric methods 8-1

B. Calculation of the reserve 8-2

C. Uncertainty in reservoir estimates 8-3

D. Field integrated log analysis and reservoir mapping services 8-6

1) Nonnalization of data

2) Gridding and mapping

3) Monitoring fluid interface changes

8-8 8-9 8-9

8-10 8-10 8-13

E. Reservoir estimates - material balance methods

1) Material balance - gas reservoirs

2) Generalized material balance - oil reservoirs



9.- Well testing and pressure transient analysis

A. The DST (drill stern testing)

B. LTT (long term production test)of oil wells

C. Test procedures for high capacity gas we.l.Ls

D. RFT - The wireline formatdon tester

E. Transient test techniques and analysis

F. Drawdoml behavior

G. Pressure buildup analysis

1) Homer's method

2) MDH (Miller, Dyes, Hutchinson rrethod)

H. Remarks concerning slope and shape of pressure drawdCMn curves

10.- Fractured reservoirs

A. Introduction

B. A physical description of a fractured reservoir

C. A comparison of conventional and fractured reservoir


D. Idealized nodel of a fractured reservoir

E. Description of the fracture process

F. Porosity and penreabili ty

1) Determination of porosity

2) Penreability determination

G. Production rrechanisms in the fractured reservoir

H. Discussion of displacerrent mechanisms

I. Steady state flON' +owards the well

J. Transient flON'

1) Warren and Root method

2) Pol laird method

K. Appendix - Mathematical derivation of Warren and Root method

11 . - Appendix

A. Nomenclature - Practical oilfield units and symbols

B. Conversion factors between Practical oilfield units, Metric S. I. and other measures

C. Miscellaneous oil field conversions

D. Physical constants and values



9-1 9-4 9-6 9-10 9-11 9-15 9-18

9-19 9-22


10-1 10-1 10-2 10-3

10-7 10-8 10-10

10-10 10-11

10-12 10-15 10-17 10-19

10-19 10-21


11-1 11-3

11-12 11-13



A. Conditions favorable for hydrocarbon reservoir for.rnation

Three basic requirements must be fulfilled to accumulate oil and gas in a commercially exploitable reservoir.

First, the reservoir rock must possess sufficient void space, called porosity, to contain the oil and gas. Secondly, there must be adequate connectivity, or penneabi1 ity, of the pore spaces to allow transportation of the fluids over large distances under reasonable gradients of pressure. Third, a sufficient quantity hydrocarbons must be accunrulated into a trap of impervious cap rock which Erevents up.vard migr;:atio,p of the oil and gas fran the source beds, forming a petroleum reservoir.




Fig. 1-1. Accumulation of oil and gas into a reservoir.


B. Oilfield units of measurement

Thus far no industry-wide standardization of units has occured and a mixture of metric mks , egs, SI, and "practical oilfield units" with its API barrels, cubic feet of gas and psi units are used.

It is expected that all countries will eventually standardize on metric SI* system of measurements. Standardization wi thin the Petroleum industry, with only very minor variations in detail, has been launched in England, Canada and the U.S. Progress is s.low ho.vever, and the preponderance of technical literature available today uses the "practical oilfield units" established by the AMIE (American Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineering) in 1958.

Table 1-1 be.low canpares units and quantities most frequently encountered in oil field practice.




Coherent S1 Unit

Practical Oilfield Unit

Volume, liquid STE, stock tank barrel rreasured at 3 cubic metre measured at
600f', 14.65 psia 150C, 1 atm = 101.35 kPa
Volume, gas scf, standard cubic foot measured 3 cubic metre measured at
at 600f', 14.65 psia 15Oc, 1 atm
Production rate, liquid STE/D, stock tank barrel per day 3 cubic metre per second
Production rate, gas scf/D, standard cubic feet per day 3 cubic metre per second
m ,
Gas-oil ratio scf/B, standard cubic feet per stock m3/m3, dimensionless
tank barrel
Pressure psi, pounds per square inch Pa , pascal = newton per square metre
TE!I1perature, absolute ~, degree Rankine K, Kelvin
Time hr., hour s, second
Fonnation thickness ft. , feet m, metre
Viscosity cp, centipoise Pa-s, pascal -second
Permeability rrd , milidarcy ).II1\2, square micranetre Table 1-1. Canparison of units used in the oilfield.

* S.I. is the official abbreviation, in all languages, for the International System of units (le Systane International d'unites)


c. A brief description of 81 oilfield units

(Condensed fran Technical Review article "Metrification in North Arnerica~' Vol. 26 No 4)

81 is a coherent unit system of units and measures, essentially an up-graded version of mks, and is based on the meter, kilogram, second, arrq:>ere, kelvin, mole and candela. A list of 81 base and supplementary units is given bel.ow :

Quantity Unit Name Unit Remarks
length meter, or metre m U.S. spelling is "meter". Canadian and ISO (International Or-
ganization for Standardization) spelling is "metre".
mass kilogram kg This is the only base unit having a prefix. In SI the "kilogram"
is always a unit of mass, never a unit of weight or force.
time second s The "second" is the base unit, but in practice other time units
are allowable.
electric current ampere A
thermodynamic temperature kelvi'n K Note lower-case k in "kelvin", but cap K for unit symbol. No
degree sign is used with "kelvin".
amount of substance mole mol
luminous intensity candela cd
plane angle radian rad } These angular units are designated by ISO to be dimensionless
solid angle steradian sr with respect to the base quantities. Table 1-2. 81 base and supplementary units.

Additional units obtained fran base and supplementary units with a conversion factor of unity, are called "derived coherent units" - a list of examples is given in Table 1-4.

Table 1-3 lists prefixes for 81 unit symbols used for multiples and sub-multiples. Note that sane 81 prefixes, conflict with those used with practical oilfield units.

For example, 81, "k" and "M" ("kilo" and "mega") correspond to x 1000 and

x 1 000 000, whereas "M" and "~", or "m" and "mn", have been used in the oil industry to designate "thousands" and millions of volume units of gas.

Multipli· SI Prefix SI Prefix Pronounciation
cation for Unit for Unit
Factor Name Symbol (U.S.)
1018 exa E ex' a (as in about)
1015 peta P as in petal
1012 tera T as in terrace
109 giga G jig' a (a as in about)
106 mega M as in megaphone
103 kilo k as in kilowatt
102 hecto h heck'toe
10 deka da deck'a (a as in about)
10-1 deci d as in decimal
10-2 centi c as in centipede
10-3 milli m as in military
10-6 micro !A as in microphone
10-9 nano n nan'oh (an as in ant)
10-12 pico p peek'oh
10-15 femto f fem'toe (fern as in
10-18 atto a as in anatomy 1-4

One inconvenience of the 8I system is that many oormon oilfield quantities, pressure, production rate, penneability etc. must be expressed in unfamiliar unit multiples - which are not yet industry-wide standardized.

For rrore canplete infonnation on use of 8I units in well logging, refer to Technical Revie:.w Vol. 26, No 4.

Table 1-3. 8I unit prefixes.

Unless otherwise noted, practical oilfield units are used in this booklet. Ncrnenclature and a conversion factor table is given in the appendix, chapter 11.



Unit Expressed in Expressed in Terms of
Quantity Unit Name Terms of Other Base- and Supplementary-
Symbol Derived SI Units Unit Symbols
absorred dose (of ionizing gray (replaces the rad) Gy J/kg m2os-2
acceleration, linear meter per second squared m/s2 m 0 S-2
activity (of radionuclides) becquerel (replaces the curie) 8q S-1
angular acceleration radian per second squared rad/s2 rad 0 S-2
angular velocity radian per second rad/s rad 0 S-1
area square meter m2 m2
capacitance (electrical) farad F C/V m - 2 0 kg - 1 0 S4 0 A2
charge (electrical) coulomb C Aos so A
conductance (electrical) siemens* (replaces the mho) S A/V m-2okg-Ios3oA2
conductivity (electrical) siemens per meter S/m m- 30 kg-1 0 S3 0 A2
current density ampere per square meter A/m2 Ao m-2
density (mass) kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 kg 0 m-3
electrcmotive force volt V W/A m2okgos-3oA-1
energy joule* J Nom or W 0 s m20 kg- S-2
entropy joule per kelvin J/K m2okgos-2oK-l
field strength (electrical) volt per meter Vim m 0 kg 0 s - 3 0 A-I
force newton N m 0 kg 0 S-2
frequency hertz Hz S-I
heat capacity joule per kelvin J/K m2okgos-2oK-1
heat, quantity of joule* J m2okgos-2
illuminance lux Ix Im/m2 m-2 0 cd 0 sr
inductance henry H V 0 s/A m2 0 kg 0 s - 2 0 A - 2
(= Wb/A)
luminance candela per square meter cd/m2 cd 0 m-2
luminous flux lumen 1m cd 0 sr
magnetic field strength ampere per meter A/m A 0 m-1
magnetic flux weber Wb Vos m2okgos-2oA-1
magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg 0 S-2 0 A-I
magnetic permeability henry per meter H/m m 0 kg 0 s - 2 0 A - 2
neutron capture cross section per meter (i.e., square meter l/m m2/m3 m-1
per cubic meter)
permittivity farad per meter F/m m-3okg-los4oA2
poten:ial, potential difference volt V W/A m2okgos-3oA-l
power watt W J/s m2okgos-3
pressure pascal* Pa N/m2 m-1 0 kg 0 S-2
quantity of electricity (charge) coulomb C soA
radiant flux watt W J/s m2okgos-3
radiant intensity watt per steradian W/sr m2 0 ~ 0 S-3 0 sr-I
resistance (electrical) ohm Q (cap omega) VIA m2okgos--3oA-2
resistivity (electrical) ohm meter or ohm-meter** Qom m3okgos-3oA-2
specific heat capacity joule per kilogram kelvin J/(kg. K) m2 0 s : 20 K-l
stress pascal* Pa N/m2 m-1 0 kg 0 S-2
thermal conductivity watt per meter kelvin W/(m. K) m 0 kg 0 s - 3 0 K - 1
velociy meter per second m/s m 0 S-I
viscosity, dynamic pascal second or pascal- Pa 0 s N° s/m2 m-1 0 kg 0 S-1
viscosity, kinematic square meter per second m2/s m2os-1
voltage volt V W/A m2okgos-3oA-l
volume cubic meter m3 m3
wave number (cycles) per meter l/m m-1
work joule* J Nom m2 0 kg 0 S-2 "Prorounce "siemens" like "seamen s", pronounce "pascal" to rhyme with "rascal", pronounce "joule" to rhyme with "pool".

"The "ohm meter squared per meter", sometimes used- to designate the resistivity unit in the past, is definitely discarded.

Table 1-4. Examples of SI coherent derived units.


I II.rr.(l"W,~bll! .r:'Dmrn!,~b Mlrowa'lIll Cllmmftllh
1l:~3ntl1)' CD~m!1t Units 10. ;;TJ~' CWiti~ Cllhll'r~lIlt Uillblll1" and
~a Un,tt£ lo~glng i1n!l (l'~'~~~r~1i~m s SI Unit~ logl!lng ~nd Co,nvGr$i~M
I R~ia:li~ IJ(~'~ , IIl~ilail~ ~ UII
AC>C'~IN~1Ion. , mi5~' ml.,sit ] ft/!~ - D ~,8,. mf!.~ [)'~I~~.'Ci)' rn km 1 ml '" ucm 34~" ~m.
Iln~~r (meter per (m,~t,~rt '1 n~u t. lin f - 1,85Z~ kill'
, ~~~~Ild - --
~ql.!aledj [ er~ j J i Btu ~ U155 O~G ~J
mrnl~~ (Ielll~l 11 eV ~e let!tlfOnvDlt -
Pum~lIm;c l.GC1:2 is x 1()-!9 J ""
I "Imll~" '1'0
I (j~1 (g~!) I G~l "" 1~mh2 \G_ons al
T be ":c~r' ~lId umUlip;!1 ,., lil~li1ltwlth
ar ~ ~~~CI ~I ~11l,1 ~ 1l~~dI ill "po~l"
g~Q~ ~ti!:: ~Ild I ""It ~,o= FIa'!'!' 'Ii ~'tll, ~,p,/~ kgl~ 1 tUml ~ "" ClASS 59 kgl s
D !lprCS"5 ~e Jt¢eler~ [~II I laIN ~kl,teiT lim, (" Ihm" I r. "IM.mnd mJ 5$"1
dl!'e Ie Illl11 IIijr D~j scculId)
Uw I n! e r l1"trDn,~J i)' r.,. nil.,.,. ~.~ G. I m~1 ~ ml/. 1 ElP[I- uiss ~8~ mJ/d
C ~p1 ~d ~~hl~ ~j g;n~l~ijjl. 1I1.!~or,;~~nt r~l;loIr.II1~~fir Im~ f 1'111 n ' (For dand~rd cnmditlo"s.
~ I~n ilw~ loll' ~il'tJty i .. , ~~r ~c~ndl 'lIljt~ 3'~~ "G~~~ V!lIWmll" ~II~
9 8~& ss ml~' ;: 1II'Id "'Oilll'o'lulue".)
~~.17~!1IU ·2 , L" ~
1If.11l,~1 'lollul' \'1m ~lIr lfIIitb rort~ I N 1 lib! ~~lOlmd loren) -
I ipillud~, r!~f1~II~~ ~1 'd~r rn~l\Ylo~) 4.448. gZ N
10 und III'~ r ~~~~,~'i'Jclo d~p'i h. l !I-I tL~J~~ l ~r (~il~rN~rn 'tlr~lI~ -
Atll:,I~, i'J~!1~ [",Ii rad 'HB6S,
(!Oldi~111 mr~~ WMF.I: Th! ItI!CI![rJm I~
!mlilir(ldJan) N t~ Ell u~tlll .115 Ii uilil 'Ill
I-U~d - 1'otl;(1 In $.).
(en i~~ 0 rod IfJl1) (i,allll"...J Rl!i~ hpl'lnlt
• [[le~re,~~ 1" - (HUl 1Sl 29 J:3tI Inten~l,t)'
, [Inll~ut~) t;li.I\IS I den , ~~ "II~J I G.a~ ail Ratio ,,"lfm! S,t!!. flll,'I~I~ I '5~r l bb I [~tmil;lmrl ~~1I1~
" t~f.-to~dl degfe«" wilh ~e~im~1 Mlm!rr~J~Q-, ~t ~p~~lflli;d fnQ:JU b<m~i) -
Ilj IUD,SJ re il' !!jlndllrd (U, l175 :dd. Il':lim.l.
Mea 111:!' krn"! tomlitlon<;i !S~ Q C ilS: \,I"1l h.lJII~~j
rs,alj~re h-J (~e{ta~ ~l 1 ~~.- ]0_000 m, = I G,li:! ~Jumi!i 111~' m3 1 ~'f (~l~ rrdard ~ 1I11 ie IQQ'l
rn~IBr) dlll~ l, ~jm.~ (~U~[~ l1let8tl Hot ~p8cdi,l!ld ~I EO' f ~~d IUi5 ps~)-
CIIl~ Ihe "h~~~ ~f~" I ~ ll~~d rw I SHlf!d~ld 2.1117 3~9 x 100 ]I m.~ M
mni~ jM~ !I'In';ut~, (;(lnctltla~5 15"1i and 1 atm ""
, , WUI2.5 ki'~

