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Po-h-\n-te-v

k-Xy-am-w

]u-tem-kv Xp-Sn-b

VEDANADAM
Mookkannoor P.O., Angamaly 683 577, Ernakulam, India

{]n-b kv-t\-ln-Xm,
Cu sN-dp-]p-kv-X-Iw \n--p th-n F-gp-Xn-bXm-Wv. F-s hy-n-]-c-am-b Po-hn-X-n Rm
A-\p-`-hn-p-sIm-n-cn-p- k-tm-j-n-\pw k-am[m-\-n-\pw kw-Xr-]v-Xn-pw Im-c-W-am-bn-o-
k-Xy- \n--fp-sS Po-hn-X-n-epw km-y-am-bno-c-Ww F- B-{K-l-am-Wv C-Xn-s ]p-d-In-se
t{]-c-I-i-n. ss_-_n, {In-kv-Xp-hn-s A-h-Imi-hm-Z-, a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-Xw F-o A-aq-eyk-Xy- H-cp hy-n-bp-sS Po-hn-X-n F-{X
am-{Xw {]m-[m-\y-a-ln-p-p F-p Cu Ir-Xn-bn
Im-Wn-n-p-v. im--am-bn-cp-v h-f-sc {i--tbm-sS
hm-bn-p-sa-n \n--fp-sS Po-hn-X-n ]-cn-h-\-n-\v A-Xv Im-c-W-am-bn-o-cm-hp--Xm-Wv. aphn-[n-I am-n-sh-,v ap-p-m-bn-p- [m-c-W-I
a-d-v, ]-c-am--lr-Z-b-tm-sS C-Xn {]-Xn-]mZn-n-p- k-Xy- Po-hn-X-n bm-Ym-y-amn-o-p-hm k--i--\m-b ssZ-hw \n--sf
k-lm-bn--s.
\n--fp-sS kv-t\-ln-X
]u-tem-kv Xp-Sn-b

ss_-_n
h-f-sc ]-g--ap- H-cp ]p-Xn-b {K-w; A-Xm-Wv ss_-_n.
C-cp-]-Xp \q-m-p-I-p-ap-v A-Xv tc-J-s-Sp-n--gn-p.
B-bn-c-n A-q-tdm-fw h-j- sIm-m-Wv A-Xn-se A-dp]-n-bm-dv ]p-kv-X-I- tc-J-s-Sp-n-b-Xv. A-Xv tI-h-ew a\p-jy-s _p-n-im-e-bn cq-]-s-Sp-n-b-X-. \m-]-tXm-fw
F-gp-p-Im A-Xn-s ]n-n A-Wn-\n-c-n-p-v. hy-Xy-kv-X
Po-hn-X-Xp-d-I-fn Po-hn-n-cp- A-h hy-Xy-kv-X Im-e-b-f-hpI-pw kw-kv-Im-c--pw km-yw h-ln--h-cm-bn-cp-p.
A-t\ym-\yw A-dn-thm B-tem-N-\-tbm Iq-Sm-sX A-h F-gp-Xn-b
]p-kv-X-I- Iq-n-t--s--tm H-cp hn-j-b-n-s hnhn-[ h-i--sf hn-i-Zo-I-cn-p- H-cp A-p-X-{K--am-bn A-Xv
cq-]-s-p. A-Xv bp-n-v \n-c-p--X- F-v tXm-n-tb-mw.
F-m {i-n-p ]Tn-p- H-cm-v A-Xv F-{X-bpw k-Xy-amsW-v t_m-y-s-Sm-hp--Xm-Wv.
ss_-_n {In-kv-Xp-a-X-{K--am-sW-v Nn-e Nn-n-m-dp-v.
{In-kv-Xym-\n-I A-h-cp-sS a-X-{K--am-bn F-gp-Xn-bp-m-n-bX- ss_-_n. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp `q-an-bn Po-hn--Xn-\v ap-p-
\q-m-p-I-fn-em-Wv ss_-_n-fn-se 39 ]p-kv-X-I--fpw tc-J-s-Spn-b-Xv. ssZ-h-s a-\p-jy-\v sh-fn-s-Sp-n-sm-Sp-p- H-cp
{K--am-Wv ss_-_n. ssZ-h-s-p-dn-p- am-\p-jn-I k--ev]--fp-sS H-cp t{Im-Vo-I-c-W-a- A-Xv. ssZ-hw B-cm-sW-pw
a-\p-jy-\pw ssZ-h-hp-am-bp- _--sa-m-sW-pw, a-\p-jy-s
Po-hn-Xm-\p-`-h--fn ssZ-hw H-cp bm-Ym-y-am-bn-o-cp-hm
am--sa-m-sW-pw, a-\p-jy-s\ ]Tn-n-p-hm ssZ-hw sh-fns-Sp-n-b k-Xy--fm-Wv A-Xn-se D--S-w. a-\p-jy-s tZmj-{]-hr-n-I-fn \n-pw A-Xn-s aq-e-Im-c-W--fn \n-pw

A-h-s\ D--cn-v ssZ-h-tm-Sv k---hpw k-l-hm-k-hpw \In ssZ-hn-I kz-`m-h-ap--h-\m-n-o-p-hm ssZ-hw F-p
sN-p-p, F-p sN-pw F-p- ssZ-hn-I Im-cy-]-cn-]m-Sn-bp-sS
N-cn-{X-am-Wv ss_-_n.
C-p \n-e-hn-ep- an--hm-dpw F-m `m-j-I-fn-epw ss_-_n
hn-h--\w sN--s-n-p-v. A-Xv e-`n-m- cm-Py- C-p
`q-ap-J-n-. Hm-tcm Zn-h-k-hpw A-Xn-s e---W-n-\v {]-XnI hn--s-p-sIm-n-cn-p-p. am-\-h-kw-kv-Im-c-n-s ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn ss_-_n-fn-s kzm-[o-\-X sX-fn-p Im-Wmw.
a-\p-jy-t`m-Pn-I-fm-b In-cm-X-m-sc a-\p-jy-kv-t\-ln-I-fm-n
am-n-b-Xv ss_-_n-fn-s kzm-[o-\-X-bn-em-Wv. a-\p-jy C-{X-b[n-Iw kv-t\-ln-p- th-sdm-cp {K-w C- F-p ]-d-bmw.
C-{X-b-[n-Iw hn-a-in--s-n-p- th-sd {K--ap-tm F-pw
kw-i-b-am-Wv. F-{X-tm-fw F-Xn-p-I A-Xn-\p-t\-sc D-mbn-p-tm A-{X-tm-fw {]-Nm-c-am-Wv A-Xn-\v e-`n-n-p--Xv.
a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-n-s F-m Xp-d-I-fn-epw sh-fn-w ho-ip- H-cp
k-t-i-am-W-Xn-\p--Xv. k-I-e `q-tem-I-hm-kn-I-p-ap--XmWv B Zn-hy-k-t-iw.
{]-]--c-l-ky- I-p-]n-Sn-p-hm A-Xy-zm-\w sN-p-
a-\p-jy-\v A-h-s lr-Z-b-c-l-ky--sf A-Xn-kq-jv-a-am-bn ImWn-v sIm-Sp-p- H-cp {K--am-Wv ss_-_n. lr-Z-b-t-bpw
a-kv-Xn-jv-I-t-bpw am-n sh-bv-p-hm I-gn-hp- B-[p-\n-I
a-\p-jy-s lr-Z-b-n Ip-Sn sIm-p- c-l-ky- sh-fn-sSp-n Im-Wn-p- a-t-Xv {K--am-Wp--Xv? ""lr-Z-bw F-m-nt\-m-fpw I-]-S-hpw hn-j-hp-ap--Xv, A-Xv B-cm--dn-bp--h
B?'' F- ss_-_n-fn-se tNm-Zy-n-\p-ap-n B-cpw X-eIp-\n-m-sX \n-hr-n-bn-. a-\p-jy-lr-Z-b-n-s an-Sn-p-I
A-f-p-hm a-\p-jy b-{- I-p-]n-Sn-n-p-v. F-m
A-Xn Hm-tcm \n-an-j-hpw D-m-bn-sm-n-cn-p- tZm-j--fpw
Xn--I-fpw \n-b{n-p-hm F-p b-{-am-Wv a-\p-jy I-p]n-Sn-n-p--Xv. F-m ss_-_n ""lr-Z-b-n-se Nn--\-tf-bpw `m-h--tf-bpw hn-th-Nn-p-p'' F-v A-h-Im-i-s-Sp-p.
4

\q-m-p-I-p ap-v tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p- ss_-_n k-Xy C-pw a-\p-jy-s\ kw-_-n-v bm-Ym-y- B-Wv.
tem-I-cm-jv-{S- am-dn a-d-p, kw-kv-Im-c- ]-e-Xpw ]-g-aI-fm-bn am-dn. ]-cn-jv-Im-c- ]p-Xp-a-I-fn-te-v ]p-tcm-K-an-p.
]p-Xn-b ]p-Xn-b B-Z-i- a-\p-jy a-kv-Xn-jv-I-n cq-]w
sIm-p. {]-]--i-n-I-sf a-\p-jy Io-g-S-n. F-m ss__n-fn sh-fn-s-Sp-n-bn-p- A-aq-ey-k-Xy--v bm-sXm-cp
am--hpw kw-`-hn-n-n-. A-t\-Iw \q-m-p-I I-gn-n-pw A-Xnse B-i-b- am-n F-gp-Xp-hm B-h-iyw h-n-n-. im-kv-{Xob I-p-]n-Sp---v ss_-_n-fn-se {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I sX-msW-p sX-fn-bn-m I-gn-n-n-. Im-e- I-gn-bp-tm-dpw
ss_-_n hn-iz-kn-p-hm sIm-m-hp- H-cp {K--am-sW-v
hy--am-Ip-I-bm-Wv. a-\p-jy-cm-in-tbm-Sv G-Xp Im-e-pw ss__n kw-km-cn-n-p-v. C-pw A-Xv Xp-S-p-sIm-n-cn-p-p.
A-Xn-se ssZ-h-i-_v-Zw Xn-cn--dn-v Po-hn-X-s [-\y-am-no-p--Xn-t\-m h-en-b `m-Kyw a-\p-jy-\v e-`n-m-\n-.
H-cp ssZ-hw D-tm? B ssZ-hw F--s\-bp--h-\m-Wv? Cu
{]-]-w F--s\-bp-m-bn? a-\p-jy-s D--hw F--s\-bm-bncp-p? a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-n-\v H-c--ap-tm? a-\p-jy-s `m-hn
F-m-Wv? Cu tem-Iw F-hn-tS-v \o-n-sm-n-cn-p-p?
C--s tem-I-cm-jv-{S- \n-e-\n-p-tam? A-\p-Zn-\w h-np-sIm-n-cn-p- am-\p-jn-I {]-iv-\--v H-cp im-iz-X-]-cnlm-cw D-m-Ip-tam? F-n--s\ \-p-sS lr-Z-b-n D-b-p
h-cp- k-I-e tNm-Zy--pw ss_-_n D--cw ]-d-bp-p-v.

ss_-_n-fpw {In-kv-Xp-hpw
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hm-Wv ss_-_n-fn-se tI-{-hn-j-bw. ]-g-b-\n-b-aw
F-pw ]p-Xn-b \n-b-aw F-pw ss_-_n-fn-s\ c-m-bn Xn-cnn-p-v. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp Cu `q-an-bn Po-hn-p--Xn-\v ap-pw
]n-pw D- Im-cy--fm-Wv A-h c-n-epw D--Xv. ]p-kv-X-I-fn-se-mw X-s-p-dn-v F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-p-p F-v {In-kv-Xp
A-h-Im-i-s-p. ss_-_n-fn-se B-Zy-]p-kv-X-I- (]--{K-5

