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Verbal and

non-verbal
reasoning: an
introduction

VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL REASONING:

AN INTRODUCTION
Thinking ahead to secondary school though your child is only in year 3?
Youre not alone. More and more parents start preparing for and worrying
about selection tests like the Eleven Plus years before their child is due to
sit the exam. Headteacher and verbal and non-verbal reasoning expert
Stephen McConkey, co-author of the Learning Together practice books, offers
an overview of the test to help you start considering the right preparation
plan for your child.
What is the Eleven Plus exam?
The Eleven Plus is a test used for secondary school selection and given to
ten-year-old pupils in their last year of primary school (year 6 in England and
year 7 in Northern Ireland; in Northern Ireland the Eleven Plus is known as
the Transfer Procedure).
The Eleven Plus is often used as a means to determine whether a pupil is suited
to the academic rigours of a grammar school education or will be accepted for
a private or independent school. In other words, the test can determine
whether your child will be offered a place in the selective school of your choice.

Do all children take the Eleven Plus?


The Eleven Plus exam is not usually a compulsory test, but is almost always the
only way to gain entry to a school that has a selection procedure so it can be an
important milestone in your child's education.

Since the early 1970s many areas of the UK have favoured a comprehensive
education system that is non-selective, so they havent used the Eleven Plus.
However, there are still a considerable number of Local Authorities,
Foundation Schools, independent schools and private schools that admit pupils
based on selection by the test known as the Eleven Plus. In Northern Ireland
the Eleven Plus was officially abolished in 2008, but many grammar schools still
select pupils by ability.
There are around 164 state grammar schools in England; ever-increasing fees
for private education mean that many parents are turning towards the Eleven
Plus exam to gain entry to their chosen selective school. These schools provide
what is often regarded as a first-class education. Success in gaining admission
varies enormously around the country, depending on the number of school
places available and applications made. In some parts of south-east England
schools receive thousands of applications for just a few hundred places, but
other areas are not so over-subscribed.

What sort of exam will my child have to take?


This varies from Local Authority to Local Authority and from school to school.
The papers will be based on some or all of the following types of tests and may
involve sitting two or even three separate examinations.

Verbal reasoning tests

Non-verbal reasoning tests

Mathematics tests

English tests

Sometimes the examination will be made up of different kinds of papers, for


example a non-verbal reasoning and a verbal reasoning test; in other cases the
skills tested will be similar, for example two verbal reasoning papers. Children
may also have an interview with senior staff at their chosen school as part of
the selection procedure.
In Northern Ireland the Eleven Plus exam, known as the Transfer Test, is based
on English and mathematics only and does not contain any verbal reasoning or
non-verbal reasoning questions.
Verbal and non-verbal reasoning arent just relevant to children in grammar
school areas. Many secondary schools use Cognitive Abilities Tests, CATs, to
stream overall or set for certain subjects. They are designed to assess a pupils
ability in three different areas: verbal (thinking with words); quantitative
(thinking with numbers); and non-verbal (thinking with shapes and space).
Verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills are a form of critical thinking and they
can certainly be taught. As adults we use various strategies to help us reason
out problems; verbal and non-verbal reasoning puzzles offer children a
framework to practise the problem-solving strategies they find most useful,
for example:
making a list
making a table
looking for patterns
drawing diagrams
brainstorming systematically to rule out different options.

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Verbal reasoning Eleven Plus tests


Verbal reasoning involves thinking about text, solving word problems and
spotting letter sequences. Its not a curriculum-based skill, so it wont usually
be taught at school as part of KS2, but it requires children to have a solid
understanding of written language, a good grasp of English grammar and a
wide vocabulary. Most schools and Local Authorities administer at least one
verbal reasoning test as part of secondary selection.
There are 21 common verbal reasoning question types used in the Eleven Plus
exam, but many experts believe there may be as many as 40 different
variations of verbal reasoning questions. For example:

Write a letter into the brackets below which will complete all four words. The letter must
complete the word in front of and the word after each set of brackets. The same letter
must be used in both sets of brackets.

ROA ( ? ) OOR

HOO ( ? ) ONE

The correct answer is the letter D the resulting words are road / door and
hood / done.
In these questions a word has been changed into a secret code. You have to break the code
and then answer the questions. Read carefully because sometimes you will have to change
words from code into correct English and sometimes you will have to change English words
into code words.