Cond ueten re s S I Lm!to-l_l'l- I· S ~1f i7(''S~ ,
isi.,men~) I Tr,t:' "b!ti.9'· is fll'plaud III lieUlt il:
OS =-1 AlWI , t~~ "ste :'i1!ens,". Oen~rl"
CO'RrlLI r:thri1} Sl~i'l I Sl'm "mS,' m" re'll';!;t~~ It! '.er" ,I sh~ Jj>~l ft _"" 3.28[1 JHO 1,.$1 In
,~t~f III
rsr~l1'!~n~ mSlll"l "m_1I1~IlII,' m' Om Irn'l}~chtl'n- ~ r,il;ll!.i Hml!. ($~CMd ~mkro~ec-
per meter] ior. wnGu&ll~lI)1" CW l"I'e's per m~tfd Cl'ID par
nellc~ity ~~lmJ ~gII1II~ I I f[[eler.
(~i o'gram M~,iTII_J' L! ;'1: [ Ell;]!: 1
per r.nblc il ,I E:3\'JI-
~nde.) 1 li:m'lIlP - i G,£las ~,p;/m~ eter, -~I':l!J!lO~}
l"lbm" J'S ··p,l;lu.~d Iillil&'~'''~ I 'l,!;j~S Ikg t {rnwic ton l t = 1 Mg b~I!l~agr,~ m I
1 Kr~m> - tOO igllif1~ =
1 M&,1rro~ ~~jlJJ~,r~mJ or ,tollnel' , 1 I brn ~~o i r. ~rwUIIIJ ~r,il S':\
Mg, , i'lV'(lirdu,pnisl -
D~llth.oor:l m ill I' H ~"-10'" . k~ O.~3 ~92 411:g,
lhn:klll) ss, i.c:i '(me:l'~r) lil = O.314:il· m g,
:engt~, ma~r", ~
~~~Jr.:i nl (~nd' ii~ ln C8~:I"
ilwa'SI{)11 tlci.~n Fn~ncfl
dept~l , ·'tonl1~,' ,
- 1iIt'(W f ~[!!r to
Diarnet-at Clf 111 rnm 1 tn.- 2~_·1· ri]_m
i;(ll~" br,t 01 tmeted I 2()OO Ib ton.
,C~$;illg size, 1\t1Jy' ,rF~~6:;rl' ~'l:fI!T1J ~F.ril1l /1 ilbm f U ,S_ ,g31 ""
thlekness, h-~ ~~~O U ilo~rarn ~ef M~fml lHI.:Ill.6 ~ ,1!.Il1m3
mic.f(l~pacjll.~. ll:t:fI!i~l (liIbi~ m.eler} I llbll'llU-Jt g3i =
tMI d i ~mBte. 9.9_7 7B ~J kP.'tm~ ·t~~ct valll~

Table 1-5. Allowable SI uni t.s and ccmVE'.rsions ,.



S,tudy o,r the' l"lat"lIT"C of the earth I ~ Ct\1,S,t and of i 1:5 abi 1 tty 'to ilCc"UmU ,d:~ f)eU'X)l'liium unner preseurc o:::rnst1tt: .ss ,i;ll"l LIlf.Xl-rtoot backgro\U1d far the cl'Ig'.Ln~t;ll"' in ti'lit"l' producing bru.nch of :.he nat.ural g,;JS_ indus ry , Cec.iloJY L:~ats! <;111 phases of th~ earth "s h.istoq J includlng th:~ pr0d9SS~ by

which W\!!I'e' Cl."P.flted. Man Ls fortunate that IDi:U"I.y of me proc"e~s~ es lJ.'lhich pl'""OCluced t.h.e .arth.1 s ,c.'t~t: are at.i.l I in. evic1enoe to pemd t, a, rec'Uw;t.ructi.Q!1 of ~t:lyJd.s;, by whid'l 1lO5t reservoirs \lieffi fot':tfecl.

T.l1ere al.--e several brru'lrnes of geology and of rela:u:d eartn scienu~':=I. T:h.eir naren671~tu:.:e mnkes _.l:"a:xuent 'I.l8e of St,uch ~.t:-ms as g~u - earth,

~)dY'(l - rock.. tiUM.,t' - stone. Md sU£fi~ lik,e l.!,jf! - science or

discourse, {frup"h'!j - description. Phvsical geoklgy is: a study of the processes ~fecting the carthl,5 SI.lrfaae~ such 3..0:;; aci;i.on of wind, ~latcr, icc I <3..J1d a1:J1lqsphere." His: to,rical geolcgy to traoo IJ Ie everlts in the .hi story of t.~ earth" inc_'LldL'l9 the procesees res'ponsib lc forme earth t s crusL The oti.~in of lite and tlh;-e evornt-Ion of plant.: a!ld atLimal foJJ1"l:S arc ~ ncluded. Str;Ul:turaJ geology troats the. methods, by 'Wlndt the :p.::lSi tion and shape 0·£ the 'l"mrious, rne:n-rer,s: of m.e earth' 5 C :\.lSt are. determined, ar"td studies forces which ha,\iiB brOUl'h.taOOut both the surface 0019, subsurface 5,tnKt~-s. 3t:!Wr.1:glY41l'l!!. cowrs the character:t sequence relationship i dis Lriliuti on. I EI)'Kl origin of se r1irren:t:ary zocks ,

Several branches oo.a1wi'tb. theL"€OJI':init.jon of ro.:z:k acoonling to type: and age... I'he 8tUOy' elf rocks to retenui.nethetr dJ..e>racter ,and oonstitution is tel1'ti::i'!(1 t;(tho~ogy. Pauum.wMgy and Irim"~op:&:l~7(ltoloriY classify inIonnatiOi:l on lif€): :in past gcalr-;giC' ~-S ,by sbldies of foosilsand mi.crofosat Ls; MinE{rtl1.ogy~, pr3 t mgn:l!!hy J ~j,d pet,"l~o.l()gy .Cbal vii t.n the physical properties, d', prcper-...iClS.r classification, ,and i'~l'l;tificatioo of minerals or .rocks and! witl-J.. tl1i::ir qenesis,~

Sedil'r1ent.ation is the prOi::ES:s of ~pos,it:Lfl9' .so,li.ds· at the OOtton of a fll.lid~ and the term Ls in irequa'l'lt::use to aesm:il:e .methods of eepo..s:iting Pill"'ticles of :rock fra:'ll ·bcdie.!S of water. reeks are rocks that have been deposited by thi~p.rocess .. , Essen.tially ;all petroleum is '03ntained in . .sedtti:'ental.':y rock, Ga(:i}~y(iF()"towJ,. or gl.uundlo;arex geology ,r ccrr1bines

the principles water- .rrove.mnt. ti.1.LY'Ough porous roodi.a and th~ geol~' o.f the earth.\s crus+ 'With respect, to tha ability of t:hQ various stJ:ata to CU'lduct 'o"lata;r,.

('r60phJiw{:e~ 1.s the 'lPPlicaticID of tlus. p.;;::inciples of :physics to p.rool~ of the earth. The study of itl'.c transmission of shod. waves generated ei.ti1e:r- f1.""011 natUJ:'ct.l ceuses r su:c;h as eact..l-qu.akes, or by ,explosions of dynam1:te is an example. ''!'hE&!' pr.inciples ere \..tllized in the s.e.ismi.c nethcd of seard:rl'l'lg for ~truct'tJtlt."SS. 'f'~r;QfIe,(..tion or clast:.ic. wa:vea

at i:he inl.:erface teb;;een layens of rock Witll diffeJ'Bl'lt physical pmpel.'"'""' U~S permits !..he mappin9 ·of the inrertace.



Ot.hB.r ~th.c.ds of making l:h_ysicall'iieaS~ts at the earth' 5 suzfaoa 1:0 find the .hCitl.1YIT!! .of i.tssUbsul.~ao;l ~1q{ the magne'tic f:lela, l:11€!: gravi ta:tiona 1 Id~, and the '~l'er:;'-aical prcpertie,s of t.he 6arth I principally its electric; resisti_;.ri t:y . These .1l1etho:i..,>;;:;usually dcPJ!nd upon anomalies or irregulari L' es in. the earth, 'I s crust.

00()ah6'.)1'r~~t:l'Y is th.!? application of the ptinc:1:p1es of dlel!:U5,try to the stuliy of 'the earth. '!he search for petroleum by analys-L.i.g soils tor hydrooarbons is COTlSiioo.r;ed a geod1cmimJ ~thO:i,. ''!'he PhY:!I.ical dlemishy of no 1 t,en rock an d the d:lcmistJ:Y of its dis 1 n·i:ation and· J::ccrys r_a 1li zatian arc i nc1'iJ.(_ied.

B. HiswJ;-:'ical GOO1m

Historical goologyt"e'oonstructs the sucoessivcevents in the history of theear th since it was i.n a oolten. condition", GeolO':1ic tima sCilJe8 have men dav:L-ed to indicate periods of during whiCh various layers of the eru:::th I s srn:f ace ~f,c;»:mad. 'l'l-e p:;;;in t a tWhich CClClling of the 'earth I is sur' ace 100. w' water p.recipita"tion mark~tl.l.,l'3 i:;eqirmil19 of the SGdi!:rent..l:t;y PlX'lCClS6eo; in qeological time.

F'gure'2-1 presents, the 'geologic 'I:-'lme scale div1.Clied

tneoe ,as, period..s, and epochs., ttl,e 'crallsi ionwhic.h. hal'\le occured over the approximately 4,500 mUlion years of tl')ie earth I 5 e..xi,stance is dHficu1ttfor personS 'V.'flO i.ndi vidually live less than 100 years and WlO rollecti velYh.ave a :recorded histo,IY of 5 r 000 years;to catJPYel1en:1.

When water condenseQ on the surfaos of the, eeztn, the high areas .~ subje.c.terl

co rain and the low areas were inuniiated. The ~

of wind &1d 'wah:u· to ex!'"" tract. and C1ITy sedil1:entis pril:'n.aril y resp::rulible Ior the.natur~ of the LtIf.edi,ate surfaCe. pf the earth ~ s cruse;

The erosion or nDuntains and. the :filling: of seas, g'O all; continuously _, The OOutrtains v.ould a 11 be v,Qro,,.m and the seas all full of' sediIne:n:t if it '~e not for the changes in eleva,tim

~ upU.fts and. sul:m2Iqence..'3) ofcu'.'eas on theeartb' s surface.

I "']'lJlwlb
Er.l J,',IIW! ~.Itl ~·II,il.,.S
Epot'11 .q,;n i
I Ih,t't'rlf
{,,~'I'lwrll,'I~ PICl~t(H.'I'II;·
CL nn~.m I'rill~'~n(!
J d'r!iM_~ \1 rIJ"'t'IU~
()J it:o~'(;~!lj,.·
~",III'-'II.t_,-f 111(' rie;
I (~I ~"hH l'tIB.": 1.1,;
:\!c· U7:Clil j " •. L"''lI1 ii.- IhO'
. I'ri.n ... h.
1!,:m ,
P~.maL.LH 200
Pl,·f!ll~rl'\·. HI. II :llfl
J ';! J eozo ~t." \1 f>;~I~" ipp .. rn 34.1
D(·~'IJHi.I" 400
.Sllur~;ln It:!,:;
I rtIm .. it·!~1H
C.,lu!U i.m
I (100
r reeaml >i"I.m I I
The -Ph l,.Jhfw > "·:Ir.~ now c~tim~dt,d f(]r
h!:" il~iL' :11 tbt' earth makes ~h4.: l~'ltW!~ of
I niO' PIe"cmHhnun tim!' fill exe Io.:{;d thut
,)f later t!' L~l~. Fiq.2-1 .. Ge9 ogical timE: scale.

2. ... 3

c:eolcqists have ffi:)~ the 'eatlhto .sl'lcw' the present (,R.ltcropS of sedimenbary .rt:c'lCk as well as the [Dsiticm.s of the seas durirq geologic par.toda, The precambrian Eras CO"Ii"f'I the time span flna the t"o.tmation of the earth ~ to appL' 5010 milli0l1 years ago~ The. rcx:ks ,f~"ing these erag ar:e of three characteza.

(1) Ignoous :: Prcducts of ,so1idification of !rolten'ma.terial

(2) M;tarorphic~ Rock that; chan;gnd it..'!3 ch.arac::ter by solution, heat, and pressure

(3) Sooimen:tary; Ccmpo.s;OO, of" the detri t' of pt\liNio'US rock

Ct1m'lQ_n w~ as of igneous rook are grant"t:e ,r which has solidified slo;vly within the earth"s, and J.a:'i;~, \o,~hiGh s:olidlfLes TElpidly on t.:l1e surface"~ Schist. and. gneiss were folJl'Erl by nl'i€ItaIrOl'"-phic p o::::eSSQS "that occur wi 1:11 heat., pressure ~ 'I:Jme. sedllnEmtary.l"ClCks include sandabOoo~ ~gtone, dolCliltl.I:e, ,ood s:l:lal.e ~

The C~mbrlan per1,oo 16 the fk£lt inwhlch t.he soolrnents show evidence of life such. as marine foos,iles. Oil and gas a.:reprcduced f1:'iLll1 deposits .nBng'ing ttl age fJ:Or. ~ly C!!;lmbri~n through we: Pli~ ,e]?Cd:1 of the 'lI'ertiar!{, a ~of 500 million years.


C _ Structure of the ear-J:l

The internal structure ·af the lea..rtb .i.~ re\;~aled tq analysis of ,earthquake ",aves as tl:'lsy are reflected and. l"'efrac..ted by ooncentric liilyers of Ma"!:.erial vlitll diff~ring der1!sity and. tlg.i.di.ty.

rll~ carat extending to at radius of 2.200 mi.les f.ran :thia. [oenter 'of the earNlt; .is catp:).soo of nickel-j~ron w1t11 an averag,e O'€!1'L5ity of 1'0 .• ,7 grn/cc .. 'l'he inner oore is solid while the outer core is liqudCl,.

surrOWlding 'the core is an 1300' mile tl'uck mantel largely ~ of iron

silicates r.llhose dens1.ty, averaging 4. I) qrn/oc ,vaAes with aepth", The

I£IaIlt:el is plastic exCP-pt for '!.:he cuter 400 miles 0.1" .so Whi.!th is SOlid,.

Th~ crus t orr Ii thospl1ere , Quq:o.SM of the nore conron vax; ~ty of t'OC'xJiL; varfes in 'tl"Ltckness f,ri':;rn, about 25 mileg under tl'he contin;en,'t:£; to 7 miles ~!;l:tb.

the ocean ba.gins.,

1he crust, is of insignIficant titicitnes3 'When COipa.rEd to t:h~ com and mal1.WJ.. T'· can£!isLB of.

(~) .1\ basaltic l~er ove.;rlym9 and flo~tin9 on the rMntel. It 'l rich in lin:re r iron ,and ~JtI!;$.i~, with achnsity of 2. 9g/ce~

(b) A second ll9hte~ g:nmitic la~2J[I' dch. in sU~Ga and ~,.lka.ll@s of 2 - 79/cc eens11:y" l'e;lting Cin. tlle biiS.a1ti(: 1.lYE!t' and fonning t.l'l€:

Ct".1l"ltinents _,

201 miles iD>'eroge 'lh1d::r~s


~--V~loc,ty ...

Imiles P<'rSol!wruil

C~(n~II~~ h~m L. Kno~oi. ·~"d c't~r ·!i!,1IJn;~~

Fig + 2.- 2. ~ross section the e.:'.I.rth Frcnl ~aL'"S r lJhe Cbanging Ea...,rt.!1

Fig. 2-::'. Detail structure of crust UOO'I lP3rt:hqu,ake wave analysi,s Fnn Pears, 'Ihe Changing F.arth


I_~ I ~

Fig •. 2~4. ~d1I.mism of ted::..--m.ic platEmuvenrents l'''ran ~ars '!!IThe· ChMgihgEarth"

IJri'VClCl by {jensitjr (Ufferonoos d~ to lJl"i~].ual hoating, eonvect.Lon curzenbs et.rcul.ate in the plastic l"I'lan.tcL

lIplifti.l19 ll1Cl.yrna hreak.s th.J.''C''~JJg'h the Cl.)"s tal lay,cr forcing a ri ft into 'wh.idl the i..'JI?o'lelling material solidifies as it. sur-faoes.1 beocming a Il1Iifi..ocean rJdge.


As rk.~ material Ls Of' added at the rift" the crust, spreads~ ana. the cont.i.ll8n tal land masses are ra...fted apart"

OorrtJressianal forces caused by laU'ral plate i.tiQ';ment...s cause thickening and folding of the c:::rust mtil faulti:ng 'OCClLrs ,. and one plate overrtces the oti1eT, drlving it back into the marital To·mere it is r:ereired.

I tis, no..l gel"lerillly aC03pted that tlrl s redlaniSill caused tl':l'iE!! bre·ak up of the OOlltin.e:nt:.s fruil aSir"lgle land ID'l.a:SS 200 rriillioo_ yeat"S ago.




Fig. 2-5 . Break-up of the ContinMt..·;;; - Fra:n Scientific .i'IXtla.dc::an




~chani'oa.l fo.rccs act. to break oo..m. gnless an,a gr0nite frau booloom to ,ccbblefd, p:!bblcs r gravel,. anil siMllel" .01CIl' ', .. Jeamer-lng trm':lsfo~ feldspat-s Irrro clays" releasing quartz gr:nins, ow·tid"'!. lJ;eo::nre sand. The great abul)c1.ance of:' quartz sand is due 1,:.0 the fact tnat .quartz yralns are , durab.13,.

,sands m'"e ~ of feldspar and cari)Ql:l:< particles - the: liJl~ coral reef sand shosn bela", is me s~ fo:on.

Fig. 2~ 7. sana -Fran K1.El:'l.eD.-S ct,cr.l;'ti fie

-- -- ---=~-==~""'I

D.. C;:lassif1oatiCln of ~,

- ignaooo

- sediuentary

- netam::ll.'Ffiic

1) Igneous roCks· ocrI'p:ci8~ 95% Clf tne earth 1,6 crust. fuey' originate f.ratt the solidification of molten rmterial e.rnal1ating f.rou be,lawl.:il:e earth 1 s surface.

. ..J


... '




Volcanic igneous, .~ are oft__en glassy intextl.rre as rapid COOling 'of rriagma does not. aJ. .CM tJ)re for the rolJ1iation of crys tals.

Plutcnic: i.gneous ~ are fo~ in sla~'r oocling 1.nb."US·ive rttagrnaS wh1dl'S the ti.Ire n~ for thie. ata'l1~ to arrange ves into a. crystaline gram. st.ruecure .

lUmost (9.5%} 9£ granitic ~ are plutcnic (C'relSTAW.f.IE texture.) 'rile size of :tho:;: grains i5 OOiltrol1ed c<y- the oooling rate I the largest grairis

CQ.rmsptmding 'be s 1~ t. O'.)::).lli;g rates. .

Gt"ani.te~ is ~ lip of three principalmatexial$ in ~ly equal, ~tio.ns ; q~z (SiO,2) r (Na M Si30a) ,001d pOtassium feld$p~ (K III 5:i308) •

2) SediImntaty .ro.::t"-s

SeLTI.roentary rod:s are forrreo: frCIil tb,r; mat:eri~ 'Of ol&r up-lifted fo.tmabcns ",biro have been: m:ckQ"1 ~ by erosion. and transJ;lOrlled. by wind iUld water to l~r elevaticnsl' ~h~re they am deposi.ted ..


The 91:" atn size of quartz S'5IllC] Ls ~~teJ.,:rnLrlEKa. diJrlng the c::ry.stallization prO(lSS5 byt:he rate 6f magma, ccoli:ng in,to grr'anite.

The grains are romded .off to ~ eK~nt by rolling l::.Eo:fdre the 'Wind ,and polished ·durin::l ttansport. by .JX!lil1ing Qif in g~~ and rl Vlai:'ri to t.tJ.epqint qf depos,ilicn.,

COI);!;;;,olldatiqn 'of sands, silts rpebbles ~md clay,s by the preSGu:!:'e of many tllOusanc"ls of feet 01' Q\>1'edyingsediJre:nts, .a:nd ~t.a.tion by ptlfl:clpi tabes fran percolating waters tt(.;:.t tQoonwrt theE'S !naterial:s in.tQ ~,OOd.stor:!eE' ,siltstones, and cC1;tqla:re~ates.

S.edirmflt,ary ro~may ~ .c1cl$sifiEd In.t.o bto qroups ~ . d~tic (the rocks Of detrital ortg"in. pll.'e'v1oooly ~':JttiQnedl) and nooc:l,as ti c ..

SediJranb3 whid1. ~ of biochemical or ~ca1 pvacipitate origin are noncJ_,astic.,




-------- ---------

PEBBLES - 2 TO 6~ 111m

Sj'~ND .. 006 TO 2 mm




- -













-.003 TO .06 rmn

- LESS THAN .003 mrn






- rt - Ca co:] DOLONIT£ - Ca.~ (COs) 2.



- Ita C~

~ Q! S04 .2H20 - Si02



The C~te5, l.i:Irestonel oolcmiteand chalk. 'a:nvris:e about 20% of all 8erli:Et~n:1;ary rocks.

~"l:tmel cc:n:pos.ed. mru.nly of thendneral, collci:be' (CcCOJ) roil!Y' b! OClrlOEmb;ateo_ by an accurnulaticn Of t.he. shells aud skele~ of rnari!:Ic animals direct prec'ipi tatiOn fron mineral saturated wateI'S. In 'e' ther ease the catbana:te iJans wru..-e Clissol \:e.G fl."Om olOOr' fQa:::mati,ous: bypass·ing waters.,

Precipi tated a,C'CUmUlaticns occur' in la}\!e botfu-m and in shalla.! seas where m.ineral-lamn waters are ooolOO,i' oo.c:reasing the oolubi.1i'ty. .Pine, ['ODII and f;;llll too bottom whet-e th,e.t;eds are carpacted by the ~igh.t of over~~ing s~ts ~ and with time 'crystal q~rth may ,continue ~ fOlllling oonse consaHdalea n::ld'<9.

Dolaniba is t.l1e doubleca:tbona'te ofcalctum and. magnesiLlltl... When oollroltit.(';:I;.:ion (1:J'\e oonve~ion fl."'CflllilTeSb;::lne by rnpla(lem~l1t ,of ealemm by magnesium) 00ctU"'..5, a s.b.rinkag""e of the n~ is ol:ise~>d"

Ma:lX' x pores U:ioo ".lind peImlFi.~ill ties of ~tc ro:ks ar.-etyplca11y lew. While fonnati'Dn of pi ts, V1..1g!ii i 'cl:ianne h! and other cavi ,ties dd eo I:he ~ wrage Q2Ipilcity, nos'l:. ptoH.fic hydroceu:lOC:n carbenates aze highly fractured.

Chalk b d ~oft fODn of ~tone 'rIDid1 has high parosi 'I:y and. lo,;,r pe~abi 1.'i. ty ~

Cal~o1JS. sands tone~ m:e' fOJr:rl'leil by waveacti'CTl1 b:r:re ilki ng eoraroc Glw.11 into sa:neJ-sl:zad pill"ticlas ~u_d1 arc s,ubs;cq~ntly re-cenented.


Th!;'l ,eWlpOti'res incluce ~ s,al t I arih'ldrite I and 'm'pSLm'l, all of which are precipitated by the evaporation. Q[ wabar.

HatarnD1..l£i'ltic rolXS I the "thLrd ~I.eti,c group of ~, are fonred fran other sed:iIfeltary 'deposits by aJJ:aration Ul'!:da,r gmat heat and/or pressure,

-maxble:1is me:~!_-ihiz:ed .li.!i!eStooe

- homfeld, is a::::nw:rtedfrort shale or t,uff

- grdess, with. a text1..l:l::e and 9"~ition simil,arbo g:r:ani t.e. but, is me.t.arrol:phic-

ally ,cPusQ,lidat.,.c·cl.

Oil and gas are nort1l.lSually .fowdin or rnet:;;:m;orphi c rocks es both are so non-porous thath:yd:rO"~s. .cen not aCOJHOJlateor be 'eattacted fran them, The- feW exceptions are \.;rem oil'and gas have seeped frcm near-by sed:iJn;;n~

• folJIlat1oos through crad:::s or fract~s Irrto theIl~.




HBrtll'l~n SpeciHQ G f{h' i ty MINeRAL

cr~rni{;,,! CompMitiol'1


CI.EAVAGf: a-J'i:! h~ti'Il'i'l~·1.


I rt ~ .-I~.:r" ~tl'liIrrU~ lIT! p-\J11I' f' in~, 1'." ~,r~ hll1C~ ~t~.

r., y','1 nh ii1 e 1~~ t,l~~g and ~I~c ifan,ie ,""I'll r. !1tu:1I0, qua; r~

(Jill I I!::! 1 i(!n5(!~' &. prhms !{Ifl nti'(l';'l g!~~~

II ~ 6 ~'I'I~,O· 1! e,'l.9 Fifo U)SPA,R


f,c'rj!llln: rl:ltli~\'um C~i'!;:lu 11'\ A lumirll rrr; ~MMII'~

L i1)1llf "k'~t~' .. .i'I~ (lIn • 9"~y, ~rt In

G'i~t~1 mn tI f !'!.III: ilfU'1Hl11 '!}i Ufnfnlo;il

l1" 2,,1.25 £1'1,\1" 2.7r.·3 "'!l~A

C(.lInpj~~; r ~fI~'LlIIJlIi AllIl'limml,lrQI1, MII\llw~i!,jm ~1I!c'ft,I~

Cll'lIl,wh.!11J'I c.rovm. III ~il", p,.(p!~

I'.arallal. lI:)Cc.e'IIJ~nr OI1~' 111,:~~:I'IJM

I r. ~I ee 1,~eGI jind rl~!l;tF1Jfl1c I!iqW I r'l1'f01'i'1l He-"t'11fOgf wi fld~

i'I K ~,6 Sr).G m 211·;3/1

110 R NIB LEN n~ r'!\MPI~111:10I..e GnOUrl C(]mplc:':': r!lJI~ nlum MiigflP.;til.l!lfl, A I,~ 111 r '''lUll' sod ium !,n~mW5, 1 fOil'

CI, n. i 1.1Cl"'I

S-Gme '!,,!_'mut m<!m~r, f)! 3lT1QIl,bol e jli'1lIJP LJKd ,la.iU~U()~

~.~ a !J.(} SfJ.G - :;q.~ 3.6 LI,IJUI T E

If'YI'lDX[;<. GF10UP~ ·(jeneral_1:y lik,.· hombl'~~

@ r .


• I

I .. J"


U~8HV 0{I10ird~~ or ~!o<hite,(,W~et ~j"'I'~ <Ol'l'lJrTl,b.l1

QpttC31 :P.rlm1~ [tri!r\Sjjarent (fl;'s,t;al$1 ~a"g.~ fi'n-dCt,; ~icr~~!5i

I.J ~ 1 2.5 Sp,G -2·2;6 CLAY


CQmp!e~: ,A1U'lli'lUf1lI ,iUcatl:~ combTl'led wl~h wam,t



PutI': 'l'ittitEi

If<l1:rUfr" ·~..ddi! 'r'g:n~ tlfeolo«

8rick·~ Pottery. ell in~. Orilling my·d P~pe'IHek1

Fig. 2-10.

