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VLSI数字信号处理系统:设计与实现_[K.Parhi著][机械工业出版社][2004][594页]

VLSI数字信号处理系统:设计与实现_[K.Parhi著][机械工业出版社][2004][594页]

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Ke!du~b K. P',ar'hi: VLSI Digital Si,IIud Processing Syslems,: Design and Imp~ementa:tion

nSBN: 0-41'1.-,241816-5)

Copyright CO ]'999 by John Wm~le)' &. Sons, Iac, A ~ ~ riglus re se rved ,.

AUTHORIZED TRANSLATION Of THE ED1TIONPUBL]SHED BY JOHE W1LEY &; SONS, Hoboken t Chi'che·s~er,. lllrisbane:. Singapore AND Toronto .. No 'PIUl of this book may be reproduced in any form without the writer permlsslon of'John Wiley &, Sons, Inc.

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:4.m-i""N 1r AUKJJf=~l x(,nL II~'~ lit -e 0 d:# n "> N~lIH l' ,x(n)!:;: O~ MT"J'J1a~' N

,~DCT,~*·tIt~fd!1iJ!. (IDC'l) Jt.)LiJlllF~

X ( .. '.' ..' ~ . ( .. ). - - - r (2n + 1)1 krr - '. '. .

!t) ~ erA::) L., %'n) COSt . '2N' }, k ~: o~ 1)·· .... ~ .N .~ I

n~O

xl.n.) .. 1 == ... ~ ..• '~ .. ~,'~l r L).( ... I.):· .. ,X~.l.I.·.k).· <f'~s[ (2n +1)kw1 fl' _ 0'. 11 ..•• ' •. N'" ~ 11

.. ' ~ ..... N ~ .... 1\> s=> '" .............. 2.N h '~1' J.!, )'.' .!.!,

k:~ij --

,tJ-'.' ·.·rrh ~T

( 1 ... 25)

I( 1-26)

s (.t. .. c.'II {"' .. : .. ~.1: ,t w.· .. ··.~ •. ' :". i"", 0.

e ~)r= ,.'. v2:

" '.' .' ,·]t =iJ1@

N ,m.DeT'~IDC'T1if~J..m 2N.a,_ till j[_1tt"~. (Dis,crete Foorder Trans,form~ DFT') ll~.li~ •• ~llB'~;~ 'lUI x(n)B.;a; •• il:it-'l'2Nt.\J¥JU y(n} tUlr:

ii'

. '. {.... zen) 0 < n ( N- 1

y(n) ~ ~(n) + .re(2N - n - 1) = ". X{2N- n _ 1)" N.( 11 I( 2N' ._ 1.

~ltlt y(n) ;bf~+ s,. n ::: (N-l)l2 Ai-tIt:I® 0 1t!l11-6:iFH1.N,~ 5Er.JMf ~

~,

, IIII

I........J!.......L......J.......I... ..... _~. ~_ .......... -...... n

o 123 4 S 6 7 8 9

a)

, ;';(0)

o I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 b}

11IJ1~61 Nm:n:·JU x(nJ< !32l\1.e:ij:'~ y,(ti) == xCtd+X{2N'"-n-l) ZljijJ~* 2N.1.l y(n) ~DFTliTil;tfE:~~:

'JN~iJ.

YD(k). L y(n)e-j~tD

(1-29) ,

2:N-l

L ,z(2N - n: - l),e-Jfik;n ~

o

'~ .. '. ' .. '.:.' . ( . ') " -j.'~J:(2N-:n"-l)··

L.J. Z" n e . 'IN - . ,

N-l ~L~(n')lej'fiA:n' eiilk

n'-=O

, (1-30)

, >

.N-l H-l .

rD(.k) ~ L ~(n),e-jBl:;n + L x(n)eiftA:neilJ-1:

n~O n~O

N-l 11-1 .. '.'

.=ei!lr (,>: x(n)e-j C2!Jij)b + E x(n)eJ' '~"lJ)Io''!f)

R~iO fji,:=O

(i-ai)

N-l (.. I)L.

'AL '~. i . ". Co _ •• 2n +,.~1r)

- e/w.~ 2x(n)oos( ~iN- .1

n.~Qi

ft·

X·A ,(1.). := {'. .YJ.' •. v(k)e-J( ) II 0 ... c .... · .k.·· .. ( .N - 1

" ft;- . 0 .ti-hJ!;

, .~~

( 1-32)

J~,zN·.a,DCTRf.~~X(k) ~ ,eOd X (k)/2:".

IDC'T'jjfl~~jj:i1:« Yn,(k)i ~. X(k) iU~~ * •. ~~ ilJ,1ID:FT:It Yv(k) 3t~JJJ' y(n) ~ 1m/€; !tby(n) m#J x(n) l1PIR)lo .... Yi) (k) *~J*Jif~2N ,. X(l~) Ff.Jll~Ji.:*.JN, lij,m 'y(n~ ~~1L

.iJr

~t'£ 1(%t,,*1i,) nr.~.J.,ff m X( k) *.~ Yo,(k) 't n~i ~ 0" Ie, N~ lilt, Y~,(i) ~ eiiil XlCk) ;

Yv(N) = O.~, ~TN + 1" k(2N-l '. t (2N-k(:N-.l, ~.lft:"

Yl)(,2,N ~ k) ~ ej1!;W~ X(''2:N ~ ,k)= ·~e-;i'. X(2N ,_ k) ,(Bll, ;tI\B:fr~ (1.,311',

( 1-33)

d:!f;I(~~ N.L·.·.··.-l.' '~' ) .. ' ( .. (2" of- 1)1{ .•• ·.2 .•. ·"N .. ·, ·· -k)1r) .

~·e' ~~. ". 2x1n 'OOS, . . .•.

~. '.' ~... 2N·

'n,""'O'

( 1-34)

Yl){k) .~ .e'.'\¥ Yv(2'N ,~ AT)

..... -ei~,e'-jfriX(2N - k) ::., -eilR X(2N- ik)

11 ;;:,·t· 'y" t Ji~). !ft~ ...... ·I·.··D' c om .~.tJ1l

. io' '-'lJ.1))'C, ~1IT- -'I:' -1) ~:~I i"'f":

, ..N-l N-ll

lIIn) = i~(E .t(k)ei!··t~I" + >: X(I:)e-i""$§'··j

-t,=,O t=l

I .. ~'.' c N-~ c"_ ._ . .• (211 + l),k'R

~. iN(X(O) + '2 EX(k) oos( - .. 2N - })

. .... '~ll --

.-.·N-I ( .. ',

= !( e(O)X«(I~", E X('kJe(.k) roB!·:!" :w1)kIr))

.~I .

1'2

;It.~ 0< ,n' 2N~ 1 '0 ~ y'(n) + iWN1-' ~Jfl,ffi, iiJflJfJIDCT:

. .'. 2 N-l_ _ _ . (2n + 1) Ie •.

a:'I(n) == ,(n} = N L: e(k)Xl{k) oos.( . 2N }

- ,iII:;~ID

It*, 0·<; n(, 2N-lg,

"NAi_rfJ;!J x(n) ~'.Ki(k} .~':l:Jf1;t~1F~Ur:

%(0)- I X(O)r

%(1).1 XU)

\, x ~ .. ,.

zr(N' - 1) . X(N - 1)

(1 .. 40 )

~.;r.t (1-2,5) ~!R3DCT'~1l jJ~l,8!telJ$~ita7J\~':

! 'ltV? 11.J2

cos( 2N) cos(i~)

1/-/2 Png.(.·. (2N~ 1) ~") •.

