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The game of economic competition has new rules. Firms should be fast and responsive. This requires responding to customers' needs for quality, variety, customization, convenience and timeliness. Meeting these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It requires people who are capable of analyzing and solving job related problems, working cooperatively in teams and 'changing hats' and shifting from job to job as well. Training has increased in importance in today's environment where jobs are complex and change. Rapidly. Companies that pay lipservice to the need for training, by lazily setting aside a few hours a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improved ways of selling. To survive and flourish in the present day corporate-jungle, companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly. For, any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. The purpose of this chapter is make the student understand the basic principles, areas, and methods of training currently in use in the corporate circles.
Need for Training After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many organizations that before an employee is fitted into a harmonious working relationship with other employees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher-level job. The essential features of training may be stated thus: • Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; it bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behaviors
• Focuses attention on the current job; it is job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems • Concentrates on individual employees; changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or supervisors
Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.
Training is needed to serve the following purposes: • Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently, without any wastage. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion). Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training, the' employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands.
Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long-run. Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance). Importance Training offers innumerable benefits to both employees and employers. It makes the employee more productive and more useful to an organization. The importance of training can be studied under the following heads: Benefits to the business: Trained workers can work more efficiently. They use machines, tools, and materials in a proper way. Wastage is thus eliminated to a large extent. There will be fewer accidents. Training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use of machines and equipment. Hence, trained workers need not be put under close supervision, as they know how to handle operations properly.
They will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities Benefits to the employees: Training makes an employee more useful to a firm. The selected model should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. greater job satisfaction and lower turnover. Children learn by modelling parents and older children. fewer mistakes. if managers understand the principles behind the training process. To this end. Training makes employees more loyal to an organization. fewer mistakes. Thus. As experts put it. He can be more mobile and pursue career goals actively. social and technological change. accidents on the job. Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another easily. Modelling Modeling is simply copying someone else's behavior. training efforts must invariably follow certain learning-oriented guidelines. These benefits accrue to both the trainee and the organization. tools and equipment to good use.Trained workers can show superior performance. It can lead to higher production. tools and equipment in a right way. They can turn out better quality goods by putting the materials. greater job satisfaction and lower labour turnover. Learning Principles: The Philosophy of Training Training is essential for job success. Employees can avoid mistakes. Training enables employees to secure promotions easily. If we want to change people. "managers tend to manage as they were managed" . Training makes employees more efficient and effective. They can turn out better performance. they can produce more with minimum effort. he will find employment more easily. By combining materials. Hence. Their morale would be high. it would be a good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior. They can handle jobs with confidence. they are quite comfortable with the process by the time they grow up. Effective training is an invaluable investment in the human resources of an organization. it can enable employees to cope with organizational. Also. Passive classroom learning does not leave any room for modeling. training can contribute to higher production. A great deal of human behaviour is learned by modelling others. They will be more satisfied on their jobs. They can realise their career goals comfortably.
the results may be disastrous: good performers may quit in frustration. 'massed' practice is usually more effective. A bank officer would want to do a postgraduate course in finance. The reinforcement principle is also based on the premise that punishment is less effective in learning than reward. When administered. instead of covering it all in one day. and productivity may suffer. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviors. done and presented. For memorizing tasks. somebody must put him back on the rails. Feedback People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training. The reactions may be mild or wild. it causes pain to the employee. To be effective. For 'acquiring' . Imagine the way schools ask the kids to say the Lord's prayer aloud. if it earns him increments and makes him eligible for further promotions. punishment may force the trainee to modify the undesired or incorrect behaviors. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting when the learner participates actively. Every employee wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. Spaced Practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. If administered properly. Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. He mayor may not repeat the mistakes. Can you memorise a long poem by learning only one line per day? You tend to forget the beginning of the poem by the time you reach the last stanza. he pays attention to what is being said. praise) and the internal rewards (a feeling of pride and achievement) associated with desired behaviors compel subjects to learn properly.Motivation For learning to take place. People avoid certain behaviors that invite criticism and punishment. Motivation to learn is influenced by the answers to questions such as: How important is my job to me? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in the company? etc. When the employee is motivated. Both the external rewards (investments. People learn more quickly when the material is important and relevant to them. accidents may go up. If he is off the track. Positive feedback (showing the trainee the right way of doing things) is to be preferred to negative feedback (telling the trainee that he is not correct) when we want to change behaviour. The errors in such cases must be rectified immediately. The trainee after learning the right behaviour is motivated to do things in a 'right' way and earn the associated rewards. If he rewards poor performance. the trainer must reward desired behaviors only. it probably will be repeated. Most people. intention to learn is important. for example. New employees learn better if the orientation programme is spread over a two or three day period. Reinforcement If a behavior is rewarded. Punishment is a pointer to undesirable behaviors. never forget how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in the learning process.