Sli..IIIDEiJ."Y' chart ·af Si,eneral p.~tie~of sar!i8 of the COimt.:lnest rode- fomti..ngmine:.rals: - FrQiIl ~1;\L-rt II' The Cnang'iIlIj Earth.



I Apf.I·!;lw,elm:t A'..-er;g,e ,I ~. 'y·R0'i Appgrellt
;. M!.N'IU(tl,l, CQMI"05m-ON IL""EJ (GNf! Oefle-c1,IOIn KjQ%
~ .. ID111111,ily p.", ,!AfiUl
~~ I
iw cl:ltEl'~· 'CoCOl 2.7'11:1 41_~ rJ "
o'S!' O~I!)lfIfI,~ C"'Mi!(COJh :I:.H7li d:l..5 -4, 0
Quart:!: SiOj ';U:lr • .i!-6c !I~.~ -4 0
t~ l!p;ni!'j;l~tl{! (c-n-, ... 'h~Jl ¢ - ]I(!%~ ~.5~O 6:l' 10 5.1(') 0
s Ol)lomi1;; (,"_1"' .. 1. .... -#;-1;)%1 J.~J sa 13_.j IO"~O 0
~i Samhl'oil.:!' (".[ll., ... ""n, ~ - !O%I JAilS {oS.J 3 0
!o 5hgl~ u·;us 7Q.·l;SO 25·60 J'iO-l'40, 'l.HI
... I Hi'll II., NoG '2.03'2 67 0 (J
-:.~ i\l1h;ydrilt" QSQ- •. 2.m 50 0 I)
~a °YI"'1(111 C~:iiO·.· :lH,Q :U.'ll ss.s .oi9 o
.", ~ TtDn!:> N~.CO •.• Nul":(O, • 2 t'I~O 2.l00 ~\~ ao 0
. ~ Sfl~11" I(CI 1.~ 7<i 0 -'00 ~;HI
~ 5: Cg,.noilitto KCL' M~[II '~HIO U"{O 73 ~ ':lUQ lUI
'" LQ'nilb~li'i It(. tt.50 .•. 2M~!>·O. ~ 1110 S1 g V~ n./i
i Polyhl'llil'o I~.SQ'., • MWSGI'. '. ::KoSO" • 1H~O 1_790 57.l!i U lilA) 'IS,:=i
kolf'lIh:: MeSO.,· Itel 'llrt~O ?l:!O 45 22.'1 111.9
Sv'lfwr' .' UlO 1'.Il';i.lJ <?ns . .:s"') 0
'" ,
~~ ~rgl_i.l'", (1,7·1.5 H~·170 1~ -I)
i!!'7., BilujjiinQu~ C:;""I U,1.3 ll(J-U,O IJ)!"~ I)
o~ l~~~
Mlhr'tltfi~~ £:_1 1.J,-l:.iB .0 0
. j)~1 .'\.p:J:airffll Umtlft'Dt J'Qr~J'1:1 f.~IL"'Iil.!l .Ii N~.JUOUb l..u..
i,1ii ~ ... r'r"'.I'''I'~ 0 2-11

.MaLiY hypothes,ag ccnceming the oug,m of' oil (and/or gas) have been advanced .0VIai: the years., Cu:rre."ltly ~ th:e: nos t fa'l.o' (.!rte is that. oi li~ EO:01ed frem .Phytcpl~<t!on (tiny floating plants). all.d to a lesser degree. from Al.gae and ForaTtdni.fura., Tne...qe die, fall tome botb::J:tls of seas and Llkes, and fOnll oozes rim .ino.rrgani c mar.ter::!..aL They.are nos t abundant in 'near-shore areas t where ;l:'i vers Carl'Y off nutrients from the Lend masses, These. aJ."'eas are alSo the l-egi.ODS of" gl.-eatest seOiJrentati.on •.

If such oozes are overlain. by f:oog,~ts ~"1d am at socha dapth th.a;t anaf'.lrOOic bacteria can. li\'e in them I busily nmo-ve' oxygen, ni.'trc.qen ~ phosphr.Jrus I <~d s,ulfur fran the ooZes, leaving them, richer in hydrCgen an.d:ciu:bal. It i s: irI'POrtarrt~~at;t.1:le' u:pther oozes ru:eat a oopth in the water l::lel~ zero 'OX¥gc.--n le\1'Icl; ~rwi.Se not only' the .souroe material but the petroleum, i~-lf Ls da,s~ed by rud.datian.

,As dgposi.Uon ci£ sediJren:t:s PI'Q3·:rease:::, ICEpendirq 'upon Wilber" wlccitiesl the fine sedinrents will le Q,l€'rlain by cosrser ones I 'l(mchi· in turn are overl<till by finest etc~ Eventually th~ oil is ~zed fran the ooze£! into ~ porous reservcd.r materl,a 15· •

E. ~e. -ortqill and habit:at: of oil


Until about 20' yean; ago it wa.'3 COlffiDlly believed the source mater:iaJi.s had to be de-' posited i.n a m;u:ine enViraiJT"e[lt (seas; oceans) _But lake

sedinents can be just. as premising as S.€Hrfloor sedliIn;nts, pI'Q'V"i~ the c1ep 1:11.9 am tl9I .. ~t. Many 0.11 fields in various parts of ·the W'O,rlc1 aL"t:! producing fran ancient lake beds.

M:lst of world I 5 .larger oil reSlaI"VOi l5l are found on the. oontir.len:tal she 1 VIeS of an cieni; seas, h~r.

Fig'", 2.-12. SOIJrOOS of urganic iooter a.

PrOl1l Cia :k .~ Elenents of Petroll1H.JrI Feservoirs ~

Fig. 2-13. Off~ process - reds f,~ed by retreating sea or land. ~.ergrng. (regresSl.Qn)

p~\'El'noSE 10 ~I)HORE

P 'i g. 2'-14. Ol'll2!p' pzocess-beda fQ.l.'!'llOOby advancin<l sea or subir~rging' shoreline. (tral1Sgre.ssion)



Petroleum depos,it:.s:liA1'ill 00 fic:urrrl c,wy in those areas where gealogiccal cordi lians, canbinebo form an.di tra,p ths"liI!,

'Hydroca:t:"rons, J; le5~ dense than ,Wter,~ wigr~b2 ~ fr::m [he source , • beds until they escape at S-1IJl"f'ace,~ or ,anlm.l..:erv~OUB barrl.e.r: l.S encountered ••

Oil and gas, acclJrrulates in partially sea.led structures by e..~lli...rq 'water fL'ttR tJ19 po'rous rock. %at part of the 'tnIp wen contains hydrocaroons is cal.Ied the reservoir.

Gener;;fily watf'.r W'lderljJ~'8 the ~ in at.rap. M 9:!Uife.r i£i ~ watlf'~ beari..n; :funlmtiOll,'i"lhich is hydra'Ulically co.n.n~cl:.oo to the P?.servoir..

Both oil and gOiis ar~ fornOO to:;J'elh& in 'Iltu:ying proportions in the scuree be;js and a gas cap is often found al::o\.-e 'the oil int:1l€ r~ir. Tr~ps do at tiltcsact to segregrtlte oil and gas ""mch ~I:ie. m::rned. tog,eth~ 50 that. t11SY sccumu 1 ~te in (llif'erent reserrvo,irs.

The principal c assificat:iorn:s of ~t::rolEtJfr""res~il-fomt11'\Sf tr~l-')S ID:@. as f 0110,.15 •

Da~e5 and Anticlines are rQ:t"TiT19d by' up,lif ling ancI foldin3r of the stxata, When \i.i~ fron ~'iJ,e t.h.e clt:m; is cirCt:llar in shape" 'whereas the alnJ:icline is an elongatOO fold.

Fig. 2-'15.Drn1lS structU!l:'ie. Oil and. gas migrate ~d from., source beds until trappe:i by the iIupe:oneabLe cap rock.

I~L:.::y_;:~ '8'lLD

Fig. 2-16. Oil ~ gas accumulati'On in an anticline.


BaH:. ~5 and Plug Strilcb:l..~S

This (onronll" OC'CUrriIlJ" <]e:Jlogiml si:.nlctu:re is catlSed by the intrus,-, ion frQlt below of a sal tma..-;;g ~ vOlcW.e ~t,erial, or serpentdne, In pushing up or pierclllsr throlJ!]h the overl yiJ:g's us. ta the i..ntrLlsiion may cause th.e formation of niLmerous 'traps, in which p~:t;rQ,leurn may

- accurnl.llate.

Scructure A~soc1a:tcd. 'with Faulting\l'OU's may be. fo~ alOl:lg' the fault p]i:tne lJ!nwe the shearin;r ,acti,O);~ has caused an irIiq::e:rm;ab Ie beG to, bloc:k the migration ,of oil an::1. gas thrpugh a pex.neable. bed,


St,:t1.Icl;:ure with Dno;),p.fO:rnti.:tv

This type of structure can be formed wTIGrc mo're rec;;ent beds QO'''''~ older, .inclined focmaf'i ons tha.t h.ave been planed off by erasi.oo,.

A reservoir may ICe feTIred v.ihera oil curl gas: is ttappad by an ,jJnpermeable. overlyiD;3 .layer~.

I I ~ 't ... II' ~

_. ~~'''~'I-~ ~ I

, ,. I L I .. f- ... ... iI +

I. .. L +- .L. .- 4. .L. .......

Pig ,. 2-'17" Hydrocarb::m ~caJmUlation tlSsoeiaW with iii pier~t sal t dc::roe.

Fig" 2-1 s,. Trap f'Q~ l~y a f,auit.

ng., 2:-19" Oil an.1 gas trapped. uoder an. unronfocmi ty.

J _l

Oil and gas mary accurnula.te in pocJo:;etsaf ~rous ~l@ beds, or traps f~. by pindlouts of t:J)e J?CIrous J:e:15 i .,..d thin an ~klble ]:00,.

Lens~type reservoirs are formed where sand Wals depo,si. ted along an irregular co~t,li~ or by' filli~ in an ancient. river bed or delta. Similel:r Pl"'OdlH: .. -tiw zones OOCW:iJ"l various, poreua sections in, thick ~aible l:i:me.9toM OCrls.

Pinch-outs mary OCC'UX neCi til 00913 of a ~in 'il' tlle sard pxogressi vely Ii slmes out"ll$, the edg of tb.~ basin j B ~Wrosched.., Inri vex-de,POSi ~ 00 sana. r shale-out frequently OCCtJrs \.nthin a, fe:-I hunir8cll. feet.



.F.ig:~ 2-20. Upper .l:.o:.tn1s of the r'e~nroJr fo.:r::me=l W chao:re in ~bility of a sand,



G. S' mapping

Po, StrUCblra .. , ~ is ag-Lib-osurraoo ccntom:: l'IiiIap made b'j' connecting points of equal, ,elevations. In t.l:)e eg,',':amp1s balOllf, corrtoura ClX'efran seismic dal:a and rorresp:?D.'l to tlle tCJ;! of the cap I'tlCl.;; '.

An i..sopM,dheou.s map s~ the contours of ths inner surface of the cap rode: 'tIJitJ'l egua1 thiclcnessesof pay~ Gem~rally' the zero is taken at: the oi17 water ccntact , .:Lo<is and sei.~c Il'IapS amy be used 1:.0 prepare. early isopach maps,. with increasing d~enc;e on 1O':J data as the .fi,e1d is OOve.loped.

i I ~

- fl:ocm sutssic ~U'fl~ "Y'S~



O~~TH5 SUB ~E~ I


3991'1 -----;_--.l-_".

4000 401 U ----+---,---..-f'

4OtD- 4il30





(pi@.! LOt",s I 5tfPPU1'[ lITO IlY ~E [S,I'UC CUrIIHlIJR ANI) [H tiU i [fOR.'¥!TIW)


1 • ~ Nor:n:al Pressures

Hycb:oca.rbon aC':c:u; occur in p::trtially sealed. structurM TAh,~ the UI:ward migration, of oil arrl .gas f.)!;)Qm the source [)$.'is is blccked by an iIl;pel.'Treable barrier .. ,

As hydrocarbOn .1COimLulat:e.s, f'ont"ntio..n ~tcr is expell,erl :E:roT! the. porous resel..-voi:r; rock,

,.1 tlr, L :?llr~"l;IU r;~AnmH L .~JJ TO .S p~~frT

(n::.r~H ~IATtR,JI]~ F'Sl/rr)

LiHA!l [~t'iT ! N \iiI'S COL UMN

'\ ~~. IJ ' y~'~ L4~l p~l/rl

----------~~~~~~~~\~ .... ~

" \

" G!l.MH C~ IN OIL CiJLUr~r~

\. 'sp. .I1f' _ 0 l X XI:l Il~ 1111.


Fig. 2-22. J"No:rmalH pressure distribution fran surface throug"t1. a reservoi.r stnlCture.

Unless ·sub,seqLlGnt. tectonic m:::.venents o.:mple'"lI .. el Y' seal the ra.~""'"V'Pir, t:he urd.erlying W'ctl:",ersa...reoon~;and pr,es;~J!",es-·.in the ,aquifer will app:ro.xi1rG.te to serna .loatl o;r regi.onal hydrostatic 'g'r,adi.ent. Tha.t is in: a water oolurmi, tt>£ prees-~ at. al1?t' deprLll. .. is .approxim;;!.t,ed by :

'Wh.eLe.~ h r is the cLPpth,

Gv; i,s·the pressure gradient,.


Although ground waters are sal.ine, teIIperat1J.res increasing With depth ten:l to reduce the water dens:1ty Cl!ll.d: a ccrt1'I'O:-j, I'lnonual"1i value of Gr;o,r is A33psi/ft (.1 kg/cm2JrnJ I which is approxi.~tely a. fresh water gradien't.

Grooients,within the range .. 43 to . .5 psi/ft are co.nsid::!red normal.,

Pressure at the 'top of a hyd::rocarl::ofl.l tearing str"act~, higher than t.he hyelros,ta,t.ic gradient. extrapolaW frr.:m the hydJcoc:ar.bon/water contact, is expected because of tbe lOili1er density Of hydrocarbon ,~aroo wi +h water. Even in th.ick. gLl.S bearing" zones this ~situ;;;l; dces wi: leaCloo' dongEiJ:Qusly aouatma1 pressures ,

UOOm.- depositional rondi tions I' or ~LIS€l of earthJIOVell'ent.s wl:lidh. erose the reliervo1l" struct1..tre'1' fluid p.~es..sW'es may depart. sUbstantially frcm tl')!;l; l'lOl"Wal ran,ge"

Abnol:mal prI25.t;;ure~ can oocur ",d f! ~ part; Of the overburden load is t.rans~ .mitted to the formation flUids. JI.bnCl11flal ~n]essur,F.!s cort"-esp:nding '00 gradicl"rts ef .8 psi/ft: to ,,91 psi/t't ,and "the geostatic: gracti e:n1::. (g'eneraUy 'taken as app!:'O:x.llMte1:y equtva....lcn.t to 't , 0 pfii/ft.) may oecaaton Lily 00 en,oounter;ed, arrl can J.:::e ccn"lsicbl'oo. dangero1..l:S1y high.

Rese;tvOir~ature..o;;: wi· cartfo:nn to the regiofLill or local geothe:onal gradient, a. nanna.1 value b@_ing' ·1 ,.60 F /100 .ft.

BeO"l.USe Qf the large thennal capacity of the rockmatzdx which o:mprises in the order of 80% .of the hl)1k res,ervoirvnltma ard ,the vay l.arge area. for heat transfer, rondi tloos '~ri thin the reservoir ~y be cons idered i.rothBl:II1il.l in ,Ilost cases.

'2..5000' ,Il::
~.,(llJ'O ~
!.,5,[!O ...
4,O()o 10
~.~QQ ...




A. C1Msification of 0&1 and gas

What. are oil and gas? - PeUO:leun conai.s s predcminently of paraffin series (Cn lIm-!-Z) h(1drocE!.!rbr;:ms w:ith. JcosSi9r quant..i t::.ies of cycllc l1j>urocarbo119 napht1-mlenes (c;" HlnJi and arcmatios <CTI H2n-6)nw~ tcq1et:her in varying p;roparl:j,ClI'lS '"


Gl C2 C3 C4 C5 C6+
,g .os .03 .01 .01 .01
,,75 ,.0& .04 .03 0' .08
. ...
.6-.65 .08 .05 .04 .03 .2- .15
,,44 ,.04 .04 ,.Q3 .02 .43 'l'he chart bcl~ cla$sifie-s resa'"VO,irhydt"'OC8J':'bofls into catsgr·~$ giving "mges for ~.i tion~, gravity r and CDR. I;


'Ibe:r-o aro 110 definatc ~'k a UOM betw:een the 'Cc"ltegaries r Which ·often 'vary 1n def--nit.ion according to local usa;Je. In g'lMeral ._oils contai' aJl:l,.q.heJ:

.E' 'action of heayy nolecules, i,ohlle at, t.lle otl\& e:nc~ Of" the scale # roethan

~, OOleY light 11'0 leculea_;rn:e:;:1Qni nate in g~S.eti I







co (no l' iqul d)

la/lOa MCF 50° - 70°

5 TO 11 OO~tCF/B, so" - 7Do

3000 CF /6 4'00. - 50°

5) BLACK 0 IL Q,R 1010-2500' CF!S, 30° - 40e



,0 o

20° - 25'0 lifo

6} liEAVY DEl.


.20-.03 .02 .02 .02 .75 .90,

C!assifi.cation of oil

Crude oil c11aRiBtxy is quite. ~1~ and a -qrp.ic:al crude may contain several th01.lSal:"rl differet'J:t ~ds J::e_.clniY--=-"'{'j to 18 dU'ferent hydrc:carbOn series.

A o:IfiPlet:e chanical ana.l,ysiB Q.f .Cfl]de oils r in. te.pns of ~ present; is 'a diff,iC!1tlt_,i_f not irrrpo~sible task ,an<l, les-s 'ctlI1ipleoo types of analyses (e, g _ by 'the IlIllOunts of lumq;:ed eli3OO:l-1ts on,lser:tl:.) are often not useful, for detenuining j_ts physical Characteristics.

D:if_ficu I-ty in classifying o.ils .by thG cheIiI1JLcal CC1'L'"lpOSi lion of consti t- 1lr!mts has led towioospread use of' sinqJlerr less tectJ..mcal classifieaticms·.

Or.e classifH:;.ation .-..ddely utSOO distingu..i..Shes between i'paraffin base" and

II aspMl t~bagetl oils. In the font'ier E meparaffi.ns pred.cminat.e,and such an. oil, wilel1. C!001ed 1::0 lOi.-J':taDpe..ra.t:ures, y:ields an, ,appreciable amJunt of lightrolo;re.d 'i'.!aN- that is not readily attaCked by ~cidsor diiSsolved by ether"

ChloroforJil'l; carbOn bisulfide. . .

AsphaH:ic oils after slew dis'tillation yi'eld a lustrous" ,001" d residue, usually jet. bl.ev;k in oolorJ ",tuc'll, exhibits oon.choidal. fracibure ,am.'i;m.ichdissolve'S in

i:he pr~vioU51y me.ntione::i sOJ v'f>..:nts .,

The distincti.on beb.'een paraffin~base and asp'+u:lll:-base oils serves only as a broad cl.a..:;si:fi cation.. l'bSt as!;tlalUc oi ls .oantain traces ,of solidpa:r:a£f' in,s r. and rrost; paraffin oils w:ill produCl!! sore asphaltic residue. Sure Oils, said to be of ilmixE:cl base fl' r reslxmdi to the two te.s'r..s .:ib:Jve in ~ degra;:.

Often ·till1liliS the Ol'lly classifiC\ttiOJil n'!iade on crurr oils is by "1;g gpe.cific gravity, a proced.w.!a \!(ihiCh has the advantage of baing lea..s:;to ~asure using a float.

~ hy~cireter. -


Na:tural g"&S typically CQhSi,!llts of .6 to .," !:t'f:!that!£l 'Wi tJ:\ the r~ rr.adeup I ·r.:imar'.11y of th~ heavier g~hydrOC..tll;-txmg C2,j' C)t Cll. .a:rn:1 C5. Ex.:cep:Uunally ,nal'_ural gases b~ Ccen fOiJOO to contain as lit.tle as 7~n:e111ane. *

Nitrogen, car1,:on dioxide I ~cn sUlfide" aJ'ld heliLJ:u whr-'..n present il1,Sffiilll amDUn.t'i! 1:'U"Eli consd.dered asimpllITi ties. Ha.JeV<e.r,~ when. presen t. in sui ficien:tly quantities, H2-S and Fli?- :may be C)",:ploitRd o:Drrelf.:cially" N'2 aOO CO2 do no' oonttilllte to the heat. val.veof th~ gag and if present in large2IIOClunts l' the gas TflI'3ly not bum. CD2 and H~ wit.1:l If.1"d.ter ,are corrosive and cause ertIDl:'ittlcmant of ferro1...l1S ma:~r' ,ru, while tile lattru: is a high! y r-lJAioooous gas.

Chemical analysis of gases and ",nlatile h~ drocarbons , til) '[;0 C5 or (:'6' is relatively easy and i.nexperI.sive to per£0:lln by 1,a.,-'b;~uperature ,fractional diStillation, I~S; S1_:CctrosCCipY' or e;F1.I::(:ruat~hy ~ 'The resul.ta are reJ?Ort....""'d in mole fraction 'which. may be lllI,.11.tiplioo by the ccn:t:"e8_FCncling 1l101ecu1a.r wef.ght. ·to find 1:1:le. ca!If'Os "non by ~ight..

Classification of namral, gas brj' specific gra.'flity r' 'ii/hlch is. the ratio of t::ll.e density of "~he' gas to the dens! ty of .an EqUal. ~.rol1.Jlieof air at the scm1e. tEfl'pEff"a:ture., is inv"ariably avai ldble,as: it i,\S E\aS ily measured at the well 51 te with a sin1ple balance ~


Fie~d State Formatnon Depth, it"

Mo Ie pgr':fHllhllge'~ ~~ itrogen, N ~

Carbon dIoxide, CO~, Helium, HI!

MethC!l'1l!!, CH,&

Ethc nlil, C~ I-I~ Prapcll'ltt, C .. H'II IwbiOlfl::me·, ell H, ~ rr.B!:It!;lnIo, c, H,e' I$Ope-flfcme, C ~I,~, n··Fel'Jh;!I'Ie, C I H 1 2 H''''1I.cmlil!~-; ell H,~, l.Joptr;m !I +


leduc G'i:U 1r::,aplJ.J V'ikil[lg, Ki n=OQn"

Allbu,rta AlberllQ

We'.ilt CCl'merof'il, B,tk 149 , Louisiana (Gulf} sand 7,150

HugCilo;n Oklahc'mc, i,!I)(a,~ P!;l r mntln dolo m,Tt'!! 3,,.0:00

Au:!i'!ii'l M.ii:.hi9l~~ SIte.)' ~ij]nd T,200

Dei,1I.:mUCIln 5;000

15.5 ;.3 1AI
00.5.8 o,,~
711,5:1 79.7~ 7'2.a'8
;',rJ 9,1' 9/'17
4,.t 2.B 5.0'9
0,2'9 0,1' O. '7:2
0.70 G.d 1.76
0.0'2 ] 0.1 0:99
1).0" OA-6
100,00 I' 100.00 1'00,00 0.24 2.2(\

88.76 4.7·6 2.67 0 . .42 (Mri

0.38 0.3.0

96,M 2.05 OA:7 0:08 0:09

r O,O~ l 0.02 0.31


Table 3-1 ~ tion of :Natura 1 Gases."


Sfate or province Re~eTV01f!

. Depth, ft.

rPre~ilUrl'l', p~io

T empe~'mUfe, ~ F

Mole pB.ra;en,tag.e; N ifr.!)91l!1n" N~

Carbon dloxid~. CO!!:

Meihon,e, CHa Etlncn@\, C~, c:~ H~ Is,oblltane; C,~HI D lI·Butan i!';!, C~ HI 0 ·Pentan.~s.. c:~ H', % Helu::Irle-s.,. C~ HI~ i-leptdJn,e + .

MoI,eculor wei9~t heptanes+

SlfleGiific g,ro"'i1y a~ Hquid" heptane!>+

L.ftdylll: D~2·c D.J po·clemo, Of.: 1(1 hcma c f!y. Rode55.a Kf;.!ck'uk ,Schul6r
Wlko.x Von,o~!Ot'ld
,A,lberro Alberta C~11.f6ffi]'QI 0 leheme ~ol,!,r$lan (J Oklchgmc Ark~M~5
3,Mn .'5.300 10,600 6,,200 5,950 4.0:26 7,600
1,n~, 1 ,90S: ~,,66;3 2 .. 630 .2,600 1,A5'S 3,520
149 1.5;3, :2.:55 l32 192 130 199
28.6, 310.3 ss.a 3:7.7 so, 88 2:5.60 42J15
10.9 13:,.1 .'S.8l 8,,7 4,53 a,Sa 6.60
9.4 9..4 ,6,42' 6.3 2.60 n.41 4.10
'2.:; 1,8 1.311 1,4 1.25 1.93 } 3.64
~.& 4.9 3.~7' 3JCI , • ell lS6
.t,E! 4.5 :.1.67 3.3 3.48 5.53- 3.1\1
39.4 36.JJ' 2,6," 39.16, 4M:'1 ,:38.09' .I JJIJ
,21).4'1 ,41.01 34.08
100.0 i.oJJ~O 100.00 1'00.0 IOo.o¢I l00·.c1Q 100.0.0
~Ql 1~: 227 225 2.20' 195 243
0.840 I 0 ... 840 0'.,991' O.lhUJ' 0,82'4 0.839 0.87.59
~"1' H~!k .r~ l>Ia'iil rcaT Goo., :E,,~,r_"~~rr:!'ll ~~a:l!it:!. M<;Gw·""'·.H~11 H~;aCCl1ffil;11aticm_~a:r~ invariably dSsocia-ted li'd.tll, founation wa~t_hat exist in the .hydrr~'G.aItQn. rone as irlters.'titi,a.l\l.i1ater,~ ax-"'- as aquifers 'which lentl Gl"Iel."ijiy to the prcduction procass ,

(b:rroonly, ~ -or "thr-ee different fluidp.~:'" e:Usttog"ethec Ln the reservoir. lllJly' analysis- of l'"Elservt::lir baJi1aviaur deprends 00. 1.:h~p.;V:-rr i(pDGssure, voiUID.."il., -~ature) relat'iQrnhil.)8 for tha oo-~%isting fluid:s.

It: is cus'tcoru:y to :represl.?ll'lttlte phasebehfllviour of trydro:::arl:x:i:n reseI"J'lOir fluLd~ 00 the P-'T pla:ne .sho.r.ring tile limi.ts Of"rBrr,ohlch thE! -fl!Ldd ~ts as a single pha~and the propor~ 'Of oil a:lD gasiri cqu.111bt"lurn over 'thE. two ph~ P.,.ll' rangG~

Si:ng-le-ccmpon-~nt* hy,tlrocarbonB are not foruKl in na_tLwe~ however it; is .~_

ool)ef'iclal tpcbsa~ t11e ~v.iour of ~. p-uI11;) hydrr~n. ~t.mncc under I,

varying pr~~aure a:ndl~ature to gaia1 w,s'Lg'ht. il"fi:O m:n:vJ c-Q'l'Ip-lm:: hydro--ca(b:l:ns}rS,trE;UII.5 un::k;;,r slIni lax o::mdi.tio.r-s., 1'15 an, ~le of the· behaviour of

at pure, hydtucarton substan.ce ~ ~atur~~ndpr::ressuroe a]l~"(:l varied, the_

