R.SenthilKumar, email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
-Classification - Fibres used -Essential Properties -Stress strain Analysis -Manufacturing Methods - Soil Properties
geosynthetic is a material used in contact with or within soil to improve construction and long term performance of the project.
Types of Geosynthetics
A Geotextiles is a permeable textile structures made of polymeric materials and are used mainly in civil engineering applications in conjunction with soil, rock or water. Geogrids are plastic materials formed into a very open grid like configuration with very large apertures. Geomembranes are impervious sheets of rubber or plastics, used as a moisture or vapor barrier. Geonets are structures formed by continuous extrusion of polymeric ribs placed at acute angles to one another, which on opening will give net like configuration and used to convey fluids. Geocomposites are usually composed of two geosynthetics. R.Senthil Kumar,KCT,Coimbatore
1. Non-Uniform Consistency: Soils are made up of different types of particles such as gravel, sands, silt, clay and possibly organic materials. Many times, the consistency of the soil (types of particles) can vary throughout the length of the project. This can have a significant effect on such factors as drainage, settlement, frost heaves, etc., all of which can create problems. 2. Unstable Soils In areas where soils consist of clays, silts and organics, especially in areas that drain poorly, the subgrade may be unstable. As a result, the unstable soil is not able to provide adequately support for a road or embankment. 3. Moisture problems Depending upon the consistency of the soil, the presence of moisture can create such problems as loss of strength, swelling/shrinking, and frost heave.
Common Geosynthetic Materials
Polypropylene (PP) Polyester (PET) Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyamide (nylon) (PA)
Properties of Fibres used in Geotextiles
Polyester Strength Elastic modulus Strain at failure Creep Unit weight Cost Resistance to U.V. light Alkalis Fungus, vermin Fuel Detergents H H M L H L H L M M H Polyamide M M M M M H M H M M H Polypropylene L L H H L L H H M L H: High; M: Medium; L: Low H Polyethylene L L H H L L H H H L H
Most Common Geotextile Materials
Polypropylene and Polyester
chemical resistance Low cost High strength
Polyvinylidene chloride fibre is used in
Japan and in one or two products in the United States, but not in Europe.
Types of Geotextiles
Monofilament Multifilament Slit
bonded Resin bonded
MONOFILAMENT WOVEN GEOTEXTILE (POLYPROPYLENE)
WOVEN SLIT FILM GEOTEXTILE (POLYPROPYLENE)
Woven Slit Film
NONWOVEN NEEDLEPUNCHED GEOTETXTILE (POLYPROPYLENE)
NONWOVEN HEAT BONDED GEOTEXTILE
Nonwoven Heat Bonded
Lighter weights are used as soil separators, filters and erosion control textiles. Heavier one are used in soil reinforcements in steep embankments, vertical soil walls. Plain weave is the most common though others like basket and twill are also used. These are woven on wide width looms.
Knitted fabrics, as used in the field of geotextiles, are restricted to warp-knitted textiles. Warp-knitting machines can produce fine filter fabrics, medium meshes and large diameter soil reinforcing grids.
Heat bonded nonwoven
Filaments or short fibres are subjected to heat and melted at their crossover points. Bonding additives are added in case of the fibres with high melting temperature so that at lower temperatures, these additives will melt and bond the filaments.
Needlepunched non woven
Made out of blended webs of continuous filaments and staple fibres. The fabrics derive mechanical coherence from the entangling of fibres caused by the barbs on the reciprocating needle. In the case of needle punched textiles, considerable thicknesses (up to more than 10 mm) and weights greater than 2000gm2 can be achieved.
Chemically bonded nonwoven
It is the least used method. Glue, latex or resin is added to bind the filaments or short fibres together. Impregnated web is cured and/or calendered.
Physical Material - polymer Thickness Mass per unit area Mechanical Wide width tensile strength Grab strength/elongation Trapezoidal tear strength Puncture strength Hydraulic Properties Permittivity / flow rate Apparent opening size (AOS)
ASTM Tests should simulate stresses that result in actual field conditions
Definition of Soil: Soil is defined as the entire unconsolidated material that overlies and is distinguishable from bedrock.
Composed of loosely bound mineral grains of various sizes and shapes. Contains voids of varying sizes. These voids contain:
Air Water Organics
Engineering Properties of Soil
Varies greatly depending on its physical properties, however, the behavior of a soils not exclusively dependant on physical properties. Also dependant on arrangement of particles (Compaction)
Physical properties are influenced by particle size Soil > 2 mm Sand, 2 - 0.05 mm Silt, 0.05 - 0.002 mm Clay, <0.002 mm
Gradation of Soil
Distribution of particles within a soil. Soils are either:
graded – good distribution of particle sizes Poorly graded – bad distribution of particles sizes
Uniformly graded – only one soil size Gap graded – missing soil sizes
Influences a soils strength and stability Two general shapes:
– three dimensional
Angular – recently been broken Sub angular – sharper points and edges are worn Sub rounded – further weathered than sub angular Rounded – no projections and smooth in texture
– two dimensional
Soil Particle Shapes
Determined by the ratio of voids (air and water) to soil particles. A denser soil has greater strength and stability than a looser soil.
Most important factor affecting engineering characteristics. Moistures affect varies greatly depending on soil type: Course grained soils usually remains unchanged. Fine grained soils are susceptible to shrinking and swelling.
Plasticity and Cohesion
Plasticity is the ability of a soil to deform without cracking. Fine grained soils, like clay, have a wide range of plasticity. Coarse grained soils, like clean sands and gravels, are non plastic
Shear Resistance of Soil
Related to a soils ability to withstand loads. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is a measure of shearing resistance CBR is a soil’s ability to support a load relative to that of soil with known strength (limestone). Determined by the Soils Test Kit (B2150)
The ability of a soil to support a load applied by an engineering structure. A soil with insufficient bearing capacity might fail, by shear, allowing the structure to sink and shift. Dense and well graded soil with angular particles generally has good bearing capacities.
Purpose of Compaction :
Most critical component in horizontal construction. Durability and stability of structures is related to proper compaction. Structural failure can often be traced to improper compaction.
TERMS TO KNOW:
Infiltration - The movement of water into the soil Percolation - The movement of water through the soil