In a code:- THUMB becomes UIVNC


What is HAND in code? (________________)

The correct answer is IBOE each letter of the word HAND is substituted with
the NEXT letter of the alphabet according to the code pattern established by
the example word given, THUMB.
For lots more verbal reasoning practice questions look through your Verbal and
non-verbal reasoning: an introduction pack.

Non-verbal reasoning Eleven Plus tests


Non-verbal reasoning tests require your child to think about pictures and
diagrams and solve problems based on them. Your child's mathematical
capabilities are a key part of non-verbal reasoning: they will need to
understand symmetry and rotation, recognise patterns in size, shape, direction
and colour (usually black and white and various forms of shading) and have a
good sense of spatial awareness.

Non-verbal reasoning examples:

For lots more non-verbal reasoning practice questions look through your
Verbal and non-verbal reasoning: an introduction pack.

Mathematics and English Eleven Plus tests


These are used by some Local Authorities and schools, but not to the same
extent as verbal and non-verbal reasoning tests. Where they are used you can
expect the standards to be quite high, probably requiring a child to be working
at top level 4 or level 5 (the national curriculum level expected for pupils at the
end of year 6 and into year 7). The tests can cover any aspects of the subjects.
For maths your child should be familiar with everything from pie charts and
percentages to fractions and decimals, with a confident grasp of the basic
number operations and, of course, times tables. English papers might ask your
child to correct punctuation and spelling errors, arrange words alphabetically
and complete a reading comprehension, as well as writing a story or essay.

What format do Eleven Plus tests take?


The exam comes in one of three formats:
Traditional or standard format
What most of us would regard as a traditional exam your child writes the
answers in a space on the test paper.
Multiple choice format
Your child marks their answer on a separate score sheet by putting a line
against the correct answer or circling the correct answer. This is a difficult task
in itself and one which requires practice so the child is not getting questions
wrong by marking the correct answer against the wrong question. (Many
teachers call these multiple guess papers because children can have a tendency
to just guess and circle any answer without taking time to work out the
answer!) This type of answer format is usually used to accommodate marking
using a computer optical reading machine.
Online testing
Still in its infancy, but some areas feel this format is more secure.

I want my child to sit the Eleven Plus exam what should I do next?
Local Authorities or groups of schools usually carry out all Eleven Plus exam
administration. Contact your chosen school/Local Authority to confirm the
application process, dates and the format of the exam.
A selection of practical tips and activities to help your child develop their verbal

and non-verbal reasoning skills is included in the following pages, as well as a


number of typical questions for you both to practise on quite addictive! We
have provided hints to help you understand the format of the questions as you
work through them.
TheSchoolRun.com offers hundreds of worksheets and learning packs to help
your child brush up on their general maths and English knowledge; for further
Eleven Plus practice materials visit www.learningtogether.co.uk

PLEASE NOTE: This advice on the Eleven Plus exam is provided for guidance only; requirements vary
from Local Authority to Local Authority and from school to school. While the content is, to the best
of our knowledge, accurate we cannot be held in any way responsible for errors or omissions it may
contain. Please contact your Local Authority or chosen school for all admission and exam queries.

10 STEPS TO EFFECTIVE ELEVEN PLUS PREPARATION AND PRACTICE


If youve decided you want your child to sit a secondary school selection
exam you might not know how to establish a revision plan (and feel very
intimidated by playground talk about tutors, intensive courses and beforedawn practice sessions!). Verbal and non-verbal reasoning expert Stephen
McConkey, a primary headteacher and a parent, shares his top ten tips for a
productive studying routine.

Step 1: talk to your child


Spend time discussing the whole exam process and what it will involve, spelling
out how much effort and work will be needed. Be realistic about your childs
ability and their willingness to practise regularly at home.

Step 2: be prepared to put in some effort yourself!


Exam preparation should be a joint activity. Sit with your child while they are
doing practice papers being sent away to another room to practise can feel
like a punishment and an easy way out for parents! If your child makes a
mistake dont correct it immediately but ask them to explain how they got their
answer; work through their thinking to find out where they went wrong. This
will encourage your child to review their work in a less pressurised way.

Step 3: reward the effort, not the result


Be wary of the If you pass the exam you will get approach. What will you do
if your child is not as successful as you hope? Any reward you promise them

should be linked to the effort they make in preparing for the exam, not to the
results they achieve on the day.

Step 4: set a timetable


Put aside a regular amount of time per day/week and try to do exam
preparation at the same time each day/week. (Summer holidays can be a
particularly hard time; when working with my own children we did the
preparation first thing each morning.) Switch the television off and minimise all
other distractions (background music, siblings playing, etc.).