F-m-Wv A-h A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv) F-gp-Xn-b B-fp-sS t]-cv


tam-i-sb-m-bn-cp-p. ""tam-i Xp-S-n k-I-e {]-hm-N-I-mcn
\n-pw F-m Xn-cp-sh-gp-p-I-fn \n-pw X-s-p-dn-p--Xv''
{In-kv-Xp Xs in-jy-m-v hym-Jym-\n-p sIm-Sp-p (eq-tmkv 24:27). ""\ym-b-{]-am-W-n tam-si-bpw {]-hm-N-I-m-cpw
F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-p--h'' F-v tb-ip-hn-s\ hn-ti-jn-n-n-p-v.
(tbm-lm1:45) {In-kv-Xp P-\n-p--Xn-\p ap-v X-s-p-dn-v
k-I-e-hpw tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-m-bn-cp-p. ""I-\y-I K-`n-Wn-bmbn H-cp a-I-s\ {]-k-hn-pw A-h-\v C-m-\p-th F-v t]
hn-fn-pw'' F-v tc-J-s-Sp-n-b-Xv {In-kv-Xp P-\n-p--Xn-\v
\q-m-p-I-p ap-m-bn-cp-p. (sb-i-m-hv 7:14)
""B-Zn-bn h-N-\w D-m-bn-cp-p. h-N-\w ssZ-h-am-bn-cp-p''
F-pw ""h-N-\w P-U-am-bn-o-p, Ir-]-bpw k-Xy-hpw \n-d-h-\m-bn \-p-sS- CS-bn ]m-p'' F-pw {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-p-dn-v
X-s in-jy tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p-p. (tbm-lm.1:1,14)
ssZ-hw a-\p-jy-cq-]-sa-Sp-v `q-an-bn h--h-\m-Wv tb-ip-{In-kvXp F-v ss_-_n sX-fn-bn-p-p. tem-I-N-cn-{X-n \n-pw
am-n \n-p-hm km-[n-m- H-cp A-p-X-]p-cp-j B-Wv
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp. a-\p-jy-`m-h-\-bn-se H-cp I-em-kr-jv-Sn-tbm a-\p-jyk--]--fn-se H-cp I-Ym-]m-{X-tam A- B ]p-Wy-]p-cp-j.
h-j- I-W-p-Iq-p--Xv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s Po-hn-X-s
t{Im-Vo-I-cn-m-W-tm. _n.kn F-pw F.Un F-pw h-j--sf
hn-`-Pn-n-cn-p--Xv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ A-Sn-m-\-s-Sp-n-bmWv. 2015 F-v F-gp-Xp-I-tbm ]-d-bp-I-tbm sN-p-tm \mw
A-dn-bm-sX-tbm A-dn-tm tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp H-cp N-cn-{X-]p-cp-j\m-sW-v k--Xn-p-I-bm-Wv. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-p-dn-p-
B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-b tc-J-bm-Wv ss_-_n. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s
am-lm-y-s-p-dn-v a\nem-p-hm ss_-_n hmbnp
]Tnphm {ianpI.
k-I-e a-\p-jy-pw ssZ-h-s sh-fn-s-Sp-p-hm h--h-\mWv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp. X-s P-\-\-n- ""ssZ-hw \-tm-Sp-Iq-sS''
F---ap- C-m-\p-th F-v A-h-\v t] hn-fn--W-sa-v
6

A-cp-f-m-Sp-m-bn. a-\p-jy-t\m-Sp Iq-sS Po-hn-p-hm B-{K-ln-


ssZ-h-n-s {]-Xy--X-bm-Wv {In-kv-Xp-hn-s P-\-\-n-
kw-`-hn--Xv. ssZ-hw H-cp B-f-Xz-am-Wv tI-h-ew H-cp i-n-b-.
k--i-n-bpw ssZ-h-n tI-{o-I-cn-n-cn-p-p. F-m
ssZ-h-n-\v H-cp cq-]w k--]n-p-hm km-y-a-. ""ssZ-hw
B-m-hm-Ip-p'' F-p ss_-_n ]-d-bp-p. ""[-\y-\m-b GIm-[n-]-Xn-bpw, cm-Pm-[n-cm-Pm-hpw, I-m-[n-I-m-hpw, Xm
am-{Xw A-a-y-X-bp--h-\pw, A-Sp-p-Iq-Sm- sh-fn--n
h-kn-p--h-\pw, a-\p-jy B-cpw Im-Wm--h-\pw Im-m
I-gn-bm--h-\pw'' F-m-Wv ss_-_n ssZ-h-s hn-ti-jn-np--Xv. A-Xyp--X-\m-b Cu ssZ-hw a-\p-jy-cq-]-n C-d-n
h--h-\m-Wv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp. A-Zr-iy-\m-b ssZ-hw a-\p-jy-\v
Im-W-s-p. ""F-s I--h ]n-Xm-hn-s\ (ssZ-h-s) I-ncn-p-p'' F-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp X-s in-jy-m-tcm-Sp ]-d-p.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s i-n-bpw {]-Xy--X-bpw tem-I-tm-Sv
A-dn-bn- in-jy-m ssZ-h-n-s tX-P-pw a-ln-a-bpw tb-ip{In-kv-Xp-hn I-p F-v km-y-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p-p.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp sN-bv-X ApXfpw A-S-bm-f--fpw A-h
ssZ-h-am-sW-v sX-fn-bn-p--h-I-fm-bn-cp-p. a-\p-jy-cm-cpw sNbv-Xn-n-m--Xpw sN-p-hm I-gn-bm--Xp-am-b Im-cy--fm-bn-cpp A-h sN-bv-X-Xv. ]--sh-w ho-m-n, Ip-cp-S-\v Im-gv-N
\-In, A--w sIm-v A-m-bn-c-s t]m-jn-n-p, Bn-c-p- Xn-c-am-e-I-fp-sS ta ]-c-h-Xm-\n-bn-se--t]m-se
\-S-p, Ip-jvT-tcm-Kn-I-sf ip--cm-n, a-cn--h-sc D-bn-s-gpt-n-p, a-cn--h-cn \n-v Xm D-bn-s-gp-t-v Po-h-s
D-d-hn-Sw Xm-\m-sW-v sX-fn-bn-p. Cu h-I Im-cy--sfm-pw
am-\-h-N-cn-{X-n bm-sXm-cp a-\p-jy-\pw sN-bv-Xn-n- F-v
B-m--X-bp- G-h-\pw k--Xn-pw.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s P-\-\-hpw Po-hn-X-hpw a-c-W-hpw D-bns-gp-t-ev-]pw I-gn- C-cp-]-Xv \q-m-p-I-fm-bn a-\p-jy-s
{i--sb B-I-jn-n-p-v. C-{X-am-{Xw _-lp-am-\n--s- H-cp
hy-n N-cn-{X-n D-m-bn-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw {]-kw-K- thsdm-cp a-lm-s\-p-dn-pw tem-Iw tI-n-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw Km-\-
7

th-sdm-cm-sf-p-dn-pw ]m-Sn-bn-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw kv-t\-l-n-s


tk-\m-\n-I th-sdm-cp t\-Xm-hn-\pw D-m-bn-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw
]p-kv-X-I- th-sdm-cm-sf-p-dn-pw F-gp-Xn-bn-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw
m-]-\- tem-I-n th-sd B-cp-tS-bpw t]-cn D-m-nbn-n-. kv-Iq-fp-I, tIm-tf-Pp-I, B-ip-]-{Xn-I, A-\m-Ym-eb-, B-Xp-cm-e-b- F-n--s\ tem-I-n G-Xp ap-nepw aq-e-bn-epw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s \m-a-n m-]-\-
D-m-bn-p-v. C-tm-gpw A-Xp h-n-p sIm-n-cn-p--X-m-sX
Ip-d-p-t]m-bn-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw kzm-[o-\-X a-\p-jy-lr-Z-b-fn th-sd B-pw e-`n-n-n-. C-{X-am-{Xw kv-t\-l-n-s
hn--hw a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-n kr-jv-Sn-p-hm th-sd H-cp Kp-cphn-\pw t\-Xm-hn-\pw km-[n-n-n-. Hm-tcm a-\p-jy Po-hn-X-n-\pw
{In-kv-Xp A-{X-am-{Xw a-Xn-bm-b-h-\m-Wv.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s A-h-Im-i-hm-Z- tem-I-N-cn-{X-n-se
bm-sXm-cp a-lm-\pw A-h-Im-i-s-Sp-hm ss[-cy-s-n-n-. ""Rm
tem-I-n-s sh-fn--am-Ip-p, Rm Po-h-s A-w B-Ip-p,
Rm X-s a-io-l, Rm X-s ]p-\-cp-m-\-hpw Po-h-\pw
B-Ip-p, F-n hn-iz-kn-p--h a-cn-m-epw Po-hn-pw,
Rm h-gn-bpw k-Xy-hpw Po-h-\pw B-Ip-p'' F-n--s\ a\p-jy-m-pw A-h-Im-i-s-Sp-hm I-gn-bm- Im-cy--fm-Wv
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-h-Im-i-s--Xv. ""A-zm-\n-p--h-cpw `m-cw
Np-a-p--h-cpw B-bp-tm-sc, F-m-h-cpw F-s A-Sp- hcp-hn, Rm \n--sf B-iz-kn-n-pw'' F-p Xm H-cn-
B-lzm-\w sN-bv-Xp. X-\n-v B-iz-kn-n-m I-gn-bm- bmsXm-cp A-zm-\-hpw `m-c-hpw a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-n-en-. a-\p-jy-cp-sS
]m-]- A-h tam-Nn-p sIm-Sp-p. ""ss[-cy-am-bn-cn-, \n-s
]m-]- tam-Nn-p X-n-cn-p-p'' F-v H-cp ]--]m-X-mc-t\m-Sv A-h ]-d--Xv a-X-t\-Xm--v A--c-p-m-n.
""ssZ-hw H-cp-h-\-m-sX ]m-]- tam-Nn-n-m I-gn-bp--h
B?'' F-v A-h B--cy-s-p. ""A-h kw-km-cn--Xp-t]m-se
B-cpw H-cp-\m-fpw kw-km-cn-n-n-'' F-v A--s Kp-cp--m
k--Xn-p ]-d-p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp G-sXm-cp Im-e-pw GsXm-cp a-\p-jy-\pw H-cp A-p-X-hn-j-b-am-bn-m-Wn-cp-n-p--Xv.
8

tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp h-gn
""Rm X-s h-gn-bpw k-Xy-hpw Po-h-\pw B-Ip-p''. H-cn-
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp X-s in-jy-m-tcm-Sv ]-d--Xm-Wv. {Iq-in-s-Sp--Xn-\v X-te Zn-h-k-am-Wv Cu {]-kv-Xm-h-\ sN-bv-X-Xv.
Xm sb-cp-i-te-an sh-v {Iq-in--s-Sp-sa-v in-jy-m-tcm-Sv
]-e {]m-h-iyw ]-d-n-cp-p. in-jy-m-cp-sam-v sb-cp-i-tean F-n-b {In-kv-Xp X-s in-jy-m-sc ss[-cy-s-Sp-p-hm
A-t\-Iw {]-t_m-[-\- \-In. ""Rm \n--v -ew
H-cp-p-hm t]m-Ip-p, Rm t]m-bn -ew H-cp-n-bm
Rm-\n-cn-p-n-S-v \n--fpw C-cn-t--Xn-\v ]n-t-bpw h-v
\n--sf F-s A-Sp- tN-p sIm-pw. Rm t]m-Ip-
C-S-t-p- h-gn \n- A-dn-bp-p'' F-n--s\ A-h-tcm-Sv
kw-km-cn-p-tm in-jy-m-cn H-cp-h C--s\ tNm-Zn-p;
""I-m-th, \o F-hn-sS t]m-Ip-p F-v R- A-dn-bpn- ]n-s h-gn F--s\ A-dn-bpw?'' A-Xn-\v a-dp-]-Sn-bm-bn
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp ]-d--Xm-Wv ""Rm X-s h-gn-bpw k-Xy-hpw
Po-h-\pw B-Ip-p, Rm ap-Jm--c-a-m-sX B-cpw ]n-Xm-hn-s
A-Sp- F-p-n-'' F-v. A-Sp- Zn-h-kw Xm {Iq-in-s-Sp-sa-v hy--am-bn A-dn-bm-am-bn-cp- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s Cu
{]-kv-Xm-h-\ F-{X-bpw A-p-X-I-c-am-b-Xm-Wv. a-cn-p--Xn-\v
sXm-p-ap-v Rm ]n-Xm-hm-b ssZ-h-n-s A-Sp- t]m-Ipp-sh-pw a-\p-jy-p ssZ-h-n-s A-Sp- t]m-Ip-hm
Rm am-{X-am-Wv h-gn-sb-pw ]-d-bp--Xv am-\p-jn-I _p-n-v
\n-c-p--X-. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-sf-mw X-s
a-\p-jy-bp-n sIm-v A-]-{K-Yn-m A-h-km-\n-m- B-ib- D-sm-p--Xm-Wv.
ssZ-h-s F--s\ I-s-mw F-p- Nn--bpw A-t\z-jW-hpw G-Xp Im-e-pw a-\p-jy-\n D-m-bn-p-v. kr-jv-Sm-hm-b
ssZ-h-s I-s-p-hm kr-jv-Sn-bm-b a-\p-jy-\n A-dn-tm
A-dn-bm-sX-tbm H-cp B-Imw-j Ip-Sn-sIm-p-p-v. B B-Imwj-bp-sS ]-cn-W-X-^-e--fm-Wv tem-I-n-se a-X-. A-XmXp Im-e--fn Po-hn-n-cp- _p-n-am-m-cm-b Nn--I-m-cp-sS
9

a-kv-Xn-jv-I-n cq-]-s- B-i-b--fpw B-Z-i--fp-am-Wv temI-n F-m a-X--pw B-[m-c-am-bn-cn-p--Xv. a-X-


