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Rockefeller/ Standard Oil

Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and became one of the wealthiest
men. His oil company controlled 90% of the refineries and pipelines. Rockefeller was
accused of being involved in many unethical practices to try and enlarge his
monopoly. In 1911, the Supreme Court found the standard oil company guilty of
many anti-trust laws and dissolved the company.
Steel/ Carnegie

Carnegie was an American industrialist, made a fortune in the steel industry and
then became a philosopher. He first became a superintendent for the railroad
industry and while there he ventured with iron and oil and made a fortune by the
time he was in his early 30s. He entered the steel business in 1870 and dominated
the industry, he sold it in 1901 to John P. Morgan and made $430 million dollars.
Vanderbilt/ Railroads

Vanderbilt was a self-made millionaire who became one of the wealthiest men by the 19 th century. He
started off working as a steam ship captain and later on went into the business for himself and became
one of the countrys largest steamboat operators. He became nicknamed Commodore because he was

known for being fierce and ruthless among his competitors. In the 1860s he began his focus to the
railroad industry and built another empire and made railroad transportation more efficient.

JP Morgan/ Banking

Morgan was one of the most powerful bankers. He helped the steel industry, general
electric and other major corporations. Morgan used his influence to help settle many
economic crisis, including the panic of 1907. Many however accused him of
manipulating the national banking system for his own personal gain and thought he
had more power than needed. He was a Gilded Age titan and spent most of his
wealth on an art collection.

Many people came to America seeking new economic opportunities while others
came seeking religious freedom. Not to mention all the African slaves that came to
America against their will. In 1882 the Chinese exclusive act became the first legal
immigration restriction, and 10 years later America opened their first immigration
port; Ellis Island. Way later new laws were enforced that put an end to European
immigrant favored and today the majority of our countrys immigrants come from
Latin America and Asia.
Ellis/ Angel Island

Although they were both immigration ports they differed by the people. In Ellis Island, off the coast of New York; European
immigrants immigrated through there. Angel Island was off the coast of San Francisco and Chinese immigrants immigrated there.
Ellis Island process was quick while Angel Island process could take weeks. People at angel island had to have family proof to get in
while people at Ellis Island could just come in.

Positive/ Negative Effects of Industrialization

Manufacturing was done in homes by hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization

marked a shift to special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and
textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in
the Industrial Revolution. Also saw improved systems of transportation, communication
and banking. Industrialization brought about an increased variety of manufactured goods
and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment
and living conditions for the poor and working classes.
Child Labor

Child labor reached new heights during the Industrial Revolution. Children worked long
hours in dangerous factory conditions for very little money. Children were useful as
laborers because their size allowed them to move in small spaces in factories or mines
where adults couldnt fit, children were easier to manage and control and most
importantly, children could be paid less than adults. Child laborers often worked to help
support their families, but were forced to forgo an education.
Sweat Shops

Before the Industrial

Revolution that began
in Britain in the late
1700s, manufacturing
was often done in
peoples homes, using
hand tools or basic
Industrialization marked
a shift to powered,
machinery, factories
and mass production.
The iron and textile
industries, along with
the development of the
steam engine, played
central roles in the
Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication
and banking.
Birth of Unions

The labor movement in the

United States grew out of
the need to protect the common interest of workers. For the people in the industrial sector,
organized labor unions fought for better wages, reasonable hours and safer working
conditions. The labor movement led efforts to stop child labor, give health benefits and
provide aid to workers who were injured or retired.
Government Corruption

New technologies, cheap immigrant labor, maturing methods of industrialization, and a

mechanized, streamlined transportation system of railroads and steam-powered ships
proved a formula for astoundingly rapid growth in the business sector. Government,
however, could not keep pace with these changes. Governments were nave about
business and the ways that individuals and companies made money, both legally and
illegally. They were not able to deal with many cutthroat business practices, so these were
allowed to continue. Competition was intense and business managers often had to adopt
practices they disliked or be forced out of business.
Political machines

Urban political machines led to corruption. They were famous for requiring those
doing business with the city to pay bribes. They were also famous for engaging in
rather corrupt practices with respect to elections. They would do things like buying
votes or having people vote more than once. The good side, the urban political
machines provided needed help to the urban poor. In those days, there were no
governmental welfare programs. Instead, the urban political machines provided
those sorts of benefits to the poor on an ad hoc basis.

The first railroad charter in the U.S. was given to Stevens and others in 1815 for the New
Jersey railroad. He designed and built a steam locomotive capable of hauling several
passenger cars at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1825.The invention of the steam

engine helped begin the modern railroads and trains. By the summer of 1868, 4,000
workers, two thirds of which were Chinese, had built the transcontinental railroad over the
Sierras and into the interior plains.
Ford/ Assembly Line

Henry Ford (1863-1947) built his first gasoline-powered horseless carriage, the Quadricycle,
in the shed behind his home. In 1903, he established the Ford Motor Company, and five
years later the company rolled out the first Model T. In order to meet overwhelming
demand for the revolutionary vehicle, Ford introduced revolutionary new mass-production
methods, including large production plants, the use of standardized, interchangeable parts
and, in 1913, the worlds first moving assembly line for cars.

The Industrial Revolution changed material production, wealth, labor patterns and population
distribution. Although many rural areas remained farming communities during this time, the
lives of people in cities changed drastically. The new industrial labor opportunities caused a
population shift from the countryside to the cities. The new factory work led to a need for a
strict system of factory discipline.
Robber Barons/

Captains of Industry

Some nineteenth-century industrialists who were called "captains of industry" overlap with those
called "robber barons". These include people such as J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, Andrew
W. Mellon, and John D. Rockefeller. The term "robber baron" contrasted with the term "captain
of industry," which described industrialists who also benefitted society.
Monopolies/ Trust

A monopoly is where there are many buyers in a market but only one seller. The First

federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was
extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially
misused against labor unions