Step 5: personalise the learning


Encourage your child to draw tables/diagrams/ladders to collate information
into a format that they find easy to understand. Each child will have a different
way of learning; encourage your child to work to their strengths and revise in
the way they feel most comfortable.

Step 6: evaluate regularly


Practice makes perfect. We have all heard the saying, but Practice, the
results of which are known, makes perfect is probably more accurate! When
your child scores well in a practice test reward and praise them but dont
discourage them when the scores are not so good.

Step 7: dont try to keep up with the Joneses


Do not compare your childs marks with the results of friends (or, even worse,
of older siblings) who have passed their Eleven Plus. Your child will be acutely

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aware of their scores and will already be under pressure trying to emulate their
older brother or sister.

Step 8: understand how the test works


Understanding the method for doing the various question types is important
whether your child is doing standard format or multiple-choice format papers.
As the actual exam date approaches focus more on the specific format of paper
that your child will be taking.

Step 9: speed things up


Once your child has a solid understanding of what each question type in the
exam involves you will need to introduce the element of speed, encouraging
them to work more quickly. The exam may last 50 or 60 minutes and there is
no time to hang about! When working quickly children are more likely to make
careless, silly mistakes; regular timed practice sessions will help them get
used to working against the clock.

Step 10: life should go on as normal


Preparing for a big exam can become incredibly stressful, but make sure you
dont forget the basics: your child needs to be well rested and nourished and
they should remain involved in all the after-school activities they would
normally take part in. Try to avoid the test becoming all-consuming (for the
sake of your own sanity and well-being, as well as your childs!).

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THE NO-TEXTBOOKS WAY TO PREPARE FOR THE ELEVEN PLUS


A childs confidence and positive attitude are critical to a good performance
in exams. Here are some ideas for preparation that wont be seen as just
another load of homework. Games, puzzles, quizzes you might find yourself
enjoying the exam practice too!

Studying for the Eleven Plus exam requires your child to have a very good
knowledge of both mathematics and English and any activities that encourage
and develop these subjects will help your child as they work towards this
difficult test. This is a test that you can and should prepare for together.

To prepare for the English-based questions


Read! A child with a deep interest in reading will be exposed to many different
words in a wide variety of contexts and will be at an advantage when sitting
their test. Encourage your child to read and to read widely both fiction and
factual books. Set the reading example yourself, dont just send your child to
their room with a book.
Play games and quizzes with your child. This will develop vocabulary and boost
their confidence in playing with letters and words. Games that require your
child to give the opposite or same meaning as a word will be very beneficial
lots of verbal reasoning questions are constructed around synonyms and
antonyms. Why not find word lists online and work with your child to create

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your own game to turn the preparation into a very personalised and exciting
activity? Crosswords and wordsearches are also a fun but effective way to get
into a critical thinking mindset.
Get out and about in the name of culture. General knowledge questions are
an aspect of the Eleven Plus exam and they could cover any area of life, so why
not take the opportunity to expose your child to a variety of historical and
cultural experiences? Museums, shows and sporting events are all great
opportunities to share your interests with your child.
Look for games that test spelling and grammar. Correct spelling is vital in
verbal reasoning tests, and being able to recognise homophones like witch and
which or Wales and whales will be very useful. You cant go far wrong with a
game like Scrabble, and youll find lots of suggestions and activities to help
make spelling fun on TheSchoolRun.

To prepare for the maths-based questions


Reinforce the basics with everyday activities. Theres no getting around it: to
complete the verbal and non-verbal reasoning tests your child must have a
complete knowledge and grasp of all their number facts. They should be able
to add, subtract, divide and multiply quickly and with accuracy. Not having to
think about calculations when answering a question will save time and
increase confidence. Rote learning of times table and number facts might not
be common practice nowadays, but it is essential. Can you help your child
practise by rapping, chanting or singing their number facts?