X-n B-Nm-cm-\p-jvTm-\--fn-epw a-p-ap- ssh-hn-y-
D-m-Ip-hm Im-c-Ww A-Xv hy-Xy-kv-X-cm-b a-\p-jy-cp-sS B-temN-\-I-fn A-[n-jvTn-X-am-bn-cn-p--Xp-sIm-m-Wv. ssZ-hw D-v
F- B-i-b-t-m ssZ-hw F-hn-sS F- B-i-b-n-emWv ssh-cp-y--fpw ssh-]-co-X--fpw Im-Wp--Xv. a-\p-jy-k-ev-]--fpw `m-h-\-I-fpw hy-Xy-kv-X- B-bn-cn-p--Xp-t]mse A-h-bn \n-pw D-f-hm-Ip- B-i-b--pw hy-Xy-kv-X
cq-]- D-m-Ip--Xv kzm-`m-hn-I-am-W-tm. ]m-m-Xy-cp-sS
Nn-m-K-Xn-I-tfm-Sv F-m-n-epw tbm-Pn-p--X--tm ]u-c-kv-Xycp-sS Nn-m-K-Xn-I. am-\-h-cm-in-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n-eq-sS H-p
I-tm-Sn-m B-Z-i--fp-tS-bpw B-i-b--fp-tS-bpw B-bn-cam-bn-cw Cu-n-- Im-Wmw. A-Xp-t]m-se X-s a-\p-jy-]cn-{i-a- ]-cm-P-b-s--Xn-s B-bn-c-am-bn-cw i-h-Ip-So-c--fpw
Im-Wmw. ssZ-h-s-p-dn-p- \n-K-a-\-n-em-Wv X-Xz-m-\w
B-t[-b-s-n-cn-p--Xv. Cu \n-K-a-\--v H-cp sF-I-cq-]w
D-m-p-hm a-\p-jy-\v km-[n-n-n-. ssZ-hw G-I-\m-sW-pw
B ssZ-h-n-te-p- am-- ]-e-Xm-sW-pw ]-d-v Biz-kn-p-hm a-\p-jy sh- sIm-p-I-bm-Wv. Hm-tcm-cp-cpw A-h-c-h-cp-sS km-a-y-a-\p-k-cn-v I-p-]n-Sn- h-gn-Ifm-W-h F-v A-h A-h-Im-i-s-Spw. X--fp-sS ]-cm-P-b-
k--Xn-p-hm k---X-bn-m- a-\p-jy-s kz-`m-h-am-Wv
C-Xn-sem-s Im-Wp--Xv. F-m h-gn-I-fpw H-cp e-y-n-tev F--Xp-t]m-se-bm-Wv ssZ-h-n--te-p- h-gn-I F-
hm-Zw kq-jv-a-]-cn-tim-[-\ sN-p-hm B-cpw _--s-Sm-dn-.
]-d-b-s-Sp- G-sX-n-epw h-gn-bn-eq-sS B-sc-n-epw k--cn-v
B e-y-n F-n-t-p F-p sX-fn-bn--s-Sp-tm
am-{X-ta A-Xv A-\p-`-h-n B-Ip-p-q. A--s\ A-\p-`-hn ssZ-h-n F-n-t-n-p- B-sc-n-epw D-tm?
a-\p-jy-k--ev-]-n-se ssZ-h-s A- C-hn-sS D-t-in-p--Xv
{]-]--n-s kr-jv-Sm-hm-b ssZ-h-s-bm-Wv. ]-cn-an-Xn-I
D- a-\p-jy A-]-cn-ta-b-\m-b ssZ-h-s X-s ]-cn-{i-a-m
10

I-p-]n-Sn-p F-v ]-d-m a-\p-jy ssZ-h-t-m hen-b-h-\m-bn. ssZ-h-s X-s ]-cn-an-Xn-I-p-n H-Xp-n
\n-p-hm A-h i--\m-bn. A-Xv {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-tWm?
A--s\-sb-n B ssZ-hw ssZ-h-am-bn-cn-p--Xv F--s\?
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp h-gn-bm-sW-p A-h-Im-i-s--tm A-Xp tIh-ew am-\p-jn-I-am-b Nn-e X-Xz-kw-ln-X-I-sf-b- A--am-nb-Xv. ssZ-h-s Im-Wp-hm-\p- h-gn Xm X-s-bm-sW-v
A-h-Im-i-s-Sp-I-bm-Wv sN-bv-X-Xv. F-s I--h ]n-Xm-hns\--ssZ-h-s--I-n-cn-p-p F-p {In-kv-Xp ]-d-p. {Inkv-Xp-hn-s\ Im-Wp-I F--Xpw ssZ-h-s Im-Wp-I-sb--Xpw
H-p-X-s-bm-sW-p km-cw. C-Xp-]-d- A-Sp- Zn-h-kw
Xm {Iq-in--s-p. X-tm-Sp Iq-sS {Iq-in--s- H-cp Zp-jv{]-hr-n-m-c-t\m-Sv {In-kv-Xp ]-d--Xv ""C-p \o F-tm-Sv
Iq-sS ]-dp-Zo-km-bn C-cn-pw'' F-m-Wv. {Iq-in a-cn-p-
H-cp \n--lm-b-\m-b a-\p-jy F- \n-e-bn-em-Wv tem-Iw Ah-s\ I--Xv. F-m B I- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ I--Xv cmP-Xzw {]m-]n-p h-cp-h-\m-bn-m-Wv. ""\o cm-P-Xzw {]m-]n-p
h-cp-tm F-s Hm-p-sIm-t-W-ta'' F-p {Iq-in-t
In-S-p- H-cp-h-t\m-Sv A-t]-jn-p-Xv -bp-n-p \n-c-p-X-. F-m B I- tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ I--Xv a-c-Ws A-Xn-Po-hn-p- cm-Pm-hm-bn-m-Wv. {In-kv-Xp-hn-s a-c-Ww
]-dp-Zo-k-bn-te-v A-Y-hm ssZ-h-k-n-[n-bn-te-v G-sXm-cp a\p-jy-\pw {]-th-in-m-\p- ]p-Xp-h-gn Xp-d-p--Xm-bn-cp-p.
ss_-_n A-Xp hy--am-p-p-v. tb-ip X-s tZ-l-sa-
Xn-c-o-e-bn Iq-Sn \-ap-v {]-Xn-jvTn- Po-h-\p- ]p-Xp-h-gnbm-bn, X-s c--m hn-ip- a-n-c-n-te-p- {]-th-i\-n-\v ss[-cyhpw ssZhmebnt Hcp alm]ptcmlnX
\pw \-ap-p--Xp-sIm-v \mw Zp-a-\-m-n \o-p-am-dv lr-Zb--fn X-fn--s--h-\m-bn hn-izm-k-n-s ]q--\n--bw
]q-v ]-c-am- lr-Z-b-tm-sS A-Sp-p sN-p-I. ssZ-h-kn-[n-bn-te-v a-\p-jy-\v {In-kv-Xp-aq-ew hn-izm-k-m {]-th-i\w km-y-am-n-Xo-p F-p km-cw. {In-kv-Xp-hn-s a-c-Ww
ssZ-h-n--te-p- Xn-c-o-e Io-d-em-bn-cp-p. {In-kv-Xp-hn-s
11

]p-\-cpm-\w B Xn-c-o-e--p-d-t-v {]-th-in-p-hm a\p-jy-\v ss[-cyw X-cp-p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s a-c-W-]p-\-cpm-\--fn hn-iz-kn-p Po-hn-p-, {In-kv-Xp-hn B-{i-bw
sh-bv-p- G-sXm-cp-h-\pw ssZ-h-s ]n-Xm-th F-p hn-fn-p
sIm-v ]n-Xr-]p-{X-_--n-te-v I-S-p h-cp-hm I-gn-bpw.
""A-m ]n-Xm-th, F-p hn-fn-p- ]p-{X-Xz-n B-m-hv''
\mw {]m-]n-p-p. \mw ssZ-h-n-s a- F-p B-m-hpw
Xm-\pw \-p-sS B-m-thm-Sp Iq-sS km-yw ]-d-bp-p F-m-Wv
ss_-_n Cu A-\p-`-h-s-p-dn-v ]-d-bp--X.v F-{X A-p-XI-c-am-b A-\p-`-hw! {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ lr-Z-b-n hn-izm-k-m
kzo-I-cn-p- G-sXm-cp-h-\pw Cu A-\p-`-hw kzm-b--am-mw.

tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp k-Xyw
k-Xy-s A-t\z-jn-p I-p-]n-Sn-p-hm G-sXm-cp Im-e-pw
a-\p-jy ]-cn-{i-an-n-p-v. k-Xym-t\z-jn-I-fp-sS H-cp ]-c--c-bmWv am-\-h-N-cn-{X-n \mw Im-Wp--Xv. k-Xyw F-m F-v
F- tNm-Zyw B-m--X-bp- G-sXm-cp a-\p-jy-t-bpw lrZ-b-n \n-v D-b-n-p-v. B-Xy-n-I-am-b bm-Ym-yw
F-m-tWm A-Xm-Wv k-Xyw F-v Nn--I-m k--Xn-p-p.
A-Xv I-p-]n-Sn-m A-t\z-j-W _p-n-bp- a-\p-jy F-pw
]-cn-{i-an-n-p-v. B-Imw-jm-`-cn-X-\m-b a-\p-jy A-n-a-am-b
H-cp e-y-n F-n-t-c-W-sa-v B-{K-ln-p--h-\m-Wv.
B--\n-jvT-am-b B-i-b--fpw B-Z-i--fpw B-Xy-n-I-am-b
B bm-Ym-y-n X-s F-n-p-sa-v a-\p-jy hn-izkn-p-p. X-Xz-m-\-, th-Zm-- F-n-h-sb-mw Cu
A--an-m- A-t\z-j-W-n-s ^-e--fm-Wv. B--cn-I-am-bn
a-\p-jy-\n A-p-cn-p-b-cp- B-Imw-j-I-sf kw-Xr-]v-Xn-s-Spp-sa-v A-h-\v tXm-p- F-pw k-Xy-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn-m
a-\p-jy B-th-i-ap--h-\m-Wv. F-m ^-e-n k-Xy-s
I-p-]n-Sn-m a-\p-jy X-n X-s A-i--\p-am-Wv. a\p-jy D-m-n-b X-Xz-kw-ln-X-I-fn-epw a-tXm-]-tZ-i--fn-epw
B-Z-i-hm-Z--fn-epw k-Xy-s-p-dn-p- B-i-b- I-s12

p h-cmw. F-m A-h-sb-mw b-Ym- k-Xy-s-p-dn-p-


a-\p-jy-k--ev-]--fp-sS hn-hn-[ h-i- am-{X-ta B-Ip-p-q.
F-m tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-h-Im-i-s--Xv Rm k-Xy-am-Ip-p
F-m-Wv. k-Xyw I-p-]n-Sn-p--Xn-\p- Ip-td am---fpw
B-Nm-cm-\p-jvTm-\--fpw D-]-tZ-in-p X-cn-I-b- {In-kv-Xp sN-bvX-Xv. Rm k-Xy-am-Ip-p F-mWv Atlw AhImisXv.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s Cu A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-s Aw-Ko-I-cn-m
X-m-dmbn-s-n A-Xn-s\ \n-tj-[n-p-I-bm-Wv \mw sN-p-Xv. X- sX-fn-hp-I-tfm-sS am-{X-ta A-Xv \n-tj-[n-m ]m-Spq. H-p-In B A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-s \mw Aw-Ko-I-cn--Ww.
A-s-n a-\p-jy-h--s X-s A-h-Im-i-hm-Z- sImv h-n- H-cp N-cn-{X-]p-cp-j F-p tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\
ap-{Z-b-Sn--Ww. B-m--X-tbm-sS A-Xp sN-p-hm, I-gn C-cp-]-Xp \q-m-p-I-fn Po-hn- B-pw I-gn-n-n-
F--Xm-Wv k-Xyw. tem-Iw I-n-p--Xn tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hns\-tm-se k-Xyw F-m-sW-v bm-sXm-cp kw-i-b-hp-an-m-sX
a-\p-jy-\v Im-Wn-p sIm-Sp- th-sd B-cp-v? tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp
H-cp A-k-Xy-hm-Zn-bm-bn-cp-p F-p ]-d-bp-hm am-{Xw ss[-cyw
B-p-m-bn-p-v? tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp k-Xy-am-Wv F- A-h-Imi-hm-Z-s Aw-Ko-I-cn-p-hm-\pw B-Z-cn-p-hm-\pw B-m-X-bp- B-bn-c-am-bn-c- I-gn- \q-m-p-I-fn `q-ap-J-v
D-m-bn-p-v; C-pw D-v. A-h-cp-sS Po-hn-Xm-\p-`-h- A-Xp
sX-fn-bn-p--Xm-Wv.
k-Xy-s-p-dn-p- a-\p-jy-s _p-n-pw bp-n-pw tNcp- k-I-e hn-i-Zo-I-c-W--fp-tS-bpw B-sI-p-I {In-kv-Xp
F- N-cn-{X-]p-cp-j-\n \n-n-]v-X-am-bn-cn-p-p F-v \n-jv]--_p-n-bn Nn-n-p- G-h-\pw t_m-y-s-Sp--Xm-Wv.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s Po-hn-X-s {i-n-p-I. tem-I-N-cn-{X-n
A-dn-b-s- a-\p-jy-cn B-sc-n-epw {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m IqSp-X hn-ip--\m-bn Po-hn-n-p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m IqSp-X k-Xy-s tem-I-n-\v Im-Wn-p sIm-Sp-n-p-tm?
{In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X kv-t\-lw {]-Z-in-n-n-p-tm?
{In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X kz-`m-h-ip-n-bp--h D-m-bn13