Technical Skills . learning is very fast at the beginning. The training situations should be set up so that trainees can visualise . the staff and the products or services offered by the company. you should plunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of the worlds' best swimmers. Active Practice 'Practice makes a man perfect': so said Bacon. environment plays a major role in training. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. Areas of Training The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories. Applicability of Training Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs. This incremental approach to skill acquisition minimises the physical fatigue that deters learning. spaced practice is usually the best. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company. so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the 'big picture'. Environment Finally. well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal.the types of situations they can come across on the job. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals. practice sessions should be distributed over time. Generally speaking. Whole Learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process. To be a swimmer. Knowledge Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate. For maximum benefit. if learning has to take place quickly.and identify with . the pace of learning slows down as opportunities for improvement taper off. A broad overview of what the trainee would be doing on the job should be given top priority.skills as stated by Mathis and Jackson. Thereafter.
give feedback on progress toward meeting learning objectives. apprenticeship. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. problem solving. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees. managing oneself.) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. encourage trainees to learn by doing. respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource. working as part of a team.. knowing how to learn. managers should: • • • • • • explain how the training will help the trainees in their jobs.).g. speaking. By organising short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field. Before employing these methods. The process here is fairly simple. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. relate the training to the trainees' goals. on-the-job.The employee is taught a specific skill (e. Refresher training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. colleagues and the company. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading. . Techniques This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations. the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. Skills training: This type of training is most common in organisations. computing. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern organisations (such as lectures. handling computer etc. leading others) is identified through assessment. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present-day organisations. listening. and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job. a training programme will go a long way in obt8ining employee loyalty. training aims at moulding employee attitudes: When administered properly. writing. operating a machine. Social Skills The employee is made to learn about himself and others. Types of Training There are many approaches to training. support and commitment to company activities. coaching etc.
in training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. break the rules. Departments can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how other departments are functioning. they become more adaptable and versatile (2) they can better engineer their own career paths (3) they not only know their job well but also understand how others are able to perform under a different set of constraints (4) A broader perspective increases workers' understanding of the business and reduces the need for supervision (5) when workers can fill in for other workers who are absent. how they participate etc. Cross functional training provides the following benefits to an organisation (and the workers as well) (1) Workers gain rich experience in handling diverse jobs. encourages cross-functional movements to make the organisation equally attractive to both specialists and generalists. Creativity training: Companies like Mudra Communications. Cross-functional Training: Cross-functional Training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. High performing workers can act as peer trainers and help employees develop skills in another area of operation. content tasks and group processes. go out of the box and devise unexpected solutions. Wipro encourage their employees to think unconventionally.for example how they interact with each other. Companies are investing heavy amounts. take risks.• • It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialise in a particular descriptive. it is easier to use flexible scheduling. • • Postpone judgment: Don't reject any idea Create alternative frames of reference . for example. Group processes reflect the way members function as a team .). They are using outdoor experiential training techniques to develop teamwork and team spirit among their employees (such as scaling a mountain. which is increasingly in demand as more employees want to spend more time with their families. nowadays. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. There are many approaches to cross functional training. sailing through uncharted waters. The training basically throws light on (i) how members should communicate with each other (ii) how they have to cooperate and get ahead (iii) how they should deal with conflictfull situations (iv) how they should find their way. crossing a jungle etc. Content tasks specify the team's goals such as cost control and problem solving. how they sort out differences. preparing recipes for colleagues at a restaurant. Eli Lilly and Company (India). using collective wisdom and experience to good advantage. Titan Industries. Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas.