P\1T oal L eOOomat t-he UI;JPer left Dr Fig .• 3~2 ischargoo with ,etlI.t1J'L® at.-60Op

and 1 000 p~ia. TIlJ.der theM oondi tioMr e~ .1.5 in. thEl- liquid state.

!fOthe cell '!J01UTIle 15 lncreasleQ ""hLl.e hoJ~ the :t;efl'!j'_Je'[a.b.1re COl'lSta.nt ,~t 60 II' ·throu:jhc:ru:t, it. will be :f~ tha.t 'tlle p~5tULe falls rapidlYUlltil OObb:J__c,of gas ~s., This 1.-5 t'.ill.1a1. the bUhhlEa p:::dnL ~

JL .. ; ]1~-:l~~ .. Of CY._ ... ~.lin.~ler VQlt:m:l. Ie._' dOO .. S. not. red. U .. ce .~e. pressure .. prov. -.'. ide<1~~c..~)"rre z.s neld all- 607 ,al~h ,reat .must be addoo to the systeLn to rrIal,.Utaut

a COMt.ID.'lt tsn?~ratUXE;l., The gasvoltma~ Lncreases at l1UI;; OOriL.'5i,tru-tt presSlll."'C illltil the point is J[-e;;§!_c:hoo'i'mer.e all of the Ih1l!id Ls vdpOr.b:;~l. This Ls de'w" ]?:lint.. The ethane gas. t~S ~lith further increase of cylfndervolune at 60~ as: p:ra<;;-Sl.ille'~'ea..c_;e8 hyps_:1JQlioally.

A series of sirPila:r ~ions can. be ·pc.Ifo!Olled at vardous CQns~t tEnparatrn:e:srrcm ~Qh t119 th;ree--~l-5iOMldhart of F.ig ~ 3-3 can. ba O:JnBtructed.. The Iocus of btiliblepaints oo~l at various, ~ra-tl.lbes proj eqtr:d -on thePl."'eSs.ure-~a.tI.J:I:!2: plane 1,s a. It:oo.t cal.1OO the vapor 'Pl_t:s~ eurve, .A.t p're~sure$· ·alx>ve the vap.<).J::' pressure ~ e~ $Xists in th:e lig:uh~rmase, and re'~i'!!thi t in t_~ y~us pha,s~.

The va];Or ~e_ssu:r:§l' ~ fOr :s-;inglf;3-DOi'IipOnent -5Ys-tsrns I:el::rninates at; :the-crit-iCi?-lpain:t. Asth_e criti®poin.t: is aWlCOBdhed tile p~ti€S of" fueg:as arid liquidph~: apJ?_a:'OOc!h ,ea.dh ott~r,T .and. the:f~- ider:rti_cal at pD,int ..

Thi,s, sooe imbJ:mation ;1.s ODn~yed. an -the -pool' plane as ~ W' the i.ef t~ Note: tt:lat in thi.$di?l-'g'r,~ I[.lifa s:ingle-c(lQl;lOnsnt sy:sbElm the bubble JiXl'int and ~'pvint lines oo'lllcide aIld is 'c;;;Ul00 th:e~r PI'eSsw:::e CIJJl:'\Ie OJ The· ¥apo:t '~SlU'e Cl!.lt"'V~ teD'rl.:l!J:1iates at the £!_i;~Ef!i:n t ~ ~

.• l\ ,~,~~ t. ~ =-~ ~QiIl f;J,Jb,;,~~., ,~_, ~~, ~_~' ,~tJt. I!. :~t .... 'l)" ~_im. tC'nr::<I:13 t'1:lm.,.,.. ~ L", ~ w.=.~t@l"~~, (tr. ,,,OJ t~.

rro' ~ .... Tm'o'm 'l',1l'~~m j;n: tel." .... tfl ""'" =,,- •• drl:L,'!i i<'t:u, lb! n'l!.1!lc fi:=o_"

PVT CEl.l ...






Fig. 3'- 4 sllcms: tll.e densi. ties ofl:he lliluid and vapor that ~st intl!e u.oo-phase region b=~._n blWle p::lint and de'W"pc:!int. Tine.. Points A and B respecti vely repfr"e:sent the -.:ierlS.i:tioo

af liquid ,aJ.'ld vapor at'e '1'1- As 'l:.Brnperabtlre increases li.quid oBnsi'ty decr~ase8 camd vap::1.r density incrreases I U!lltil they. m~ :identical at the

eLi I::iCalpo:Lnt.

It hes been found tJm:t the a~:e density of the liqutd and vapOr

D1 + Ilv l.""efHll ts in a straight

.2 line plaL

Fig. 3-.11. 'l'ypical diagramlrn of rJensi tias vs t~tt.u:e in trM:F-pi1ase Th---giol1 (Fron Burcl..k)

2) ph"".,,~ beha:\ri.O"IJL ,ofrnnl ti ~~fj. - tE;:;~

, . " ~~ '.-.' '. _-: ~J!lm1.--y"

con9.iO~ the phase b=llavioor efa SU; 50 ~ of ~. ~ h.ydracarbon ~rn:)ts on. thePdJ' pl~ shQ';.m in flg-wc-e ]-5.

The vapor pressure ar£i bubble po.'int!=-..s; do not oo,rndde but; rorm an ~nvelaptl enclosIng a brood rrn)ge of~J::"~tUI'EHi ~nd p'E'E!SSll)I~ ,atwh.icb; two ph~se.'9 (gas and. oil) exist in equilibriUl'l.

The dew' alia bubbl.e podrrt, cunrv"l?...,.s ~t 'the crUj_ca.l PJ-int~ wl1.ich .is

de£' mea. as. 'that ter!;eraturean.d p:res:s,unE' at whl dl, liquid and 'V,apor (ga~) pha8SS ha.ue_¥ien,tieal intensive~es"'dn:ns:!~L~ctfitCvolmoo etc.

F'lilld a~ the bubble po.iJ.nt i5in t'nte' l:i.quid state av.d flcid :t-elo-d' the dew [JOint .l..ine is gas : in the spa.ce~':Clq::e.1 oob.~. IDe ~ lines,l!quiCI, and gqS aL"'S tn equiliJ~:r"iUlll.

Fig' ~ J-5. Vapor 111"e9,sure curves for tr~~ purl!!' ~ts ·and .~ di.elgr'QIlt for a 50 ~ 50 ~~ of the ~~ents ~ (EleiiOOllts of 'Petroleutl Resl1ll.""IIDirs. )





T • ..,.

r~tn'pefElWfe ~ _

Fig~ 3-6. Phase diagram of 10;..; shrll'lkage oil.

·aJ ~hase ¢Uagram of a lCM '.shrinkage re;servoiI fluid

The shape of the ' envelcpi:1: and. i.ts posi tim OJ11 .. the P-T diagrarnis dete.mined. b1' the Clla1:tioal 1~.5i lion. and aJOClun"t of ,each C\JtIs·titrle:nt present. Each 1."'e..~:t'VQi.r f_,uid has a. unique phase diagriffi'l.~

Figure 3-6 is a" :phase di.agrawuty,pical o.f a. 10;.; shrinkage ~ir .fluid ...

Fluid atmSeTi10ir t~' dUd pressure at. pint A 1 eXists as undersaturat..ecl liquid.. Ifa sa:l:ll11E': 0-£ tlT"'ds fluid is e,.-.;:prurled in .. a. IVr cell at. res:ervoir~dture 'Tr, fram F.~· " tile blJOOle pomt pressure will .be reached at A., This is appi~t61y the' pa,th.that fluids fol1CM in. nDving hOrizontally through the. r~ir to the \oIlall bore,

A ron:t1n~;:.,d expansion, at Tr.,' yiel&:! increasing pet:"C€ntage of ga.s t!rd of Oi 1 i.1Fl m.e JNr c:ell l,mtl 1 at: p::lint .s t:hare remains 75% o~l.

The path fran A to the presaure and. ~atur,e. tI:1e separator is opera:ted at is shewn by a dashed. line and indicates the fractions of. gas and Ooi1 rec::overed. at se:par ator' oondi t.i(~ns •

Afurt.hF!r reducl.ionin pressure be~ the separator and stock t":ank oond1 tioos J."esul t~~ in loss ,of gas. at the tank vent aJ'X] a corresponding zed:uCl:ion in oil voluwe - see figure 3-7.

S('f1ilf'Olt){'" prIH~II('~ cQ(l!JJ{


eov: {'''''


N', Mtff rlqs.,iff in rrJDtl;"WJ/'''

.F ig . 3-7.. Operation of 'separ.atorOl1 fJ.i.Hl1 p;IJ(Jd'ucJng .cru..:1e oil W:Uh dissolved. natural gas,






The phase diagram 3-8 typifies the tJe1Javiour of a re;trograde .t'esE'xvoir., Fl'lridat p,Jint AU Ls aJ;:;ove critical~atur:c and ls therefOI"G: classified as gas. On reduct1,oTI o,fpressure at:. constzm,t ~at:u:re frc:nL point ,'A'. t]le d~ pofn,t :ti:ne i 5i crossed at A and liqlJidt;.e..qins to condense fraIl 'the reservoir gas.

If the pressure and t~rat:!.IT'!i'! are rEduced ran A, a long the dtlshed line path w separator condition, th,e diagr~, sh~1I'S that 25% of liquid is r~ej at t1 ~ s potnt , On reduccfon of preasure ~,.Q a;tlrospheri.C! prf:.'!8st:1re oril, y ebout 2% of liquid r6~ldins.

The rerovered liquid is t.e.nrOO ~Ioonde.n..s.olt.e;; or IIdistil1a-b£:u which is simply ed.L, g~rallylight in rolor a;n:._1 lOin!' .In g[~ific gr~,v' ty.

fidt::tts.irtU ra ted ,,,'






Tr TempC'fatum-----~ _ _..

TIle phase diagram 9i ven in F.ic9., 3-9 I On fhe plane, typifies the of a dry gas, reoon1Q,ir. If the. preSS'ill'E and. I:emperature aJ.'"C re:1uoecl f.rcm the angina' _"eservoir ronruitions at point: A in 's,~d sbX:::k tanko::mru,tions (60~ and 14.7 psiaH there is. 00' liquid recovery and the r~il::' fluid rE!!"lains a.:mpletcl.y III ~ gasoou..q phase

d ur1rq the proeasa, _


Phase. diagram of o. dry gas resenloir fhud

j I





Fluid, exi.sts above its m-iUcaltelflp;8:raEure as gas in r~voir o.:mdi.tions; bu,t produces Eli small qua.rrti'ty of liquid condensate an reduction. to separator/stock tank conditions r may be II;enr:€rl "we.t gas". A typical phase diagram for a wet gao:;; is ~m in fiy:-ure 3-10.



Fig. 3-11L Pha..c;;e diagram of y·,;et 9a.!i" {ElenentS of Petroleun Rese:rvpirs.}


c. ReseJ:Voir fluid rmFrties

M ex;act knowledge of a. l'eMr'-1oir' fluids, ph}'s.ical pil.XJpE!'rtie.s including ~sibili:ty is .needa.'ito predict res:ervuir par:ifomance ard inberprel:. well test dat.a and production logs" .

a} Laboratory measurarent made r.x:l a. rcpreserd;aUve reservoir fluid. sam:!?le

1) U1e sample may l:e t.ake-.n lW' th a. PST or w:1re Line b:JttOtl, hole sa!qJl:lng b;;.101- This is tlJ.e best. a,,a: nest C'O$! rrethod, and ~es COnsiderable care to assure a truly representative sanple.,

- ;;rell to be Shu' '-n (,or slightly op:med j!J8t before Si;lfIlpling)

- pmssm:e dul:iTJ9 6~l.irlgsoo1illdt'i~ ab:::wet.he bubble point

- leakage or ,segregation du, transfer must be avo,lded.

~ an awrage: of th~ samples:~s,ure.fjJ:leliability

2) Sample ,of oil aril.. 9.a.stak,@>1l at ·the separato]; and reccrtib:tned at prOOucing ,CDR in the lab"

- nCli<{;(ate~ ]llU5t be:~t...:1hls

- gas vented at stock tank must be lncludeCl in the 'tbtal GOR

b) Chru."ta 01 .corrclaUrl or .. average" p~es usual.l y made on a b~s1sof specific graVi'ty fil"!e used in absenoo of'measU!ed data.

- with Q,j_l valml3! factor 1 ,solub.l11ty am· eubject tOo larger errors f particularly iftP;e. ~.i, tion varies appreciably frcrn the 'oor.relatj.on fl'iOde 1

~ g~ VOl~ fact:rrrs are s;C'C'arabeto w.il1rl.n 1% for hyClroc.ar1:::lDn gases wi tb lesstllan .5% impIJrl.ti:IEl,s.. Exceptionall.y error rt1ay reach

.2 or 3%. .

c) In situ me.asu.renr:ent: with prcduction tools,.

Th,e relative densities of oiljiti-ater/gas ,fluid COillml6 can, be rooasured. in situ using a Gradi~~ in 1:1):8 shut in r,.;re,ll. An accurate detennination of ~ densities requires a Mlll hole pressure 9'auge such as the H~~l..ett:-:Pack;ard. pressure gauge.

Whare. direct lalboratcxcy PJr IDe.a3u:ra:Ilents ~ nat available, it rna:! be necessary to use ~tSto e>6timate fluid pn:::p?rties.,

'nle application at: hard d.ictabes Tfttdch scarcea of data ~ .. be used. Obviously ~ resru."'Voirpredic:"-...ions:r i1iade 'Py material balance meth(')(ls ~ can be no ,l:; tl1an the fluids darta: U!31oo. On 't.hte 'Other band r use of a gas val1.:me factor basoo en ~i fl,c grav.i ty oorrelatiOi."}S is, probably bett:er thCtn,.'neecla:l to oonvert a do..m.'lo1e spmner fl~tar volmetric rates tp .sw.1:,a.o.e condi lions •

To find thevolll.m'e ~04 ~ i5IL quanta ty of gas ~lEm, the condi t:ions of temperattU'e ard pressure are d1~ filXm S'tate 11 to Sta'OO :l 'ifle nom ,t:!l3t: Xl :: p'V:!HT'''' a o::mstant I st.)"-' at:,

_2) ~essiliili tv of g?!Ses

a) Ideal gas OOli:lE4vioUl;" ::

The .ideal gas law ~ 00 ~r,esse:1

pV = nRT

whare ,:

p '" absolute pressure o,f g'as in atm:;lspl1ru:es

V .~ ViOlU1'1'1e OCCtli;;d,~ by gi;iS irJ, oc n '" n~of gr~les of g,a;.~ (graTI'lS of gasfm,:llecolar weight)

R = 82.05 (gas constant)

t' = absolute L~a 'una In c~rees K5,lvin

(q(" 27.3+ C)





P .. atJsolub:l pressure of gas In

psaa (psia.::;: 14 ~ 7·i"g·auge preasure) V ~ vo hm:.a occ1,Jpla;:1 by gas in (:11 ft n = mlllhar of J.b-.mJles of g ag

(Lbs of -gas/rrolecalar weigh'l:.)

'R .. 10. 71 (gas constant}

'T i:" absolute tE!'rlpexal::.'Ur~ Ln ~

"Oj~: 4 60+ °E'}








1'1 and P2 are abrol~ pres'sm:e.s;, in Statp_s 1 and 2

T1 and T2 ,are absofute t.e:ltq.."era:twres in States ~ and 2 V1 and. V2 al."'€! vol~: ID States 1 and 2.,


Boyles law is pV = p'IV' ,at: ronsi:an ~"Cab.tre.

C,harle:s 1aw is v V~ at o::ns;tarJ.t pressure.

T '" T,I








I'bstgase.s sh:.M'oqnsidBrable ;oovia;Uon ~Y ideal b.ehaviour at ell2Vated teIJ;p2ratu:res aril presStliLss. 'The ~ress1blll'ty' factor "Z", wh,iCh is. a function of the g~ ~$1 tion,r pre5:m,me, .and.~ture., is ooed.. to nodif:! the idea1-gas law. . 'The 1~ ~ takes the· form .~

p~ ~ Pz are' absolute p.:res·s~ at States '1 Mrj :2 V 1 ruId V'2 are V!:'!l.~!;J:'t Stal tea 1 .and 2:

Tl m:rl T2. are absolute ~rat;~,at S1;:.atJes1 and 2

Z'1 .~ Z2 are· ~ressibllity Q'Ct!;.L'~tiOO factors at. Stares 1

10 U Ill!


Fig. 3-11. The. CCIlt;ll:essibilit:y factor fc;),I' na tmal gases €IS a: function C)f ~OOOmdllcea pres~ .00'il ~a:tu:!:;'e.


Fluids are in a. oorrespt.lDdirB .,;d::ate r .... d. th respect tome critical state" tlhia . refe:rcm.cej when any two properties have the ~ ratio of :red.uced

value.s~ .

'I' TR'_ -


1) For pure substanceS t the critical ~_rat~ and pressure is found fran a table of Physical prq;; E

2) :For mixtures of lQ1r;wn ~5i tion the "pooud.o c:;r-itica1" pn!> and tertlp .... erat;u:te is ca_·lculated by taking- the nolea"lll3rll'ge Q·f the in:liV'idual

constd, h:tant Val.lU!!5.


p pc


E Y1P c1 + Y2P c2

L: Y1 '1'01 + Y2 '-'c2 ! •• '.


Y1 ~roolc fl:1'10tlon. 0'£ curpo:ncnt: 1

p c1 es cr:;" cal p-r.: sauze of ooo'q;XJnen' 1

'I'en ;; eri tical ternpersture of ~.nent 2

1 :2 3,
MolliI- Ab~(lllJte
Componen1 ffl:l~til:ll'1l CdUc.llIl
'l'c .... R
CH~ 0.8319 3.j4:-~
C,H~ O.OEl'.IIB 550.3:
C:3Hal 0.0487 .660:;]:
i-C~H I 0 0',0076 73:5.0
n·C.d-l,~ CI_0l66 7~,5-6
j,CsHu O.Ofl57 829.0
n-C~H, ~ 0.0032 BAS.S
C~Hu 0.0063 9'14.'1 frod:ucl'

c 0:11 '2'x C:~I J


Il1Idhiiduai A.bso1U'tc Clri'li(ol IPres,sure FIt:~ P.$tQ


Product Col2 x <;0' 5

.286,:3 46.7 :2'9.1 .:5.59 1:2.86 4.73 7.7'1 :s.n

p$¢~ dO~r"ifi;;::o:l 'J!'.efnpe ro t !,I'[!! 39:3.7.,

,613 710 617 529 .s51 483 49Q 440

560 60;2 27.0 j,JI2 9 .. 26 2.75 1.57 '2.77

Table 3-3. Ctmputation of Pseuaocr:itioal T:o.:.1:peratl.l1b"e and Pressur·e *,f a Natural Gas.

Fig. 3-12. Pseudccritica1 prcpertie..s of .ElaturBl gases.

Example ::

F indca:tpressibi li ty iapt.O!:rZ: foY a. ,.75 gx.avity gas at 2000 psig; 150'1' ,. 1 ~- Fran figure 3- ~ 2,. Pc = 565 psi ,a:nj 'l'c '" 40SoR

2. - Red11Ged t.en'perat'l..lreOOld prresstll"Els





p Pm "" ~p=-:,-


3 .• -En.tering chal."t figure 3-1'1 with. Trn = 1.63 an(l Fpc "" 3.~03, we find Z : 0.24.

2.000 ". 14",7 6.65



D:rJ.version of d~ole volmres (or VQl~ttic rates) of oi.L, gas I and water to equivalent\lOlurnes a.t surfa,oo oorrlitians is made so frequ.ently ehat, i.t is wnvement 1:0 UEe ronversio.t:'l. factab:.s \I,h1ch aceoun t far the over all. changes due to solubility andCOil'pr'eSs,ili1li ty .

Before iEI. dt.scusafen of "I,r'ohme factors, let us, define the units Q~ly used to nEasltre hydrClCa!1tl:'J:Jn volums.

o· 1 va.} Ui'Il2' roo:asurewent

The uni.t of mea;Bur~t of oil is 't:l1e AP.I barrel cr l:lm cOOic rreter at stock l:m1k oonditions - oomrentionally ,o0or' (15.SOc) and 14. 7 paf.a

( 1 ,;j,tTIrogpbere) _. -

Gas ~urerent

Gas is. mea.sured in .stand.a'rdcubi.c' feet scf. or in c;;ub1cmster8 ,at the s.;;mc rclcrcn~ rona 'tiofiS 6'O~ t l' 4.7 psia.

Gas oil rati,Q

Gas oil ratio P~t (SCI1et..iwwas alr.bre:viated (DR) is ~ ratio 0 gas prQ:luction to oil preductdon - both. IteasurOO a.t",,~:i't:aroruXi catJ.ditions 60~", 1 ~ .7, pBid_" Units are s.t:an.dard cubic feellst~k .' tank bar .. rel, ,_, ac;E /B or cubic nEtcrs gas per clJbic I~be.:r of oU ill 1m3. Aa ther.-e eu:e 5. 6 Clilbic feet in a l)ill_L'el.

scf I B,';- 5., 6 .~ m3/FII

The ba$ic surfacel~le vo11Jl'OO!tric rela.t.1onships sha..m. diagr~ti("..a.lly in figure 3--1 J shcIuld t:e kept fimuy in mind wh~ aE.JC),] ing with fluid oonvcrsions.

]'i9. 3~13 •. Relatiansl1ips ootween SUrfaoeand ~1or..mhola volu:oos - disoolvoo gas 5yStarl~




Forrt'Ioation VOll.JI'ilef'aC'to:rsarE' deslgI'@te.1 by' t.he letter' .B w'ith a sutfix denoting ~ fluid phase ocneerned.

Fonnation vol,t.J're factor" defined be~lcMr is a fimction of f11..11do:mposition am the pL"'esSllre/tmpera,brre dif·f.el"et"1Cebeu.,.,,~ 'the d~ole and reference state.

Volme: at da-..mhole oordi lions VolUl1e at reference' OOflcuiions

Figure 3--,13 ~ that the total gas, at sutfaaa 1.s 'the sum. of the solution. gas e:::volved rnm, the oOj'l,l'llil'lolie: ,liquids pltiS free 'gasprcdli'O€il, frcro '!;he oil. The gas VCl1~ factol:' acCQ\mts' for expansion of free. gas.

Oil sh"tinks in v:ol\.'fre l:e~ domilho tr:/surface conditions primarily as a of !:he solution gas evr:::ilved." ,Atypl,ca.l J:a.'1ge of ,So ,is 1. 2 for lem CPR oil to 1. 4 ar higher for the room "i;!1..')latile o11s.

&J.:lubility of gas in: wat~ Ls lad and. the COIflbine:d e:ffects of I'eQ:uctiQn in telllperat.ure; pressure and loss of solutiOO gas has a small (but for SOlae put:-p.'Jse~ :intpxtant) effect anEW.


Gas Fol.1I!Iat.ton VblUfl'li'::l ,Pactor ,L Bg

'. _ Vol~ !t. d~le "b?!!P. arl'd pres~n.l['e Bg - 600r I 14.7 P5'ia

~l, :1

is ,scf/B or lir4/!11~

The gas fOD!1ati0l1 volume facrecrroay be kn~'n L-rcml?Vl' rreamrranents On a 9ElS sarrp1e, or it might be cell aiLatoo using' the relation ~

I?11 v, _ Pi! V,

Z1 T11 - 2:2 T2


16 = ~ = P1 T~ :Z'L

g V1 P2 T1 Zj

whereoondltio.ns 1 are s~u and. oonditions 2 are' botton hole.

Ci3aTtg, based on tbe relati,onshi:o and cocralation.9 :OOtr~en Z .1l"d specific qrav;i. ty I pre;ssure: and, ter:rperature ha"y"e been es'tablished. to simplify ceilcu1a'nons •

T!he follCM'1nge«.arnple i.11usttaEes:l.l5e Of tJl!sse c'~1.S {FigUre 3~14.}

\ I


f ~ nd ~he ~'Qll;ilne 6ccu~ij ed b}r 4f.M ~ ACf oJ g~ when )/w: ~ fl. i'n. T 'Nt ~ 2nDi}F, and p~ r :;;;;;: 1,000

lhing Fig;;;-l a Hnes dI~W'1, in) ii'll!; is :ruhed ~~, tC)i1G\"".~:

t Se~t:c[ TIl!:: &lfOUp of 'rempl'raru:re ]im:~ fOE r~ - O,7f~ cntetlng on rho i.bS'-io.;la ut 2,000 pSla. l§J' \'~ni'1!U tIJ tht'- 200~F lin~. ehen move leh to tne ordim~c value of 12'5 (0,[ ljB:I:"

400 - 1:.0

V~",r - 125, '- 3.2 ~U' v~'

EXAMPLE -in1c-rpoltllit)1'1 11p.l!-cle'd.

Find die volume cccupied hy 6uu scf t1r I::{~ wb~'t:~; ill' - U, /,1, 'I'",~ =:0 i, 7:>"" F, liu{l ,p..r = 2,000 P[i.''''

1 hi tL/;\ Fi',~ - HI' ~ I i I't'~ nor Clr~ ?o11'1 Ill) lhi~ ~5 s.o! \IN ,'~ tollows:

1. Scl G'n lh~ ,I:!'OI1]i (~,f 1'C'I'!1p~riJ ru re 1 j 11(::' 10r .,.,~ ;::- (J 70 nfln:r lug till tbe .ll:l~li!i~~ n ~ 1,t'100 r~' .. 8i I '\'~ni~ill! 1 1('1 ~hl' 1. n~ I"prt~itil)n. rheu l!1vYC Id! 10 rhe ofJ."lm1 !:' "'iLlu~' \)1 1 H I i' 1 In~,

2. SelL;'\:1" tb(' gr,mp uf n:mpcl'~1l'Lln; ljn,"~ Iar '"ill - U I'm EBt~rJu,~ CH1 Ihe ~b5{'~ss.a :l,r ?:..,OCln f'Il[~' 8" n,nienli), to rhe 17'jnF pmld~I~. rhen move le:fr to The OMJIl3IC v:ill.m~ of 13 ~ for 'I J'B~.

3, The iml~rpubliol,l be I ween [he 11 n.~ \f:lllle-.~ t~ .1iO! \,(,,J 11.$ follow,~:

i'l; B
0,"0 13131
0..74 ».
0.80 13B J--B,~· n,4x {.138-PdJ = 135




Fi.~. /- i4: {Cha," FS'· t ) : 1 ,/8'1"~ a ftmr;/io-n oj Yff' T "'" d<t'..i 'Pv:t (afhn~ ,SI_d in~ and Ko,t!i)



I I_I -




b). F'o~tion volume .Factor of -oil, Be

n. =' ,Volume of oil (illclu~inq di.sSQlv!ed gas,. a:t dOl"~Tihale ~ffition9)

'-U Volu:rre of 011 a.t reference oondi lions <6 O""'F,14 ~ 7 'pSM

'rhe fQ.ut!6,tion volutrE factor of an oi.l is best detenn:Lned ty P'VT rreasura:ent on a l'"eSP.xvo: r fluid sanpl,=.

Fi~ 3-1 5 is atwical plot of' W1.' data !EOI:' ·001 urid.ersatur,atoo <>11. F:t"Cm

BOOO p.sig t;o the bubble poin,t p:ressw:e at 6350 psig, the Be increase is clue to m::pansionof the ".JJ1dersat:ura.ted oil.