p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X {]-Ir-Xn-i-n-I-fp-sS


ta kzm-[o-\-X sN-ep-n-bn-p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m IqSp-X a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-n-se {]-iv-\--v ]-cn-lm-cw D-mn-bn-p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X a-\p-jy-\v \-
sN-bv-Xn-p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X X-Xz-m-\w
]-d-n-p-tm? {In-kv-Xp-hn-t\-m Iq-Sp-X B-ym-n-I
D-]-tZ-i- \-In-bn-p-tm? ]-c-am- lr-Z-b-n \n-v
Cu tNm-Zy--s-mw a-dp-]-Sn ]-d-bp-hm k---am-bm
{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-tm-se H-cp ]p-cp-j-s\ tem-Iw I-n-n- F-v
B-cpw k--Xn-m-Xn-cn--bn-. C-{X a-lm-\m-b H-cp N-cn-{X-]pcp-j ""Rm k-Xy-am-Ip-p'' F-v A-h-Im-i-s--Xv tI-h-ew
\n-m-c-am-bn X-n--f-bm-hp--X-.
H-cp b-Ym- k-Xym-t\z-jn {In-kv-Xp-hn-s Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v
]Tn-n-v A-h-t\-m Iq-Sp-X k-Xyw F-m-sW-v Nn-n-p
t\m-n-bm A-h-s A-t\z-j-Ww A-hn-sS A-h-km-\n-n-mXn-cn-n-. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ Po-hn-X-n b-Ym- k-Xyam-bn I-s-n-b B-bn-c--fp-sS B--kw-Xr-]v-Xn A-Xn-\v
sX-fn-hm-Wv. A-k-Xy-n-t-tbm, A-km-m-n-I-X-bp-tS-tbm,
A-\o-Xn-bp-tS-tbm A-Wp t]m-epw Po-hn-X-n G-in-bn-n-m-
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s A-Sp- h-n-v B-izm-k-hpw B--kwXr-]v-Xn-bpw e-`n-m-sX t]m-b B-cp-v Cu tem-I-n? ""Fs A-Sp- h-cp-hn Rm \n--sf B-iz-kn-n-pw'' F-
{]-Jym-]-\w G-sXm-cp Im-e-pw am--s-Sp-hm B-h-iy-an-m-
H-cp -W-am-bn \n-p-p. a-\p-jy-lr-Z-b-n-\v B-izm-kw
]-I-p sIm-Sp-m I-gn-hp- F-p im-kv-{X-am-Wp--Xv? GXp B-Z-i-am-Wp--Xv? G-Xp th-Zm--am-Wp--Xv? G-Xp a-tXm]-tZ-i-am-Wp--Xv? G-Xp X-Xz-kw-ln-X-bm-Wp--Xv? a-\p-jy
kw-kv-Im-cn-bpw k---\pw ]-cn-jv-Im-cn-bp-am-bn ]p-tcm-K-an-pp F-v A-h-Im-i-s-Sp--h-cp-sS a-y-n B--l-Xy-I
h-n-p h-cp--Xn-\v F-m-Wv Im-c-Ww? {]-]--c-l-ky-
I-p-]n-Sn-p-sh-v ho-n-f-p--h-cp-sS lr-Z-b-n iq-\yX-b-\p-`-h-s-Sp--Xn-\v F-m-Wv Im-c-Ww? k-I-e A-dn-hpw
k-m-Zn-p I-gn-p-sh-v A-`n-am-\n-p--h km-m-n-I-am-bn
14

A-[x-]-Xn-p--Xn-\v F-m-Wv Im-c-Ww? N-{-\n sIm-Sn \mn-b a-\p-jy-\v `q-an-bn-se A-\o-Xn-I-v A-dp-Xn h-cp-p-hm
km-[n-m--sX-p-sIm-v? lr-Z-b-hpw X-e-tm-dpw am-n h-bv-phm km-a-y-ap- a-\p-jy lr-Z-bw B-Ip-e-s-n-cn-p-
H-cp-h-\v B-izm-kw ]-I-p sIm-Sp-m F-p kq-{X-am-Wv
I-p-]n-Sn-n-p--Xv. a-\p-jy-Po-hn-Xw [-\y-am-bn-o-cp--Xv Ah-s lr-Z-b-n k-tm-j-hpw k-am-[m-\-hpw kw-Xr-]v-Xn-bpw
D-m-Ip-tmgm-W-tm. ku-`m-Ky-Po-hn-Xw km-y-am-bn-o-cp--Xv
A-tmgm-Wv. tem-I-n-se bm-sXm-n-\pw a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-s
ku-`m-Ky k-q--am-n-o-p-hm km-y-a- F-v A-\p`-h- ]Tn-n-p-p. F-m tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-Xv km-y-amn-o-p-p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ lr-Z-b-n c-n-Xm-hpw
I-m-hp-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn-p- B-cp-tS-bpw Po-hn-Xm-\p-`-h
A-Xn-\p- km-y-am-Wv. b-Ym- k-Xyw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hmsW-v A-h km-n-pw. k-Xy-am-b {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ Po-hn-Xn H-cp bm-Ym-y-am-n-o-p-hm {]n-b kv-t\-ln-Xm,
Xm--v km-[n-n-p-tm?

tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp Po-h
Rm Po-h B-Ip-p F-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-h-Im-i-s-p.
Po-h D-Xv-]m-Zn-n-m im-kv-{X-n-\v C-Xp-h-sc-bpw I-gn-nn-. a-c-W-n-s ap-n X-e-Ip-\n-m- B-cpw C-Xp-h-sc
D-m-bn-n-. a-cn-p-t]m-b a-\p-jy-\v ho-pw Po-h \-In
A-h-s\ Po-hn-n-p-hm H-cp I-p-]n-Sn--hpw D-m-bn-n-.
ssZ-h-am-Wv Po-h-s D--h-m-\w. ssZ-h-m e-`n- Po-h
B-Wv a-\p-jy-s Po-hn-X-n-\v ssN-X-\yw \-In-b-Xv. H-cp
kv-{Xo-bp-sS K-`-]m-{X-n D-cp-hm-bn h-f-cp- in-ip-hn-\v Poh-\p-m-Ip--Xv F-tmgm-sW-v Ir-Xy-am-bn ]-d-bm t]m-epw
ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-n-\v I-gn-n-n-. a-\p-jy izm-tkm-m-kw
sN-p--Xv \n-p-t]m-Ip-tm A-h a-cn-p-p. F-m izmk-am-Wv Po-h F-p ]-d-bp-hm km-y-a-. a-\p-jy-\n Po-h
\n-e-\n-p--Xv G-Xp {]-Im-c-am-sW-v hn-i-Zo-I-cn-p-hm
15

B-pw km-[n-n-n-. \-p-sS A-h-b-h- h-f-cp--Xn-s


]p-d-In {]-h-n-p- c-l-kyw F-m-sW-v ]q--am-bn
{K-ln-p-hm-t\m hn-i-Zo-I-cn-p-hm-t\m {]-bm-k-am-Wv. F-m
A-h h-f-cp-p F--Xv H-cp A-\p-`-h-k-Xy-am-Wv; ssZ-hw a-\pjy-s\ a-p-sIm-p-m-n A-h-s aq-n Po-h-izm-kw DuXn. A--s\ a-\p-jy Po-h-\p- tZ-ln-bm-bn-o-p F-p
ss_-_n sh-fn-s-Sp-p-p. a--{]-[m-\-am-b Cu Po-h-c-lkyw a-\p-jy-\v a-\-n-em-p-hm km-[n-n-n- F-n-epw G-Xp
a-\p-jy-\pw A-Xv A-\p-`-h-am-Ip-p-v.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp, Rm Po-h-\m-Wv F--h-Im-i-s--tm a-\p-jycn-epw Po-hn-I-fn-epw \n-e-sIm-p- Po-h-s D-S-b-h-\pw D--hm-\-hpw Xm\m-sW-v a-\p-jy-\v sh-fn-s-Sp-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p.
""k-I-e-Xpw A-h ap-Jm-n-cw D-f-hm-bn, D-f-hm-b-Xv H-pw A-hs\-q-Sm-sX D-f-hm-b-X-. A-h-\n Po-h D-m-bn-cp-p. Po-h
a-\p-jy-cp-sS sh-fn--am-bn-cp-p'' F-pw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\
p-dn-v X-s in-jy-m-cn-sem-cp-h tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p-p.
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-h-Im-i-s- Im-cy--sf-mw k-Xy-am-sW-v
X-s {]-hr-n-I-fm sX-fn-bn-n-p-v. ""Rm ]p-\-cp-m-\hpw Po-h-\pw B-Ip-p'' F-v H-cn- tbip ]-d-p. a-cn-h-v Po-h sIm-Sp-v D-bn-s-gp-t-ev-]n-p-sIm-v A-Xv
k-Xy-am-sW-v a-\p-jy-v t_m-[y-s-Sp-n-sm-Sp-p. tbip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s Po-hn-X-Imev aq-p hy-n-I-sf a-cn--hcn \n-pw Atlw D-bn-n--Xm-bn tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v.
eq-tm-kv F-gp-Xn-b kp-hn-ti-jw 7mw A-ym-b-n C--s\
Im-Wp-p. ""]n-s-\m A-h (tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp) \-bn F-
]--W-n-te-v t]m-Ip-tm A-h-s in-jy-m-cpw h-f-sc
]p-cp-jm-c-hpw Iq-sS t]m-bn. A-h ]--W-n-s hm-Xn-temS-Sp--tm a-cn-p-t]m-b H-cp--s\ ]p-d-p sIm-p h-p.
A-h A--v G-I-Pm-X-\m-b a-I, A-h-tfm hn-[-h-bm-bn-cpp. ]--W-n-se H-cp h-en-b ]p-cp-jm-c-hpw A-h-tfm-Sp Iq-sS
D-m-bn-cp-p. A-h-sf I-n-v I-m-hv a-\--en-v A-h-tfm-Sv
I-ctb- F-p ]-d-p. A-h A-Sp-p sN-v a-w sXm-p,
16