'_""". 2N

-

\

(1-41 )

dN-1)1t), c.....,( .. ,,3(N-,. !lif)

0081\;' 2N.' ~,I 2N

.. ,. ("., (2N-J){N-:O~')

COS _ ...• "

., .. '.... 211 c"

X, _ A.'·x x"~ 2. AT'X

,='_-""I' -·~.N ,_

( l-42)

hlilii AAl- .~ :IN1I:N' ;ltlfl' IN:KN "~*d'~' N x N ~.f!£;aIJ$, i~JltDCT':.I.~1'iE:::t~t!A(>

~'Jt (1-!l5) l~ r.JN ~'-:ftnCT." N 2 t*_,r!:tIJI1mi!:ii. ," If-=f m ftJltgm, ~.~ II ..

iIotiA dlT' N'·' . N--~,w,_ ~X-= A....a-h m'iBi'!:H: 4.::. N' .'." N~- .:b: - "D~I .' C" TiIt;Vt., _k-_ m:.u... N"" no -- ~D~I' C-· T

~,7T".: .~:~ x , .... ' m JJt'" .A.~' l "tF~II·'~iM~m.1IJ .':',)C. Iirt).,~-~ltl ',_,~~~,o. l);D.tPJJ :_",_' Il-Y__.:;:p:;, ,,1, .

• ~~ •• WN4~~~~.a~~--~m,~m~.DCT~~~.§~~~*~~.*~ fiilfriN iK ~,.D'CT.~ ~J5ifff,jJ~#! *1,t1*"J EYiJN k,~.DCT (7) 0 :i!W .ftL:.6 t N x N

'.

11!i ,II ~~.DCTR •• 2N9 ~,*1Jp.fF~. ll:if 4N3 ~.~tlft:·~,

1.2.:7~ •• ,it

,1I\il. ~ •. cW. - .. .._~. A.J.:'-.',. J1Ij! ·It' .~~ el .. -" ~ i'Jl -r i~iI "",~ I'J. I!'~ I~ »r: ~,.-t;l

is

..

- : 1

VQ

')

i- -, : -.1 --:, , .-:;~~

1 ..." "lL

I~I '" r-,

IF' ':: '

1 I

~JI I

-~r1 -~-I ikAit.

16*

- --- 1

A4: II (:256*) :

ml~7 &T~t.ft:(l!tJ;cl:ffi,M;Jro.ffi.

25,6 1"-~*, Jjl~z. ,m '"". 80 ~ltmll .. 78imi9;;:I:.itHf;}m;.~~~1/116~~:I::l:ft.I.~. ~.~~~.~.-~9~a~~.a~~.a».~*.®.~.**~m~.ft~.,

Jt- ~.f~#iI"~ ~. J! lfiie/j) ~. ~ 1:jfj IJiit~1Jffll~Iij,*~. It" lI1itFJi 1r9i::I::Z fq IMJIltJLJI tI 1[1[1 ti.(&.~~~~.'~M*ft2~.:

if~iri~I~~.lJ!.~·~, .A~.!I, x ;JI:Ii.j-t,~*;c. Cj (O"i(N-I) ~IBlrm·l;·;KAjj~i+.~n] lB9FkJfJ~mi;r;;'~.i!fTIF j-l~.~'jJj,lMJ" ~.Jf~Pt (1-43) ,iiff'·:

( 1-44)

1:-1

X· C~l' == E ,XiC;i

:( 1--(6)

. k-l ,

, . .;J .... (.·-c-' . d·'· ),,=1 - ( , . ..•... . ~/'"'. __ .. ' .. '~-1

UliU-n ~ · - _IJI .. ')D.; '.' »s ., = ~.ax. '.'~ ' .. L._~ _. ,ali C}l + ei.J} .•••• · •.

!lh;:;,(N-.iI, ·,OI(,(N~! .. _ - .

t:=:(11

( 1-47)

['-' .,J' .]'Te··· -,-

n;:: do 6.1 '" ,. U.N~l ~: ··'·_ex +e

";J (!ld-· }')-l

t;:nun - l~mUt ... -'; r. l " ..

( 1-48)

14

1M e .... [e'o e~'" €'N4lT.,

J:~.tJ.~:I:. -f+' '~Ii t)·Ii'·ifJ'~ (bru'tefQ:rce}1i~, 4i~ltA·~t, ~."'P'elr*:l111i B9.1k.~ !l!iH:llitt;J, ~. Ef§I m::.z~ ft .. .,.. * ....... it ,(fuU"slea'I',cb vector qua:nUUzation)1 ~¥lXt:.

[![].'ilfFlI¥l&ff N 3:~.ii.,~l*~Jt~.~1!ifl ,kDc.inil~,~, 1~1lt, ~~ff.,.~1i .*Z~~,it.--1' Ie .w.J_A1R ••• Nkltwe1.n.~~ n-: (;ttt.H~ :~~t!iB~;ft.~iI IMJ'. lH.,jln.N{B,_:k, ll)1:tB,*,.fi ,~.fI.1i Q lot T.it,tm m,~ i[ ~ 1ft fIt·,;j ~:it {t (tr;ee~ structured vectorquarntitz.ati'O!D )1iili,~ -EeK]ii:. Jf.jE~~::f[og~ ~~m 1-88im ~~.iBlWi a*.~ •• m-.~~ft •• ~& •• gft.A •• ~aWm.-.,~A*.~M~W ** •• ~.,~.~+~ ••• ~ ••• ~.~ •• ~.W~ •• ~~.~~.~7.MM r, ~1I.tRJll256,1ttt:!R.Jl~ •• ~ iUMtI~ RIi.116~,~ MmiivQ&-filtit:l:~tB ~ tm it .*~' " ~M:fm.1 rR';I frt .~. f!Llii-t ~fWjL\ lilt;~iij* ~ 1iJll=l~;I:,d1>iff;pfi!Ht,,,

0' o 0'

w0

0, 0, 0 '00 '0 0,

'0 0, ,0 000 '000,00

o

o

o

w (~)

* i'i~'m T ~~ijfJi;i.iJ~i9Viterbi.t!I[lO] a, Viterbi.~(£JfJ1IUI~~ag~ (jJm;§~lij;)

flie,tL ttf8i1tl~ M~~.l:flriZJbtm Q ~.~ ~+.~,~TttRtr fi.:tt~"~'JI., ,»":1I*,"1~

1fJ tt*.t.¥itt6m..~ a9.;e.1JI FI',~JJjl, * m tt.a:ih&.,ft£lag ~ 8iiliiPR~,~f*"~Am Alif fI«i;; •• III + ~.~. Wgm'~ e .Utm, f!ll .. ·9a"f ~ ~ lip 4:.~ +tt~M'UIII" ~ 1i~ fIItt~ ~ SOO, SOl .. ,slO:;mEU,l~.~ltA.i:Oil:8"l.~ jJP~ .• f+tt.:~1tjJijftPfn.mi1l~t.!-t~J:~

~R T'" ~ .~.~ i LJ.,. ...... ..., M ~ N1,j;6 U .. ~ £ 1l.!L. ft n >lib *" "0" O· tA !JJ M ~ . .Ji" '~'J: Nt.:k:::.,H. B 11/'1'1' ~..l.- -* ~ . .".1 ~ In~:::!IIIJ/\..H..!W"")I,·JI~,WJI"I'm1iW' ~,~, ~l.J,d1.j>A"1I\.~O'flll!lluullll~,u~,~ 1.1:r':JI'iP"l'tt:m 1 ···.~ .• t ~;.;ft:;m;:

I~' Ifr~. A~ 1·~rd±' Itroii~ ~ 11,~ i!"I-6:~:$t.lJiJ,t;j.m.*. i!jD'r .8UI~.ii: ~$~ 1_1iJ 1/2" fffCH1E:.~·2~ ~At.lJiJtjgel(Z) ... ·1 "" Z-2 m g2(Z) ; 1 + Z-l + 2~2t>

iJ 1·9a·~ ~1*!tttt.ltIll,at nr~.Am 15'z .ihl~tt lm'~ 911 ~.-1t m (TreUiisDiagr,am) ft/]\~, jllllll~:9b8ijj; oil".mllMIi:ii T!lIIt-t~Yn IIJ .n+l 'ntmflilfID.ttitift.:g~D*-1'-JA.~,t&+ ~ ~,rmf.f",· "'Ult.1nltt. 81• FJ=fM;" Viterbi.~ ~M ItJLmfllB" (att) Jl:ififjaJlIfi lAs (.a)~~m.~.,ft.a.~~~.~.~.ft~.9~ft~~ •• ~ft~.~.~. * -f~1A JJ. JI~ (global most .. likely sequenea) 0

~T'-' ··-'tffilttlU'~INTtt.~·~ & ~ fl L1t"~·-'§-rm~J~j v

v .~ {v(Oh v(ll!,··" ~ v(L -1)]

OM

1101

iOfitJ

n

P,~IJ iI'l¥l

.........

. .'

J •

. IfOO 8001

O~~

....• Mill : • 'C) 801

'" ''''' ... , ~ .-

1/10;:' 1100

uu

) Al.1.b. *iJh .1UJb,. *' t" b)' lim. M:. ~!+

a· ~n!:..;.:lpl~'~~~,"L. ~Jft;f..p:;..~.

Jln~9 :filltt~~tJ1Jf~~*.l!

JtJ:I·"~-1"~-,% v{O) *l1i~OflfqtflJ ,.m~· + 'v(L"'" ll' :I! :l£lJitiO L~ 1 tff:1t[JlJ 0) Vite~biJj,fh~.tt ~i-~.t£a,tlli Ijlj L-l '" ;1f:.Ati1'- ,ft:;firf.j' • .tj-Ila (,survivor path) 0 ~'::r-1£H"J n ®tft;t:i:t$ r~.'1J .• ~'Il;JI ~~~Ui n ,JJitl4tjJiOOfY:J11zfB]mii.A\~·;rq%~flJ; tf+·ft~8.T"""'+"'L • (path metric) x~(n.) ~ -em*lli" :tt;ti i J::~$·:(fli·~!jt-t~ Ii· ,mm1l!tJfJ'IP9m. 0 .!-'HfifJ n jlJ n+ 1 B~ (0" n I( L)I, Vit8rbi.M •. MMAlJ n Em$#.'~Jl,.~(£*~JIJ.t:PfAx.lt •. t J! .*,*fj:,M1£®lIt£lfil: x"{n+l),, "E*mlrfJ1J~I::fd1'&itJ.;'i (dynamic programming, DP):

xp(n + 1)= 'm~n[X'1(n) + ,a'lj(n)]]; i,.i ~ L, 2" ... ", N

,

.jt:f~JI a,(i (a) .~t£iffiij'I~Ual!f! n IlijiU i il:~_.~~ n + 1 ttiff~i ~,i§i:.mJ!f., DP~lftir 12,oJ fftt~u "J~~v(n) !;;j 1i~'R,f&~. W a9lM=~ Z If~ I !¥lie * ~ ~ :~M i11 .. 9b1Ji~I3~ .. -t41,:tt,~. ~~.~~~~fl~~*aM~n",~+.*~.Q.~.:

( ]-50)

~nIJfillt!lJI~r.J~~, v(n) = u. *nu.~m.; Jij]1t&~JJi~.*'~tfJli:.·ll.iJt.:)Jt.:*.J! au (n) = weig,ht(lll ~ Oaf) :;: 2 au = w.ei.ght(llll - 111) = 0

62S(n)= 'weig,ht(lll ..... 011) - 1 i!li4 = weight(llll - 100 = 1

O:n (n) = wdgld'i( 111- 11 D = Oa3:2 = w,eig,htOll _. 000 := 2

,(l43(n.) : welghfl(lil ,~. IOn = 1 (1.44 - weight(:lll - OlD = 1

4i,+~$M.t-ttitJ njlJn + 1 '*#,"~~.ft1t ·1bJ!tn*.mlllll-10JJrlf.:rA~f!o .1""tt~.,

*~~~~~A~~a *~R*~**a~~~*u Q~ ~~'*~J. ~~_~T ~'·M'1'T' nJ 'iH~e;xD; - .. "nl~mtt 0' 7\"" T'~~I Zrx, , .. ~ :tI:.,_p~'fltMY:j,rW~, :7J'7r- 1 ft,·7i:r-Jt:l \'llL· '-Ipniw,"~ m'-I~

*.tJr.~ltit!A*#.·~~.~ jDm l-lO~ltf~fl9~,PJim~ ~~)!IHl:IH.?lft~fHltli4fi" M n ;;;; l-.M •• n~L~n=LM~A •• ~.Q •• ~a*~&~.#.Ha~.B.a.~ Jl~ ~ D!P rii.f;t,~,if Ei~.fj:.f2::

(1 .. 51 )

18

2+2=4

• ~ - - --~ - - ~. ~ - .- - - ,_ - - - - * - ~ ~ .'

" "

3,

x,,(lI) ~:2 • ;_""~_"._" ~..;;_.3_" ............... ~~~*)(:-. ______

flJl-10 hJ..1ij~~ ,n I~ n + lS9~1'-'~;t;;J!liltfl'*#.~

.1-11~ii:fiVite'r'biMfij.i!;·lttiJ-'+fJFf" .A"Jlt~l 1 0 0 1. 0 0 0; ~~mJlJJ. .. 9b JfI Jfijjo; ,fr.j4,tJ;!,jfi JiJ~fi lI!rij, )t,! auFt=Jl:'b II 10 10 11 11 <01. 11 00 qttQtrr-Jff;llJ ,*"j1i' =ftt)~ffij .~ Ji:]I,tm "'!j1f3""'''~'f' raJ u ,iIIl .. l1D7i: T Alp.f.dOiIJ8Ml.~[liJ. ~ it; rp~fi "Xii' ~~.£.M.~~.~ ••• a~ftAaH~n~L~8H.-+~*~ ••• @,,~ •• ~ru~Ma.~~.~Bm~.~~~W~~g.ffi~~~.~~ft~~-ao

itA

Jtti u

tilti III

M"~~
0 '1;1 0 1[11 0
10 ]0 U H 01 n 00
:11 U) 011 n 00' u 00 SOl,.

Sl~. •

III; 1-11 II 1~9 .'8i~IW-J~~III.F-~".tillll~,liJ"lI]a9Viterhi8i9{fIJ=r ..

Vlterbi;J,t!ilMit,.:t: Bij (n)" 1!.M.~m:. ~ ~a.:JE't'!ii,CJJllel.$ffM~,

• rf! Eli. g; •••. jj 1£ 4j, -+ 1>Jt' ~ij lot _ t- .tt ,$.itt 61mi!'" Dh If kJ. :Q, iit 1t I( B.d d, it ion, com:pariaon and selection; A.CS)c Vite:rbiM:W:ft; fR,lllt.:l: .:!:'JlI S ~ACS.WatJRl$lJ,~

1.:2",91 ,,,., •• r-, ••

~ 1"DSP ~1i .. t3.~"$ iJ~...tiiii: JkJ msQ9.*~ (downisampling) 1P. •.• " (ups,a,mplin,g) .tF.* I:~, ~~!erul ~ .~XJ llii$.i: t1f, ~.. ii$"If~~Jla911i..m ~,M:m1i- 8E.~~~.*.~~.,~~~B~&.~~e •• oM.B~rMaa.~ ••• ~ :Ii .. *rruf1ijf*li~ft:tll: It

tdJ*.~IIUfiA X'(n) , ;m~.H:tJj:JU:

( 1-5,,2')

11

x(n) ~ J ~ ." l_d -- --,

y_ (n) 'D'

fill 12" lb' - MlII'll;Jt" .!b" ft' .