~~~---~----~---+----+----+I----+9IIF' __ ~ I I ~


- 2.0
.:a I
u i!
I _~
1.6 is
" . .4 III II


Fig. r15. Typi~ PVT data, fo- diff.:.&ential.~rizatn)n Of an 1lrJ'lersatrLrated cd l, at ~tMt ~ature I( 305'-'F} '.



On expansion fran 6350 psi to a~a:ic pres:s:ur:e increasing arronnts of gas. are 1iberated~ Note t11Jat, the Rs r the ,aII1OUnt ,of 9as Ln solution is a:l!wst directly p:rofOrtional to the 8Ysta;n pressUl.'"e.

Bo' being depetrleI1t ecSsentiall.y onth.e ,all'CIlmt 'of: ,dissolVEd '9as increases with preasure up to tl':IE burole point, ,,~e all off t:heavailabl!e gas ia d.l.ssolvm an:.l tnen decreases a.t a rate deteJ:rnined by' the liquid ~es5ibilltY.

Solubility and volwE: fad:or dor'relatioos

Solubility of natural gas in oil is dependent on the o::HpOsition of the hydrocarbons I the tew,rlerat:ure F and pressure a;ppl Ied ~

Figure 3-16 (charI:. Fgo-1) ean be use:! to estimate bUbble point pressure,

Pb' ,mmRsb' the ar~t: of gas which \'rill dissolve in a given aanour:rt. of 01_1 at th1:.s pressure ood. tmperatm--e.

EXAMP LE - Fig- $- J IS

Find 'the Lniubh:·.p· Ill! plt·StUt. PI:." lInneT rnl\' ~olloo;o,lIl'1g rn!'1d irjl )n~:

q"~\. - 6{)() D!O q~.,. = 2"0 Mtf/n !I"r:;;;;;; HlO~F

l'~- n i'5

1'~ --1l}'Q AP'I

Tnt: .-;olm ion. is es tQllo ... s ~

_ 14(1~OflO d I]) 4( r (.;""

'l , It 6(J.OB/D - llc • .."

2_ Take R~" - R; [hn I~. tht· whHiulI p~oi!leujo 1U bu bble- FlO i m pr~;51l re i ~ deli n,ed ~ he-ing ,eq ual UJ [he prudu~~ng g~¥"(lil Indo, TIlt iUstlfl1~~r~('In I:f., lmrhcit ~ka~ ,~nr all pnc[ ical p\+[.poscs1 1111 the di~;,oOl \id .m has come om of soh rnon when, srafld~ tel cendir h:;,I'1~ arereached,

3- On the nomograph {FigO'-lC draw a line i~om ehc u:mpcnuun: (T "'~ ;::::: lSO"'F) u.'mm.lih the tloJ..UH(~O gM:oil ;a:t1Q ar hubhle-!?ojm pr~ul'"c CR.. = 400 cUB) tOPQi~l a On Line A.

4, Draw a li·n€. lrnm rbe gas gravity bl:: = O. 5) [IH·ough ebe oil grjllv i t"1 (),n=40'O APT) 'm PornI b, en line B.

~. Cllnnet[ POLms CI ~n~ b, and read ·.!'he a,~w€!,: p." = 1 ,560, psia.

.... ~PR. .II!~ .. nl
"l~ 1Ij.v_;l~
'= .aeee
T,a:t:mp,_ joo
\t; ·.F 'JlJi;I
M a
"'" ~,
___ ". .~
'" ... ~
.il ,NI
~.<;. ~,iJIiH, oil illf.",

1&.1.": f·l~t'IfI

011 !3;Jlj

Ate y~ y~

f,j ... /J; I. !41il [uu ~ If.I~


iIi'.I'l. 'Jooc

1,1'" 11
, .
!ol ., " "'I,:i!
i!= -'i
O. , ...
'" -0;,.
'C' =

';:'1- .. ~,.,....-


-~" .....

n. 'IO:~:xJ .,

.... " b

t~ ,~o Q,' -1'0
A U.iIi
iI~' nQ ·D.I~
EI .F.r:'g ,:5-1 f:j {Chon fgo41') ~ N O'l1lo0 §:.'t{J.,ph t' p,:

R~~ /'0 f!.~; Tim I'll omtl yo~> (Qr P .. ~) jor '~!!t!'rag,ei' co'tuii#()1is. em btl' mffei fa

fmd {;~ if R~~ is known, rn" "ief! versa.


:F'inJ R~~, '~h~ Whlr'ioll gas-oil rario !I !:mbble-phim pre~"

sure, under the fc.U'l)-wing conditions:'

:P'l!' - 900psia

Twrt -=- 140"jl "Iii =0.7

'h = 4CI~ API

Til is is :;obtcd ~ irng fi,g. 3-1 11' I j nes nne drawn in) J 8.,~. forlo'1l';;:

Lfrnrn rmgfH ro iefr: allne ~hmugltYQ = 4Ulj anrt 1'1i: = 0_7w .!ocnte 11. point Qf.I Line 11

2. From rhA~ mini!, <'Ir(\1;i;'~. Ilne ~n.roHgh. PI), - SlD(} .P$~'" ro Line A

j- From d''IIW~, Qj;'!w 1\ IJn~ 00 T .... r = l1Cl~P_ 4, Read the amwelr:











Es1;im.atioo. of ~Q at Pb

Boot tbeo:il fm.ll.aticlfl volme f'acwr ,i3Jt :bubb,le 'point pres,.r,;;{IIJl'e is estima.too frenr fi~e 3---17 (Chart.F.. ) uj' entering the gas gravi~y Vg, the solution gas 011 rat.l.O ·at .bubble p.:n_nF pr'efl5Ure F'.sb r am the te,n~ ature ~


~) .... ,






EXA,MIPI.'E iNcmQgraph Solul'iof)

Finn Et,~, Lmf'll!'r d,~ ~f'lUo~qn" Ntld1[ions:

R.1o -4llUd/lR T .. ~ -l~Oc[1

..... =-O,M

r" =.i5~

u~ In!lfi~J-] I rhe ~~'i~un()n is:

1. Dm ..... Ii Hue .Mfi dtt' g:il,~ I:''''L .... lcy ('ru) of 0.61 d1'rm~bh rhe ~r"I~ III ion ga~'(l1l r~ r i!1 :I.r ~'mhhh" poi n r

pl!::liIlUro; (1\.~! Cif ,1,00 ",un 1Q Lillo,; A.. ,

l nrJJ'~'" II.I !'Ie fl,"<3 rn Po Ln e a E t' up,h T ~.t (:nnJ"l') ~'O B.~, t. Ll·t

Iloij .1'ta(eJ (:uliblllJud bl bulh Et!glilb and ,'ic 'U~in.


Estimation of oil ,rol1."lln;~ factor above bubble P?1n1t pres~

Thffi formation voltm.;:! factor re.adhes a ma.'fdrtturn value. at pt. all of the available gas ':s in solu+aon.

If the pressure is increased beyond bul:ble pOi.nt, and there is no mt.I~ ga.s to be driven into solutionr a rrouc'"dan. in oil voll.lillS resul.ta ..

Tho 01.1 a:npr.e.ssibility fa.cto:r- (Co) is a f\mcUoo oftl1e density of the oil at :WlYble. podnc (p obi - soo figure 3~ 1 9.

"4- -
J!~ Illf 1ar ,,,
1 ~r~l'r II~ I ~~ ~1Ii ,.
I - - ~j" v--
- - Ir"·i ._. I
I ~~ -
V , -I
... ,
L r ~ I
./ - ~t-
7 -Ir: J
- -
I~i t,1

1.4 ~,


Fh_:" <1- L fj Q.ill'V F (R,,) 4( J II~fl(f;lm fl ' p" ~f11,.t1 (grm FI7I J.

" r-,
-- .... """" ~I


.::. 10 3


For ' oil, the equation relat.:inq Be. to Bob i.s

1 - Co. (Pwf - 'Ph)

NCl'l"ICqr aph af figure 3~ 20 {chart Fgo-S) may bE! used to sol v-ethis, €q'llation.

Ba B",~" AI:, G.:.
\ " 0""'" :'1'

I;~Qirr .ccm pYlJ~~ ~.'~ I·-it C
So ~ e..r I-r .. lr.,.-~:j) iI'_l l·,
;t,Q ~ :J.::I r
I.Sli .io..!1 ~,~ :
I. ~ll Li!!1
('j 1'-1
I.~ ILl! ,:,,~, i"
L~ I
-I ~ . ."
".:.;l.iL.'t!'!I'.IG Fi:l~ a" , .
'j1'" • 1· :... ... '!, ..... ..
r '.1
. ~ L:.~
_. .. ·N
- ,_._. iW~
~ 1 ~
II~~ iii'!~:.:[l
"'_ "" ,.
~'(jJ EX.AMI!? U! - U n..;:!e·rSOhi rOled Oil

Find BB tinder rhe followin,g conduions: 13"1>'~ 1:I2"

Pr.,]<. = 0.66 g,mlcc f'-or<: = ~"OOO pitil ~ - 2.00a po; ia

The ~! uticn ~s U:$ follows:

I ILlro III jT ~g;j- 1 s f;" =- tS X 1O-~

2. B~= 8 .. 1, t I -c" {pwr-pr,))

Do) == L.22 (1 _, (1'5 X 10-1.1) (.,,000 -"2 ,(lOO) ) .;; 1.210




Dissolved gases and salts affect the cCll'1pressibility of waUer, hence Bw. HONeVe:r I 'the soll,;ib.ility of natural gas in water and heine is smal.l and the effect on <XlIilpressibil i.t}' Cim. be neglectOO for small. d1anges of pressure and b~il1pe.rature an:1 Bw tPiken as, unity?

For large cbanqes in pressure

ana t:enq_;;erature,~ Ew may be found f.tUU fig'!JX'i2 J- 211 f for cit11eI" pure or TlCl'hlXal gas sa turated \·;a:tErr ~




~ + - - "
, , ,-
r :!::t""
, , "
, -
I " T-
ff f-II-I-I'

,--~~ ~:

4000 eeoc



10.lg.gJ I I r I



2.000 ;!IOCIO


F'ig. 3-21 - .Formation V'l:)lrne 'factor of.pure wat,er' and a Iaixi:rure of natural gas and'an."'!y,. (Data of Dodson and S tan('l:wg ~ )

4) Fluid ,densi tv correlation.s

a} GAS :D E N:5ITY

I Gos ~PQdfiiJ;grClvirYr i·~. i:. widd u:l1.-d ill rhe vii il1d!Ili[r~' Tn cnll.·r.,('rNi,7:~ r'llImr.1l &:u;e.~_ .J~ .o;peci' r grn\'ilY is deJineJ ~~ ll~f' nnio D'I the di!lUlt} 01 . 11$ to tbc dt:i1~jty uf air. bmh ~r :!,&'<flcbrd (Imciillom

- p".~ '111--

(P'.lr }~L'

The we ighr ~; f ~nr ,'nluml:' nf Jlj IJlli r iI n h~ dererm Iltrd hy ImllllpJ}'irlg tht: \lQluJ1w d WI> tjLn~-.; 'f~ tillWll ,PmTh~ dJ;f-L'itJ:)i tJt air ~n' .SPllld;trd !;lmoHioH:> I:'; L'HlfI 1 11, ~;rn/cc Of (l.07ri2 Ih/cu f •.

2. 'The dcn'§'ity ()f :L\;~ :It alii)' t~mpc:rUuj'!:: ::tf,d Jn~MJr<:

Cflr1 be f(Hin.d frnm rhe n,. s fOU'l::mmm volume ~'ror. lJ~~

_!_ - ..E.~::!_ B'M - P~.~

{J.g'l!lr - y~ CUOl 22 .. '1) X ~ < ,Efro/c,}



Ilmd rhe wel.~hr af 5,00 sd O. gil5 wrrh

)'~ = t1:55 Tbis .is solved i1S [CiHows:

Wdg.~l[ ;::;; V 4l" X P~11 X y~

W'dghr = 50(11::t.l ff x O.lH6:tlb/(:1I Fr x Il.Y' = ':ltO.g'~!lHb5


fmc! the densiry ph gas ar standard condinons when: "f~;;;;;; 0.70


p~ = 'h X P~tt

p~;;:;:: 0_7 X 0,001223 gm!cc:._ '01.00,018,5,6, glm/!:!:


F indi. [he d f:n~t:y rtf a. ga~""" hen:

YK .~. O·7Q

Pl"'f= {"OOO psia TWf ;;;;;; 200Q,F



PFgwf Bi
e_~ 100
" .. .<;iI
" , I..,
~.~, !!'f;.ii
II I~·
I~ rr.,"CI~ r ... nmpu I iiil'li






Fi,g ::;- t;;;. (Ch~ i1 Ffi··5),; iV (~1n Go gril ()/; /tlf 5r;Jt'I';'J.':: r JM l!qlhlH.m~:

pp~~ r - y~ (0.00112~) (11 IJ1)·


1. from FL3 - 2 4 lm.-! M 5hown tn ,11. previous ~:i;ilmf]J;:, ij.Bi= U5..

2. 1 P~'''d

~::::;;. -_ (from p<l.t:il~'i! 2, above).

109 P;.~

l Pxwr=":I.e x 0_001223 'X n,·IB,.).

p~",~ - a.1 X 0.00122, gm/cc x 125 = D. UJ7 '901/'cc


1 .. U~irlg die l1Iomograph .in Fig. 3""'-22 ChUi't Fg-5), construcr ~ line ttoti1l )'g- = 0 .. 7. m (l/B~) = 12) to obsain:

Pg.d == 1J.11 gm/cc




b) 011 DIENSny; Po

At scandard ool'ldilioo~ ~h~ Clcl1lsiry of' oiJ l:s~mlli [0 ,ht: wc:iglllf tli'ili~ed b]i' dlt' volume; or, in eqlHlJitiQ])1 ,form;

l!. t well- ~ow inJ!i ocnd i·duns dH~ cll"1'l sit}! oi oil i~ i~i1I equ:ll m th~ w€~,f.I;iu di,,·ided hy rhe volume. h is, hnw;e"~r. l'io(lt' quire :;ttl!-i~h(rt}nNud because tbe- ",'eighT .,frl1~ oil J~ ken increased by dis¥olvt'd gas, and I'he " [ume vf tne uil n~~ hnn Increased bj' rhc nil fnliTI;ltl 11 \'OLl,llilt' fi'lcror

W not' I \)(.' 'lI!" ~~.