Np-a-p--h \n-p. _m-ey-m-cm F-gp-t- F-p Rm


\n-tm-Sv ]-d-bp-p F-v A-h ]-d-p. a-cn--h F-gp-tv C-cp-v kw-km-cn-p-hm Xp-S-n. A-h A-h-s\ A---v
G-n-p sIm-Sp-p''.
a-tm-kv F-gp-Xn-b kp-hn-ti-jw A-mw A-ym-b-n ]-n{]-am-Wn-bm-b bm-bn-tdm-kv F- hynbpsS a-I a-cn- hn-hcw A-dn-p tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp B ho-n sN-p. I-c-p hn-e]n-p--h-cp-sS B-c-hm-cw I-p. Xp-S-v \mw hm-bn-p--Xv
C-s\-bm-Wv: A-h F-m-h-tc-bpw ]p-d-m-n. Ip-n-bp-sS
A--t\-bpw A--tb-bpw X-tm-Sv Iq-sS-bp--h-tc-bpw Iq-n-smv Ip-n In-S-p-n-S-t-v sN-p Ip-n-bp-sS ssI-bv-v ]n-Snv _m-te F-gp-t- F-p \n-tm-Sv I-ev-]n-p-p F-
A--tm-sS "X-eo-Ym-Iq-an' F-p A-h-tfm-Sv ]-d-p. _m-e
D-S-s\ F-gp-t-p \-S-p. A-h-v ]-{-p h-b-m-bn-cp-p.
A-h A-Xy-w hn-kv-a-bn-p.
th-sdm-c-h-k-c-n tb-ip kv-t\-ln-n-cp- H-cp Ip-Spw-_-n
em-k F-p t]-cm-b H-cp-h a-cn-p-t]m-bn, A-h-s\ I--d-bn
A-S-n. \m-ep Zn-h-kw I-gn-p tb-ip A-hn-sS F-n. I--dbv- sN-p. {InkvXpinjy\mb tbm-l-m B kw-`-hw
tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv C--s\-bm-Wv. A-Xv H-cp Kp-l B-bncp-p. H-cp I-pw A-Xn sh-n-cp-p, I-p \o-p-hn F-v
tb-ip ]-d-p. a-cn--h-s k-tlm-Z-cn-bm-b am- I-m-th
\m-w sh-p Xp-S-n \m-ep Zn-h-k-am-b-tm F-p ]-d-p. tbip A-h-tfm-Sv ""hn-iz-kn-m \o ssZ-h-n-s a-l-Xzw Im-Wpw
F-v Rm \n-tm-Sv ]-d-n--tbm F-p ]-d-p. C--s\
]-d-n-p A-h ""em-k-sc ]p-d-p h-cn-I'' F-p D-d-s
hn-fn-p. a-cn--h ]p-d-p h-p. A-h-s Im-epw I-pw io-esIm-v sI-n-bpw ap-Jw dp-am sIm-v aq-Sn-bn-cp-p. A-h-s
sI-v A-gn-n, A-h t]m-I-s F-v tb-ip A-h-tcm-Sv ]-d-p.
Cu aq-v kw-`-h--fpw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp Po-h-s D-S-b-h-\m-sWv bm-sXm-cp kw-i-b-hpw Iq-Sm-sX sX-fn-bn-p--h-bm-W-tm.
A-h-s i-n-bp- h-N-\-m a-cn--h-v Po-h e-`n-p.
17

""k-I-e-hpw X-s i-n-bp- h-N-\-m h-ln-p--h''


F-m-Wv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-p-dn-v ss_-_n ]-d-bp--Xv.
H-cn- {In-kv-Xp X-s in-jy-m-tcm-Sv C--s\ ]-d-p ""F-s
Po-h-s\ ho-pw {]m-]n-t--Xn-\v Rm A-Xn-s\ sIm-Sp-p-Xp-sIm-v ]n-Xm-hv F-s kv-t\-ln-p-p. B-cpw A-Xn-s\
F-tm-Sv F-Sp-p I-f-bp-n-. Rm X-s A-Xn-s\ sIm-Spp-p. A-Xn-s\ sIm-Sp-m F-\n-v A-[n-Im-cw D-v. ho-pw
{]m-]n-m-\pw A-[n-Im-c-ap-v'' tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s a-c-W-]p-\-cpm-\- A-Xp k-Xy-am-sW-v sX-fn-bn-p. {Iq-in--s- {Inkv-Xp aq-mw \m D-bn-s-gp-t-p. tem-I-N-cn-{X-n \-S-
G--hpw h-en-b A-p-X-kw-`-h-am-bn-cp-p A-Xv. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp
Po-hn-n-cp--tm ]-e {]m-h-iyw B-h-n-m-h-n-v X-s
a-c-W-s-p-dn-pw ]p-\-cp-m-\-s-p-dn-pw in-jy-m-tcm-Sv
]-d-n-cp-p. b-lq-Z-m-cp-sS t{]-c-W-bm tdm-am K-h-sans Np-a-X-e-bn-em-Wv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ {Iq-in--Xv. Ah
a-cn-p F-p D-d-p h-cp-nbtijw X-s i-co-cw I--d-bn
A-S-w sN-bv-Xp. Rm D-bn-s-gp-t-ev-pw F-v ap-t
]-d-n-cp--Xp-sIm-v A-Xp kw-`-hn-m-Xn-cn-m b-lq-Z-m
tdm-am K-h-san-s\-sm-v I--d ap-{Z sh-n-p-I-bpw ]-Sbm-fn-I-sf Im-h \n-dp-p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. am-\-h-N-cn-{X-n
B-cp-sSbpw a-c-W-n-\v C--s\ kw-`-hn-n-n-. F-m aq-mw
\m tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp a-c-W-s P-bn-p, I--d-I-sf s]m-n-p,
tdm-am-K-h-san-s ap-{Z-sb X-I-p hn-P-b-{io-em-fn-X-\m-bn
ho-pw Po-hn-p, \m--tXm-fw Zn-h-k- X-s in-jy-mv hn-hn-[ -e--fn sh-p {]-Xy--\m-bn Xm Po-hn-ncn-p-p F-v sX-fn-bn-p. tem-I-N-cn-{X-n Po-hn-n-cp-
a-lm-m-sc-mw a-cn-v a--d-p-t]m-bn. A-h-cp-sS I--d-I
C-pw Xp-d--s-Sm-sX `q-ap-J-v ti-jn-p-p. F-m tbip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s I--d H-gn--Xm-bn In-S-p-p. X-s Po-h
ho-pw {]m-]n-m-\p- X-s A-[n-Im-cw {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-bn
{]-Jym-]n--s--Xm-bn-cp-p tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s ]p-\-cp-m-\w.
18

Rm Po-h B-Ip-p F- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-n-s n-co-Ic-W-am-Wv C-hn-sS \-ap-v Im-Wm I-gn-bp--Xv. Po-h-s D-Sb-h Xm B-sW-v sX-fn-bn--s-p. Cu h-en-b kw-`-hw
\n-tj-[n-p-hm km-[n-m-X-h-w N-cn-{X-n-s t]-Pp-I-fn
tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p-p. a-cn--h-cn \n-pw D-bn-s-gp-t-
{In-kv-Xp a-\p-jy-h--n-s Po-h-Zm-Xm-hm-Wv. F-n hn-izkn-p--h a-cn-m-epw Po-hn-pw F-p Xm {]-Jym-]n--Xv
Po-hn-X-n A-\p-`-h-am-m km-[n-pw F--Xn-s D-d-m-Wv
X-s ]p-\-cp-m-\w.
a-\p-jy a-c-W-n-\v hn-t[-b-s-m-Wv Po-hn-p--Xv. a-c-Ww
F- hm-v a-\p-jy-s\ B-iz-kn-n-p-I-b- A--c-n-p-I-bm-Wv
sN-p--Xv. F-p-sIm-m-Wv Cu a-c-Ww? ""G-I-a-\p-jy-\m
]m-]-hpw ]m-]-m a-c-W-hpw tem-I-n I-S-p. C--s\
F-m-h-cpw ]m-]w sN-bv-I-bm a-c-Ww k-I-e a-\p-jy-cn-epw
]-c-n-cn-p-p'' F-m-Wv ss_-_n ]-d-bp--Xv. a-\p-jy-s
im-co-cn-I-a-c-W-hpw B-o-I-a-c-W-hpw ]m-]-n-s A-\--c-^e--fm-Wv. A-Xn-{I-a--fn-epw ]m-]--fn-epw a-cn--h-cm-bn-m-Wv
a-\p-jy-h-w ssZ-h-ap-n B-bn-cn-p--Xv. ssZ-hn-I-Nn--bnm-sX ssZ-h-n \n-pw A-I-p a-c-W-n-s A-[n-Im-cnbm-b ]n-im-Nn-s A-[o-\-X-bn Po-hn-p- H-c-\p-`-h-s-bmWv B-n-I-a-c-Ww F--Xp-sIm-v A--am-p--Xv. A-Xn
\n-pw a-\p-jy-\v hn-Sp-X sIm-Sp-v ssZ-h-k---n-te-v,
\n-Xy-\m-b ssZ-h-n-s Po-h-\n-te-v A-h-s\ a-S-n-sm-p
h-cp-hm i-n-bp--h-\m-Wv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp F-v X-s a-c-W]p-\-cp-m-\--fm tem-I-n-\p ap-n Xm sX-fn-bn-p. C-Xp
kw-_-n-v ss_-_n ]-d-bp- Nn-e k-Xy- D--cn--s.
""a- P-U-c---tfm-sS Iq-Sn-b-h B-b-Xp-sIm-v A-h-\pw
({In-kv-Xp-hpw) A-h-sc-tm-se P-U-c---tfm-Sp Iq-Sn-b-h-\m-bn
a-c-W-n-s A-[n-Im-cn-bm-b ]n-im-Nn-s\ a-c-W-m \o-n
Po-h-]-cy-w a-c-W-`o-Xn-bm A-Sn-a-I-fm-bn-cp--h-sc H-s-bpw
hn-Sp-hn-p'' (F-{_m-b 2:14) ""G-I-s ew-L-\-m a-c-Ww
B G-I \n-an-w hm-Wp F-n Ir-]-bp-tS-bpw \o-Xn-Zm-\19

n-t-bpw k-ar-n e-`n-p--h tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp F- G-I


\n-an-w G--hpw A-[n-I-am-bn Po-h-\n hm-gpw'' (tdm-a 5:17)
F-m-h-pw th-n H-cp-h a-cn-n-cn-s F-m-h-cpw a-cn-p
F-pw Po-hn-p--h C-\n X--m-bn-- X--p-th-n
a-cn-p D-bn--h-\m-bn-v X-s Po-hn-t--Xn-\v A-h F-mh-pw th-n a-cn-p F-pw R- \n--bn-n-cn-p-p''
(2 sIm-cn. 5:1415) C-Xp-t]m-se A-t\-Iw D--c-Wn-I F-Sp-p
Im-Wn-m-\p-v. C-h-bn D-sm-n-n-p- k-Xyw F-Sp-p
Im-Wn-p-hm am-{Xw C-{X-bpw hm-Iy- D--cn--Xm-Wv. ]m-]n-\pw a-c-W-n-\pw hn-t[-b-\m-b a-\p-jy-s\ hn-Sp-hn-p-hm
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp a-c-Ww k-ln--bpw D-bn-s-gp-t-p-I-bpw
sN-bv-Xp. A-Xv hn-izm-k-m lr-Z-b-n Aw-Ko-I-cn-p--h\v \n-Xy-Po-h D-v. F-n hn-iz-kn-p--h-\v \n-Xy-Po-h
D-v'' F-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp ]-d-p. G-sXm-cp-h tb-ip-{Inkv-Xp-hn-s\ lr-Z-b-n hn-izm-k-m kzo-I-cn-p-p-thm
A-h-\v ]m-]-tam-N-\-hpw \n-Xy-am-b Po-h-\pw Cu tem-I-n
h-p X-s A-\p-`-h-am-p-hm I-gn-bpw. hn-iz-kn-p-I F-Xn-\v H-cp \n-an-jw am-{X-ta B-h-iy-ap-q. C-m-cy- F-mw
]Tn-p {K-ln-p hn-iz-kn-p-I F-- A-Xn-\v A-w. \mw
B-bn-cn-p- n-Xn-bn, Po-hn-p- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ k-q-am-bn B-{i-bn- F--Xm-Wv A-Xn-s A-w. ""{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\
C-d-t-Ww F-p hn-Nm-cn-v B kz--n I-b-dpw F-tm
{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ a-cn--h-cp-sS-bn-S-bn \n-v I-b-t-Ww F-v hnNm-cn-v B ]m-Xm-f-n C-d-p-sa-tm \n-s lr-Z-b-n
]-d-b-cp-Xv'' .... h-N-\w \n-\-v k-ao-]-am-bn \n-s hmbnepw
\ns lr-Z-b-n-epw C-cn-p-p. A-Xv R- {]-kw-Kn-p-
hn-izm-k-h-N-\w X-s. tb-ip-hn-s\ I-m-hv F-v hm-bv-sImv G-p ]-d-bp-I-bpw ssZ-hw A-h-s\ a-cn--h-cn \n-v D-bns-gp-t-ev-]n-p Fv lrZbw sImv hnizknpIbpw
sN-bv-Xm \o c-n--s-Spw. lr-Z-bw sIm-v \o-Xn-m-bn
hn-iz-kn--bpw hm-bv-sIm-v c--bv-m-bn G-p ]-d-bp-I-bpw
sN-p-p. A-h-\n hn-iz-kn-p--h H-cp--\pw e-n-p
t]m-I-bn-''. (tdm-a 10:611)
20