" ,-' " " - - ,"

. -.... ';. ,i .. 1 :-,'1. .' 't' ,": c. : ~ .. " '. .. :_'1

trJl- .-&'. iI~~iii1' '2;'.' -t.·A· ~''- {I' (' s) ;r.~ -t- ...• m·}j:' J~I

.:' .i~ _'. 1-' "= ~= .'.1.' .. - . ,.:" ~'.', '- .... '. "'--". - .... , .~'. '.' ". '_., .. ': ._. --.;' .. ·.::,1,

.r "_' _,'I·, '. I, i[]1 1_-.'._., r '_. ,'1 r-'~"'I!'"'''''' ,_ I ,r •...• ~

: ,,(-.,') = { ..••.. x .. "(n/L), j,.-.p. *.n,:JiLeRlta:.

YEn, -. 0 . *r

-1' ~ It:,

(1-53 )

jt t L It. Ii o· :!t' Ji II, log ¥f %' ,& A: ~mHI ~ 1et. III ~ 1.3- ~G r JI ,;I. ilk if • *. A 15 ( interpelator ) ilil'*=f.f.H (up$l,amp,le,r) 'lOr'. a x-t=f1i-i'-ftl'A.atJ1'-'Ul, iiMMi b:uL-l1-' O~.mL~~.o~~.W*ft~ •• *a.AWft~L.o

1 .. -.

x,,(o) - ...... It L . ......._~ __ ",

.x(.n)

= iii

Ye (n)

18'

~ ~

1.2 .. 10 IJ\ •••• 1I1l

1~"!It~. m -f'Ht -if:1l3 III ItcJ3i!l [12] [13J ~ 1£/J' l1l::9-tfIPf'~ ,iii ~ m ~' 'ma lmilt (/J,.M:) ifff.;;~! •• a~ti.~~~-~~~~~.ma~~m~~ •• fi~~~~~ •••••• W ••• I,Jh,l(~. iif [;.l8.,ql:li'~f'-§tEH~iil ~,RM: (.'$) .11 J1:tru;t."

x(n) !~-· •.• 'fi,ff\It~~. (DWT) ~j1_,~:

00

!lj(n) = L x(kJht!(2'~+ln'~ k)J O( i.e 'm,= :2

00

Ym-n (n)-. L:x(k)h~_] (21W·-lln ~'kl, i ~ m - 1

k=-Qo.

( 1-54)

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_~:txit

1, P, La.psley~ J. Bier~ A .. :Sh(~ham) and E .. A. Lee, D<9P Pr(f)Qe:ss!(J!rPURdamen~:al8',:

A.reh:itectures an,d pea'·\tjru. Elsevier.,< 199ft

2. A.y.Op'peDhejm~dR. W. SchafeJ'·.~ l)U-r::reft.-·T~ra.e S~gn.al P'r:ocfNtsing.<. Prentice

.Hall, 198:9.. .

3. S, Hayki.l!l.~ A.d'~,ftV6 FII~:e:r Th.eo'ry. P'l1ent,lce HaU, 1991.

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S,M,. L. Boni,!; and .D. ,G. Messerschm.itt!< A d'op®i'lIie: :F'~,f~e,.s: Sinu~tums~ A,lgorith:ms and A pplictdions'.Kluwer) 19'8'1.

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s, S. Y. KunRt VL,81 A~!I Proce:s8or,,s.,PJ1entice Hall, 1'988.

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15. <T. Siko:ra~ "MPEG dlgJt,aJ vl.deo-cm:UDgstand.ds,'~ IE:S,FJ S'yftoIPnwe8i81.ng Ma9ItlZlfI.f!!<P'p· S2""",UJ01ISept. [~911.

3'1'

, '

·f

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21. .M. De Man, J. Rabaey, P., Six.~ and L. J. Claesen, "'Cathedra)-U: a silicon oompUer (0,[ di,gitaJ :s~gD.aJ processing, I; IEBB' Design lORd' '~e8t" 'vol. 3,8,0. 6;,

pp.' 13' 2=:' D··oo.... 1,n,g~

_ . '.. ..III_"'liIJ!, !_",",~.. ,~g.u"

22 .. A .. Stolland P, Duroy, UHigh .. level syn:thesisfr,om, VHDL with, exact tlming;' constraints,'l in. Peoe. oj B9th, ACM/IEEE DCI'ignAutQmation Conjef'fJ,"ce', JUD,e

1991~t a .

23;, S, AmeUal and B. K,a.miD'ska.~ ~~FUnctionai syn.thesis of digital s:ystems with tass," IEBE 7tans. on aom:,uter~Aid'ledD',es1'gn'J vat 13,n,01. ,5'1' pp. 537-552',. Ma.,' 1994.

24., lK .. K., Parhl, 'ItAlgoidtbm, tr,an.sformation technIque-s, for concurrent precessors," Proe, IEEBI, pp, 18791~1895';1 Dec. 1989.,

2,Pi R. E. Crochiere and A, V .. Oppeaheim, "IAnaiys,is or Hne'aI d:igi:tal networks,,'; Pro-c. lEES, :110, ,4, pp .. 5·8l-.5195~ Apr. HJ7,5 ..

2'0. E., A. Lee and D. G. Messerschmitt; "lSynch:roDcHls da.t,s 'How>'" Proe. 18B11, ape'" c:iQ,l issue on h,ard:ware anis',o/tm(J,re /01" d~g,,·,td ';91141' proce681:ng" PiP', :l2'35 ...... i245l Sept .. 1987.

27', J. Allen, ~ICli)m:puter arddtectnr,e for digital signal proce.,ing;!~ Proe. lEEEt

A r::: --': :8·5····2 8'1.9 M· lRa'5

:nv" U'I pp._::.~- ,'. tlt- ay ,170'.

2,8" K. K. Par-hi amd 'T .. Nis.bitanit eds., Di,gigtd Signal .Process'ng for Mutflmedto

Sltste'ms'. Mucel, Dekker I' 1.'999. ~ 421

II

. ~' .. ~ " }ll- ,'. " ~ .. - .. - '

I ,,' ", '. ,::-" ,,' .. ,I, ... ' .. ' .

" I '- =. " I'

2.1 ~lliS

m.DSP.M~~~a~*~.ft®~.&.*~.ft._~.R.~., ~~.~~ •••• ~~ft~a •••• wax~~~*~ •• ~.~.~~ •• ~~ft~M •• ~ • ••• ~.~~~~.R~.am~ •• OO(D'O)M.~M •• ~-~M.o.~ •• M ~~i] ;ft,?i;1J,ih,:ft ~l98 ~ F ~ 1\'.pij·I~. ft'~,1f ''1 IPP ·1l4 m 7i5 PI a,'!it J.I. fi (infinite processor)

.~.~.&~~+.ft~ ••• ft~.o*.2~laft~~~*.ffiT~~~ •• ft~ fi. ft{J 1J :ii 'I' ,~, tp 'm M • if: ,1& :f£.1fi. ~ '< longest p a tb matrix,~ LPN) itI. Ih~,;lg 11 [minimum eyelemean , MCM) 11,~·~ *.~1r!iT~ •• *DFGIf]~ft~.w-,~