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Make your own maths games. TheSchoolRun offers a pack of downloadable


games, Cool maths games for kids, specially devised to help KS1 and KS2
learners. If you prefer, though, you can make your own versions; all you need
are cards numbered 1-100. For example:
Addition games: deal a number of cards and get your child to add them
all together, add the largest and smallest, add the smallest and the
second largest and so on. You can create any number of variations.
Subtraction games: deal a number of cards and get your child to
subtract the smallest from the largest, subtract the second smallest from
the second largest and so on. As with addition games there are endless
ways that you can make this game interesting and fun.
You can create similar games for multiplication and division. As your
child becomes more confident you can mix the four operations in any
way you see fit. All these games will reinforce the basic number facts
which are the foundation of more complex mathematics.
Offer mental maths challenges. Use the numbers on car licence plates, get
your child to handle the cash when youre shopping and ask questions about
storage space on electronic devices however you do it, mental maths can be
relevant and fun if your child realises that working with numbers is an essential
part of everyday life.
Play some hands-on games. Non-verbal reasoning is not so dependant on a
childs reading, writing or verbal skills but deals more with shape, pattern and
numbers. Some children have a natural affinity for non-verbal puzzles while

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others can find them very tricky (children who have difficulty knowing right
from left may find these question types difficult). Construction toys and games
such as Meccano can improve a childs spatial awareness and fine motor skills,
and creating patterns using toys like Lego bricks helps to increase confidence.
Get puzzling. Show your child that non-verbal reasoning questions are like a
puzzle that they might find in a quiz book. Looking closely for differences and
similarities in pictures and drawings is a good way to practise: spot the
difference games, for example, will encourage your child to look intently at a
picture. Sudoku puzzles are also a great way to play with numbers and
patterns.
Invest in some jigsaws. Take a trip to your local charity shop and stock up on
keenly-priced jigsaws, then set them up in a central area and get the whole
family obsessed with finding just one more piece Regular hands-on play
sessions with shapes will really help your child when they are completing
non-verbal reasoning questions.

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Verbal reasoning practice

Q1

. Write a letter into the space below which will complete


all four words.
The letter must complete the word in front of and the word
after each set of brackets. The same letter must be used in
both sets of brackets.
Write your answer in the brackets.

bore ( ) rift

hire ( ) rown

(The missing letter is __)

Hint:- To work out what the missing letter might be, work through the
alphabet one letter at a time, starting by inserting the letter a.

Q2

. Look at these five words. Three of them are connected


in some way.Two words do not go with the other three.
Choose these unconnected words from those below and write
them in the brackets.

apple pear cream plum pudding



(____________,___________)
Hint:- Start by looking for words connected to the first word.

Q3

. A word has been changed into a secret code. Can you


break the code and then answer the question? Read the
instructions carefully; sometimes you will have to change words
from code into correct English and sometimes you will have to
change English words into code words.

In a code, RABBIT becomes SBCCJU


What is HORSE in code?
(________________)
Hint:- Write the letters or the code letters above each other.
1.Answer: D (bored, drift, hired, drown) 2.Answer: Cream and pudding (the other three are fruits) 3. Answer: IPSTF

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Verbal reasoning practice p2

Q4.

Two words, one from the top set of brackets and one from
the bottom set, have the same or nearly the same meaning as
each other. Write these two words into the brackets below.


(plain / expensive / rich)

(simple / money / earnings)
(________________) & (________________)
Hint:- Look for words with the same meaning, not the opposite meaning.

Q5

. A word of FOUR letters is hidden in the sentence below.


The hidden word begins at the end of one word and finishes
at the start of the next word. Write the hidden word in the
brackets.

Time and tide wait for no man.



(________________)
Hint:- Start your search with the first word.

Q6

. In this question one word, in bold print and CAPITALS,


has had some letters removed. These letters make a word.
The order of the letters cannot be changed.
Write this word in the brackets.

We had tea in the TING room.



(________________)
Hint:- Concentrate on the word in bold capitals.
4.Answer: Plain and simple (because both words have very similar meanings.) 5. Answer:- mean
6. Answer:- sit (giving SITTING)

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Verbal reasoning practice p3

Q7

. In this question a NUMBER has been changed into a


LETTER. You have to complete the sum each time using a
mixture of LETTERS and/or NUMBERS.
Read the instructions carefully; sometimes you will be asked
to give your answer as a LETTER and sometimes you will have
to give your answer as a NUMBER.
Complete the sum below and give your answer as a LETTER.

A = 7 B = 2 C = 13 D = 4 E = 0
so B + D + A = ( ? )

(____)
Hint:- Work out the sum accurately and check your answer.

Q8

. Remove one letter from the first word and add it to the
second word to make two new words.
You cannot change the order of the letters and both new words
must be proper words and they must be spelt correctly. Write
the letter that is moved in the brackets.


TRACK
FAME

(___)
Hint:- Try one letter at a time, starting with the first letter in the first word.