Brainstorming (getting a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time) often helps in generating as many ideas as possible without pausing to evaluate them. overcoming inhibitions. . -arrange cross fertilization of ideas with other people and use analogies to spark off ideas. It helps in releasing ideas. look at the problem from all possible angles and list as many alternative approaches as possible. the trainee is expected to (i) identify the dominant ideas influencing his own thinking (ii) define the boundaries within which he is working (iii) bring the assumptions out into the open and challenge everything (b) Generate new ideas: To generate new ideas. He should allow ideas to grow a little. Expose himself to new influences (people. age. disabilities. The trainee should allow his mind to wander over alternatives freely. articles. It aims to create better crosscultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firm's employees. switch over from one perspective to another. (c) Delaying judgement: To promote creative thinking. ideas and backgrounds . education. they should be held back until he is able to generate as many ideas as possible. the trainee should not try to kill off ideas too quickly. the trainee should open up his mind. culture.while designing a training programme. situations). cross fertilising ideas and getting away from patterned thinking. books. gender. In creativity training.Break the boundary of thinking Examine a different aspect of the problem Make a wish list of solutions Borrow ideas from other fields Look for processes to change or eliminate Think up alternative methods Adopt another person's perspective Question all Assumptions. lifestyles. • Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace race. trainers often focus on three things: (a) Breaking away: In order to break away from restrictions.
. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. reading and writing exercises. A trainer. appreciate the importance of sticking to rules. speak and work well with others could often come in the way of discharging duties. home assignments. Literacy Training: Inability to write. Workers. supervisor or coworker acts as the coach. 2. especially at the lower levels. • Training Methods Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. Job Instruction Training (JlT) The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four-step instructional process involving preparation. 1. Finally. may fail to understand safety messages. the employee does the job independently without supervision. which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity. Tutorial programmes.• The programme covers two things: (i) awareness building. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge. skills and abilities required for working with people having varied backgrounds. etc. are generally used in all company in-house programmes meant to improve the literacy levels of employees with weak reading. skills and abilities at the actual workplace. Next. performance try out and follow up. writing or arithmetic skills. and (ii) skill building. the employee is permitted to copy the trainer's way. Functional literacy programmes focus on the basic skills required to perform a job adequately and capitalise on most workers' motivation to get help in a particular area. Functional illiteracy (low skill level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a firm's productivity and competitiveness.. presentation. The trainee receives an overview of the job. 3. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job. in such situations. its purpose and its desired outcomes. and commit avoidable mistakes. 4. on the other hand. which offers the knowledge. simple mathematical tests. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. off-the-job training. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: 1. with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
• It is economical as it does not require any special settings. • It is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple. Of course. doing a full day's work may be more important than putting the learner on track. easy to explain and demonstrate within a short span of time. coaching can be a taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. mistakes can be corrected immediately. trainee may damage equipment. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. 2. he offers a model for trainees to copy. Demerits: • The trainee should be as good as the trainer if the trainer is not good. the supervisor explains things and answers questions. It may be defined as an informal. When to use coaching usefully? Coaching could be put to good use when: • • • an employee demonstrates a new competency an employee expresses interest in a different job within the organisation an employee seeks feedback . • While learning. transference of knowledge and skills will be poor. procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. he throws light on why things are done the way they are. Coaching: Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. waste materials. • The trainee gains confidence quickly as he does the work himself in actual setting with help from supervisor. cause accidents frequently. In coaching.Merits: • Trainee learns fast through practice and observation. Sometimes. • Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training. Also. conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees.