,DSP~~~-·~'51C~d:lfn'''., MD1~] n ~ 0 :iifi~U n =0:1 .. ~l::jlJi-t. y(n) = ay(n-l) 11- x(n.) ~D-SPfl*~.i'~r;(f:

for n = 0 to 00

y(n) = lly.(n~' 1) + x(n),

~DiSp.mJt:MJ.A:l.JfJ~J x(n) ~,~+ n ~ (1"1,, 2,"', k.lllJ1J~~:~yf~l)!o tIlW ~JfJ1~ i48]1

'Vl(n:),·.. 1L~, Jf\ }' 2,"'" -

,oT. -,' .' v" ."" ~

Dsp.~ •• mDFG.~~~A-8~~M* ••• ~~.~m( •• a~«~.~~ ~} (.~?il,4.3''')1 ,,~JjEli~ m2-1aRP~mft1f y(n) ~ ,tly(n-l) ,. x(n) ~ illll:2'~lb:l:.lJn:~Jfi

~.~~~~ThOO.~A~DFG,~.~~~ •• ~~ •• ~~ •• ~e* •• ~.(~4 ,A:&mbl~fJi, ill! B *~~'~L, 4;1"l'Jiitj)~!jz*l*ag,tAfft-trq" MJ.m;;4Z[a]*BJr

!iiilif~ ~ .. a.. '~,." MJir::itt * ji\.. .,J l:! A 1M-:! 1,;t M '# +, IJlIiJ' 0+, ,~.J1. A- . Jj' ' r!irh XX Sdf.. ~'O" . ::.f. B" A" M z,"", ,IIJ,J. »: '11

JJ.lU,' r.{., f\t ~ ,~!-n~:)'=,mJ" ---'.' I -_J:iIJ F.'.~ ¢llJi,~ "~J ,~, g,~1 ~~. :T', ,la, ,-;: , =-t"' :-'-' [~'tf ~~ ,~r~ll PJ "'_) , ,~' -.' .....' IR~i .~p~f ,~~I, I~

__.. ,,.t....JJ~ 1.ll.T ~11 - ",""" :"0; ,.(., :a' t,D r-.:lI tt,'; ,,...;FI, )" ~: __ ~k;ij~ .!i -;r '#2, U ::h- ~ ,~.

I~ I ,I j';::~ ~I'::! tA ~ ,~, '," ",,,,, '~"" .... .u.:,' ~ m i~ I) 10-1:. .u, XT 'f~ 'I! ,~ :fA ,

'D-'F--c-G'- .I.it- ii" .10. -," '''-fi''if''' fif' i jk' c . .>!~.~,

'., ,," ,I, J ", 'o""I'~-' • "~r-I.I I '.'" ,~, - .. '-. ' ii, TI ~"'."

L. --. __ . I. "".' _ [l .~ .lIn'll -. _ ~., '. _' '!~ . " ,,;Q!

D'

b) ~:~ rr-~DFG .~~'~'~I~~It:f: ~ii'~-1i ~Jlq:tMJt:llm

III :2:-1

DFG'rp OO:¥ i\JJlfli! T i'i+"fl if..z ftSil tro~:St.tlfJ •• G j):r.Jl~ .1t.iJZ ti fl~,H " !p.~ i!.~«;.

84

;t9,t~JkA~f+il4\ pg: "itA. jt~; J". (Intra-iteration precedence constraint}, jlJ.~-ftill lJ-- rt'JJ5II~"~~ .~."t.,~~ ~ JI3 z.1Z;A ~- "it. +t ,fil ,it Jl it .~{I" (int,er"it,eration prec,ed,ence ,coJ['Iit~'traifit,) 0 ~fIC.il*ll;m~1tfaa Ot :Stiltf.J*~ Ii) fliJt: Tn, G T IIJ~ ,a tl\fiJf,~ ~. ,0tlio 1112 .. 1bflP MA.B~~ •• 7.R~~«~.~.~~A~.k~.ft~afia.~~B~.k~ ,~ft.. M B f~ A~~M'Jt T,iitt~,~tt:l;.t\J* ~ 'DP B IEruIl' ka:i:!tft&$.1t,~ A, ,~.' Or + 1) iX~ft (> ilIl Xki!t~","aXOO. k 'lk~ft ~ 1UJ~~tlmOCII~~ft~tlt1t:~f9iim~ft.fB]DIt;nti~

• mM_~a*-~D~~&_~* I~~A" "B" m~~d_*~~D.I_A.~* ~~ .~, ttl ~ lJ!iI ~~«mm"m .... r·fllLJ't.~~~ ~~, ""L,}liH .. ',',k ~*, !TVn.A n'fA«,~JO'11 "'11~1·IVL7Li:::lX.~:J~; 1J,.l!"~

I 4:4J Bk =>Ak if:h 1i§ [lIIJJW;ft tt:l;.~.n.fiHI ~ ~~.]]t?

aDFG~,A«*.H.M •• @~~A •• *~.H ••• M*~~ •••• [critieal path), 1I1:2:-Jlb,8i,~S9nFG4-~* ••• m~.A,-B, 12;.fJla9iiJilltfi]i~6 u.t e.. ., .m 2-2'1i:fI~DFG~~JL,.~g~II~.~ ~~.i2IJlf:.*~'ii;.lt-tn'I:I:;5 u.t, (~~.:ftf:: 6 ._. 3 - 2, .~. 1~l1i5, -,3 ~ 2 - 1I1SA~II"~).~ Jit:J~ •• ~ lfiI9iia:!H raj ;!.9,5, u. t ... ~. .fED FiG !f!1 ~ ~ •• .m~:m iti!*,tE 4iMffi4*fT (rippling) +1Jfljiti£!B9Mf£c JW.~ *fI. t£r.JiilIrM'fru It.D:FG~~~~flt~fljR9./h:ii3JH~'ij].~

.DFGilf.kl·7t~ ~~·lI. ~3 ~.:f,m. ~;)'~.. ~IFli ~9DPG.i;F @ ~~ .• , imilU3DFIGi!~m~;pr·~·~IF." WlinFIR.tI ii:B .~I~Mi. ~ it" 'Ii fm12-1 b. i\l'DFG:ltii ~9 mr, ~I ~13 ~1i~. A~B~A .. iI~3DFG#t'E._'1'"&*,m.~, ~ .~.ffiT*~m~~~.~*MDBP.~.~ ••• a ~1".I.<~ ~it ft~JP. (:iterat;i~'n ·bound)T ... [U 1211., ~, '~D' ·1.r:!!·Pi_ ~~m' '*'"11" mn:-t-t ..... ~ ~:& M: .

~~ .. 10 f"£rr~~ T 'f'I'J .m R~I I . ~Ht:iJ.,iI.ILJ ~ ",.

U) 1

J1!Jf~412 u,t .. ~ .filS· u.t.~11l5t4 -n,t. ilnFG~mftitlJl'.~JToo = 2u.t.

~,It •• fE.e.W!M- 4~~,PJi~+fi ~.·~jjljlij.~· ~ ~ilpm2-1b+ I~ A· ... · B ~A .. "~. (loop r~ fin '~I\$ (cyel,e) II' 1111ij~Ami*:"i!;ffI~ II ~'IB9If1J ~lttJ~,~ ~fi-_"'~.,@f,.tl{JlM

~S1 if~J. m.DIFG'!p: ~i1lmfljl!~tt,*!1 ~lI:*JiJfllE:.~ Im2 .. fb+~DF"G~' ~ltl.i! T~rtt~.