Q9

. In this question you are given a series of letters that are


in a sequence. Work out the sequence and then write the next
letter or letters in that sequence into the bracket below. Each
question follows a different rule.
The alphabet is printed to help you.

A C F J (______)
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Hint:- Draw the series on the alphabet.
7. Answer: C because 2 ( B ) + 4 ( D ) + 7 ( A ) = 13 which is the letter C. 8. Answer: H (Tack / Frame) 9. Answer: O

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Verbal reasoning practice p4

Q10

. Choose two words, one from each set of brackets, to


complete the sentence in the best way. There are a number of
different ways that the words can be connected. Write your
answers into the brackets below.

Hand is to (glove, finger, write)


as foot is to (waist, coat, toe).
Hand is to...
as foot is to...

(___________)
(____________).

Hint:- Start by looking for words connected to the word HAND.

Q11

. In this question you are given a series of numbers in


a sequence. Work out what the sequence is, then put the next
number or numbers in that sequence in the bracket below.

1 5 9 13 (______)

Hint:- Draw a number line on the series to help you see the pattern.

Q12

. In this question ONE WORD from the group of words


on the LEFT joins ONE WORD from the group of words on the
RIGHT to form a new word.
The LEFT-HAND word always comes first. Write the new word
into the empty bracket below.

( HOME TENT HUT )

( HOBBY JOB WORK )

(________________)

Hint:- Start with the first word on the left and work through all the options.

10. Answer: Finger and toe 11. Answer: 17 12. Answer: HOMEWORK

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Verbal reasoning practice p5

Q13

. In this question the three words in the right-hand group


go together in the same way as those in the left-hand group.
Find the missing word and write it into the bracket below.

cat ( sat ) soon

car (______) ball

Hint:- Look at the position of each letter in the words on the left.

Q14

. In these questions you are trying to find a connection


between two pairs of letters. There will be a pattern, like a
series, to find in the first pair of letters.
This pattern will be repeated in the second pair of letters.
The alphabet is written out to help you. Write your answer into
the bracket below.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
DE is to GH as OP is to (

Hint:- Draw the series on the alphabet to help you visualise the pattern.

Q15

. Find two words, one in each set of brackets, which have


the opposite or nearly the opposite meaning to each other.
Write both words into the brackets below.

(through / over / in)

( out / on / beside)

(________________) & (________________)


Hint:- Look for words with the opposite not the same meaning.

13. Answer: bar 14. Answer: RS 15. Answer: in and out

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Verbal reasoning practice p6

Q16

. In the following questions you will have to read a lot


of information and then answer questions about what you
have read.

Share 27 sweets among Paul, Mark and James so


that for every 4 sweets that Paul gets Mark gets 2
sweets and James gets 3 sweets.
How many sweets does James get? (________________)
Hint:- Drawing a table or diagram may help you.

Q17

If sweets are shared as detailed above, how many sweets does


Mark get?
(________________)
Hint:- Remember to work through the problem slowly and carefully.

Q18

If sweets are shared as detailed above, how many sweets does


Paul get?
(________________)
Hint:- Drawing out the sweets in your diagram might help you solve the
problem more easily.

16. Answer: 9 17. Answer: 6 18. Answer: 12

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Verbal reasoning practice p7

Q19

. In these questions you will need to use addition,


subtraction, multiplication and division (or a combination
of different operations) in order to complete mathematical
questions.
Write your answer in the brackets.

7 + 2 3 = 27 (_______)

Hint:- Work from left to right.

Q20

. Look at these three groups of numbers.


You get the MIDDLE NUMBER in each group by using the TWO
NUMBERS outside the brackets.
A different rule is used in each question.
Work out how you get the MIDDLE NUMBER that would complete
the empty bracket. Write that number into the bracket below.

10 ( 22 ) 12

8 ( 12 ) 4

5 (_______) 6

Hint:- Start with simple sums.

Q21

. Here are four words and below the four words are
three of the words written in a secret code. The codes are in a
different order from the words.
Write your answer in the brackets.

PART

PACE

1234

CAPE

3214

TAPE

3267

What is TAPE in code? (_______)


Hint:- Look for letters that appear more than once to work out what
each number represents.
19. Answer: 9

20. Answer: 11

21. Answer: 7234

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Verbal reasoning practice p8

Q22

. In the following question the second word in each pair


is made from the first word in the same way on each occasion.
Find out what the rule is that makes the second word from
the first word, then complete the third pair of words.
Write your answer in the brackets.

(many, man) (lower, low) (figure, _________)


Hint:- Start in the first set of brackets.