Coaching: Mentors help mentees to analyse how they are doing their work and to define their aspirations. obviously. and most importantly. depending on the prevailing work culture and the commitment from the top management. Exposure and visibility: Where mentors offer opportunities for mentees to interact with senior executives. spouse. Effective working. exemplar. Career functions: Career functions are those aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement. In a work situation. 3. requires patience and communication skills. Technical. 2. interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. guide. . host. such mentoring can take place at both formal and informal levels. Here mentors offer practical advice on how to accomplish objectives and gain recognition from others. demonstrate their abilities and exploit their potential. A mentor is a teacher. The main objective is to he1p an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organisation. These include: Sponsorship: Where mentors actively nominate a junior person (called 'mentee') for promotions or desirable positions. Mentoring : Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior manager in an organisation assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. supporter and facilitator in the realisation of the vision the young person (protege) has about the kind of 1ife he wants as an adult. violating company policies or practices or having performance problems an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme. • 1. developerr of skills and intellect. counsellor. It involves: • • • • • explaining appropriate ways of doing things making clear why actions were taken stating observations accurately offering possible alternatives / suggestions following up 3.• • an employee is expressing low morale. Formal mentoring can be very fruitful. if management invests time and money in such relationship building exercises.
and identify effectiveness in a professional role. skills and experiences in a systematic way and (iii) mentees believe in the whole process and carry out things in an appropriate manner. Neyveli Lignite Corporation. Organisations like General Electric..4. Companies like TISCO. learn about what to do and what not to do.from a series of advisors. Mentors who are dissatisfied with their jobs and though who teach or narrow or distorted view of events may not help a protege's development. Intel. 2002). Protection: Mentors shield the junior person from harmful situations/seniors. 5. Mentors create opportunities clients to prove their worth to demonstrate clearly what they have to offer. and guidance. and do everything to demonstrate improved performance and prepare themselves for greater responsibility. Mentoring can succeed if (i) there is genuine support and commitment from top management (ii) mentors take up their job seriously and transfer ideas. Polaris. These include: Role modeling: Mentors offer mentees a pattern of values and behaviours to imitate Acceptance and confirmation: mentors offer support. When young people are bombarded with conflicting viewpoints about how things should go . Job Rotation : . guidance and encouragement to mentees so that they can solve the problems independently and gain confidence in course of time. they may find it difficult to get ahead with confidence. subordinates. Friendship: Mentors offer practical help and support to mentees so that they can indulge in mutually satisfying social interactions (with peers. offering emotional support. offer advice on what works and what doesn't. Challenging assignments: Mentors help mentees develop necessary competencies through challenging job assignments and appropriate feedback. Mentoring in India is based on the time-honoured guru-shishya relationship where the guru would do everything to develop the personality of the shishya. 9. Counseling: Mentors help mentees work out their personal problems. bosses and customers) • 6. Of course. Psychological functions: Psychological functions are those aspects that enhance the mentee’s sense of competence. 8. 7. Not all mentors are well prepared to transfer their skills and wisdom to their junior colleagues. Coca-Cola India have used mentoring systems to good effect in recent times (Economic Times. 4. 25 Oct. Mentors also help people to learn about the organisation's culture and understand why things are done in certain ways. going even gone to the extent of penalising senior managers if they fail to develop leadership skills among subordinates. Proctor & Gamble have given a lot of importance to mentoring programmes. mentoring is not without its problems.
facilitating future cooperation among departments. Trainees who spend years learning specific skills may find. Those who learn fast may quit the programme in frustration. Slow learners may need additional training time. job rotation allows trainees to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the organisation. An internship is a kind of on-the-job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools. with contrasting styles of operation. because they must be acquainted with different people and techniques in each department. upon completion of their programmes. coach or trainer. Inexperienced trainees may fail to handle new tasks in an efficient way. there is little room to integrate resources properly. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide. it should be tailored to the needs. pull and challenge. that the job skills they acquired are no longer appropriate. Development costs can go up and productivity is reduced by moving a trainee into a new position when his efficiency levels begin to improve at the prior job.This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. Coaching. colleges or universities. People have different abilities and learn at varied rates. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organisations when transfers. To get the best results out of the system. Today's manager's commands may be replaced by another set from another manager! Further. Job rotation may pose several problems. trainees do not usually stay long enough in any single phase of the operation to develop a high degree of expertise. A substantial amount of managerial time is lost when trainees change positions. especially when the trainees are rolled on various jobs at frequent intervals. promotions or replacements become inevitable. old skills may get outdated quickly. as explained above. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organisational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense of their own career objectives and interests. interests and capabilities of the individual trainee. Intelligent and aggressive trainees. One important disadvantage ofthe apprenticeship methods is the uniform period of training offered to trainees. Trainees can become confused when they are exposed to rotating managers. In such a case. is similar to apprenticeship because the coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. It is also likely that in these days of rapid changes in technology. on the offer hand. For slow learners. may find the system to be thoroughly boring as they continue to perform more or less similar jobs without any stretch. and not be a standard sequence that all trainees undergo. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organisation functions. 5 Apprenticeship Training Most craft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. 6 Committee Assignments . Apart from relieving boredom. job rotation can be quite expensive.