- _. -

u..~ ~''_i''':

t45]

9~M~n(· ... ·)*-~D~a~&~. w~.t)*-~~bl~&m~~ mm~~ :::t¥ T. II!1~I* 1.....1 «/]1\ m l\" f~ iVl.,.:1C ~~';.iI '" " I'A !!\I!lI'~ ,,~:> .... ~m~'11 .,.; 11~ll'lltJ&~~';J ~ ~ ~ ~:.)l..Q.g

re·;ltll. f:J 3I[~. .1+.. k a:~ ft ~ 31lt·lk~ff A.~ ;tIl'B,~ ~t~.1l iiA:;fllB ~·fA 1illM"ft¥J 1T IU.~ , 2, u . .t.;ftJ4 U. t., ~.4i~~ftm~6 u.t, 0 ,~itl.~"it~ (loop bound), ·~~7F.~.iiff B-tfB]~.tt"&IJIJ~ jf~,.~jlr: 11 l' -t~IIrIRJ~Mitl~ld; tz I W'h ;K:~ tl~~lJiie~jIB1 fit, Wi .'fI~, •• JiSflt a. iiJJ:A~ilm2 .. 1b,*,:q;.~~.~"';;II:6/1~. 6 u.t.,

1112-aa+I~~.zftM+iE,B;'.~ .VIS u.t.m;17'it.~, IIHJIt,~IIi11~~612 ..... 3 u.t .. " ~T1' f8¥!§IJf!"i1~JI~mf!ff RlS u.t.16it-lJc~ft, ilirUI.-'!.ttit.~."

Ao -+ B'o => ,A2 -+B~ ~ A4 -+ Bt ;> Ad, '''''4 ••• Ai-+ 13'1 _~ A.s -+ B3 =;:. . .45, ,B.5, .~ A, ""7 ....

~.~~ •• ~fta~.~ •.• ~~m~~.ft~ B-M.~.ft~a*.~,~~.ft PJ~1.i:'6 u .. t.~~il.1i. ~ .lHJIt'J\.i1l~~612:: 3"

2D

a) fl ~'1"'Jf\:.·~"~612 =3 u.tBtJD!FG, ttUlFG~ jlft'~JI.~a u .. t.

2-D

JiJ) ~flG;~~T' .. ~. mp!x,fEllJ, till] ~. 11 u, t. 1i't-J11'G

ml 2-3

itllI2:~3b+'r.JDlFGtrWj-t'·~.II,. IIni~. t, ;:: A-+B-+A '"~:. l2~ A ~B~C·-+.A(I ll, ®I 12 1~~,.itl"';tI~~612 ~. a u.t .. :fIlll/l = 11 u.t, ~& .~,. (cr.itieal l,l)(Jp,) Am A.frll*~ i3~#,~'l+M! Wft:).tE*f§tJ+ 12 &~.·IF.q ~.~,.au~.:u!~.;lDSP·.~tmit~,Jt* (iteration bound,), ~ 1'-i1l"AD8PtlJ¥ ~I ~ftit#'*")lI.IMJ,."rI$lJ .~ ~i[ ,litIi9jfi.jf:. I ,46 I! .~.&~~~ffi~*X.ft~M~

(2 .. 1)

-it- d L- ~'D'F' G" rf,. M:n:" ~ iii ~ '.. Jil. :n_'" """" I·" M\I"~ _iU'ijJ . _fL n-,IW l" h"t: nJ. .... R ~x ntilo 4lb ifih ~'1J ... m-- ·.'7'R':J'..;..I .... qr~ .~ .. , I: ~""1r~m .• p~:@"p.J IIQJ" WC E""T~m '., ~~~l" R (> Jl.J:rm~-d·I'lt'

- - , "- - -

N1I·~D·F'~·G··' "* 1!1!1 . .... . '. -:T ,'1")1

3 ~ D'F' ·0····· 'h Nil !~ Jll:. !.f1ti1_ Nil • J!:!tt",k *.~ AD l1L!ii I'TI:: -1;/' 11th :ft" -. 1~~I'lllA::t· . J:.\, ~(.€) ].) li!if.a ~·t··~ T" ~tx.:.···· ·'.rrlt:gr,m·II\;Jl:i,",r~'JI.El_9pmlK~,.~wnll"A JHJiH.!'m ~ ~~l')'fl.if~lm ~~.~;~Rm 1<_ L .~ 0

.Ii:lII&A1. UFGI:~ ~,a. ~ m91111u,. ~.It E14!i·~l.li.mit"'lJll, 1~.dt~."jjii-·IiJJfI-k;MJji fiiM" ~~ ~ ,fl'. ,"I A 1fi ~rm~~lrBl tlfjj~ if M *1+;1 T09,lIP.~II~.1!1S$ (long'EU!t :path matrix) .·~1[3J; .!J\,~,~·m (m.inimum ,cy,clemean) /i·t!:CJ!l. ftJlJMI~·"J".~ (ne'gative cycle detecti~un) ~5]~ .• 2 .. 41l1tm71itrrM'fir11~"

2.4 'italiftlUlWiI19_ii

*11 .. mi!lMJ M ~~iti1l·"'.fA:·;r EH I!lJ 2: .. 2 +Jfi~rRD!:rG* mill.. ~DFGf-f '::".1'"~.'~ ~. III ~ 1. ~ 4 ... 2; ~ 1 !;ltq;; .• ~"'''412 u.t.; iF. l2 ~. 1 .... 5 - :3 ~. 2 ~ l.~ .~lIiU~J9S/a 1!l. t .. ~: ~J.&:q;. In; ~. 1"""' 6- 3 ... 2 ..... 1, ;K:~. i1J:m.·.~o/4 u. t. 0 ~ 1Iltil.nFGJJ~ ftiS9t:l:

{ 455}

. T ... = max . 2"' a'il ... :2 ILt.

,2 .. 4.1 .i£JI@JI ••••

,fE.-lEllmm'~ (LPM) .~ [3,~ tP~. it 1e~.~' j; Jlj~9fiI~~, !!m'iI;i1~.;I!f$iif*," ~J:0tJ1l1J, BliJ~j,"IJI~fl:~"'~. Jill dfijjdJ<,PIG+ truJJ!DtB. ~~. I!f$ L:'Jn} , m; 1, 2~ " .. "

36'

l11l ·1"·~tt $jflMJi§~·~. fF.& ~··~·~+¥·atJllf2 ,Up da:-n5 ~ 11a - n:2 ~ nm 4.. a}, ~ •. ~.!ltf.J';a;.

It.tlfUJI ~'5, l~ut l~~} ..... ,5 ~ ~IT.J! li~, It·.iU bl~lrtot "::n: s, ilJ d$ Q9!fTfl.~'~fi •• !mot _. J61t ~$=au.1~ ~,lil!lt l~~ = - i 0 tt.fiJii: linK ~ aq7t.J&~. ft'fn:ff~

I 1 0 1 I
- ~ --
LUl 4 ~ 1 I) - 1
- 5, ~ t ,0'
~ -
.IJ, ..... .1 ~l ~ ]
'- J!.PJ),®~Jl$ L!(ml.~m =2~, 3, ,.. ~ s, ~+ •• 1l.~DFGffI~Q 2tiJiJgilitrm~ itlJHIIJ;afiJi f3it.:

l-{ · .. m+~) - ·.',e !. _]. ,'lU.). + l,(m,})' ..