Q23

. Choose one word from those printed below that would


fit equally well with both sets of words in the brackets. They
may have a similar meaning or be connected in some other way.
Write your answer in the brackets.

( STONE , PEBBLE ) ( SHAKE , TREMBLE )

MUSIC SAND

ROCK GRAVEL FALL

(__________)

Hint:- Dont forget you are only choosing ONE word!

Q24

. Remove one letter from the first word and add it to


the second word to make two new words.
You cannot change the order of the letters and both new words
must be proper words and they must be spelt correctly.
Write the letter that is moved in the brackets.

BOUND PROD (______)


Hint:- Try removing the first letter from the first word and adding it to the
second word. If that doesnt work, move on to the second word.

22. Answer: fig

23. Answer: ROCK 24. Answer: U (Bond / Proud)

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Verbal reasoning practice p9

Q25

. You will need to use addition, subtraction, multiplication


and division (or a combination of them) in order to complete a
mathematical question.
Write your answer in the brackets.

( 5 x 5 ) + 6 = 60 (______)

Hint:- Work from left to right.

Q26

. A word has been changed into a secret code. You have


to break the code and then answer the question. Read the
instructions carefully; sometimes you will have to change words
from code into correct English and sometimes you will have to
change English words into code words.

In a code RABBIT becomes PYZZGR.


What is BEACH in code?
(________________)
Hint:- Write the letters and code letters above each other to help you spot
the pattern, then write out the alphabet to help you work out the code.

Q27

. In this question you are given a series of letters in a


sequence. Work out the sequence, then write the next
letter or letters in that sequence into the bracket below.
The alphabet is printed to help you.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

B E G J

(______)

Hint:- Draw the series on the alphabet.


25. Answer: 29

26. Answer: ZCYAF 27. Answer: L

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Verbal reasoning practice p10

Q28

. Write a letter into the space below which will


complete all four words.
The letter must complete the word in front of and the word
after each set of brackets.
The same letter must be used in both sets of brackets.
Write your answer in the brackets.

PAG ( ? ) DIT

GABL ( ? ) LBOW

(_____)

Hint:- Start by inserting the letter a, then work your way through the
alphabet letter by letter.

Q29

. In this question one word, in CAPITALS, has had


some letters removed. These letters make a word. The order
of the letters cannot be changed.
Write this word in the brackets.

That man is RELD to me, he is my uncle.


(____________)
Hint:- Concentrate on the word in capitals.

Q30

. In this question ONE WORD from the group of words


on the LEFT joins ONE WORD from the group of words on the
RIGHT to form a new word.
The LEFT-HAND word always comes first. Write the new word
into the bracket below.

(VAN OPTION CAR) (NATION FULL AGE)


(________________)
Hint:- Start with the first word on the left.
28. Answer: E (page / edit / gable / elbow) 29. Answer: ATE (That man is RELATED to me, he is my uncle.)
30. Answer: CARNATION

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Verbal reasoning practice p11

Q31

. In these questions you will have to read a lot of


information and then answer different questions about what
you have read.

The dates of birth of five people are:



Adam 12.8.94
Graham 15.1.95
Stephen 27.2.95
John 5.6.93
Paul 12.6.94
Who is the oldest person? (________________)
Hint:- Drawing a very simple ladder or adapted number line
may help you.

Q32

After reading the information detailed above, can you say


who the youngest person is?
(________________)
Hint:- Replacing numbers with names of months might be useful.

Q33

After reading the information detailed above, can you say


how old Adam was on 12.8.96?

(_____________)
Hint:- Read the question carefully to decide what information you need.
31. Answer: John

32. Answer: Stephen

33. Answer: 2 years old

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Verbal reasoning practice p12

Q34

. Some letters from the word in capitals have been used


to make other words. Underline the two new words that have
been made.

CONVENIENT tonic video notion voice tents


Hint:- Each letter in the capitalised word can only be used once.

Q35

. In this question TWO words must switch places so


that the sentence makes sense.
Underline the TWO words that need to change place.

The wood was made of table.


Hint:- You cannot change the order of any of the other words in the
sentence.

Q36

. Look at the words below and underline the general


word that describes them all.

oats / wheat / maize / cereal / rye / rice


Hint:- The word you are looking for is the name of the group all these
words belong to.