mechanical engineer. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Poor learners may damage machinery and equipment. Since immediat. This method of training involves action. On-the-job methods may cause disruptions in production schedules. trainees are asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. costs and time involved are reduced. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements. the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees.those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. such as the production manager. he can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. doing and practice. actual work conditions are simulated in a classroom. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. workers and the like. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semiskilled jobs. Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. maintenance engineers. quality control inspectors. Vestibule training: In this method. issues and processes governing the organisation. Assigning talented employees to important committees can give these employees a broadening experience and can help them to understand the personalities. managers should very well understand that committee assignments could become notorious time wasting activities. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: a. foreman. Off-the-Job Methods Under this method of training. Theory can be related to practice in this method.e feedback is available. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively. The above on-the-job methods are cost effective. there is very little benefit to the trainee.In this method. Material. the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. To be effective. Experienced workers cannot use the facilities that are used in training. if the trainer does not possess teaching skills. c. files and equipment . It helps them to develop team spirit and work unitedly toward common goals. superintendents. The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem. b. However. The participants play the role of certain characters. Thus. Very few problems arise in the· case of transfer of training because the employees learn in the actual work environment where the skills that are learnt are actually used. . Finally. Role playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. they motivate trainees to observe and learn the right way of doing things. Workers actually produce while they learn.
viz. in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio taped. the method of presentation. Programmed instruction: This method has become popular in recent years. These are discussed elaborately in the section covering Executive Development Programmes. often throw light on the effectiveness of the programme. a better understanding of oneself and others.. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place. recording. the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified.may be provided with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs. e. Behaviourally Experienced Training Some training programmes focus on emotional and behavioural learning. organisation and ultimate value. Evaluation of a Training Programme The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation. Reactions: Trainee's reactions to the overall usefulness of the training including the coverage of the topics. group discussions and short assignments are also used in behaviourallyexperienced learning methods. Conference/discussion approach: In this method. expensive and time-consuming. incidents.d. The focus of experiential methods is on achieving. communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. reactions. etc. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. Business games. The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. shorthand. Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training programme. When big organisations use this method. a group-centered approach where there is a clarification of ideas. office equipment operation. cases. the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black boards. the techniques used to clarify things. . mockups and slides. The conference is. 1. job behaviour. The process of training evaluation has been defined as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required such as typing. Here employees can learn about behaviour by role-playing in which the role players attempt to act their part in respect of a case. filing. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. thus. Potential questions to trainees might include: (i) What were your learning goals for the programme? (ii) . Sensitivity training or laboratory training is an example of a method used for emotional learning. indexing. as they would behave in a real-life situation. This method is. Even the trainee's presentation can be taped for self confrontation and selfassessment. through group processes. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. thus. learning.
Learning: Training programme. tools to learn. absenteeism. is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival. superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme. 4. morale. Some of these are: • • • • • Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinions. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising social benefit. Organisation: This evaluation measures the use of training. training centre. sales turnover and the like. profitability. growth. Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction. Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives. quality. Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers. superiors and peer groups about the training. Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgements of trainers. grievances. wastage. etc. Job behaviour: This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. improved learning. Methods of Evaluation Various methods can be used to collect data on the outcomes of training. production stoppage. accidents. discharges. • . views of trainees. 3. which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover. opportunity cost of trainers and trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time. Ultimate value: It. dismissals. reactions. 5.Did you achieve them? (iii) Did you like this programme? (iv) Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? ( v) what suggestions do you have for improving the programme? (vi) Should the organisation continue to offer it? 2. trainer's ability and trainee's ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learner's ability to use or apply the content learned. etc. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organisation in the form of increased productivity.