"- .m·~LV 1- I I,. Il..- .. ' . ~ "

'I,JiEK '-~,!!i-"J •

.1(:~~~ K 1:1K.lia:! 1[1." di J:flMW.l~{j=~l 1& lt~) ~-l IIlf=iIIJla9.1i .k i9.ft"WrH~m:3tfit)l: ,11~) .-- -~&:.n:iiJrteatJ.-€t{1~2,,:3 ,4~rf,~~.it K'~ fm.~ l~~~ = O~. lj.j) .::::. 3· , 8f~,3.=fK~ ,~ rk ~ 1" 2" 4 '41MJ·.~." l~~W1ll~:JIj;;f~~1f-~.f~l" ,/it;A ,k ~ r, ;2:,. 411·::t=.-r Kg. l!:.~ K;; 1311' ,l~~I) ~{fi~

max. (- ], dll. + lP~)

kE{3} . 6"",", "'!-

~ max(~1~,lij+5) = 5

-
I' 4 -1 0 -1
Ll2)! 5 4 ~l 0
I - '0' 5 ~l ~l
I -.1 ,5, -I -1 L,t2} lB\1tt.R~mf. Lm, itii L~3)RtJitt •. ~Rtfl.LU) :fpL(Z)" it. ll~ Bf-, l;m;.9 l~~t ~ 5, zg) ~ 0, 4ffl.il=f k; 2~ 3~4,li~ '" l!~ +~&ft~-t~~-l, ~:itK~ m, ,l~,~ ~I'.~'

,l{3) ~ max (~_~' .to) ~ .1(2) Co)

-3.3 ~ .I:,E(ir-I).a,l1 ,. ~.3·

,-ma.x{ -l~ 5, + 0) =5

1'4~]

-

I 5, 4-]

L(3) = I 8 5 4

. I, 9 5 5

I 9 -·1

'!:j'7···· d"

;Jfl '""',

Ii 4l 1
r 8, , ~
L{4} I} 8 5 ,4
__ , m 9' 5, 5
,
[0 9' - 1 ,5 . kI::: ftl;;: . . ( ) "t'" 1*' w ~ ~ !t!: ID!~ l~i;i1n 'II m~ ~""',e ><=> a. :M:!.~ L, m 1 i· *w ,~./~ l' ~·,I~\.~:1r !!loUl ·~nll Ii" ~ 'lIII'J,t.

lI'2-4 ;aft~IfT'~ ~ ,slatli·iQUltU fF~§;M--1r"J=f', ;ttlIl2~4irp$9DFG~, JtiI~L(m) I( In ;;; 1, 2:)i .~

L(O .~ [. 4._. ,4]

,,8 ,8

- .

L(2) ~ [-.]2 ..• ·...•. 1:2]'1 '. 16 161

ilil~' It;p .~1fa ~«iJllM. 7t d, n:.Et.:ft m-t~H"t19Jfifi.~ I~~.~ii.~ Iii] 't .@i:bt LPM.~,I!:iE,f01Jf9 ~~mfitR i _ ,m.~ .~. ,ltj} I,m ta.:k_, i[kJ,;Jl,IU.DFGII:f m"ifi;M~

.*~ ... idlJf" i!:.;II;ilft~lf;;

ll'~(£ ,IjbU ~I:ff d2-tJi[.~, # Jl4ilt;ii.®ltfPJ 'l~.~ O(d), J3li~A'I~m'Lm 1tI I;~k) it. I}t+u mfl~,t-fr~~~lf~' O<da)~ ~1ltM Lot) i.,+JJ L~d)a9ttrjjl:;i~1f~ O(d")oJ!J.W ~fn iii Cl,.iI M~. *_i! L(l) 9ffi£ ~3]1 ~ It· ffiT~' . ~'Bf fit I: ~ I: ~ O(de)' MJ.~~ *~fl LU! ~ :J;. ~ d ;f,o e~JJUiDFG+~lfmU!~1; I~ <I ml1fttt.~ft,~.i\J.LPM.~lMllfot~itl~

38

II:~O(.dt + dtd~ :fr~.IRtlI~*~ iJkl,.74(3~~I$tJpq:~,,~MfiJ.~~ifC..l"~JlJ O(!d3Iogd + de) .. fD.~iM;,.~:I:", L,(d) 1ifblma.~,it'" O(d31ogd)t~1J~it.,~ PiPbtL{l) it'.,L(2)~ M :I}2) it. L(4),))l L,(4}' it'JJL(8) .9

2'.4.2 .d'If:B.1 •••

• /~\~KJfi, (MCM) .~ (4) -i3' •• ikififtl1lfit:JiH:;~JfJflm mtrBMC,M" (6] ,*,1 ~1i~ft1j ~r£~it.MCM~,i£. 'i~: (cy.e:ler~ ,~ ~!Ef;. (loop)~ iI • .!lti'!a

*=Wflm~.iii,mI'J T ,;q;~t« (cye~emean) ~ -*;q;iijti (maximum, cye]emean) ~lItMCM~,.~g ,:q: ,c' 'f];q;f$J. m(o)1 ~m e fJ:mIfa~.t!)~1i~ !6P.R.~~~l!!RtJ*1i~~ ~J6i~ ~J.~ ~I itiltl atrllSiDIP liJ a MCM Am~~, ~,,,,,r;rfif+ ~11l~ .,J ,Utl~, Dp

~a:t R max m,(c)

e

~1"M~ Iml m Od~'I{;~fl RJ~l.m *it.~ft.iYJJ~, jl: + ,G,(j P]i~!1.:m1&MlDFG~ ifllU

L5~~ (,*~DFG~ ,G),,, :in. d JIa G .~lilt.,:iCGt91t ~" D~a IIUf~ Gd li d -ti'Ji,s '~' .Jt:~I.-tl'1 .~SG~~-~.M.~6~G+a."~~.M~ •• W~H~ft •• ~ •• @+ft .1lEI&~~*lfit~ Gd 4' Et,';'j'Jl i IIJ ~'ii i Mr~B9tt.,~ m wei, j) .~ 9jJll.»"I&~ eft .,J .1mlM"· dj ri=¥r~iilJoj.~, jP~. Grt ~ it! i ~ i ~wa: ~ fit 2-2 + DFG;r.f ~ttJ l.~ lad iIl1l2 .. f}a m'~Q it,frt.ltItFR~~tl c; 1£*.l:JifkJ' •• 2.4tl=r;.ii!lfJLPM.~I~~ Lm l!~il:ag.~

Gd ,tpRtr~+~c MJil"~ltl.Z.fOIt:l: Gtfrm:frti~~ c ifF.l8i,ft~mJ'~~.JclKJ~B9. :k@J:a-t'fiJ!! it~.mI ~ Gd rp a9A1ltl.;l G It liB-t~ ll9ik*iiJJilM-fm "Mju~. 11I12; .. 6a+ 8im~ .~ G ,,1f:t£.M+tl ~tilf.t· o, ,in D!1l tM)··iF· ,,~~+~fj:iiJJI"JRJ.*J6: u,.,t.~4 u.t, Q 112-,61) mm~~1ii1l Gd ~#.t:i!.'~~+~, 'E,~~iiT';i>l~T n; to: DfJ Wi~A\rB~, .. ~;q;a9i1!I~tt

i& ~ ;;;n.4. D .,;* Iii;; lilt _.fL liE Q l1! Eft G'" ...h!rIi1tI ;m:~;r:r' IV1 R-b • - .. u.J. i@i*"Q'.4".A ft" ~ 6h 24,. 1&iI\!& JR4.fHi./l.,ellm:'W.UII.mm-"Au8-r< 7-~tIl~t,~,n~I_A.@.*lpi,I~I.~ 1,3:,' III T,. ~r1"~~ftfl'J!:J'iH.Rl'J~

•• ~.~.~4 •• ,&.~G~.~W.M.~ •• ,,~a~~~eOO~_.~

G+.*c~~H.~~.«~+OOft* •• HOOIG •• ~ ••• N.x.~

~.G •• t.~c •• H.x.~.~.*~.~W~~8.*~_.AG+.«~~ .*~.M!"', DP'=*G ~~tt~Jf. 0

89

I

a) IIIIJra G~' Ji.f-fctg_,*,liIB<j"'ltij{: D'~ ~ D'fJ ffi)'jfiIjj-tiJ (lJ1 :2~

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44

OUT

om'

l..M. Renfors, and Y. Neuvo,. ,uThe maximum. sampling' :rate o:f digital filters under' hardware sp,eed COrIllstraintst lESE' 7m:n,,·. OQ ~rcV1:1:1 "",d' Sy;sterru·Jv1:ol. CAS'28, DO'. 3" pp. 196-·202:" Marcb 1981.