D-bn-s-gp-t- {In-kv-Xp
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp D-bn-s-gp-t-p F- N-cn-{X-kw-`-h-s \n-tj[n-p--h D-v. {In-kv-Xp DbnsgptXn\p tijw injy-m-v {]-Xy--s-p- F--Xv sh-dpw I-Y-I-fm-bn Nn-n-p-h D-v. bp-n-]q-w Nn-n-p--h-v Cu hm-Z-n
I-g-sm-pw C-s-v a-\-n-em-mw. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ {Iqin--Xv sb-cp-i-te-an-\-Sp-m-bn-cp-p-h-tm. A-tX m-\-p-Xs-bm-Wv X-s in-jy-m {In-kv-Xp-hn-s ]p-\-cp-m-\-n-\v
km-yw h-ln--Xv. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp Po-hn-p-p F-pw A-Xn-\v
R- km-n-I-fm-sW-pw sb-cp-i-tew ]--W-n A-h
k-ss[-cyw {]-kw-Kn-p. tdm-am-K-h-san-t\m b-lq-Z-m-tm
A-Xn-s-Xn-cm-bn H-pw sN-p-hm I-gn-n-. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp
D-bn-s-gp-t-n-n-m-bn-cp-s-n A-h-s i-co-cw F-hn-sS?
tdm-am K-h-san-s A-\p-a-Xn-tbm-sS Ip-cn-in X-d-p sIm-
\-k-dm-b-\m-b tb-ip-hn-s i-co-cw tI-h-ew ap-p-h-cm-b injy-m F-Sp-p sIm-p t]m-bn H-fn-n-p F-p ]-d-m
A-Xp bp-n-p tN-cp--Xm-tWm? tdm-am `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpw
sb-lq-Z-m-cpw tN-v B i-co-cw I-s-Sp-v ]-c-ky-am-bn
s]m-Xp-P-\-n-s ap-n {]-Z-in-n-v B in-jy-m-cp-sS hm-bv
A-S-p I-f-bm-Xn-cp--Xv F-p-sIm-m-Wv? A-h ]-c-ky-am-bn
{Iq-in-p-I-bpw I--d-bn A-S-p-I-bpw K-h-san-s ap-{Z
sh-bv-p-I-bpw ]-m-f-m-sc Im-h \n-dp-p-I-bpw sN-bv-X B
i-co-c-s-p-dn-v F-p-sIm-v A-h au-\-am-bn \n-p? Xp-dv In-S- B I--d-bp-sS c-l-ky-sa-m-bn-cp-p? A-m-e-v
X-s A-t\-Im-bn-c- X--fp-sS Po-hn-X-n D-bn-sgp-t- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s i-n A-\p-`-hn-p-p F-p km-ys-Sp-n-b-Xn-s ]p-d-In-se c-l-kyw F-m-bn-cp-p?
A-m-e-p sb-cp-i-te-an {]-kn--\m-b H-cp bp-h-tI-k-cn
D-m-bn-cp-p. tdm-am-]u-c-\pw b-lq-Zm a-X-]-n-X-\pw B-bncp- X-tkm-kn-se iu, tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-Xn-cm-bn A-h
]-c-am-h-[n {]-h-n-p. \-k-dm-b-\m-b tb-ip A-h-s\ kw-_n-n-S-tm-fw tI-h-ew H-cp I--{]-hm-N-I am-{X-am-bn-cp-p.
21

b-lq-Zm-a-X-n h-f-sc F-cn-hp--h-\m-bn a-X-t\-Xm--m-cp-sS


Aw-Ko-Im-cw e-`n--h-\m-bn-cp-p A-h. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s
in-jy-m-sc sIm-sm-Sp-p-hm A-h A-{im- ]-cn-{i-aw
sN-bv-Xp. A-Xn-\p- A-[n-Im-c-]-{X-hpw A-h-\p-m-bn-cp-p.
F-m H-cp Zn-h-kw A-h-s bm-{X-bn D-bn-s-gp-t-
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp A-h-\v {]-Xy--\m-bn. B kw-`-h-s-p-dn-v
A-t-lw X-s ]-d-n-p--Xv C--s\-bm-Wv. ""iu-te, iu-te
\o F-s D-]-{Z-hn-p--Xv F-v? ap-n-s t\sc D-sX-bv-p-Xv \n-\-v hn-j-aw B-Ip-p F-v F-{_m-b-`m-j-bn F-tm-Sv
]-d-bp-sm-cp i-_v-Zw Rm tI-p. \o B-cm-Ip-p I-m-th,
F-p Rm tNm-Zn--Xn-\v I-m-hv, ""\o D-]-{Z-hn-p- tb-ip
X-s Rm'' F-n-epw F-gp-t-v \n-h-p \n- \o F-s
I--Xn-\pw C-\n Rm \n-\-v {]-Xy- B-hm-\n-cn-p--Xn\pw \n-s ip-{iq-j-I-\pw km-n-bp-am-bn \n-b-an-m Rm
\n-\-v {]-Xy--\m-bn. P-\-n-t-bpw Pm-Xn-I-fp-tS-bpw I-n
\n-v Rm \n-s c-n-pw. A-h-v ]m-]-tam-N-\-hpw F-nep- hn-izm-k-m ip-o-I-cn--s--h-cp-sS C-S-bn A-hIm-i-hpw e-`n-t--Xn-\v I-p Xp-d-m-\pw A-h-sc C-cp-fn
\n-pw sh-fn--n-te-pw km-m-s A-[n-Im-c-n \n-v
ssZ-h-n-te-pw Xn-cn-m-\pw Rm C-tm \n-s A-h-cp-sS
A-Sp- A-b-p-p.'' (A-sm-kv-X-e-{]-hr-n-I 26:1420)
A-p-ap-X tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ Ip-dn-v {]-kw-Kn-p-h\pw
F-gp-Xp--h-\p-am-bn iu cq-]m--c-s-p. H-mw \q-m-n
G-jy-bn-epw bq-tdm-n-epw A-t\-I-]--W--fn-epw {Km-a--fn-epw
A-h k--cn-p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp Po-hn-p-p F-pw A-h
]m-]n-I-fp-sS c--I-s\-pw {]-kw-Kn-p. ap--Xn-e-[n-Iw hj- A-h {]-h-n-p. A-Xp tI-h-ew tXm--en-t-bpw
tI-p-tI-hn-bp-tS-bpw A-Sn-m-\-n-em-bn-cp-p-thm? H-cp a-X]-n-X-\pw t\-Xm-hpw B-bn-cp- iu h-n--s-p-sh-v
Nn-n-m-tam? A-t-lw tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv C--s\-bmWv. ""{In-kv-Xp D-bn-s-gp-t-n-n-s-n R--fp-sS {]-kw-Kw
hy-w. \n--fp-sS hn-izm-k-hpw hy-w. a-cn--h D-bn-pn- F-p h-cn-In ssZ-hw D-bn-n-n-n-m- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\
22

A-h D-bn-n-p-sh-v ssZ-h-n-\v hn-tcm-[-am-b km-yw


]-d-I-bm R- ssZ-h-n-\v I--km-n-I F-p h-cpw''
(1 sIm-cn-y 15:1217) I-gn- C-cp-]-Xp \q-m-p-I-fm-bn Cu
a-l-Xv k-Xy- Po-hn-X-n bm-Ym-y-am-n-b A-t\-Imbn-c- `q-ap-J-v Po-hn-n-p-,v C-pw D-v. A-Xn-s\ \n-tj[n-p-hm bp-n-t_m-[w A-\p-h-Zn-p--sX--s\?

N-cn-{X-tc-J
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp D-bn-s-gp-t-p F--Xn-\v N-cn-{X-tc-J-I-fpw
km-yw h-ln-p-p-v. ss_-_n-fn tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-Xv X-s B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-b tc-J-I-fm-Wv. A-X--s\ B-bn-cpn- F-v C-Xp-h-sc-bpw sX-fn-bn--s-n-n-. H-mw \q-mn Po-hn-n-cp- b-lq-Zm-N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-bn-cp- ^v-tf-hn-b-kv
tPm-kn-^-kv X-s F-gp-p-I-fn tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-p-dn-v
]-cm-a-in-n-p-v. A-t-lw H-cp {In-kv-Xym-\n A-m-bn-cp-p.
b-lq-Z-\m-bn P-\n-p b-lq-Z-m-cp-sS tam-N-\-n-\m-bn A-t-lw
k-a-cw sN-bv-Xp. b-lq-Z-m-cp-sS N-cn-{Xw A-h tc-J-s-Sp-n.
The Antiquities of the Jews F- Ir-Xn-bn 18mw ]p-kv-X-Iw 3mw
A-ym-b-n A-t-lw C--s\ F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-p-p.
""Cu k-a-b-v tb-ip F- m-\n-bm-b H-cp a-\p-jy Po-hnn-cp-p. A-h-s\ a-\p-jy-s\-v hn-fn-p--Xv i-cn-bm-bn-cn-p-tam
Fdnbn Im-c-Ww A-h A-Xn-i-b-{]-hr-n-I sN-p-h-\pw, k-Xyw k-tm-j-tm-sS kzo-I-cn-p--h-cp-sS Kp-cp-hpam-bn-cp-p. A-t\-Iw b-lq-Z-m-tc-bpw Pm-Xn-I-tf-bpw A-h
X--te-v B-I-jn-p. A-h {In-kv-Xp-hm-bn-cp-p. \-p-sS
-CS-bn-ep- {]-am-Wn-am-cp-sS \n-t-i-{]-Im-cw ]o-em-tm-kv
A-h-s\ {Iq-in-p-hm hn-[n--tm A-t-l-s kv-t\-lnn-cp--h X-s ssI-sh-Sn-n-. aq-mw Zn-h-kw A-h a-cn-h-cn \n-pw D-bn-s-gp-t-p A-h-v {]-Xy--\m-bn.
ssZ-hn-I-{]-hm-N-I-m C-Xpw C-Xp-t]m-se ]-Xn-\m-bn-cw a-p
A-p-X--fpw A-h-s\--n {]-h-Nn-n-cp-p. A-t-l-n-s t]cn {In-kv-Xym-\n-I F-v A-dn-b-s-Sp--h C-pw \-in-p
t]m-bn-n-.''
23

tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp a-cn--h-cn \n-pw D-bn-s-gp-t-p F-


k-Xy-n-\v C-Xn Iq-Sp-X sX-fn-hp-I-sfm-pw B-h-iy-an-tm. bp-n-t_m-[-ap--h-v hn-iz-kn-p-hm tbm-Ky-am-b
N-cn-{X-kw-`-h-am-Wv {In-kv-Xp-hn-s ]p-\-cp-m-\w.

a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-Xw
a-c-W-n-\p-ti-jw a-\p-jy Po-hn-p-tam? F- tNm-Zyw am-\h-cm-in-bp-sS B-cw-`-Im-ew ap-X X-s D-m-bn-p-v. a-c-Ww!
A-sX-m-Wv? a-c-Wm-\--cw H-cp Po-hn-Xw D-s-n A-Xn-s
kz-`m-hw F-m-bn-cn-pw? A-X-dn-bm-\p- am-w F-m-Wv?
A-Xv hn-iz-kn-p-hm a-Xn-bm-b A-Sn-m-\w F-m-Wp--Xv?
C--s\-bp- \n-c-h-[n tNm-Zy- B-m--X-bp- B-cpsSbpw lr-Z-b-n \n-pw D-b-p h-cm-dp-v. D--cw I-p-]nSn-p--Xn ssh-hn-y--fpw ssh-cp-y--fpw Im-Wp-p-ap-v.
F-m-Wo a-c-Ww? h-kv-Xp-\n-jvT-am-b H-cp D--cw B-Wv \-apm-h-iyw. a-\p-jy-cp-tS-bpw Po-hn-I-fp-tS-bpw {]-h--\-
\n--e-am-bn-o-cp- H-cp A-h--sbbm-Wv a-c-Ww F- hmpsIm-v km-[m-c-W \mw A--am-p--Xv. Po-hn-I-fn-se
Po-h-ssN-X-\yw \n-e-p-t]m-Ip--Xn-\v a-c-Ww F-p ]-d-bm-dpv. F-m ss_-_n ]Tn-n-p--Xn-\-\p-k-cn-v a-\p-jy-s
a-c-Ww F-v ]-d-bp--Xn-\v Ip-td-q-Sn A--hym-]v-Xn D-v.
a-\p-jy tI-h-ew H-cp i-co-cw am-{X-a-, i-co-c-s {]-h-nn-p- Po-h-\pw B-m-hpw D--h-\m-Wv. ar-K--fn \n-pw
a-\p-jy-\p- hy-Xym-kw a-\p-jy-\v ssZ-hn-I-t_m-[w D-v. sXpw i-cn-bpw A-h hn-th-Nn-p-p. _p-n-]q-w Po-hn-p-hm
X--h-w A-h X-s Im-cy- ssI-Im-cyw sN-p-p. A-hs km-l-N-cy--tfm-Sp- _--n A-h-s t_m-[-a-\-v
{]-h-n-p-p. A-tXm-sSm-w A-h-s {k-jv-Sm-hm-b ssZ-h-sp-dn-v Nn-n-p-hm-\pw ]Tn-p-hm-\pw A-h-s B--cn-I-t_m[w A-h-s\ k-lm-bn-p-p. A-h-s _p-n-bp-sS {]-h--\w
A-h-s Po-hn-X-s \n-b-{n-p-p. a-\p-jy-s A--cw-Kw
c-p hn-[-n-ep- {]-{In-b-I-fm-Wv \-S-p--Xv. H-v A-h-s
24

km-l-N-cy-tm-Sp- _-w. c-v ssZ-h-tm-Sp- _-w.