P"",-r = V. c X '13"

P· _ hot' + PII. ')'~ R.

"",r - no

I' n .Et1,"ill~ll 1,1-jU ts ~

r,,,,,, j II'Wnn3-/tl( "),iiJ )




14- 1..5 + " OOiP I 'lH . B

131.'5 _'., \J.. - h·

P .=--- 't -- -'ffiljU:

O .... ~ U., .:::>

Norc rhar thil." ttOOl n;_ is the d·t.n~lry of air Ia g,m t., and the'!' .5 .615 is tin: ncce!:s::U'Y CC!tml!' rsion hcw.r W WrL verr tht:Ingli~h u:nifS of diE .iutu.Bfll The I,ll 5!(]lL5 + ·/~), or course, CQiWt'ITS, '/" in. ('>'APl lCI P~ot 10 gil)! U:.

111 metric lIl1'!l~$ the abo e er.:tIu:L~iQns $:I pHtr to:

POl." + I),U Ul3- -i~ R"

Pb .. ·r - Il\>

iEXAMPL'I! - El1glis-h unIt ..

l'indpQ1.f in [he Eor1owi!1!El sitU<!£.!DU: 'l~ .::= .300 API

jI~ =.0,75

R:II = 3'50 d/B l\(>= L21

The solarion is as.Iollcws,

]41.5 s

1.. Po",,= l~ 1 <:: _, ~'" 0 =O.B](~

, .oF "'i 1v.

... . ~ Po~~.J.. Q.(m021 1M r(~

2. P",T'l ---- ]!l~

UJ-f,G 1- 0_0002178 X 0,7) X 3JO lJ

3. p" .... t. = '1.21 ---

~ 0.7.'11 Dlml! t;!!


Sa ';: I' "'.

Ol ru

, .


~I' :ai;i"-


4<-' - "_ ----~

~---<-:"7 ~.


I~J:J:. ;5-;5 J - (Chnr't IFOllh6); N£III~(!f(.r-rtpb It; ".#.4 .P;I~:r· NC(.ldf.:l{/: n.r "'/9' ill! .rmd BN•

An l~ r~UhL~1: ~u.! u don js W Ltb Fig ,1-2;; Chort Pgo-6). rhl' rmmogNph rllrrl.erenniui.l1!; p .... l/'r,

Dra""" ,1 ltm; .FruiT! y~ ~ 0.7:) ~hmugh R. = 3·')0 din ~.o Line A.

Dmw a llne frorn Puim Q'W y ~ .30'" API n1'lrl Mt11bI.ish [JC!lIH b.

l_ I).mW:L lme troln Peine b rhrough B~ ;;;;_ L21 rc tli't; 1I1'!1S''lV,er, P~wt :::;;; O.1'gn'l/cc.

,E!XAMfLiE. - M'etrk 'lIliits

Fi [lJ PQ~ inrh ~ lolh)w il1;g' ltl ruarlons:

PO"". :::;; 0.8'4 gm/~r; y~ = [l65

.;l.~ == lOQ ru m,/(u m '~b == 126

0.84 + n_0011'23 x 0_65 ·x'lOO

pa~:::;;- L!fl' _-

- 0.1·30 gml /ee



TI~t.: dcnsi ry of g.'l~. tree water is a fu ncnon of ~t:UJ1p.."Hi·' cure, prl$5Hte, nnd w.l'n:~ sa:tifllT}', A. aornogrsph ofrhis rd~, rioflship Is shown in,lllg_ J-P,j' (,Chari fw-ll)_ lit§; t-ht: soruuiliry pf gas In water (R~~ J i~ _~m:lll, th~ ciI(."C! !1Jfrhe di~nhr~,rl P;il~ IS i;l.';uurt-n, and ri'lis chart 'S \I,lied fur Ene dtnSi of ,,-"<i;.tef ut allY R ... ,


Find I'he fle-Mi,y 01 "'-lIt1;;. under rhe f(llloW1n,~ condi,.,nn\~·

c-, i= 9L1,O-OO ppm Twt = 200nF

p" r - 2.lijJO ps:in

Ll rJ'lF; Fi,lli.~2~ flit' ~~lIlfi(m I~ ~.~ rollo'i\'j·.

1. Stlmillg from C:<'J!f'1 - 9U,000 Pl'l1J, dr!lw ~ ln11t TI'mi1![lh T~, ~ 2tlO"F to P4,lij:l~ D.

2, :'ir~rml~, Iwm p" r - l,mm r~I~, d",..", ~ lim:~hwugh Puint ill ru WIiI1"f flMWY (p~ ~ ~ I, ... ~ 1.0135 Oml ,,~

5) VisC(JSity oo.ITelati~ a,) (;,:.0\$ VISCQSrrV

A ~ elel'~ lOO. tempersrures (!Ind luw pressures, !ow.g;llv~ty ~s -closdy re~emble "perfecc" gas in tbc;iJ: bchlllvl'Clr. ~'hde ~1 low rernperatures and, high P~urCSi t:he;. bea,.'kI· g" resemble Ijq~,ids.

The charts in !.~ig.;:;-2 t>t;hJ(i1i"t IF,gl-6) give oWls '1'iS>l:?silY -a s a Iuncr inn of temperature and. pr-ess;Lire, IQil' gasC'~ [J.t' nyC' r gIn" jlrt:~.

Not,~ char a bo~t' liboilt i, '500, psi. an r l'Iae~,se j'!lt,t:mpt',I,?· uin;Je~'$ tbe ~ 'iii3ta:;:i~',wl:lik be-law rD-?I p0inr ill' cre-a:sing the rernperarure b~~'@'d-$c~ me v:iscos;iry.

.. L

A Pili' ar p~~ ~


'"~ Of
it'..J ..
J """
! -------"";-
''''' --------- -lO~
1 ~ .acc
.. ~ , (
;; ""
. ,~ • \J
i ~ ...i
!;'~~d n.rl ""
f.:f.ln(' j'ra

Fig, ;~~~4 ,chan IFw .. I): Na"wgrll/J'h. t,) I~t~(t P. u,r'. N,I!t!ti.(fi,· '- ~'."'I' T !i.'{' 41#1 /1»'1'

.. ~.iS4
a. . ."
:Di ;;to ~~--~--~~--~. ~"~~--~---~--7-~

F're~~u~~'1 p~1 <i

• ;P'1:''!)~~r~. I ,000 ~$ i Ii

f'i.g. J-25 U:lholll". f9-O): G{lj 1Ji~wsitJ' fJ.~'ji'f' (J' a ffltU'fiOI'l IJ f y~. T rr(' find PWI'I ((~t)#-rIt!Sl oil ;m(l Ga.'l Jl')t/.NutJ).




b) OIL VISCOSity, ~~

The \'i:KO~iti' of ll. crude oil dt;(:r_I:'~'S \~'ith II. le;lllpeDllw:e increase and with <In ! ncrease of di~ooh·ed &:1..'<.

He:wvlet 'Oth are ger1e.mUy .m'ire VL@llS, th~i1I Hghr~ OIJ:s 'of the.: ~a.l.Ili:: bycil"ili.;arbo[l .bas-t:.

The quesrinn ,,.-( whirl; vl$C'Qs;ay urrirs are m ~ used ffiJ'ly' be tl1lbe.r ,"OoIus1ng ~jl1,e there are seveeal JilleIem ~mHns used in the oilfield The c~'I1r;I'}(}h . 1;S' rhc unit thrull:l~h. om l'hlS clO~llm("m.


The cha;m; givf:rl in Flg .• ~ -:W CFn;!lFI' FU'g'~7 I rnrrdaH' erode oil visoosit}' 'with srod:'·l~'l· oj! ,~t~,..!t)I .• te'ro~!C1ntur~" uucl ~~}.l utI!,m gl.l;.-\~j! .r:.( ti~, II t vr tl'!:'lvw blJ hblt:.p:.rim pr ~·"l''''d'!cI"'C. If rh~l p're!'i~~m~ nn rhe ni] I~ af.-..nv!l r.-uhhJ.('·~im rrl~..5..~Un!' I't~ \'i~Ct.shy ls iJ,lC'r(~l~":J b!y tbrt \l.mOw.~t ~i'liell, iJ)1 th~ corl'!."Cti~Jl ~1I1'.·~.


!jill1d the 0[1 l,'iko~i~y in c.emjpoj:l-d" in the- foHuwlu.g sit U~ tiOI L:.

'I,. - 3Du APl T'd:=;; 200~F

p" = 1.700 p5Jol PIr' ;:::: 2;700 pSii~ R." - 4rHl d /R

Reierri[)j:l ~o Fi,g.~~-26 r Ellglish Ult.i~:.), rhe lJollh"'ttUB is mAde.~ .fl:JUuW~ I

I, Starroa die ord.i nare ar 3fJ"'A P].

-2. Gri rrgl:it to 200" F.

), nmp ro [he RO-b value of 400 d! B;

1. Go leh t9 read 1. <.:p, (he vism;<;j[j" at pubble-pnim pressurE, and, ::I.lons the way, rl(ltf rile P'oim D.

5 DJiop vertjt~U}' hom Point 0 to the t!].J...",.isse.. Rea.d \'I5C9-S'tW gf~ii:llt of 0;07 cp/l,OOO psi. Tnis: ligufe is used o[t~y when p ... r -:> Pro, wiuch is the xase in chis .problem.. The- fncrease 1 rI v locosity ~~ fmm: the ... ah'!~ ,rthra1:IlN en the ru-dioot;e (Step 4 J, .SO mar~

•. ) I 0,07

"'" =. ,.j' cp'· 1000' . (P"'f ~ pd

• ··pSi:;!::

-10· . ...L __ O-:97 (2' .

~ - . ,e:p I l,fJi,JU ps.;a . .7ml-l,'OO) =11,07 cp



10 10,

vtsc 0 5:1 ,t y lne rill CDS ~h cp/I,oOO p-s,[

F.Jg. J-2n (ChCllrt IFg,o-7): ",",')11 ",5 P ltJcltc.tio# of "'till", T oct. atJd R.t~ (.n:d ·t,j_fu).~ii)' Nwte..iJ"$i;t wber« PIC' > P~)·



The viS('GIS ~ty of ~oct ~s p'd.rr4~,n!.r ~. h11<lClirm IOlf and wadeJ. ~linh}'. Fig. ~-;? 7{ Cli!i!lu'I' F'w~2) :ibio'oJO':5: thL~; ,(da,durnship.


Find the V~~~UlJlty U(watcf under rh~ followiug c;mdi· rjQI'I~;

C.N~~~l - 150,000 ppm T"..I =-200"1'

I IRing FiB."2.1 ~~ T ht::' ~Ohl'F;fln i~: 1. ';:1'1-0.43 "'P

t II

d) V,lsCOStn 0 F MIX tu RES

Thl,'! 'V[~(~~!ty ~~f il w;L.~r·il'l·o,!1 eolli'lMllslon m~)I' he J'Im.riI;Y dme; L'h~ ~ oj. ,t;"j~.hUl· L he ""'~~L tl:f o.~ (ht: uil, & ~. ,P.I".l(.ttmi limi t, Imwt v ~r. ~.h(' vl,~c;!u!oii~y of .lIt wafcr-ii'H~iltl:mul~iof'l dO~~ ]i'I1Jt ~cE~d:) rp,

Wf.Ule fluid pr'OOSUICoe in the reservoir :r:ook p:re 5J_JaOe de~ with depletion., the li.t:hDstabl.c prassure 00 the nau'ix t'€fOOins. essentially OClnS~'7lt ,i, This,

causes thepo!l:'E':-volum and .~ .b1:Jl1.~ ,volumeto ~e with depletion".

CQrrew:tions of ffal1 and. KnaEipl F':tgu:t$ :f-28, have .been. Used ~iveJy .in me literattrCe ,h(MeV& tI1:ese cotrelati.o.ns ''0,0 hot apply ar..rru: (it vary wide r.;:mge of riaServoirrOcks. They lray ,be, used o.Ttiy to give. o~ of nagnitude es.tiTates, for m€ nDre O()nspliaat,ed rocks but ·nat forfriahle sandstone,.

ForI'llationoarpres.silii li t¥. is best. ll'Iea.:eruredin the labJ·ra-t.q:ry for .~ reseIVoir rock being ·s:tudied.

Fig. 3-27" Wa:t& vis~itjr VS~ ~. ru"'ld (X11"l()@nWoo of N~l

.!, L4 il!j .5'C ~ ~ ~

L!li~. "_""""'._ ~~T ;o;;~~ • .,,!

.Fig.. ,3'"'-28.. 1I?oJr"e-wllirE ~sih:ni tsr limast:one

. ..


. ,
, I
1~~I"'_~.m~ '~~I'Io.~S\1
: .. '. I ,-
'-'~II I I
:1' ~ ~ i , ,
.~I '
I -I;I'~ .. I.J I, : I
j "-~"""'I'~"'_
-"""1 I
-- ~"~_~ ~ I
. ~- I

'I' . .1- r--!!!"
• ... ,
~ F.ig.,. 3"'2'9. P~VQIW1e ~silil1- H;Y-5~



f'9~1 'iIJ"2 fg~3

'91-4 '0-5 fg-6

'90-1 '10,·2

F'91Q-3 Fg.IDI~4 fgo.~, 'gD-6 'U'o • .,

Fglw'-1 • ,W',-1



IIB£ T~,p


,p~ tOt It.) k

~l,.b (and! ,inere:i115l:. if p ... 1 IS,.&or~_U;l' thsn ~

r~ PI.I.T~,

... l/B,


••• ~ •••• _ •••• ~T 3-30

'It.~ 'f'~.; {'," 'T", i (Ei'I,qi i~h~mly ) Ro.!,., "I' I' T .. ~ (Bn.,B~ ~h U!i: ulr::t.f'i'( ) (l,.r, Pt>. c~ ~m' P~ti) , Bob

',11" R •• y" (ur P ... ~), Ba

iii ,. JII 'II' 'I! ., .. ii

Solution Gas-Water M"tlo Densities of .NaCl solutions

II iii I i!II I!!i II 'I! I@! .... ,. iii, I •• !ii •

II! i.'. tI. II tl!' iI,!I!!i! ... Iii.

il iii ,ill '. I I!I ,Ii! ~ ~ "" II -II II: • !i!

J~31 3-32, 3-33 3-34 3-3'5 3-36 ]~37 ~38 3-39 3-40 3-41 3-42

3-43 3-44 3-45


[hart fg-1

Fin'a V ~)'·I·

G [v.t:1iI ~ V ~'..= .fOOm J I y~ ;;;;; O_70 Twf'=- J.(l~.t F PI."'f ==2,{)00 pSla

, -




a::~ 0, .,

Chart f9 ,_ 2'


50 100


, j
- . , , -
ILII l;-~:;;'A !"'''nl~( V3, I I
Ig Q Sl.:S
("n ~_I
o r " ... ~ .n,Sa':~,JII I -r-,_ io- 1-..' ,...,
,~. -
I I '. !I,u fd, ~
~ - -
~ L - l- I- i- l-
n! l- i
'<,# . I -
I 1- !-- •
~ . -- ~ ~- - I- .
I -
. ' • t-= r-l- .
- -
0 , I- I-I
- ,
r- , . --r /
~- I
. I -.~
r r - --r f- ,
B l'\ , .,
.- , 12'- 7_ """#" - ./ -:;< -';-; .
5 , . ~~- - ,
I- ~~ '[I
e ,~oti --
I ,-';';' l.'
0 ,l7 'eioT~ ~~ r
I l",\'C!'Y' L..or ~
, ' u\ :
I ~,~ '1.',=, "'" ....
"'7 ~;~'e J'il ,
5 JT ' .... ~
';t I
f--- ~ 'v " --
v: I
~~ I I
0 I I I I I
0 -
i I I I I I
, -
, l I I I I
5: I I I ,
I ! [ I I
'01 I I I I I , 65 45


45 25

2.2 40

,20 35

27 50 0.6,






G OJ s gra 'V i ty, )'g hl ii r= to ')

Pi nd T f'('" llnd Fpc.

G]ven: 'Y" == 0, i S, ~re.'IIs-e 8~'~t"$

L Enmrah<£I~~:l. ~to.n_Go upru~ "f~~. 4G6QA







N Hi
L:.. ..
0 ,0
~ .....
0 U
D a
LL I~.
>.. :!i"i;,
.... -
.c ..a
., m .
'. (Ili
.. !III'
._ ~
D. to.
E 0,4 E
Q. a
U 'U
to, ~.
II;t 0
(!) (!) Fiadz,

Gi\,en: P,...t == 2,000 J.1$ia P!I~ - 650 PSI;},

Twr - 2tKlo.F r66UoR ) TIl't' =-4l{r-'R,

p;\~ - p,..,: p" - 2;000, (ijO == 3)0.7.

l. Tl'r=T .. ~/T =(~O 10---:1.61

;. &nrcr "<lb.sdssa, (rep ) ~{3.J)7 'p~ .. } C;Cl down rDT~,,(lf 1.() I, h"''''''''f'.en Hi and L7 lines,

~- z=' 0.8"28:


psio " 15,000-

10,000 -

- 500



Chart f9-4


kg/sq em





11 ~B'-



Find] /E!:."

Gj~'ell: P~t =140 k~/:,.q ,'m T ... ~, ~9:5~C

::!.=- O,82~

ChlOlrt COmlPuh~iSj _II _ (' ~, ),', ,T.,c:i'X,',' "...Bd'

_, - I - 1\ - '--J

Big 2:, Twf Pte

f -L

Solving '()Ir D


2. ,IE = 1135


Ihart fg~·5

Yg (A ir~1.0)



I, AFgwf Bg


o.? ,


0 •. $.-


0.1 -100
10.00'· .
,I L,.ICI !



Find PF'~"'1.

GIven: "(g = n:]~ l/BJr == 140






Chart fg-6




.'1 S

P'1r"B'.3 ~,u ra, 1 .• ,000 ps i I~



0.05 --

o Q~~----+-""""'Ef-(l.~311---_____'r--------="""",,-="-':::-+---------:~""'"



- . r


O,CI:5~~-i--"""'+--::::II""""';;;"'_-=:iII"i""":;;;";'~1 a.o'JIf----f-------..""""'-.",...=t----__T_.

p~ nJ PK"'I.

G iven ~ i'~ =: ~."l~

p~, i ;::: 2,000 piS'Ea 'l'....r =:mo~p 'l':~ = {}'70 ,chan ae p w r = 2,OO~ psia.

2. 'C;'1l' up m,T"l =·2m~81f_



[hart (go ~ 1

Temp. tic OF

2Q ,4Q -

60 80

iOO 12Q


140 -


ISO 200 220 240 260- 500


Rs,b (Raj

CUI mlcy m


Given: T",f = lS01l.f

q,,"~ = tS"oo .H I]) qg.~ - 21D Md/D l'Jr == O.7's,

y" -=4rf' API

J n - Z4?~OO[}cf/~ ~on -~ is

. , 6O{ll3: ..... D 'L "U f •

k:~!sql em fOOO

Oil 'pose 'Yo

Gas )'"9







'!JmJc c - rjAPt (0 i r = 1.0) ,.7

1.6 1.5.









2. R.o.!. - R..,S!L'1",~ .ht .~.dd'·J;lsage deffflrw")n of P"r> ~(.Lpul;t~~$ ~E\'~n flow rases UE t),il lind lla<::, l:ak~ here I~ be l.j<,.< am! 'q~"e ~ above).

3. On rhe 110fllogmp!.1l, lGuir.c Pui.m a by a tine tl'itrmgl1. T ",r:O= lSO"'E ;lat:! R.~ = ·ilOO.

[hart fg:0-2


.0 V
0$ ./
V- V
0.6 -
.5 V
0."· I
D.3 I
OJ I -
0, k 0









Find k.

Giv:e;n:: P.d= :"50 k~hq em Ph = 18'5 ];:S/~,i.:j_ em

[harf (gO' ·~·3


I~ind :B .. ~,

Given R'\t> == 160 d/n:

T"!'"r:;:::: l6O".F 7~= [)]

"J~ == %' .AP:[



~I I





[hart .fg:o-4


Ba·b~-2.5 2.4

YQ (air .. I.m L7-

R _b





1.5 - L<l- 1.3- ~-Z







~ive'tl; t'~l> =4a(ld/K T,..r = 18U"f

"/¥. ={I_{i5

y~ =.45 API

2_ Dtaw il.line h:OUlII:i thruugl1 T ... r - L80°F, to rhe answer:

Boo~ 1i.24·








(Pwf .... 'Pt,'

p'sja ,


so -I '5



Ikg/SCI em


ClrUJlrt C'Qm pilJihl-li: 80, :::: Boblil-ct;!'( p.t- ~)].

Pub amite


ICO (~1'0"l ,;






Given: BulJ= L22

P~b - {USb gml iCC 1''''1 = 3,,000 psia Pb= .2/mOp:;:i1l

2.2 2 .. 1

2.,0 " c 2'.0 6
I .9 1.'9 0.80 '1
1.0 J .0
L? 1.1 '9
].6 (1.15 -:10
, l" fl,
I, .5
1.5 0.,'10
I .111
J • q, I
i.a I JS
'Il. es
I •. 2 D. fill,
1 .2 20
L l 0.55 ,
I .• I zs
,j .0 , 0.50
- J ,0 - 30 L Since Pd >P1n oil is 1JLld;t."~srnr:;!!;t,eJ. COIlO<ff! P'w1' - Ph = 1,000 psia '[0 P~b;: 0.66.

MM:k the p'piotOO' lo(';'w;d., as .~bQwn i Cl s:m.aU diagr~.