34. Answer: tonic and voice

35. Answer: table and wood

36. Answer: cereal

27

Verbal reasoning practice p13

Q37

. In the following question a word can be put in front of


each of the four words you are given to form a new word. Write
the word into the bracket below.

shell

shore

side

bird

(________________)
Hint:- The four new words must be proper words.

Q38

. In the question below the letters of one word have been


jumbled up. Use the clue to help you rearrange the letters so
they make sense and write the word in the bracket.

A FLOW is a wild animal.


(________________)
Hint:- Read the clue carefully.

Q39

. In the following word there are four CONSECUTIVE


letters that make a new word. Write the word in the bracket.

UNDERLINE

(________________)

Hint:- Remember you have been told to look for four letters, not more!
37. Answer: sea

38. Answer: WOLF

39. Answer: LINE

28

Verbal reasoning practice p14

Q40

. Three of these five words are connected in some way.


Two words do not go with the other three. Choose these two
words from those below and write both words in the brackets.

Canada / France / Greece / Italy / Peru

(____________,___________)

Hint:- Start by looking for words connected to the first word.

Q41

. Choose two words, one from each set of brackets, to


complete the sentence in the best way. There are a number of
different ways that the words can be connected. Write your
answers into the brackets below.

Goat is to ( gruff, kid, milk )


as horse is to ( foal, jockey, race )

Goat is to (________________)
as horse is to (________________)
Hint:- Start by looking for words connected to the word GOAT.

Q42

. In this question a NUMBER has been changed into


a LETTER. You have to complete the sum using a mixture of
LETTERS and/or NUMBERS.
Read the instructions carefully because sometimes you will have
to give your answer as a LETTER and sometimes you will have to
give your answer as a NUMBER.
Complete the sum below and give your answer as a LETTER.

A = 4 B = 6 C = 18 D = 8 E = 14
so B + D + A = (___?___)

(________________)
Hint:- Take your time and work out the sum accurately.

40. Answer: Canada and Peru are the odd words out (the other three countries are in Europe). 41. Answer: kid and foal
42. Answer: C because 6 ( B ) + 8 ( D ) + 4 ( A ) = 18 which is the letter C.

29

Verbal reasoning practice p15

Q43

. In this question ONE WORD from the group of words


on the LEFT joins ONE WORD from the group of words on the
RIGHT to form a new word.
The LEFT-HAND word always comes first. Write the word into
the bracket below.

(NOTE PAD CAN)

(DOCK PEN DALE)

(________________)
Hint:- Start with the first word on the left.

Q44

.In a certain month there were 5 Wednesdays. The last


day of the month was a Thursday and the twelfth of the month
was a Saturday.

How many Sundays were there in the


month?
(________________)
Hint:- Write out your calculations as a simple calendar.

Q 45


NOVICE
NOTION
NOSTRIL NORTH

NORMAL

When the above words are put in alphabetical order,


which word comes last?

(________________)
Hint:- Write out the words in order, looking at the first letter, then the
second, then the third and so on.
43. Answer: PADDOCK 44. Answer: 4 Sundays 45. Answer: NOVICE

30

Non-verbal reasoning practice p1


In each row below there are six figures. Which figure is the odd
one out in the group and most unlike the other five?
Circle one letter each time.

Q1

Hint:- Count the arrow heads.

Q2

A

Hint:- Count the number of sides.


Q3

Hint:- Look carefully at both shapes in each diagram.


1. Answer: F

2. Answer: C

3. Answer: E

31

Non-verbal reasoning practice p2


In each row below, which group of shapes on the right is most
like the three groups of shapes on the left? Circle one letter
each time.

Q4

Hint:- Look carefully at all three shapes in each diagram.

Q5

Hint:- Look carefully at the colours and number of sides.

Q6
A

Hint:- Look carefully at the dots.


4.Answer: C

5. Answer: A

6. Answer: C

32

Non-verbal reasoning practice p3


In each row below chose what shape comes next in the series.
Circle one letter each time.

Q7

Hint:- Look carefully at the colour sequence.


Q8

A
Hint:- Count the arrows.

Q9





Hint:- Count the black squares.

7. Answer: B

8. Answer: D

9. Answer: C

33

Non-verbal reasoning practice p4


Look at the five figures below. Find the two figures that are
exactly the same. Circle two letters each time.

Q10

A

Hint:- Look carefully at the arrows.

Q11

Hint:- Look carefully at the arrows.

Q12

Hint:- Look carefully at the triangles.