Po-h, {]m-W, a-\-v, B-m-hv, tZ-ln F-sm-s-bp-
]-Z--fm hn-h-n-p--Xv Cu c-p {]-{In-b-I-sfbm-Wv.
kv-t\-lw, k-tm-jw, A-`n-em-jw, A-S-m- B-{K-l-
F-n-h-sb-mw a-\p-jy-s A-x-I-c-W-n-s kr-jv-Sn-I-fm-Wv.
""H-cp-h k--tem-I-hpw t\-Sn-bm-epw X-s B-m-hn-s\ \-jv-Ss-Sp-n-bm A-h-\v F-v {]-tbm-P-\w'' F-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp
tNm-Zn--Xm-bn ss_-_n-fn tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. A--s\
a-c-Ww F--Xv a-\p-jy-\n-se B-m-hpw Po-h-\pw A-h-s i-coc-n \n-pw th-s-Sp- A-h--sb Im-Wn-p-p F-p
hy--am-W-tm. A-h h-kn-n-cp- i-co-cw \-in-p t]m-Ip-p.
a-\p-jy-s hy-n-Xzw F--Xv i-co-cw am-{X-a- F- k-Xyw
C-hn-sS sX-fn-p h-cp-ns? a-cn-p-tm \mw km-[m-c-W
]-d-bm-dp--Xv ""A-t-lw a-cn-p t]m-bn'' F-m-W-tm. B i-coc-s t\m-n-sm-p \mw ]-d-bpw B In-S-p--Xv A-t-ln-s i-co-cw A-Y-hm i-h-i-co-cw B-Wv. A-tm A-t-lw
F-hn-sS? F- tNm-Zy-n-\v F-m-Wp--cw? a-\p-jy F--Xv
tI-h-ew i-co-c-a-. A-h-s hy-n-Xzw B i-co-c-n A-[n-hkn-p- B-m-hnem-Wv \n-e-\n-p--Xv F-v bp-n-bp-
B-cpw k--Xn-pw. Cu B-m-hn-s th-]m-Sn-\v a-c-Ww F-p
]-d-bp-p. H-cp a-\p-jy a-cn-p-tm F-mw A-h-km-\n-p-p
F-p ]-d-bp--h D-v. bp-n-v tN-cm- H-cp hm-Z-am-W-Xv.
a-c-W-tm-sS F-mw A-h-km-\n-p-p F-n a-\p-jy-\v arK-t-m F-p hy-Xym-k-am-Wp--Xv. Po-hn-X-n A-h
sN-bv-X \o-Xn-pw A-\o-Xn-pw F-p hn-e-bm-Wp--Xv? A-h-s
hy-n-Xz-n-\v F-p A--am-Wp--Xv? Cu Po-hn-X-s A\p-Zn-\w \n-b-{n-p- t{]-c-I-i-n-bp-sS c-l-kyw F-m-Wv?
G-Xv a-\p-jy-t-bpw lr-Z-b-n a-c-Wm-\--cw H-cp Po-hn-X-apv F- t_m-[w B-g-am-bn ]-Xn-p In-S-p--Xp-sIm--t
A-h \--bpw Xn--bpw hn-th-Nn-p--Xpw \- sN-m B-{Kln-p--Xpw? Po-hn-X-n-s I-W-v t_m-[n-n-t-n h-cpw
F- Nn- A-dn-tm A-dn-bm-sX-tbm Hm-tcm-cp--cp-tS-bpw
a-\-n Ip-Sn-sIm-p-n-t? a-\p-jy-\v am-p-hm km-[n-m-
25

H-cp {]-Xn-`m-k-a-t A-Xv? a-c-Wm-\--cw H-cp Po-hn-X-ap-v F-v


a-\p-jy-a-\-v a-{n-p-sIm-n-cn-p--Xv X-s \n-tj-[n-m
I-gn-bm- H-cp sX-fn-hm-W-tm.

im-kv-{Xw F-p ]-d-bp-p?


F-p Im-cy-n-\pw im-kv-{X-n-s hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww A-t\z-jnp- H-cp X-e-ap-d-bn B-W-tm \mw h-kn-p--Xv. a-\p-jys\--n-bpw A-h A-[n-h-kn-p- Cu {]-]--s--n-bpw
A-p-X-I-c-am-b Im-cy- im-kv-{Xw sh-fn-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v.
a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-X-s--n-bpw im-kv-{X-n-\v ]-d-bp-hm-\pv. B h-gn-pw im-kv-{X--m Nn-n-p-p-v. bm-sXmcp Im-cy-t-bpw ]q--am-bn \-in-n-p-hm km-y-a-s-pw
bm-sXm-pw ]q--am-bn C-m-Xm-hp-I-bn-s-pw im-kv-{Xw sXfn-bn-p I-gn-p. C-v Po-hn-p- im-kv-{X--m-cn \-
]-pw a-c-Wm-\--c-Po-hn-X-n hn-iz-kn-p--h-cm-Wv F-
k-Xyw \n-tj-[n-p-hm km-y-a-.
A-ta-cn--bn-se am-j kv-t]-kv ^v-ssf-v sk-dn-s U-bd-Iv-S-dm-b tUm.hm-W hm {_u-Wn-s {]-kv-Xm-h-\ Cu
hn-j-b-n sh-fn-w ho-ip--Xm-Wv. A-t-lw ]-d-bp--Xp
tI-p-I ""A-a-y-X Xp-S-n-b a-X-]-c-am-b B-i-b--sf
im-kv-{Xw k-a-tbm-Nn-X-hpw Im-tem-Nn-X-hp-a-m-Xm-n-o-ncn-p-p F-v B-[p-\n-I tem-I-n A-t\-I-am-fp-I hn-Nmcn-p-p. F-m im-kv-{Xw \m-kv-Xn-I-\v b-Ym--am-b H-cp
A-p-X-am-sW-v Rm I-cp-Xp-p. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn {]-Ir-Xnbn-ep- bm-sXm-n-\pw ]-c-am-Wp-hn-\v t]m-epw bm-sXm-pw
A-h-ti-jn-n-m-sX C-m-Xm-Ip-hm I-gn-bn-s-v im-kv-{Xw
\-tm-Sv ]-d-bp-p. A-tX--n H-cp \n-an-jw Nn-n-p t\m-n-bm
Po-hn-X-s--n-bp- \-p-sS [m-c-W-I H-cn--epw C--stm-se-bm-bn-cn-n-. bm-sXm-pw A-h-ti-jn-n-m-sX H-n\pw C-m-Xm-Ip-hm I-gn-bp-I-bn-s-v im-kv-{Xw I-p-]n-Sn-p.
\m-i-sa-s-p {]-Ir-Xn--dn-p-Iq-Sm. cq-]m--cw am-{X-am-Wv
A-Xn-s X-Xzw. ]-c-a-{]-[m-\-am-b Cu X-Xzw {]-]--n-se
26

G--hpw sN-dp-Xpw A-{]-[m-\--fp-am-b A-Wp--fn t]m-epw


ssZ-hw {]-tbm-Kn-p-p F-n A-h-s kr-jv-Sn-I-v a-IpSw Nm-p- a-\p-jy-s B-m-hn-epw Cu X-Xzw {]m-tbmKn-I-am-Ip-p F-p I-cp-Xp-hm km-y-a-t? A--s\-X-s,
F-p Rm hn-iz-kn-p-p. im-kv-{Xw F-s ]Tn-n--Xpw ]
Tn-n-p--Xp-am-b Im-cy- a-c-W-ti-jw a-\p-jym-m-hv \n-e\n-p-p F- F-s hn-izm-k-s i-n-s-Sp-p--Xm-Wv.
bm-sXm-pw ]q--am-bn C-m-Xm-Ip-n-''. im-kv-{X--\pw
]-n-X-\p-am-b tUm.U-p.F {_u--s Cu {]-kv-Xm-h-\
a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v im-kv-{X-n-\v F-p ]-d-bp-hm\p-s-v hy--am-p-p--tm. A-t\-Iw im-kv-{X--m
Cu k-Xy-s Aw-Ko-I-cn-p--h-cm-Wv. a-\p-jym-m-hn-s\-pdn-p- Im-cy- tI-h-ew H-cp Iq-w ]m-h--fp-sS k-- A-, sX-fn-bn--s- k-Xy--fm-Wv.

a-X- F-p ]-d-bp-p?


a-\p-jy-h--n-s B-cw-`w ap-X X-s a-X--fpw cq-]-s-p
h-p. a-c-W-n-\p-ti-jw Po-hn-X-ap-v F- \n-K-a-\-n-em-Wv
a-X--fp-sS B-i-b- D-m-bn-p--Xv. A-a-y-X-bn-te-v
F-s \-bn-t-W-ta F-pw a-p-ap- {]m--\-I A-Xp
sX-fn-bn-p-p--tm. th-Z--fpw D-]-\n-j-p--fpw a-p a-X-{K--fpw a-\p-jym-m-hv a-c-Ww sIm-v \-in-p-n- F-m-Wv
]Tn-n-p--Xv. hn-hn-[ a-X--fn ssh-hn-y--fm-b B-i-bfm-Wv C-m-cy-n-ep--Xv. a-c-W-ti-jw B-m-hv Cu {]]--n e-bn-p tN-cp-p F-v Nn-e Nn-n-p-tm a-p
Nn-e A-\-h-[n P-\-\-a-c-W--fn-eq-sS Po-hn-Xw \n-e-\n-p-p
F-p hn-iz-kn-p-p. C-p sN-p- I----\p-k-cn-v
]p-\-P-\-\w \-m-bn-cn-p-I-tbm No--bm-bn-cn-p-I-tbm sNp-a-t{X! th-sdm-cp Iq- ku-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b H-cp Po-hn-X-s
kz-]v-\w Im-Wp-p. a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-p- a-X-fp-sS B-i-b- an--Xpw k----fpw A-\p-am-\--fp-am-Wv.
`m-h-\-bp-sS ssh-hn-y-a-\p-k-cn-v \n-K-a-\--fn-epw hy-Xym-kw
Im-Wp-sa-p am-{Xw. Nn--I-m-cpw th-Zm-n-I-fp-am-b A-t\-Iw
27

Kp-cp--m-cp-sS B-i-b- tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. a-\p-jy


A-h-sb ]-cn-tim-[n-p-I-bpw _-lp-am-\n-p-I-bpw A-h-cp-sS
X-Xz--sf hn-iz-kn-p-I-bpw sN-p-p. F-m A-h-sc-mw
a-c-W-n-\-p-d-p- Im-cy--sf-p-dn-v A-h-cp-sS `m-h-\m-in--\p-k-cn-v ]-d--tX-bp-q. A-h-sc-mw a-cn-p a--d-p.
A-h-cp-sS Nn--I i-cn-bm-sW-p sX-fn-bn-p-hm A-h
Xn-cn-p h-n-. F-m a-c-W-s P-bn-v D-bn-s-gp-t-
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp a-c-Wm-\--c-Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v F-p ]-d-bpp-sh-v t\m-p-I.

tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp F-p ]-d-bp-p?