~. Coariect this point rn Bob = U:2: lind. read, 13,,= 1,'20'

[htJr:f' ,(go ,_ 6










0.8, 0.7

0.6 10,.5'9 O;!5'B

rg (cir :: 1.0)




Given: y", .= 3,(10 API Yo: =0.7.5

A~ =350('£/B B~ '= 1.2J..

.3. D,[;;!,w.:i 1]f:le. imm PO]iill[ lb ilirotlg,m B~;;:;; 1.2.1.

P ,t = O.17'gm/,cc


[hart ~g:o-7



0 ...
0 .. ",",
« E
(;I C'I
~ ,y
~ •
s: 10
.. Q. C.
u u
.a .£iI
0 ell
:t. ::l!lity i nerense, cpliPOO ps,j

Find 1.1 ",~·r.

(jj ... ell'l;·/~ - .3 o {.I API 1"wr=200~F

Pb = 1,700 psia P''I''r =:2.700 psia R~D ::::; 400 ·d.iR

"3,'Go down to R"b ::::; 40{).

4. Go lefr rn an~'~Jocmin~P.o;nf Don dl!! war: IIr.b = 1.ltill e,e.nUpoiis>e.







'M ~





m ..... _,





E 2,.Or-____::~=--....;:::;,"t--~=:t=l'~--r---j :a u



I 20


60 100 i ,~o iBQ 22Q

Temperoh:.m;~ cor

Fi,l]d 11;,.".

Given: T..t = 18Wf

p..,~ == 3;\!60 ?Sja

C:.J~Cl - 2Q;OOJppm

.;0 00 SO· 1'00

Tliim perahmi~oC


u ~ Q911-----r--=-,*~-~,JI_-="'-_I


o 20

1[' (It-tiol .i.OIid:!i in D<~~,p piin x' IO-~


[hart fw_..1





CNaC.' 300

. Pwf or Psc ,A



it; 2.00
Q) mo
~ -1.05


S~ond'(lrd Conditions



Find P''/,""VC1'-

Glve:): Cl"'IC'l = W,OOO ppm T"'f ;_ 20tnrr P..,t--= J ,000 J-~~,i9.


1_ .... IP
'0 1'.5
!tJ 1.0
• it)
s o.s
3: I_III






1\ 1 ~- I
, - I
. -
r\ \ I~ , -
, r\. ~ I-
~\ ~ -
I- . L
I\\_\ . ~ '1- ._ I--
~ ~\ I,\~ ,
- ~ -
J ~,,\ , ~ t- :-
-, ~, ~ - - 1- - 1-
10 .
, .. 1- >
I '," ~. <, <,
r... .......
~~ .~ ' ..... , '~ ,-
<, I --
....... ..::: "- , t
~, ........_, I 1
, ~ ~. ht r-, J c .. p;pm li IIO~
-'-_ - 'I"" ~ r- ISO .;.!_£O ~ N~CI • I .
-.' , fO d_ .. · !.-.. -:- - 'I
I -
, - I
I I :+1 I
- 0' 50




Find !J. ..... 't.

G l yt'n; C"J!.:I = -5 0.,00(l Pf-'(!! l' .. f = 2(jfJ~ F















To feun a o:mL-erci2lJl resi2l""i roir of hydrcoC.'ll:'"tJ'b-ns I any '9e:l 1fJg'i cal farrrlLlt ion mus·t e::-:hibit tw"ct €!8sential charaeteris'Ucs. 'l'hesc are a capacit.y fOT storagQru-t{;l it transmissivity to U~EI' fluid eonoerned, i.e .. tht!' reservoir zock lie able to QC(;Lll'11ule.'tc and store fluid· ~ andT,rmen ol;NelrJPfCIiL 'V.J€! 11.8 are dr L 11 ed it Ill!.lSt I~ p;JssibllEl for tho'Scr(;!.seNoir fluids: b) flO"olr relatively long dt~tz!:l"1cas UJ.ider Slha 11 po tenti~ g;rad1.en s.

A , PQ1"Q.91. tv

'i'he voia spaces in reservcf,r 1:iCX!k,$, for t1ii1F' rIln~t pal;~t, the int.CI:.'q);ill1ul<1.r spaces beti~rI!:lIl? se1imentiH"ji narUcl.cs. Porosity is c1~.Einoo as £I. pereerre- 8ge OJ: f }'"O ct.i.on of VO\ d '0 ·the: bu lk volume of U. roek, W'h t 1 " the pi"Op.::!J:tion of void can 1 . c:alru.latei! fa regular. rra.rl.t.J'GIiL!l1.t;.s of I.url.furrn sphc;.;r"es,

ClS sho;,.m on Lhe left r .t1':L~ l)OI'osity of eservo1r nx.:ks I1[L15t be· rl.t :n:TTlln-ea by direct. meaSlueJTaJ"l.t encore .samples In the !al:lOl":atoty .or f'_.,'-:ttLma:!;ed in slt.u

by it~ U log ana 1 ysis.

Poras i ty of rcrn1':)Qhecrrall y pad..1{ed spheres - 26%

Grain. sorting ,silt, clay an] cesrerrballGn affect sandSrone po;t'o'sity


Pl""OCesses subsequent, to serl.:iIfle:nt:atloo ~Icercnta.ti.on, re-o:ystallizatioo" solution., weathering, .frac.turing) ,r can m;.d.ify substantially the proportion and distrili1tiop of 'VOid space, InreservoiI" e:ngine€lrL'1g 1,OOI:y the mtercnnnected or raffEictj_:ve J.!O,rosityis of interest since this is the rnly capacity which cart make a con.trihl;ttion to flaw. Pore spaces. initially preseu" tut suosraq;uently sealed. off by ce;rentation or ~crystalllzatioo effec-'::LS are of i:1O inte:rest.

P:t.lnar,y p?l."'O's,it?i l'€!fers to the ~id spaces remaining after sedimentation of the grarl,ulea in tJti:=, ma.trix aM hence is a ma:trix porosity.

Seo::mdaI:"Y....p:?~sity is the oontribuUon fr."an pits,vugs, fractures and other d.1scol"!iirluit.ie8 .inthe bulk vol~e Df the mat.rix~ The c.xmtribution of secondary ,p:>roBi ty to thQ over all bulk pcrosd, ty is generally sma 11 ye t it. can lead to dramatd.c inCLia.!lses in bulk ~"1'fC.abili y.,

F'rUll tJ1B rooervt.lir eng1ncl?x ir:gpoi nt of vi.e":;o,1 r tJ1it2 dis tinguishit:~~' f'ocmr bElt'wel?jl p lma.ry and secorilal:y :l;Crosi ty i5 not the Of occurance bu.t the very

eli ffc.rcnt capaci ty'v;herc; an ir.d:.elr'ro:n.nectr~ S~~:al."Y pores i I:y systen is present. 'This is called 0 lual pxosity system.

As sl"lowtl Jn figu:r~ 4-2, the po osity of reservoir rocks ro.'ay rantJe ftun al.lOut 5% of bulk vol'l.lIt1:e to about 30'1(, of bulk volure f the l~ ptlt'os - t:.y ranje nomally of interest oo.lyUl cilua.l paI:'Ositysystt:m'i:i+

It: will no,:rmaj J 1" be pr.;lSsiblc todis'ti.nglrish any 'C2!ff:ecl:sl of dual [lO,rosH:.y if tlle '!roarse" syst:ern has a. flo,; capacity al:>:!Ut ~ orders of magnitude qreater t:11iUl I;:hal: of the Ufine.'1' system. \Ilith Ieaser CCI ... '!tra.s·ts~ OO:haviour is virtually indistinguis11able fran;rle poros.i tysystaru; with ~ het&lagenei -ty. ill. t:l1is .situation generally only jX)l.'05ities than iil;Qut 10% arGl likely to be of C(J11fercia.l interest, the 10' generally be-in;r of .interest only ~Jhen. a dual SYS,I:Sll is clearly defi:nable.

~~'~-1 l~ OJ]ll~_j- 'PYi-'.~~~C,

[ r IT' ] ' _b:~"lLl

'~r- (- r--'-9:'l) /

-<_,- __ ,,.__._ll L

___ .~. < ~'!i

$:::C ~

--"""'itl.ljJ1 >"1

<: .1l'1 e>i ,i m:lI 111'1;1

F' g., 4- 2 • Rarqe of rMtriJo:: p::;ros i ty and penreabi II ty of cnwre:reial i neerest; of oonvootio~ and fract_ured - dual por,OSil:y systen,lS.




... ,







'!he peureabiH ty af a rCiCk isa rreas:ure of its ~cific flo.v capacity and.

can, te detelllJined only by aflOi!r' ~ril'rent. ~in:ce ~ab:i.lH:.y depends

upon oontinui-t:y of pore $p<J!Cle" there xs mt any un.ique rel<;l~tion be'tween -the :pJrosi l..y of a, :nJrj""'Je and its [.;emeabi.1i.ty , (e.xrept. that a rock must. have a" nonzero porosity if :it is to have a norr-zerc ~bility).

l J




Henry Darcy ,~rimented wi!:h filtration. of v,1atcr tru.':Ough LlJlOjnsolidatc.-il sand bed .. s abclut 1356. Too results of Darcy" sst1.Klies, far horizontal flow, can be wri.tten in differential fonn

ThiS is the d.efiningequation for the ~surem<a....nt of pe:~ability' ~ £lOil ''\:., 'l'he 'tJJ1i t 0 f prap:::!t"tiOM li t.y k I 00 t\'i\..~wl(JJCi ty am pr~ssure gJ:i3dj_ent, is die coefficient of penre,31bdl1ty and is ~uaU:Y~SUl..1Qd in Percy.

Nooo t1lC1.t the coefficient of pe_rrneability k , is a rock characteristic inctepcnderlt of tho fluid used far 1 t.o:; neas~t.

1) Practical definition ofth,e Da!:'g

In the oil inc'hJstry pe...l'f!'e(:(bil1ty is exp.t'ess....~ in Darcy 'Lmits~

A rock,' has a ~i1' ty of 1 Darcy if (1" pressure gradient. D,f 1 ,a,un/em indur::e8 a £10',.,1 r.ate of 1 cc/per om, of cross'-gectional area o:E' a liqW4 viscosity 1 ep, '.!'h.e Darcy is large for;:) practical um.t , and the mil1idan:'1 is more ICQm:Only used,

Fig.. 4-'3. Defini.tion of a .oarcy"


The Darcy thus defined~ i5 a mixed utlit '>!;l1ich ~y E!.\<'Ef'I:.tually be replaced by ,a, new sr unit.

It can be dE!l:ft::)ll5t:ra ted as fo llQ;IS, tl'lat k h~.sme u.ill.ts· of length2 ani 1 ba::n .. "Y is equai to 1].Jlti2 ,.

k =


T x-2- x l.

. __ ~L~. _~ __ .. '"


- ,L'

1 Dan.:.y -.


L= Length F"'l Force T= Time

2 L

x em


\-\!hile- grain si:lC has a negl1g1hle e.££ect. on tlu~ romsj_ty of a rock, this paT.:meter nos .a prec:laninant effe<:-1: on permecu:dlity. This is so because Follze contrrol.s the total ~bOd, surface, Each qrilll1 has a wetted

surf ace surrounding' it where flu:!. d ve1cci ty is al~/Jay~ zero, aT'ld shearing fl"ictiol1 is formed J,etween this zero v,eloci'ty l~y,er and ~ passing fluids . ''l1.''I11S IfOre pre-ssure energy Ls consmod in mqvj__ng a given q'.;'tity of: fluid tlu"OUgh a .f.inf:: gran"Jular p1ck {·lith its Iarqer ",-,;l,tted surface and cozre-

~rordingly higher frictional Losses) than th.:l:louq'h a coarse granular pack - -

of egual pcros; ty.




Fig 4-4 ~ Effect Qf g.rain si*" on ~11i ty.

As an exanple af . the effect size IOn T;\(ette:::l :9m"face" ~ 1:he wet-t.ed· surface o.f a. 1 m3 rectarql.Jlar conduit. r;,~th a 1 lit;} rectangular oonduit filled witJ::l .·1' mil ~sand grai.rJ.6.

.s .-
S :;
S =
S -
- F 19 ., 4,.,.5 • Exa!l:I'.IJ?ll:~ i lltl.St:ratin.g affect of grain sb:e: '00 ~ tted surface .'

Gra:nlliar r sd.L" clay inc:' 1 and p1l:"OOeSSSS Sl~€!C[Uent to sedi ~ m;mtation lOOntianed prev·'OOsly, 'such as solution, canentati,on, 'tt.'Eathering, and fracturing: a...ll act to influeh.ce toth. the p:n."OSity cmd~ility 'Of a rock.


C-~t of pe:rmew:>ility

Pm.JDCabili:ty can be nEilS1K~ l'JY passing a fluid of known viscosity thro~ ,a. C']lindrical mre cut fran the zoek (axis paralLel to thebadding plane) of known ditueJl8.ion so and Ire<::l.Stn: i:llg' theprnsS1.JJ:€ drop and flo",r rats.

~S:0~ .. , /]0-,,-, ,-

{HO'.V)- .


l'ltJooI:R " '.

TWaiN(;; --..,. ~l.' ; .

..... .... ,

H~"'~. ....."" t'(;_.


I'IPE__./ ~

TO I'll::MI'M~H:A ~Ai "E.neAL .tLOW

I ..

The pe-n'l'eability ofa cnl.':e spec1lIen. i.5 rncsteasily rneasuredusing gas

(ni trogcm. or air) at pressures of ai:;()ut 1 a trrasPh.aJ:e_ As the vol1.lll¥;;!:tric flew rate with the pressure along the flo.rl path, g,as, fl.or.\r ratesg, measured at :rrW:xtn care pressU!l:'El (Pt+PZ) /.2 have to be oott';ectea tel Qr !:he f lc;:w rate a.tthe zeferenoe pressura 'f:or the ~ur€rnEillts, Fb.~ 'Ihis is rone as follCMs :

Fran Bby,1.e's lar;.; ::

g ;;~

.' P1+P2'

substituting .g fot' Q in the DaI:G.1'~ equation .IDOl" linear flaw, k = ~P~P:2)A

_ 2Q4.r. Pn

• - A(l~~ - P~,)



Q = gilS [101,1 rate I at reference prB"".:5sure on} /sec L - lengt_h of core, at]

~ ~ gas v:is,cos' ty r cp "}

A - areas of COTe·, an"'"

P = absolute press. at"TIl •

SUbfler Iot; 1 '" up6'u"CaIII'I p~3S.,

,2 = d~lllsl-_~ press. b '" base pressure for q as mcas lll."'8ri:le"n 1-

It may be not.etlthat flcr ... t fur liquids through p;)~"'CIUS media are propor ianaI 'to P'1 - P2wh1.1e they vary witf1 Pf - P~ for gases.

KltnJ~g eff~ct,

'Wh.ilG! pc~)il'ty is a d1ar:acte~dstic of the 'rock Md independent or tile fluid used, gas-' flcm data must be conccted. fo - its beha.vioor I 1 th(:l very fine pore .~ssages where the mean f~ p.'l.t.h 0 - the gas mlecul~ approaches t}H~ p;-1Soogd

dirrim).t; ion. .

kg ~ pemcabil,i,ty 'to gas

kl = penooabiUty to liquid

i,Pj +P2_

Pm· '= meal! pressure on gas ~ Z

b ;, constant for ega.s - .Liquid ,s-yste:ns

.A.plot of -the recipr(;loC;al of tbemean preS,S1.ll"e (Pil ; E2) vs, ~ilit;y at several pressures extra;r_:;f.:ta'tes at p= 0, to the liquid ~ility.


~ Tf--:.: .... ,x_Cj! ~i!~r:

Fig. 4~8,. P'el:l'l"E;;;Ibility of core saIliq;Jle .ll. to air at vari..Ou.s prassurea, {Aftp_.r Klink.enberg), "



D • Me.:',BUrerrent of p.')TOsi,tv

The def ini tiQo'1 of porosd. ty' re::rmres thai: both the bulk VQl:lll'tl8 and ,either pore or volwre:s af tile' roCk :seItiple be debe..r:mined.

T)'Ie hulk volUil:le of a rock sanp1e Ls roodily measured by'mercu:r:y OisplaoerMnt:. '\ojj,ere 6J }:X)TIlT:ctru.':' .:ii.nstnniient. is, used, the: vo11!.life can be L-ead dir@,--'tly fn:m the ~terinq phrnger!s, mi.crrmater scale.




1} 'The rock sanip!eeva~ted, and T,o,!p_igllSd, then so. hu-:a.ted in brfne or other fluid and,re-waigh~'-


% roro.SI'l¥

_'\liieight of fluid i.njecterl X10Q

dens! tY of inj ect....,.,j fluid X core bulk vclllIlY:;1

Excess fluid adhering 00 sample surface or 1€k"{CleSsiVie dral_.rmge' fran the pore spaces c1uri.l1g weighing affect 3.CC1..JY(',i.C'_{ Id£ the roeasurement.,


2) In the B::~{1c.s,.;r method; of ITr!2a.stU:'lement~ using' the ~b..unl6nt shown m-xwe, the pore volr.lITE can be fC'..u"1d, by' COlipre's5mg a fixed v:ol~ of

air from P l' (usua,ll yone a.mosph-e:ra) t,? a. reference pressure P.2 (1lSi.lally

:2 a+-n-... '''''_.'. "'...J.:.""r;-"~) and 1f'\ .... \1-'~ -·"1"'"' "0',1 ,.~ ""h"'-""'.,,,,, ~"'",... fhe ~'-'r~~""""" '1~ ""

,U,I"-Iw:;J'fJl.::. ....... -1i.::Z...... ~J ~~0.:,.,,1" ~ '0 "-J. ¥ .....",.~H;:.;O' ~J..L...LoLll"':i:!'::=~~ 4.,LU~.;;.;L.L Ul .t--.~.J,~'iCi,. '.F'

repeatoo vri th the roCk. saItg?le in t.he chamb:;;;r'., Tll.e nmtrix vo11Jli:'li:3l nay be calculated fran th.e volumet.ri.c changes b2f,:r ... ~n P'i and P2'

SincetJ1E! ~oo]ple has been penetrated u-nly by air it can be used for a.ddt core an ar lys is tests.


3) Pore vohl!1~ can 00 quickly and easily ~a.sure::i by injecting mercury under hiqh, pressure using a proci,sionV'Olurnetric marcu.ry EfUITlP.



With lew poros,itYt ,fine pJre stru.ct.ure sys't;art-S; big., p:te!?s1..l!.I'C:sl"!lay re necessary to approach 1,00% disp"iacerien:t ~ and correctio.ns far mercury and s tee lvcsse:l ty JfB'y b:::ca:rE neoe5s.aty. A·t pressures of 6/000 psi - 10,000 psi! attainable r, standard €q,uiprentr most of 'the pore space oontribuE.inq to n,~ is ClCcupied.

using the SJl1'1e equiprenlL to inject meas~ vol1..l!'t1.eS of nl@rcury at .a oori(ElE,1 of pL"essuY.'e8 a liIiCrC\J..l:y' .-:::dpillarJ{ pressure eurva, tI:lhicl! i 5 l'"e.l<l !:~1' to 1:l:!e T.\,'IZrLel- CClpil1at:y p~8su.rC curve nilay be obtai ned.

hlthoogh oil/VrJat:er or alI:/;"'2I,ter e.xpr:i.lments, c.:rl t:: cond\;ictsd Lo dete.mtinc mpl.llcuy pressure vs, satura' ion relation~hips, these m.1.y be very prolong= t:ld because of the long J: il1lt"S requil-efl y r~ch 'EqUi lilJrh.lIll. at ION' w -teL'

sa:lurn.Li ~. -

'l'be convent' ooal mothoo fo: m.easuri ng capillary p:reOOlJ res is Lh~1.",e fore an eccel r..,lted. meU"IL 11, using t1 inj~tion of I\1.l.?t'CU!:y (a.. r;;Uungly ,tlDn:-,wct.ti119 fluid) I i:n.t.o ;;m, evacuaced core sample at hiohpl-Cfj;<ure.

Th,p IlterC1ll:Y' enp '_lJLiU,Y pr~~~m.res ,C:.;"Iln 00 GI.'"Jnve too i.rrto Q' 1-w. er or gas~ter cnpi 1 , e!i.ry prcssUl"'EI-.s I w.rough Lh.. [i\~ ora ::



(0005 ~) (

(0 LX$. I ) merCU1Y

P oillwa:ter "" F rnerC1J.ry


P t;,1as/wiJter ;= P uercury

( 1 : 5 )

(0 cos 6) qiJL.;;;/~~ater (0" cos ej n\ercw:y

'l,t.neJCc 0 is the surface Lension.ard RI tile oontact angle which will be dis(..'USsed in tlle tlE',Xt Cb.apter .•

ThJ:oUgh the' use 01.. capil.1c.t.r;y pre.e;;;sure data; the. theoretical sabll'ation existJ.n;"j at any lave.l above tile hydrocarrxln ater contact can 'be det.eD', and the. mctej"'Jt. ann .irq:ortanae of ,any transition zone eval.t.W.too.

Sampks whj chhave beel!1. s:ui::<j!ected: to ~._Jrcury i nject.ton can not 00 used :fn:etbe:r l~·awry tests.,






Tlle rer.:d.rtltioo of hydr'ocarl::ons aM oQJ.'1naoo water in the t:fi!servot.t' at initi~l comlltions ·and dllt"ing de:plc'tion is: strongly depen ~ent on the i nterfaci.:ll rQrcc~ winch act; 1~t\tJee.n the fltrlds and tJ1B rock matt-I:;;;, Emy p1"OpeI: w"ideratanding of f] ul] bel'la\riQU ill raSie.t-voir rocks ~3qins with a qra.sp of the princ::iplcs 0 F su:cface censdon, ".-ole tability I and. c\lpillarity~

'the awarent fiJJn ~,r! separaees bJQllrnrlsciblcflnkls .... uch as aiI"-'>latet;" is mused by unequ J attrac-i'Ve' forw.s of oolecul,es ·at the interface.