10. Answer: A and D

11. Answer: A and D

12. Answer: A and E.

34

Non-verbal reasoning practice p5


Analogies In each row below the first shape on the left is
related in some way to the second shape. (They are separated
by an arrow.) In the same way the third shape is related to one
shape from the remaining five shapes.
Chose which of the five shapes goes with the third shape to
make a pair. Circle one letter each time.

Q 13

as
A

Hint:- Look at the shading.

Q14

as

Hint:- Look at the position and colour of the smaller shape.

Q15

as

asas
as
as
as
as
as

Hint:- Look at the position and colour of the shape.


13. Answer: B

14. Answer: A

15. Answer: D

35

Non-verbal reasoning practice p6


Which shape is the same but facing in the opposite direction?
Circle one letter each time.

Q16

Hint:- Look at the black triangle.

Q17

A
Hint:- Look at the black arrow.

Q18

A
Hint:- Look at the black ear.

16. Answer: C

17 Answer: D

18. Answer: E

36

Non-verbal reasoning practice p7


Which shape on the right matches the shape on the left, without
turning the pieces over? Circle one letter each time.

Q19

Hint:- Look at the size of the triangle.

Q20

Hint:- Look at the section that points towards the centre.

Q21

Hint:- Look carefully as one shape has been flipped.

19 Answer: E

20 Answer: D

21. Answer: B

37

Non-verbal reasoning practice p8


What fraction is shaded on these shapes? Circle one answer.

Q22

1/6 2/5 1/4 6/8 5/8

Q23

2/6 1/6 1/5 5/6 1/3

Q24

3/6 5/10 3/5 3/10 2/6

Q25

4/8 3/7 4/9 5/10 2/5


22. Answer: 1/4

23. Answer: 1/6

24. Answer: 3/10

25. Answer: 2/5

38

Non-verbal reasoning practice p9


What does the shape on the left look like when it is folded in?
Circle one letter each time.

Q26
gives

Hint:- Look at the position of each triangle.

Q27

gives

Hint:- Look at the position of each shape both inside and outside the
rectangle.

Q28

Hint:- Look at the position of each shape both inside and outside the
rectangle.

26. Answer: B

27. Answer: C

28. Answer: B

39

Non-verbal reasoning practice p10


What shape do you get when the two shapes on the left are
added together? The shapes do not turn in any direction.
Circle one letter each time.

Q29

Hint:- Look at the position of the triangle.

Q30

A
Hint:- The shapes do not turn.

Q31
A

Hint:- The shapes are placed on top of each other.


29. Answer: D

30. Answer: C

31. Answer: C

40

Non-verbal reasoning practice p11


What does the shape on the left look like when it is folded out?
Circle one letter each time.

Q32

Hint:- Look at the position of each grey shape.


Q33

Hint:- Look at the position of each shape both inside and outside the
rectangle.

Q34

Hint:- Look at the position of each shape both inside and outside the
rectangle.
32. Answer: D

33. Answer: A

34. Answer: C

41

Non-verbal reasoning practice p12


What shape do you get when you subtract the shape on the
right from the shape on the left? The shapes do not turn in any
direction.
Circle one letter each time.

Q35

Hint:- Remember to subtract something!

Q36

Hint:- Use a pencil to SCORE out the lines of the shapes you are
subtracting.

Q37

Hint:- Redraw the shape to help you visualise it.


35. Answer: D

36. Answer: C

37. Answer: B

42

Non-verbal reasoning practice p13


Which shape is different from the other four? Circle one letter
each time.

Q38

Hint:- Look at the rotation.

Q39

Hint:- Look at the triangle.

Q40

Hint:- How much is shaded?

38. Answer: D

39. Answer: B

40. Answer: D

43

Non-verbal reasoning practice p14


Which shape on the right completes the larger square?
Circle one letter each time.

Q41

?? ??

Hint:- Look at the shading.

Q42




?
?
?
?




















?

Hint:- Look at the arrow.

Q43

? ?? ? ?

Hint:- Look at the square and the triangle.

41. Answer: C

42. Answer: E

43. Answer: D

44

Non-verbal reasoning practice p15


In which larger shape is the smaller shape on the left hidden?
Circle one letter each time.

Q44

Hint:- The shape may have been rotated and must be the same size.
In which larger shape is the smaller shape on the left hidden?
Circle one letter each time.

Q45

Hint:- Look at the arrows.


In which larger shape is the smaller shape on the left hidden?
Circle one letter each time.

Q46

Hint:- The shapes have been rotated to make it more difficult.


44. Answer: B

45. Answer: D

46. Answer: C

45