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Confidence and

Assertiveness in the
Jared Hansen

A trust or belief in ones own powers or abilities
Belief that one will act in the right, proper, or effective

(Hecimovich & Volet, 2009)

Form of communication

Ability to express feelings, thoughts, beliefs, and

opinions in an open manner without violating
the rights of others
Alternative to passive or aggressive
communication styles

(Michel, 2008)

Assertiveness cont.

(Michel, 2008)

Importance of Confidence and

Improved outcomes for patients
More likely to engage in successful assessment and
Eliminate over or under-reliance on outside resources

Trust of patients and colleagues in clinical

Improved communication

Improved work relationships

(Hecimovich & Volet, 2009)

Reasons for Lack of Confidence

and Assertiveness
New or unfamiliar environment

Lack of knowledge or competence

Stress or anxiety
Feelings of timidity

Worry or fear of failure
(Yang, Kim, Park, & Yang, 2014)

When Confidence is Lacking

Know the reasons
Internal or external

Align goals for increasing confidence and

assertiveness with identified reasons and
readiness for learning

(Holland, Middleton & UYS, 2012)

Confidence and Competence

Feelings of competence can influence confidence
and changes in confidence will influence feelings of

(Holland, Middleton & UYS, 2012)

Increasing Confidence and


Student Approach
Thought awareness
Rational thinking

Mindfulness-based attention training
Mundane task focusing
(Centre for Clinical Interventions, n.d.)

Student Approach cont.

Utilize resources
Manage stress
Positive self-talk
Journal exercises

Assertive communication
I statements
Ask question
(Holland, Middleton & UYS, 2012; Michel, 2008)

Supervisor Approach
Provide positive experiences and small successes

Provide encouragement and support

Offer respect and acceptance
Be Approachable

Provide feedback that is appropriate and

Take time to explain
Offer affirmation and appreciation
(Holland, Middleton & UYS, 2012)

A Supervisory Model

(The Ken Blanchard Companies, 2005)

A Supervisory Model cont.

(Christ, 2007)

A Supervisory Model cont.


Accepts self-direction
Asks for input


Engages in more two-way communication

Encourages and facilitates self-reliant problem solving
Involves other person in decision making
Listens and provides support and encouragement


Assists with task organization and delivery

Encourages during task performance
Supports what student knows, teaches parts unknown


Sets goals and clarifies expectations

Tells and shows an individual what to do, when, and how to
do it
Closely supervises, monitors and evaluates performance
(Christ, 2007)

People also fail to apply what they have
learned, or do so only half-heartedly, if they
distrust their ability to do it successfully.
(Bandura, 2000, p. 126)

When they [students] believe they can, they will,

and they do succeed.
(Greer-Day, Medland, Watson & Bojak, 2015, p. 41)

Bandura, A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational
effectiveness. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of Principles of Organizational
Behavior (p. 129). Oxford, UK: Blackwell

Centre for Clinical Interventions (CCI) - Psychotherapy, Research, Training.

(n.d.). Retrieved from
Christ, P. (2007, September 25). Match Supervision to the Student: Part
II. ADVANCE for Occupational Therapy. Retrieved from
Greer-Day, S., Medland, J., Watson, L., & Bojak, S. (2015). Outdoor
Adventure Program Builds Confidence and Competence to Help New
Graduate RNs Become Everyday Leaders at the Point of Care. Journal for
Nurses in Professional Development, 33(1), 40-46.

Hecimovich, M. D., & Volet, S. E. (2009). Importance of building confidence
in patient communication and clinical skills among chiropractic
students. The Journal of Chiropractic Education, 23(2), 151.

Holland, K., Middleton, L., & Uys, L. (2012). The sources of professional
confidence in occupational therapy students. South African Journal of
Occupational Therapy, 42(3), 19-25.
Michel, F. (2008). Assert Yourself. Perth, Western Australia: Centre for Clinical
Yang, Y. O., Kim, M., Park, K. Y., & Yang, J. H. (2014). Factors influencing the
confidence in core clinical skills among hospital nurses. International Journal
of Nursing Practice, 21(6), 831-838.