It Lsbeceuse of tl1!.e513 ;1tt:r:acti\~ forcers tilat. a bubble oontracts .irrto spherlcal. form. .It can 'be shQiI',;n thooxet..iciil.lly and '~";;ierirr~nta.lly that a pt'e.ssure diff'.~rence Jl1USt exJst across .;:my' ".11:."\-I€Ki fluid interface ~. the. smaller the radius Hle gre,a.b?r is the pressUl:€l. on the concave side.

in dynes whE'.re ~ ~

0" = surface ten S top I

dyn.C51 dI1 . ,

r == bunb 1 (~ radfus , (lUi P z; pn:,s51.1.rCJ dynE-'S/em




Surface telno5ioo csnbe Qe1teDnined by the .I:ing m:;t:hJd j;n, which t:heforoa, F 1 required, m bl::E!;;Ik: t.h.e .~ ~lllarfi.l1tls is ~OO.

I' Cl:= :r ·1 in d)vnIEla/ an whet'@:;

L. _---=2n:_:_:,_:D=-· _. ~ ••

0' c:::: ~sll..lrfaoE:. tension I dynes /:an Fol f:or.ce,r a~

D '" diameter ,r an

!!iII1 I

'w~ter Benzene C¥clQl':!exane N-he¥:ane N"'~

12.6 crjfnes/ C1l 2fL9







\.qettabi] I Lv

- - . ....


The tendency' of one fluid to di£:place aromer ftun a solid s.u.rface is aetr=>x:rnin~by the r,cl.atiVf?~tt,abiHty of the: fluids to t-he solid,.

I~f the 'WOrk of the adhesi.on of flUid ]A is gn=ater U'liI1:1 the 1{,Ur,k of adJlesion of fluitl '8, then fluid. 11 will displace fluid B f.rol\ the sl1,:r:-face until M equilibrium oontact. C:lJl91e e is atta':':"l'1!ecL


The CCJ11t.aCt anqlc may be used as a Iflethcrd. of ,expt"'cs~in"J ~tb)Lility~

J_f thf;:' c;ontBci- . .J..ngle lI'eac;uroo tl.H:oU<Jh liqui~ A is ncuba, the merrlacus l::ctlJolCcn. the liquids will :t~oor;c..lve i:ap,rards B I al"I1:1 Llqutd A 'will di.spl.ace

J .iqu i d B fran. a. solid aurf ace ([X..J\'orler or gr pack 1. Liquid A is. sait:.l to be a wetting phaSE! wi tJ) r'E..~t· to the solid sur face. and liquid B.



I Mil: 1 ~,"""""JE ~~ (I:G,O-o;:T:.I\t'{i' /

:77."///./, .... - "1B'··1?"··~ :::::7' '. /.1: /7. / .!

'01 nple re we-il'lrlg OClIT ic! we' Lng

t ~e rQ contoc r (l"gl-e, I {~on'o<:t IC i')g ", ;,if J

10'-' degree cl'f 1 iq.J'd wett ing kom.;,cr 'a Mig Ie 153Q)

q' -

s= in~rfacia.l. tension



Sl ,s

s -
1 -
e '" g.c..s

ao Li.d .Llqufd conl.act;

Wb.en liguld ~.olets the surface: afa :f .ir.Jebom glass capj_llary~ r surface t~nsion at_"(J1JnI1the l>eri.f ery of tnBCO:flta:ct pull8 the liquid inberE ace up .the tufjc until an cquilibriwn isrea.choo Twith th~ O;O'i.lnwat'd. force due to the liquid ooltm'ln height.,


c. capilla:r i ty

_\/~ -~
p .
. "
I11pw -r I
I -

\:: ",' ./ ,"1~';,1 fiM'!

~ • ~ i!II ""-,i~' it .111

, -

'(' IJ,}{JI~ oJ It I J'tJiIH~


wtl.ere:: C,;") '" s'JJ[face ;:-'el'1SiQ.n~·!CllI

:t- radilI..9· ,af tJillJef csn

h '" capi11ru"'Y rise-,f Gll

'pt _ d~i.t:Y Qf grar:ns/oo em.

~nsit:t of 'l;/'a[Xl:r tgr8.r~/cll an.

~'"'''"''''"'1'''''''''''''''_'~' """"" ~,....... ;L.~ ""*'~v.i·h. n. ",lR '6. .....,,_ I" ... ""' .... 2

~~u~ -'!.:i.iJ...,Ii:.iI.~,.JLV.~"ii, "'..1a,~ ~~ ~,L~· LX Li" J!Q~..r ... rJ,...;L~1I iJI.i...'!.;or

",;on.tactBit~-lebeb~n liquid arid. 'solid cos B -= -1Whe:n. e ::: 1 BOO I fOr c;ciuplete


Pv .-
8! =
e ._ A . pressure P2 6W1icd al:ovc t.rm liquid in the; cap.i11ary sufficient to: l~ tJ.'1i.e meniscus to tl'l8SalI'.s :Level (pl}Bssure:P 1) <1S In l"he reservoir is ~tlitl to the capillary p:res~llr~i Pc' l.1hat Ls , the capillary pressure

Pc = P_2- P1 .in tlli5 condition ofog~.ilibrirnl,.


20 oos 9 ~cap

Cilpj.1l.aifY PI-~ssure bet"~ SEhe!lca1pa:rt.1.clJ8:s

Capillary pressure ootweenthe wettirlg ana non~ttincJ flUids a.t tI;la contact ~ ~riool grains can be ~res,5ed .in tel.1M of 'the two principal radii of curvature of ~ m.eru.eCiJj6t R. Slfid R2 ~


.N; hydm(;.,"n'b0ns migrate and aCl'.::unuJ.'a\'tc In the n!oserroir rock, a 1.lOrtiQn of 'I:his- connate: 'V'J'atE:r ii s displaced,.

Both siliml Si02- and. rolcHr~car.:o3 haw .:ii, st:r\.)"ng tendancy bo rau.a:in wa:t~r we -ted. 'thcrcrore.. connate water rr..:ly only be displaced by hydrocarbons mi'3ra ti.rlg in t:o fhe l:E'serv<air Lc the extent of ill t talniny an c:qul1 ibri 1.lJ11 ~;lhen the pre...~S\u:e arising f on, llJ:i:d dens ty di f ferences Is cqu;:U l;O tI-te capillary pressure be~'1 the fluid phases at a p.:rrLicul r Lavcl.,

T,aking a hypothetical W<l'le"- (..'OnEElct t 'oi!1ere ~rater saturati:ll'1i is 1 00'% T the prt";~ 81.lrediffcrencp between tht!pl"llases n,t sr",uc_ clev.t:l. t:ion " 1'1 l' above th __ La lra:vif;::l, ... ,ill 1

Po ~ l?w - 9 h ('~\I - ~o)

Thj A pX."es,slk'fCe difference, which 1.s c:qtJ-fll totlle1 lC'apill.:ll")"pl"lI9SS11-t'€ ~ obviously increasns wi tJ'l h ight ~ve the il}'l.l.rocar'bon - ,<]atercontact ::U1(:1 Cl gl;~~nL in tile ~apill~y pressure .i__mp1i'li'.8 ~ gradient in ~ vk tet" St1t'llr'--

a Uon ab:Jvc th~ hy(l . xarbcn,

If a.'I:. _S~ elevation, the water phase D2etmes, disoont:inOOu~ ~ l:.ha:n ehe water saturataon (,s ... lir) becares essentially cc--nstantt :and irld pendent of the p~e5sur~ ('1i:fferenrebeb,~.n the' phBlscs_~


_0. _ ........,_\



WAUA SJo:;l,IoRATrOH. 5, ...

F' j_g. 5-9. ConparisOI1 of fluid rise in a capi lla ~y tLibe bundle of v.:tryi ng dj_amet~rs illustrates U1f~ d'stiibutiQrI of saturat.ton in the t.rans.i, t10n ZOJ1P. al:,ov~ an oil!<>ra tar ron ta:r.t. '.






I.rred'ucibJ e w~ter sab.rl':aHon.


The mtntnnm satu:rat~_iOTl t:.hat. Q..dJl be incJ.uoeclby di.~pl aG€!lll€!nt Ls one in the 'Wetting ph~ becL'"],T!leeS ru.S"CL1n.ti:nOO~i In: .a.~g of uniform spheres this v,1Quld ~espond to'a 5ta,t;a ~1it'£1" t::l1G wetting phase t\kmld exit:; cas p:mdul·.:u:':ring'5 <::i{ .~~ oontact.s, T'h~ m ininnm saturat.Ion ()or.t~sr;xm.ds-to tht=' ~T1ct11.est n)!:>,iU), .r:adius of cr..rrv.§!;'e ~ ana .~±mam ,ca;pill.~' pres:surc. SiriCC. th~ w~ttil1g pl'la5C wi.ll l:eo::ma: discontin.oous at. scme finite Co1"pill<1Ty pres5~

ure {oorrespontling to n(! +!.} fur (;1. single CC!lI:tact.of two ~al ~r~5)

. 11 .' :d

thcJ.~will al~ys be SQIC in:odu,c1bllJ \~r.ltru; satur,),ti,crrt-a S.:1lJ;.uraLicm whi('..h

cunrl~':)tLe remlcerJ }J:Y ru.:E!plfK>EII~f1t by ~ oon-~"'I:!ttin'9~e ~ I').Q a~tt:er hO!i'\l ~TJ!,dt a pres.'EUI"e is appliro t.o the system .

ru; sham l.")elClW' gTuin 5i:7;e has a strcr,tq ir'lfloo.noo on t.he. l:r:'t'educlbl e Wa t.e:!:'" S~';lttDt.]1;;.j on ,





SmCl U gWCl~n !; i:;lB,wk





Fig. 5-1 0 • ru~ of m.e capi llary pressure ''VS ,. satur atdon 0JJrVB.

Athiql:J.& wetting phase' .sat:w:'a.tioflS.f the mean railius of inCLea~Sf and the capi llaJ..."'Y pre.s.sure decreases '" For idealized s:ys·i:ems it is' r:16ssiJ:Jle: to I=1s.tablishan. r;;'lation: be~l1, pressure. and sat.uration, put.. this .is not p<)ssllileicH: mDI€: D::npl~ nal-uri:Jl f(fI:.Utlf> ~a. Tb,e natur€\ .o:!=, theJJ1t...eLstic.ies, pa:rti(lul~rly in c:B.l"b6p_at~s( .€.Itd.the G1~Ly content of g'M(J_s has a11 import4'11,t effect on OOJm~""te ~rat!er sa.tura.tioo.

Fig .. 5-11. 'Sl1Ll'p8 of capillary ct.ll:'ViP through th!i! tt',flInsltlon ZOne is strongly affec1:f:!c1 by Uwrlis.t:riliuti on of grain size .•





Before ,13; noo-'ilJetting pha_ge can peneerate a capi.ll.a.IY"t.ube or porous medium tha,t is satlu:-atru 'With a" 'II~tting: phase, ~ minimum threshold prassure must

be e>rer-ted. -










P, 2 (j Cos 9



Fig ~ 5-12. r..o:rtpOlri5lDni of c:li.sp.1aoonm:t frcnl ,a capillary ti.:lOC:, and gran"ul~ packs.

To displace wa:trn: (the wetting t*~ase) fn:m.a single capt lary tube, a pressure s.1igh.tly wJher than the capillary pressure must be applied to che oil {non-wetting rJlase} •

:Lik:O'i!.tl_se, to displace 'water fran a ·gJ!:.,," pack a pressure .greater ehan l;:he threshold must be applioo to rhe 'Oi,l. D1splacar.ent pressure Ls ccmtrollOO by the. s:ize oft1:l.e pore 1~S r t:'.... as define(] by the

Lelat.1.on given in figure! ~-12~ e::r

,G. Displa~t af aLl


• The mechanisms aff~ctir'3 the or':'ginal r, of hy~ ~1ich have I' migrate::]: into the. r~n'Q'ir ha'1,[;8 been diSOLtS,sed, ,t;6Ili,e.t:'. It. is IlCM usef:ul to examine qualitatively '~ rneoha..Iisms bY' which accumulated. hydrocarbons can be ·d1:s;plac.n:'l fl:'!:."l'fl eleIen"'ar;'1 pol"'~ Channels of reSeJ;'\1Oll rod<:.

Wa.ter tends to displace oil in a piston l:i.k:c fashi,on~ nlOVin.g fir,st c.lose to the J:1OCk surface wh~ it is aided by -capU lary forces in squeezing oi fran tJ19 gnaJ ler channels.

Gas, peingnr;rp- lIiObile terrl.sto IilO"'e easily alOng: the center of tbe larger

~ . . cl . . - , - 1 ... . oi 1 I~ ... ", __ "~ "'. ~~ - ~ ~ ~ , ....I-. --_._ ~, .,

pom -; - laOn,e..Ll5 _ eavlng .. il;:!! .uLJ!.U. lWl, wt~· ~~·~er Ul-J.Q1 u .=..L~ •

Fig,. 5-13. Naturaldi.sp.l~t of eil by \l/ater in a single pore cnannel , ~Courtesy'J01..l.tl1al of" P,e:b:Qleul"11 Technology -.June" 11958) ~

Fig. 5-14. Nat1..U:al di:splacen:mt of oil by' gas in a single pore d::I.annel. (Cour:tes"j Journal of PetroleW1, Technology - J\&l1S,~ 1 958} •



Fig., 5-15,.,

G. s displaces oil first 'uou high ~ll ty pore cll~mel.s~ Fl:lsidool oil occurs in lowr . pani':eabi:l. i typom oharn1.e~. (CO'lJriteay .JOO1-nal of Petrole\'rm 'Tcochn:)logy ~ June, 1958) ,.






During aocumu_lation of hydrocarlx:m in the reservoir; sore threshold pressure had to be overo::ne in. MIer to panuit ITiE! non.--'l' .. ~t;ti.ns 'oil be enter the

wa:ter Sfi.turated pores '.'

'lbese S~'ie oapi1lat1' foro;;s n:7i1 aid the expWsi'ou of oil fran the tight an:i dead-end FX"Ss by inhibi:tio..'1 of liOjater a100g the sw.-face of the grainS, ina type of II rourrtl!'r fleW'.,

Wa't€'1'" satw"a tion bui 1 as UD at th"i s poi nt

Fig. 5-1 7 . Cap" lla._ry pressure gradient. causes: oil ton'ClVe out, and water '1.'.0 HOve into n dead-erd p.')redh.armel 'When sand is 'rnater"'"'l~t. (Courtesy JOlJ.rn 1 of Peu"oleUl'n Technology- June"HIS8) ..

H. Residual oil

Residual eil is left m the' smaller channels '~ interfacial tension causes the thread of oil to b'!:."Eilk r Lea;ving ~ oil in droplets, which 'I;enr] toMSi.JrI:l'e spherical form And: tlme.'1 gradient pressure is not sufficient to deform the bubble e.not:tgh to pass thrOugh ti,e snal1er diameter pore openin;s~

W'lltf!r and -

oH out

We to'r in

Fig. 5-18, As thr.ead of 0':'1 gets mruler,~ mterfaciaitensiOn increases in ~ film at, l.~tricted.Pai.nb5 A and. B, \.\ihe_re fum subsequentl "j breaka; (Ccllrtesy .loomal of Pe'trole'llit Tochnolcgy - .June, 1958) ~



Fig.. 5-'1" '9.. WBlitel" drive leaves: .resiclual oil in sam ~11.~ surface £:l...h:ls .b~ a.t. rC-Buic:t:i;rn1S in ElAnd. par-o ct1ZLnt1elS. (COl.J[l""t:esyJOm.''lIat] Qf Petro] 'e!ml 1'ed:mQlogy _, ~Jllne. ¥ 1958.).



!!iiIi. -




I~ Relations be'bi;eeiJ ~ili'ty' aM -fluid s,aturatlons

production of h~ro,ns inevi:tably ,llwQ1Vioo s1mul~ 'flCJiI.TI of bolo and. 'three fluids in the .reservcdz roca, '.!.'he ·prese.tLOe of one flui.d in the -p::l:I"OU$ media ..ilTpOOes the flC1ii of other phases ,.,

1) Absolu,te pameabilit;t, covered in the preceding' ~ter I is, a properL"y of the, rock and' not 'of the fhwu. flowinq ,tlu:ough it..,A1::lso1u'OO pe~ility is m?..a..sw:ed wi t.h a fluid which saturates '100% of the pore, space.

2) Effective l~JJ!lBctbili~ - Is 'the ~ility 'Of a flCh1ing phase which doea not satur~te "1)0% of the rock; '!!!."g.




'1l1e effect! ve ~1li ty is a1~,'Sys, lesst:.han the Clbsolute valUE of k for the rook,.

The effecti w pen:ooabili t)r' of (II fmd s a function of saturation. In carplex porousrre:U<l it is not iii unique function ,of ISw and.depend.s, upon '1119 capillary structure of the rock and. !::he ""'etting characteristics as W911 as its sa.turation histo:ry I j_ • e ti1e prev:Lous saturati-OtJ. ~

Rel.a1:i ve p:m;rre.aibility - :ls Ule ratio aiel f ecti vc .penneabi li'ty to absolute ~,ab'ility ~

k k= - ~, "Tg Jf.

A ty_pical set of oil/vm:ter relativepen:reabllit'¥ curves are ~ on the next page r toge~ \I'o'ith the corresponding capillary- pressure relatior.:Ls. Both are plotted \'5., T.>t'at:er saturation to illusttate '!::heir rela.tionship ..

Starting with. ,a 1 OO%. 'll,a,ter sa,tm':'at-ed ooze at point (1) the thi:eshcld pressure J:Il,l,5,tbe. ~.~ oofoot-e the'no.n~;t:tir..g fluid (oil) can disP+a_C€ thewett:ing ph.ase f.luidl' ·'i.~teL fran. the :rnattix~

At, higher aispla~t pre9S1.lre.8 in~irq' arocliU..l1,tll, of 'W'aber' are drained from the core unti.l at (2) t.~e irreducible ~tersatl,lration is, reached~ At (2) ~ relativ"e p"'~b.ility t~ w-aterJ:: becalies zet'O. N.ote tIlat the mlq,ti:vepeJ:l[19ability ro Qlil ,at- point- (2) 'can nOt reach 1 wO'.ct!;; the i.rreduc1b1e ~t:er reduoas the ,arrount (j,f .~e v'ol~to oil flOW'.

.rill - ~




-c .6



w >







WAT'IA ---.

1m -




IiiI _-


I ••







.4 .6 .s to (I .2


'i\!J1E>J1 water is imbibed. .int.o the core ·,.,1 CCintai.ns oil ana water I the saturation of wa~ incr&1.Se.s up to Et'le ·point (3}, wh-er-e 1:118 residua~ oil saturati'on i,sreacP>.ed. '{'he r'elative ~abili t;y to water can. not reach a valus of 'l , 0 because of t:he res~dual oil rGltl,s.ining .in. the }?Ores.

J.)Mobility ratio

The rates of oi L and \IJ'a bar pn::dJ.l.ction in the transi:tl.oo 2;000 are governed by the viscosity ratio. anal effective ~ili·1:Y ratios ·of the fluida,. M:lhility ratio MI is ,cEfined as ;

\;MP l.\, L

VJ.W koI1Jo,


U\,o;I' L

In spirn of the wide variety ,of::::ore st.ruc:tun~ . n :re.,Cje1,voir ~;,.S, p.ref~ el1t:lal wet't::ai')i 11,g, hetr.,~ LIu1ds ,CU'"1-d. ::t:'OCk surfaces I ani! f lldd pl;~:t,-tie....~, DOl'lllalized plots of rela:ti ve-~iH ty (ko/k r kg{k; kw/k) saturation g,~al similar:!. ties of fo:rm,. It is, tl~1 tl't:tIac::tiv,e

in gt;~'l to fOl:l'r.l!ll1lte 'itlile;OJ::·etirnl.~ s.mti.~TipJ.rical r o'I"purely 6nl':liriGal rel.ationshipsto assist inSl'iOO~ "extrap;:!la.ttng t extending (or even ~pe:nsin:;:J''''1 th) ~~tal ~a:ren:ts ofeff.eGtive peuneabili,ty ~

This is particularlys.o since aocuraba, :reliable; r,cpr,oducllile, e.--rperi!nent_, al measurenerrts abbe len:rthy and trouble'oo:ne. r and the rrore rapid Cxper'iroenbal, tecJ.C:nrlques shew- gener:ally pear repro:iluciliilizy" The. accuraey of al)proxima.te correlations may then be li tt1e w;)rsE'l than the accuracy of routine: rreasur~ts,.

I f a: porous, .:m;ru_ um consisted of bUI'lrues of ceqdllary 'tubes I thert SUQOP.Jl:Isi"iTe Incresrerrte o.fpressm;e \'Kmld .resut t: in successively snaller capillary radii. baing" .in.vaCled. w.d flushed., The v:ol~ im"aded at:. Bach pressure. in~'lit \o;1OiJld gi-v.a tb...e 1.1'\Jll..!:re ofcap·illary of the corresrxmding radius

(2O:p{ a) "and the result could be ~ a ,size. distribution.

The cQn .. Gept can beaWlie:l to, porous flTeili.a~ but it should be r~ ·$t the .result bbt.aJ::nSQ .. is a reLation ~~ 'the vOl1..l'i1e con.t:;rolle(l by I)(.lt-e·t_hl:oa.ts, (:Sf a ;pariicu:1ar .g,i?J9 f ,a:ad not ·!:he ~olUi'llEi. of pores af a particular size.,

SinCe the pore size distriliuticn:,saturaUon ~ation. 1,$ govet;ned by the si.zas of pore tlll:uats, ard. t:.':rese '¥' he the p~t factor in detel:min:Lng the drcp in f:1o..-.ii through the: porous medium, it ndgnt be expect.eel that thereViOUld be a strongrelatiol1Ship b;bieen, p(n~e size distr.ibu"tion and pemeability. This iSj in fact~ generally the: case, but since permeabi.1i ty in. parcOJ.lar d;pends Of! contimuty of pore. space ~ it is not ,always p:lS5ibleto get an a.o::'Ur:am esrtim3.te of 'penooabilit){ frcm capillary pressure and derived. p;::l.r'e s·j_ze distributiDn data. Such ~lations as do e><ist:, may give r'eaS.onabl.e preqicti0tJ.5: of~.tiliility for (XlOrlyto rrcderately

eon.sol "dated sands, i _ e.. SjrstEms of re1ati vely hOllCgeneoUS .p:l.t"-e So t.rUct.ure , \-bete the effects· of c:srentation and 'OJIn.OOlidaUonl,ioJill not nece5stlIily affect. the oontL"'luity of pol"e space;

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