a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp h-f-sc-m-cy ]-d-n-p-v. ss_-_n-fn A-h tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v.
A-h-bn h-f-sc {]-[m-\-s- H-cp hn-h-c-W-s C--s\ kwt-]n-mw. hy-Xy-kv-X km-l-N-cy--fn Po-hn- c-p hy-nI-sf-bm-Wv B hn-h-c-W-n Nn-{Xo-I-cn-p--Xv. eq-tm-kn-s
kp-hn-ti-jw 16mw A-ym-bw 1931 h-sc-bp- hm-Iy--fn
B hn-h-c-Ww tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. H-cp [-\-hm, H-cp Z-cn-{Z
C-cp-h-cpw a-cn-p. c-p hy-Xy-kv-X A-\p-`-h--fn-te-v A-h
am--s-p. [-\-hm ]m-Xm-f-n bm-X-\ A-\p-`-hn-p-tm
Z-cn-{Z ]-dp-Zo-k-bn B-iz-kn-p-p. t_m-[-hm-m-cm-bn cp m-\--fn A-h I-gn-bp-p. H-p bm-X-\-bp-tS-bpw
th-Z-\-bp-tS-bpw m-\w a-sm-v B-izm-k-n-t-bpw k-tmj-n-t-bpw m-\w. A-t\ym-\yw am--s-Sp-hm I-gn-bm-
A-\p-`-hw. bm-X-\m--e-v In-S-p- [-\-hm C-\n B-cpw
Cu -e-t-v h-c-cp-Xv F-v B-{K-ln-p-p. A-h-s ktlm-Z-c-m-tcm-Spw hn-h-cw A-dn-bn-p-hm a-cn--h-cn \n-pw
D-bn-s-gp-t- H-cm t]m-bn ]-d-b-Ww F-v A-h B-hiy-s-Sp-p. AXv A-m-y-am-sW-v A-cp-f-m-Sp-m-Ip-p.
Po-hn-n-cp--h A-h-cp-sS Po-hn-X-n X-s `m-hn-Po-hn-Xs-p-dn-v a-\-n-em-n am-\-km--c-s-v tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn
hn-iz-kn-n-s-n ]n-o-Sv A-Xn-\v km-h-Im-iw D-m-I-bn-
F- k-Xyw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp hy--am-n.
28

a-c-Wm-\--cw a-\p-jy Cu c-p A-h--bn G-sX-n-epw


H-n B-bn-cn-pw F-p ss_-_n h-f-sc hy--am-n-bnp-v. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp {Iq-in--s--tm A-h-t\m-Sp-Iq-sS {Iqin--s- c-p Zp-jv-{]-hr-n-m-cn H-cp-h am-\-km--cs-p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ cm-Pm-hm-bn A-h Aw-Ko-I-cn-p.
A-h-t\m-Sv tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp ]-d--Xv; ""C-v \o F-tm-Sv Iq-sS
]-dp-Zo-km-bn C-cn-pw'' F-m-Wv. ]-dp-Zo-k F- hm-p-sImv ku-`m-Ky-n-t-bpw k-tm-j-n-t-bpw k-am-[m-\-nt-bpw A-\p-`-h-am-W-tm Im-Wn-p--Xv. D-bn-s-gp-t-
{In-kv-Xp-hn-t\m-Sp-Iq-sS \n-Xy-Im-ew ]-c-am-\-w A-\p-`-hn-p-
Po-hn-X-am-W-Xv. ss_-_n B A-h--sb-p-dn-v hn-h-cn-p-Xv C--s\-bm-Wv; ""A-h A-h-tcm-Sp-Iq-sS h-kn-pw; A-h
A-h-s P-\-am-bn-cn-pw; A-h A-h-cp-sS I-n \n-v I-p\o-sc-mw Xp-S-p-I-f-bpw C-\n a-c-W-ap-m-I-bn-, Zpx-J-hpw apd-hn-fn-bpw I-jv-S-X-bpw C-\n D-m-I-bn-.... bm-sXm-cp im-]-hpw
C-\n D-m-I-bn-.... A-h-s Zm-k-m A-h-s\ B-cm-[n-pw,
A-h A-h-s ap-Jw Im-Wpw... C-\n cm-{Xn D-m-I-bn-'' ssZhm-[n-ssZ-h-hpw I-m-[n-I-m-hpw cm-Pm-[n-cm-Pm-hp-am-b tbip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-t\m-Sp Iq-sS-bp- Po-hn-Xw F-{X ku-`m-Ky-I-cam-bn-cn-pw F-{X B-\--I-c-am-bn-cn-pw....!
a-c-Wm-\--c-ap- th-sdm-c-\p-`-hw C-Xn \n-pw F-{X-bpw
hy-Xy-kv-X-am-Wv. ""A-hn-sS I-c-n-epw ]-p-I-Sn-bpw D-m-Ipw''
]n-im-Nn-\pw A-h-s Zq-X-m-pw th-n H-cp-n-bn-cn-p-
\n-Xym-n F-m-Wv B -e-s-p-dn-v {In-kv-Xp ]-d--Xv.
kv-t\-l-hm-\m-b ssZ-h-n \n-pw F-s-t-pw A-I-v
Po-hn-p- B A-\p-`-h-s-p-dn-v ss_-_n ]-d-bp--Xv
A-Xn-`-b--c-am-bn-m-Wv. ""F-m `o-cp-, A-hn-izm-kn-I,
sIm-e-]m-X-I-m, Zp--S-p-Im, p-{Z-m, _nw-_m-cm-[n-I
F-n-h-pw t`m-jv-v ]-d-bp- G-h-pw D- Hm-l-cn Xo-bpw
K--I-hpw I-p- s]m-bv-I-bn-e-t{X'' B Xo-sm-bv-I-bn
ssZ-h-tIm-]-n-s ]m-{X-n I-e-n-m-sX ]-I-n-cn-p-
ssZ-h-t{Im-[ a-Zyw Ip-Sn-p-sIm-v cm-hpw ]-I-epw H-cp kz-29

X-bpw C-m-sX F-t-pw A-Xn-bm-X-\ A-\p-`-hn-p- Nn-{Xw


H-p Nn-n-p t\m-p-I. ssZ-h-n-s \o-Xn-bn B in-
tI-h-ew \ym-bw am-{X-am-Wv.

C-l-n-epw ]-c-n-epw
a-c-Wm-\--c Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v ss_-_n sh-fn-s-Sp-p-
Nn-e k-Xy- B-Wv ta hn-h-cn--Xv. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-ep-
hn-izm-k-m-epw B-{i-b-m-epw ]-c-tem-I Po-hn-X-s-p-dnv kz-]v-\w I-p-sIm-p- H-cp Po-hn-X-s-p-dn-v am-{X-a-
ss_-_n ]-d-n-p--Xv. C-l-tem-I-Po-hn-X-n-epw Cu kzo-bm-\p-`q-Xn A-\p-`-hn-p-hm I-gn-bp- A-h--bp-v, A-XmWv b-Ym- {In-kv-Xo-b-Xzw. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ Po-hn-X-n
c-n-Xm-hpw I-m-hp-am-bn hn-izm-k-m Aw-Ko-I-cn-p-
G-Xp a-\p-jy-\pw Cu tem-I-Po-hn-X-n ku-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b H-c\p-`-hw D-v. ]-c-tem-I-s-p-dn-p- {]-Xym-i am-{X-a- A-Xv.
C--s Po-hn-Xm-\p-`-h--fn tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp H-cp bm-Ym-yam-bn-o-cp- A-h--bm-Wv. \-p-sS Zpx-J--fn, t-i-fn, tcm-K--fn, {]-Xn-_---fn, {]-iv-\--fn F-mw
k-am-[m-\-tm-Spw k-tm-j-tm-Spw kz--X-tbm-Spw Iq-sS
Po-hn-p-hm km-[n-p- H-c-\p-`-h-am-Wn-Xv. Cu tem-I-Po-hnXw I-gn-n-m-W-tm ]-c-tem-I-Po-hn-Xw. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-ep-
k-q--am-b B-{i-b-n Cu tem-I-n Po-hn-p--Xv
X-s kz-o-bm-\-m-\p-`q-Xn \-Ip--Xm-Wv. ""C-\n Po-hn-p-Xv Rm-\- {In-kv-Xp-h-t{X F-n Po-hn-p-p. C-tm Rm
P-V-n (i-co-c-n) Po-hn-p--tXm F-s kv-t\-ln-p
F-\n-p-th-n X-s-m G-ev-]n-p sIm-Sp- ssZ-h-]p-{X-ep- hn-izm-k-m-e-t{X Po-hn-p--Xv'' F-m-Wv hn-ip-
]u-tem-kv B A-\p-`-h-s-p-dn-v ]-d-n-p--Xv. tb-ip-{Inkv-Xp \-n Po-hn-p-I tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-ep- hn-izm-k-m
\mw Po-hn-p-I. C-h c-pw H-p-tN- Po-hn-X-am-Wv b-Ym-
{In-kv-Xo-b Po-hn-Xw. `m-hn-sb-p-dn-p- {]-Xym-i B Po-hn-X30

n-\v B-th-iw ]-I-cp--Xm-Wv F-p am-{Xw. ku-`m-Ky-Po-hnXw F-p ]-d-bp--Xv ]-c-tem-I-n F--s\ Po-hn-p-sa-v
{]-Xym-in-p-tm B Po-hn-Xw C-l-tem-I-n Po-hn-p Im-Wnp-I F--Xm-Wv. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s kv-t\-l-hpw Xym-K-hpw
ku-ay-X-bpw F-mw B Po-hn-X-n {]-Xn-^-en-p--Xm-Wv.
{In-kv-Xp-hn hn-iz-kn-p-p F-p ]-d-bp--Xn-s km-c-hpw
A-Xp X-s-bm-Wv. ""H-cp-h {In-kv-Xp-hn-em-bm A-h ]p-Xn-b
kr-jv-Sn B-Ip-p'' F-m-Wv ss_-_n ]-d-n-p--Xv. Cu
]p-Xn-b kr-jv-Sn Cu tem-I-n X-s kw-`-hn-p--Xm-Wp
Xm-\pw. am-\-km--c-s-p X--fp-sS ]m-]-h-gn-I-sf hn-p tb-ip{In-kv-Xp-hn B-{i-bn-p- G-Xp a-\p-jy-\pw Cu ku-`m-KyI-c-am-b Po-hn-Xw ssZ-hw hm-Kv-Zm-\w sN-p-p.

\n--fp-sS {]-Xn-I-c-Ww F-v ?


ss_-_n sh-fn-s-Sp-n-bn-p- Nn-e k-Xy- B-Wv \n-
hm-bn-p sIm-n-cn-p--Xv. C-Xn \n--fp-sS {]-Xn-I-c-Ww
F-m-Wv F-p--Xv \n--fp-sS Po-hn-X-n-se G--hpw {]-[m\-s- Im-cy-am-Wv. C-h ap-gp-h \n-cm-I-cn-p-hm \n--v
kzm-X-{y-ap-v. A-Xp-t]m-se X-s Cu k-Xy- \n--fp-sS
Po-hn-X-n A-\p-`-h-am-p-hm-\pw \n--v km-[n-pw. hyn-]-c-am-bn tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ hn-izm-k-m lr-Z-b-n
Aw-Ko-I-cn-p-p-sh-n am-{X-ta {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-sm-v {]-tbmP-\w D-m-Ip-p-q. k-I-e a-\p-jy-cpw c- {]m-]n-m-\pw k-Xyn-s ]-cn-m-\-n F-p-hm-\pw ssZ-hw C-n-p-p.
""ssZ-hw H-cp-h-\-tm ssZ-h-n-\pw a-\p-jy-pw a-y--\pw
H-cp-h, F-m-h-pw th-n a-dp-hn-e-bm-bn X-s-m sImSp- a-\p-jy-\m-b {In-kv-Xp-tb-ip X-s F-m-Wv ss_-_n
]-d-n-p--Xv. Cu {In-kv-Xp-tb-ip-hn-\m-bn \n--fp-sS lr-Zbw Xp-d-p sIm-Sp-phm \n- C-tm k---\m-tWm?
F-n B-m--X-tbm-Spw ]-c-am--lr-Z-b-tm-Spw Iq-sS
\n--fp-sS ]m-]-s-p-dn-v ]-m--]n-v {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ lrZ-b-n [ym-\n-p sIm-v C--s\ {]m-n-p-I.
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I-m-hm-b tb-ip-th, Rm ]m-]n-bm-Wv. F-s ]m-]-p-th-n A-v {Iq-in-t a-cn-p-sh-pw F-s \o-Xo-I-cW-n-\m-bn aq-mw Zn-h-kw A-v D-bn-s-gp-t-p F-pw
Rm C-tm hn-iz-kn-p-p. F-s ]m-]--sf Rm Gp ]-d-bp-p. F-tm-Sv I-cp-W-bp-m-I-W-ta. F-s Po-hn-Xn-s I-m-hpw c-n-Xm-hp-am-bn A--sb Rm F-s
lr-Z-b-n Aw-Ko-I-cn-p-p. F-s Po-hn-X-s \n-b-{n-v
A-t-v {]-km-Z-hpw {]-tbm-P-\-I-c-hp-am-b am---fn F-s
\-S-t-W-ta. A--sb kv-t\-ln-pw tk-hn-pw F-s Po-hnX-Im-ew I-gn-p-hm F-s k-lm-bn-t-W-sa. A--bp-sS
I-c--fn-te-v F-s Po-hn-X-s k-a-n-p-p.
\n- B-m--am-bn C--s\ {]m-n-p-p-sh-n Xo-bm-bpw tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp \n--fp-sS Po-hn-X-n H-cp bm-Ymy-am-bn-o-cp--Xm-Wv. Xp-S-v H-cp ss_-_n hm-n \n-c-c-am-bn hm-bn-p-I. A-Xn-eq-sS ssZ-h-n-s C-jv-Sw A-dn-bp-hm
\n-v C-S-bm-Ipw. {]m-n-p-tm \mw ssZ-h-tm-Sv
kw-km-cn-p-p. ss_-_n hm-bn-p-tm ssZ-hw \-tm-Sv
kw-km-cn-p-p. A--s\ \n--fp-sS Po-hn-Xw [-\y-am-bn-o-cpw.

32