2. K .. K. Peihi and D. G .. M,essefschmit:t~I'Sta.tic rate-opt:im,aJ ,scheduling ol'iter~ MVie data .. ftow programs via o:pt:i.mum 1!lIn.fo)ding~" IEEE ·7ton,,!. on Com,ut·le,." vol. 40. no.!,. pp .. 118r-195,;. Feb. 1:9911. .

3. S. H .. Gerez; S. M .. Heemstrade G.root" and O.E. Herrmann, '''A polym,Omial-tlme aJlgodt.:hm for the com:putat.ion of the iteratio.n~period bound in recursive daea .. · :How graphs," IEEE ·Thlns. o·n Oln::wi.tsans SY8i,tmS'-j: FUnda;m,ental Theory !(uta AppllcQtions.,vot .39, no, ],pp. 4'9~52, Jan. :1992'.

4. K. ItO' and K. K. Parhi, "Determinln .. g ·the minimum it>erati~n period of an aJgorithmJ'~ JO'urnal o/VLS:l.s'.gBsl ProCfeS:S'ln9" vol. 11" pp. 229~244; 19915,.

. .

5. D. Y. rChao and D. T'., Ww.g, '~lteration bounds of'singl~:rate!data flow grapbs fOr

eoneurrent pr,ocessing1," lBE8 Tro:n,. ,o'n C.rcUIU ond S,'s'ems~l:FUnd.omeQtQJ Th,eD'f,Y and AppIlieoo.iQn;8" vel, 40, DO .. 9'1 PPI. 6:.2.9~634.~ Sept. 1993.

6 .. R~M. Karp, uA cha.ra.c:t.eri~,a·tion 1(11.( the minimum ,cydemean in a digraph," Dis,crete MG'h\6ma.'ics~ vol, 23~ PI'" 309 -·31l" una ..

7 .. E. A.Lee' and D. ,G. Messefschmit,t.~ ~'Static' sch~duIing o,f'sy:ncbronous. data :Dow :Pl"ogra.ms for digital s;i.paJplr();oessi:nl:~ uIEB'E·1hI,ns·. on ODm,'u~e:r', vel, C-36) no. 1, pp, '24-35, Jan. 1987.

8,. D. A .. Schwartz and T'. P. Barn.weU" IU, ~'C'yd(Fstatic solutions: optimal m.ml ... ·tipr.ooessor realiza.t.ions .of recursive. aJgoritbm5:,'~ iR Proc. oj IB.EB' VLSI Signr,d Proces,s'ing W.orkshop, U186.

,3.'1 '~II ;-'

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y(2k.+~)

e) -1- ii1t1.«,1tt;J2t1~trijl1,R III 3-UJ

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C~h~,~g'e == OM + C A = '9CA. ij' -t2 -*.fr'i4, it. 5 , * 4t,4f2,J:_ ~ ~ t.,t-*"~' :

CC~!Ji .. :ge:= eM + 20 A. = 10cA

(3-2,5 )

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lOCAt1'V"o Tpor '-k(dVo ~-t1J2

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(3~27 )

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( 3-28)

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]. J. H,ennessy and D. P'atterson~, Compu~,er ArchitlecttJ,reAQ'~ian,titlaUveApPnJac-h~ and ,ed.. Morgan Kaufmann, Publishers, 1'996.

2. K. Hwtt'Dg: and F. A.. BiriUS'; Ciml,'tI.ter Arrchit,ecturt!a:nd P.amUel Processing.

McGra.w-Hil~'1 1984.

,3. P. :M. Kogge, The ,Architet:!ure ,oJ Pipellned Comp'tde'r8. McGra:w,-Hm, 19181.

4" H. T .. Kung" '~Wby systolic ar-chitectures'?,'1 IEEB'Colmputers' Mog'al;ine, vO~, 151 pp. 37-,45'iJan., ]982.

5. U. B,anerj,ee et at, fiTime a:ndparaU.el 'processor bounds for fQrtran like loope," IEEE Tran8'. on Computf!,rSI, vol, 28,pp. 66tl-61.0, 1979.

6. N. Jouppi and D. WaU,; '''Available' instruction :ievel parallelism ia,r superscalar and super-pipelined :machines,u inP''roc. ,of 3~rd l,denH.di,onol Q,OIRJe.fie:nce on A'rchitBctuml ,S~ppO'rt Jor PT-ogmm·m.'''':1 Langua"gel Itj,nd' Opendlog' S1l6tems, (Bos,ton)1 pp, 2'72,-'2,82, May 19891•

7', M.Lam~ ~ISoftw,a.re pipel:iming:an, ,eflecUv·e~ scheduling technique for VLIW' mar chines," ln Prae, of the AOM SIGPLA N Oonfe.rence ,on Programmin.g Langua,ge D',es1gn, and ImJ,l',em,e'R·ta:fion, (.AUanta)I, PP'. 318--32,8, June 1988.

8. D. A" Padua, and M. J.WoUe,'tAdvanced compiler organizat,i!o:ns for' supercomputers," C:o'ffi.mun;i,cations .o/th,e A GM" vol. 29", P.P'. 11,84 ..... 120,l, 1986. -

9. B. a.Ralu, eta-I., ~~Effici~n!t cede genera.ti)ou' for hor.ilo!l!talarchitectures: c.ompiler tech.niques and architec:turaJ :su.pPQrt,,"~in PftJc.ol9th In,temational.s,mpo',sium

00 on C:olm,uter Af'l::hl~ectUfl!,. 19',82.

1.0 .. M.E. Wolf and M .. S.Lam" '''A loop transforma.tion theory' and an aI,gorithm to maximize 'Parallelism,"' ,IEBE 1mB', Ofl PamUel and D'istribut,fd SY,8tem5, vol 2:", pp" 452-4'71~ 1991..

11. K .. K .. P~hi and D. G. M,essencbmitt, ,uPipeUn,e interleaving and parwleUsm in recursive digital fllbers-p3!t]: pl~,:penningusiDg seattetledl,oo,k~abead and deeomPOSlt:iOn.," lEBE' 2N,Q.s. on A'OOUlh,C8I, Speech,afttl Biped Pmce8,sIng" vol, 37~ no. '7 t :pp. 1099 ..... 1117 ~ July 1985t

12.K.,K. ,Pa.ddand D. G. M,esserschmitt~ '~~PipeHne: intedeaviog andparalle,lism in recursive digit,aJfUters-p,a.rt II: pipelined incrementaAJ block filtering," IEEE 7hins. on A .. ccru.dica,. ,Speech, amd S:IJnal PfYJCe~:8i:Rg, vol. .37,00. 7"P!P,. 111.8-1135, Juiy 198:9.

l3 .. C. W.Wu and P. It C.a:ppeUo, l'I App,UcatioR-sp,ocinc CAn ,of VLSI secoDd-ord~ sections," IEEE 1'rans..on ACQ~8tics,!i S,eech" and Signed P'roeess!jng", vol 36, p'p. 813-,825, 1988.

14.A. P. iCh.a.u,drakasan, 'S. Shengj aadR .. W., Br1Qdlersen~. ~:Low-power C'MOSdigitaJ design.,," IEEE J,ou:mal 0/ S,olid-St.,te Oirnu';:t8, vol. 27, DO. 4, PI"- 4\73·-483, April 199'2.

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