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Mathematics-II

Tutorial Sheet 3 (23 Jan’14)

—————————————————————————————————–

L

**1. In IR, consider the addition x y = x + y − 1 and a ? x = a(x − 1) + 1. Show that IR is real
**

vector space with respect to these operations.

2. (H.W) Let S = The set of all n × n skew hermitian matrices. Check whether S is a real (or

complex) vector space under usual addition and scalar multiplication of matrices.

3. Show that each of the following sets are not vector spaces under the given operations.

(i) Under the operations inherited from IR3 , the set {(x, y, z) ∈ IR3 : x + y + z = 1}.

a 1

(ii) Under the usual matrix operations, the set {

b c : a, b, c ∈ IR}.

**(iii) Under the usual polynomial operations, the set {a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 : a0 > 0, a1 > 0, a2 > 0}.
**

(iv) Under the inherited operations,

{(x, y) ∈ IR2 : x + 3y = 4 & 2x − y = 3 & 6x + 4y = 10}.

(v) The set of rational numbers IQ over IR.

4. Which of the following are subspaces of IR3 .

(i) {(x, y, z) : x ≥ 0},

(ii) {(x, y, z) : x + y = z}

(iii) {(x, y, z) : x = y 2 }.

**5. Which of the following are the subspaces of C
**

I 3 over the field C

I :

(i) {(z1 , z2 , z3 ) : z1 is real},

(ii) {(z1 , z2 , z3 ) : z1 + z2 = 10z3 }.

6. (H.W) Show that, each of the following sets forms a vector space with respect to the natural

operations.

a 0

**(i) The diagonal 2 × 2 matrices { 0 b : a, b ∈ IR}.
**

x x+y

**(ii) The set of 2 × 2 matrices {
**

x+y

(iii) The set of functions {f : IR → IR :

y : x, y ∈ IR}.

df

dx

+ 2f = 0}.

**7. Which of the following subset S of M (where M is the vector space of 2 × 2 matrices over
**

the reals) are subspaces under the inherited operations? If it is a subspace then prove it.

Otherwise, explain, which condition fails.

1

1)} (iii) {(0. 0. 10. 2 . 4)} (iii) {(9. 0. (3. (0. 5). the following subsets of IR3 are basis or not? (i) {(1. 1).} 12. (i) f (x) = x and g(x) = 1 x (ii) f (x) = cos x and g(x) = sin x (iii) f (x) = ex and g(x) = ln x. a 0 a 0 a c (i) S = { 0 b : a + b = 0}. 1. sin2 x}. 1). 2. (1. 9. 3. 3). (1. (2. −1). Which of the following functions are members of the linear span of the set {cos2 x. 2. Prove that each set {f. (2. −4. 1)} (ii) {(1. 1). 2. 2. Examine. g} is linearly independent in the vector space of all functions from IR+ → IR. 0. 5. 0). 9. 2. (i) The subspace of cubic polynomials p(x) such that p(7) = 0. 1. (4. 14)} (ii) {(0. 11. 2. (ii) S = { 0 b : a + b = 5}. −1)}. 0. (2. 12. 0)} (iv) {(0. in the vector space of real valued functions of one real variable? (a)f (x) = 1 (b)f (x) = 3 + x2 (c)f (x) = sin x (d)f (x) = cos(2x). 4). 0). (3. 2. −1). 5. Examine. (ii) The subspace of polynomials p(x) such that p(7) = 0 and p(5) = 0. −3. (1. (12. (1. (iii) S = { 0 b : a + b = 0. (3. −1). c ∈ IR}. −4). 1). 8. whether the following sub set of vectors of IR3 is linearly dependent or linearly independent? (i) {(1. Find a basis and dimension for each of these subspaces of the space P3 . 3). the space of cubic polynomials.

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