outcomes. is prepared on format and circulated to all heads of department and is updated. If required in case of additional training needs. Training of the senior personnel at Factory Is also catered for at Head Office on receipt of requirement from HRD Executive.Feedback: After the evaluation. trainees and other parties concerned for control. time spent. at Head office is approved by from Chairman cum Managing Director. Annual training Prog. etc. Emergent Training – . Training is conducted either through “Planned Training Programme” “Emergent Training Programme” which is organized by the HRD Department Planned TrainingThe planned training programme is drawn on annual basis both for individual and group of persons for collective training at the beginning of Calendar Year by Manager HRD and HRD Executive of factory. The departmental Heads drawn out the training requirements on the training requisition slip and sent it to HID Dept. The training evaluation information (about costs. The training evaluator should follow it up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementation of the feedback report at every stage. The annual Training Prog. Training Process Training is provided both “In House” and through “Outside Agencies” Which could be for an individual or for group of persons as a collective training. ScopeThis procedure is applicable to all employees.) should be provided to the instructors. the situation should be examined to identify the probable causes for gaps in performance. Training Programme of Company PurposeTo establish and maintain a documented procedure for identifying and providing training to all the employees of the organization with essential skill and knowledge so as to achieve desired quality and productivity goals. Company's personnel involved in quality system. correction and improvement of trainees' activities.
. In case of External training. Besides. Identification of such training need is done by the concerned HOD at Head Office and HOD/Supervisor at factory and accordingly forwards their request. venue etc. system. The procedure as in case of planned training is followed there after. procedure etc. For In-House training. Conduct of Training HRD Head at HO & HRD (Executive) at factory ensures that identified training in their respective areas is conducted as scheduled. liaison with the agency is done and dates. is fixed up and concerned person is intimated through Heads of Department. External Trainers for the Company are: Father Son & Company Skill & Thoughts Logic Consultant Topics covered under Training Programme EFT Act & Scheme Provisions Rigid and Semi Rigid Packaging Principles of Contract Labour Act Self-motivational & Attitudinal Seminar Organic farming Training about operations in the company. necessary resource/infrastructure is also provided for effective training.The Emergent training programme is a supplementary training programme both for individual and collective persons which is imparted during the course of work to take care for unforeseen or uncatered training requirements arisen due to installation of new machine. date/Venue is fixed up with identified faculty and concerned individual is informed through Heads of Department.
Locke gives a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as involving cognitive. To know about the work culture of the organization. There are three generally accepted dimensions to job satisfaction. quality of physical environment in which they work. effective and evaluative reactions or attitudes and states it is "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience.Processing of Rice (value addition In Rice) Knowledge about rice trade Operational and maintenance of dryer & Cleaning Plant Silo storage Techniques Scientific Instrumentation Finished goods quality control Trouble shooting PURPOSE OF PROJECT To know the effectiveness of the training programme conducted by the company.: quality of one's relationships with there supervisor.g. To improve Organizational Climate and increase the morale of employees. degree of fulfillment in there work etc. To know whether employees are aware about their responsibilities and authorities or not. . Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. To know whether training programme is conducted successfully or not. It can be influenced by a variety of factors e." Job satisfaction is a result of employees' perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
it can only be inferred. but many employees also enjoy simple and routine jobs. working conditions. temperature. They will be job .satisfied. which provide maximum satisfaction to employees. responsibilities and social status are the factors that are said to be providing satisfaction to employees. promotion avenues. willingness. if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably. They will be dissatisfied. friendly and willing to help the employees. • The job characteristics are important factors for providing satisfaction. Third.First. they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job. • Fairness in promotion. • • The relationships between the employees and the managers have an important bearing on job satisfaction. The physical conditions. job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Under conducive working condition. they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work. which may be challenging work. Second. unbiased attitude of management. Many people feel bored if a job is too simple and routine. colleagues. • Working conditions influence employee's level of satisfaction.e. they require more award and recognition. Job satisfaction is greater in case the higher authority is sympathetic. are the light. learning and personality. A clerk working under routine conditions likes to work hard in an air . Working condition not only include physicals of the work but also the working relationships in the organization. people prefer to work hard while in an adverse atmosphere people avoid work. as such it cannot be seen. Skill variety autonomy and significance are challenging tasks. job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. On the other hand. Employees feel satisfied when their views are listened to and regarded by their higher authorities . etc. Reward systems. etc are satisfaction factors. i. reward systems. the boss or the coworkers. for example. It increases the working capacity of the employee. For example if organizational participants feel that they are working more harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards. Money is important to employees having unfulfilled basic needs.conditioned atmosphere with computer facilities. Factors determining job satisfaction • Factors affecting jobs are the main factors of job satisfaction. equal pay for equal work. equitable rewards.
