This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr. Hussein Abdulkadir , Eng. Nada Al-Khatib ,Eng. Osama AlShamma , Eng. Mahmood Saleh Communications and Electronics Department /Faculty of Engineering Philadelphia University Amman - Jordan
ABSTRACT The standard smoke detector is not designed for the hearing impaired. Also in case of there is no any person in the place of the detector, no body will hear the alarm and therefore there is no fast action. Standard smoke detectors are inadequate in all these cases. In this paper, the smoke detector was enhanced by connecting it with a personal computer for monitoring and controlling purposes and using the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) to send and receive an SMS (short message Service) from the place of the detector to the involved person. Therefore, improve the chances for reducing the risks to life and property.
1- Introduction Smoke detectors are devices mounted on the wall or ceiling and automatically sound a warning when they sense smoke or other products of combustion. There are many types of smoke detector devices, they are classified according to their principle technique of detection [1, 2]. One of the more reliable detectors is the photoelectric smoke detector. Its response is much faster than the ionization smoke detector . A light obscuration smoke detector type is used in our system of detection, which employs a light source and a photosensitive receiving device [4, 5]. In this paper, smoke detector system enhancement is done by connecting already available photoelectric smoke detector circuitry to personal computer (pc) via the pc parallel port then integrating a wireless technology into them for sending and receiving an SMS . 2- Photoelectric smoke detector device The photoelectric smoke detector circuit; shown in Figure (1); consist of full wave bridge rectifier to provide a d.c voltage of about 12V, photoelectric sensor and an operational amplifier connected as a comparator. An adjustable reference voltage which represents the detector threshold is connected to the non inverting input of the comparator. While the other terminal of the comparator is connected to the output of the photoelectric sensor.
Figure (1): The photoelectric smoke detector circuit When the smoke particles partially block the light beam, the reduction in light reaching the photosensitive device alters its output. When the output of the photosensitive crossed by the detector threshold the comparator output become "1", which forward biased the transistor Q1 and consequently
activate the relay. The relay circuit activates an alarm circuit and transmits a signal to the PC via a parallel port. 3- Smoke Detector System Enhancement Figure (2) shows the block diagram of our smoke detection system enhancement. The proposed name to this enhanced system is a smoke detection system using wireless network. It consists of smoke detector circuitry, PC and Mobile set (equipped with IR device) connected with the mobile network, in order to communicate with other destination mobile user.
Figure (2): smoke detector system enhancement On detection of smoke, the smoke detector circuit will raise an alarm signal that will activate a relay which connected to it. This relay is connected to the pc via parallel port. The parallel port status register address is used to read the status of the parallel port. This will allow for reading the alarm signal coming from the smoke detector circuit. When the alarm is read, the program sends a specified message (for example: fire alarm) to specified mobile station through the mobile station that connected to the pc via IR. According to the restore message that will be received from the specified mobile station; through the mobile station that connected to the pc via IR; the extinguisher will be turn on or off. 4- System Design and Implementation 4.1. Hardware Implementation 4.1.1. Computer Connectivity The parallel port affords a very simple technique for interfacing with external circuitry. It, as implemented on the PC, consists of a connector with 17 signal lines and 8 ground lines. The signal lines are divided into three groups: four Control lines, five Status lines, eight Data lines . The parallel port is implemented using the SPP mode. To program the parallel port in SPP mode, three registers are used. Only two registers are needed in the proposed wireless smoke detector system. The port base address (I/O Base) is used to write to the data lines. This is used to turn on or off the extinguisher according to the restore message that will be received from the specified mobile station. The parallel port status register address is at the port base address plus one and is used to read the status of the parallel port. This is used to read the alarm signal from the smoke detector circuit The pin layout from the PC parallel port that is used in proposed wireless smoke detector system is shown in table (1): Pin number SPP Signal Register Type of Pin Description 13 Select Status Input Reading the alarm signal 2 Data Bit 0 Data Output Controlling the extinguisher Table (1): The used Pin in proposed smoke detection system using wireless network 4.1.2. Wireless Connectivity To connect a compatible Nokia phone to pc, Nokia PC Suite must be installed . The connection between Nokia phone and a PC is made using one of the following connection types; depending on the devices' supported connection types; Infrared, Connection cable or Bluetooth wireless technology In the proposed smoke detection system using wireless network, the infrared connection is used. 4.2. Software Implementation The software that does the monitoring and control processes, runs under Microsoft Window environment and it was written using Microsoft Visual Basic. An interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) wad made to monitor the state of the smoke detector and to control an output signal via SMS as shown in the figure (2). The designed form of the GUI is divided into two sections, the first one is the sending section,
when the alarm activates the program, the message written in the text box named 'Message' will be send to the number that written in the text box named 'Number' automatically. The second section contains a text box named 'Number' in which the user writes a mobile number that is authorized to turn the extinguisher on or off to the attached mobile by sending an SMS contains ON or OFF. If the received message is ON, the Option button named 'ON' is turned on automatically and transmitted to the data bit in the parallel port to turn on the extinguisher. The flowchart of the program is shown in figure (3). Figure (2): The GUI interface for monitoring and controlling
Conclusion and Future Work This paper enhanced the standard smoke detector to save lives of people and property more and more by connecting it with the personal computer that is considered the most available and cheap controller nowadays and using SMS sending and receiving utilities. It is very interesting to make monitoring and controlling the hardware process by interactive user interface in the computer. This enhancement can be done with very low price and the needed software can be installed on a PC with minimum hardware requirements. Future work can be done on this proposed wireless smoke detector system, for example, making it rely on a microcontroller instead of PC since PC should be Start always online twenty four hours a day, which may lead sometimes to software or operating systems hang up. References  A.Keller et al. "Open photoacoustic sensor as smoke detector", Journal of sensor and Actuators B; Chemical,Volume 104,Issue 1,3 January 2005,p.1-7.  A.Z. Adamyan et al. "Smoke Sensor with overcoming of humidity cross-sensitivity", Journal of sensor and Actuators B; Chemical, Volume 93, Issue 1-3, 1 Auggust 2003 , p.416-421 .  J.R.Qualey III et al. "Response time comparisons of ionization and photoelectric /heat detectors', 12th International Conference on Automatic Fire Detection, 25-28 March 2001, NIST, Maryland USA  O.V. Sulima et al ,"Low voltage AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/Gab avalanche photo-detector ", IEE Proceeding –Optoelectronics,Volume 151, Issue 1, February 2004 , p. 1-5 .  A.Gulinatti et al.," 35 ps time resolution at room temperature with large area single photon avalanche diode ", Electronics letters,Volume 41,Issue 5,3 March 2005, p. 272-274  Lee, W.C.Y., 1996, Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Systems, McGraw Hill, New York.  Hordeski,Michael, 1995, Personal computer interfaces, Mcgraw-Hill, N.Y  Nokia web site: www.forum.nokia.com
Reset Alarm, parallel port data bit
Read the status of the parallel port.
If there is an alarm, or send button is pressed Yes
Send a message, set alarm check box true
Read the restore message
Is it ON
Set parallel port data bit and the option button 'ON'
No Reset Alarm, parallel port data bit
Figure (3): The flowchart of the program