• Personal attitude and perceptions are the employees' angles of satisfaction. Outcomes of job satisfaction To society as a whole as well as from an individual employee's standpoint. and communicating with the associate on a personal as well as an official level . will there be performance problems and ineffectiveness? The following sections examine the most important of these. One is employee centeredness. the most important of which is reward. For example. Satisfaction and performance: Most assume a positive relationship. they will be satisfied. Conceptual. providing advice and assistance to the individual. It is important to know. The group. Satisfaction and turnover: . and assistance to the individual member. methodological. cooperative coworkers or team members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The best conclusion about satisfaction and performance is that there is. serves as a source of support. For example. • • It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking to see how well the employee is doing. will the employee perform better and the organization be more effective? I f job satisfaction is low. and empirical analyses have questioned and argued against these results. satisfaction relates to outcomes variable. In most case. comfort. definitely a relationship. • Friendly. and is likely to result in greater performance effort. if job satisfaction is high. which should be taken into consideration while motivating people to arrive at job satisfaction Feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two of the major job-related motivational factors. If people receive reward they feel are equitable. which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares about the employee. this approach leads higher job satisfaction. Supervision is another moderately important of job satisfaction. as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. The relationship may even be more complex than others in organization behavior. there seem to be many possible-moderating variables. There seem to be two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction. especially a "tight" team. A recent found that career development was most important to both younger and older employees. job satisfaction in and of itself is a desirable outcome. if at all. The other dimension is participation or influence. the research to date indicates that there is no strong linkage between satisfaction and performance. advice.
age tenure in the organization. if there is considerable job dissatisfaction. research among state govt. Their skills can be improved with the help of training programs. For example. keep turnover low. typically there will be an increase in turnover because will being looking for better opportunities with other organization. It is an important activity for the origination to conduct appropriate and related programme for its employees. Another factor is the general economy.Unlike that between satisfaction and performance. As with turnover. These must be related to employees and their jobs. So the top management must concentrate on the training programs and organize them in such a way that maximum number of employees wants to attend these programs. But all the employees may not have the desired skills. so they remain regardless of how dissatisfied they feel. there is likely to be high turnover. This also helps in better communication and relation among the organization wants to grow rapidly. it is important to remember that although job satisfaction will not necessarily result in absenteeism. On the other hand. For example. but it does seem to help. Additionally. and commitments to the organization. Employees has found those who believed that there was important had lower absenteeism than did who did not feel this way. in and of itself. may playa role. Significance of Study Every organization desires that it will grow continuously and make and retain its position in the competitive and continuously changing market environment. For example. then it is essential for it to conduct periodically training programmes for its employees to improve the skills and knowledge. For this purpose the employees of the organization must be skilled and talented. other variables enter into an Employees decision to quit besides job satisfaction. so that may be able to understand the terms required for the completion of his job. Satisfaction and absenteeism: Research has only demonstrated a weak negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. This also helps the employees of the organization to know about his job and organization very well. . there are moderating variables such as the degree to which people that there job are important. Some people cannot see them selves working anywhere else. low job satisfaction more likely to bring about absenteeism. many variables enter into the decision to stay home besides satisfaction with the job. research has uncovered a moderately negatively relationship between satisfaction and turnover. Obviously. High job satisfaction will not.
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