Comprehensive Master Plan For Agriculture crop sector Development Northern Region

Prepared by
Provincial Director of Agriculture Department of Agriculture Northern provincial Council January 2009

My sincere thanks goes to all those who have contributed with their valuable ideas and suggestions to make this plan successful, the Deputy Directors of the Department of Agriculture, Northern Province, Deputy Director of Research, Northern Province, Asst. Director of Seed and Planting Material Division. Special thanks is extended to Mr. S. Rangarajah, the Chief Secretary of the Northern Provincial Council for his encouragement to prepare the future plan for agriculture sector and to Prof. C. Sivayoganathan, Department of

Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya for his time spent to review and give valuable comments to improve the content of the plan. Finally, the thanks go to Mrs. Gowry for her assistance in typing this document.

Mr.K.Subramaniam, Provincial Director of Agriculture, Northern Province.

Since the independence, Sri Lanka underwent significant structural changes and qualitative transformation particularly, the predominantly agriculture economy of 1950 has been transformed into a diversified one. This diversification was very gradually till 1970 and gained momentum in the last two and a half decades. during this period contribution of the agriculture sector to the GDP decline while manufacturing services increased. The associated changes in this transformation did not effectively take place in the north, particularly due to the ethnic conflict and unfavorable condition that prolonged since 1983. The Industry , Agriculture and Fisheries deteriorated over the period with mounting damage of economic infrastructures. The people of Northern Province were deprived of the opportunities that came with the changes that taking places at the national level and global level. Rival of agricultural economy and placing it on a firm footing is strategically important for the development and prosperity of the Northern region This transformation could be caused effectively by a proper strategy using the superior advantages the region possesses. The Northern Province is naturally favored with endowment such as land water climate and human resource. The proper alignment of which, with the modern technology, market assistance scheme, infrastructure development and proper linkages will be fundamental in any strategy. Reconstruction and rehabilitation processes anyway should precede any development program in the north. Since the community in the Northern Province is essentially conflict emerging, their problem and the needs have their own characteristics. In view of the double cap situation they need to be taken through a rapid process which will enable the province to catch a first gap and reach the levels of national standard quickly. Agriculture sector which has crop, livestock, industry and fisheries as its subsector is pivot of provincial development. it has the ability to provide a broader platform for industrial sector development. The country is committed to open and liberalized market economy which implies that the Northern region inevitably faces the waves of well-developed corporate sector from the southern part of the country. When this, hitherto closed region is opened, the ability to face strong competition a dynamic and vibrant entrepreneurial inputs with uninterrupted production and marketing process and extraordinary incentives system will be needed in the initial stages. All these require a high level planning and plan implementation. Such a plan should efficiently integrate the elements required for penetrating broader markets, community taste preferences, challenges related to energies, prices

and social development imperatives, particularly in Health and Education sector. Hence planning itself a challenging exercise. In this circumstances, only the Northern Provincial administration strives to develop the region in all aspect of agriculture, irrigation, industry, Health ,education and infrastructure. Hence a comprehensive frame work becomes a need of the time. All sector departments were requested to come up with their medium plans for their respective sectors. This plan was prepared for the agriculture sector having the crop sector development in the province as its main focus. The exercise itself underwent a lengthy consultative process. This document represents fairly a comprehensive picture of needs and strategies. This will serve as a source of ideas for various development interventions in this sector It is our wish that this document is made use of by every individual interested in agriculture development. I thank personally for his endeavors and engagement in preparing this plan for agriculture sector particularly crop sector development of the Northern Province. Mr .S.Rangarajah, Chief Secretary, Northern Provincial Council

Northern Province consists of five districts. Natural endowments of the province are the strength for development of agriculture sector in the region. Major sector for economic development of the northern region is agriculture which includes crop, livestock and inland fisheries. In developed countries, agriculture was a platform for industrial development. The pace of economic growth of the sector until the emergence of conflict in 1983 was satisfactory. The conflict over two decades had tremendous impact on agricultural growth in the country. Societies in the conflict areas which were badly affected both physically and financially are just emerging out of the impact of the war. Revival of economic assets, development of infrastructures and effective resource utilization are major considerations in the planning process while thinking of quick rehabilitation to meet the present day development requirement of the country. Rehabilitation provides a good opportunity for modernizing economic infrastructures. In the context of planning process, agriculture development planning plays a vital role in the rural sector development. The land development and crop development should drive investment in the industrial sector. The research and development play a key role in making the economy market oriented and strong in the years to come. Learning from world economic development, the research agencies should link with the university system and the development should link with the business world. At this juncture the initiative taken by the Provincial Director of Agriculture – Northern Province to prepare a master plan for crop sector development is very much timely. The master plan prepared covers almost all aspects of future development including the identification of projects that are required for such development. It is earnestly hoped that this plan will be implemented resulting in the improvement of the living standard of the affected people in the North.

Prof. C.Sivayoganathan Dept. of Agric. Extension, Faculty of agriculture, University of Peradeniya.

Pre- ample
With consent encouragement of Chief Secretary Northern Province, the long term plan for agriculture crop development for Northern Region as prepared. Service experience in the districts of north and the east region on crop production improvement and development program implementation and the sharing of experience and ideas of senior staff of the Department of Agriculture has accounted for the success of this plan preparation. It is hoped that identified plans for crop production and institutional development are very needed for regional rural livelihood development. The country has been put in to civil conflicts since 1983. Since then, the economic development situation in the conflict areas especially in Northern and Eastern provinces have not been so conducive but caused a gradual economic deterioration over the period of two decade and rendered no dynamic encouragement for economic development. With the formation of provincial council in 1987 along with devolution of power, the Provincial Departments as centres of responsibility for development services were established under the purview of Provincial Ministries and took over the responsibility of implementing economic and development activities in the region in close coordination with respective central agencies who implements certain activities in the provinces as per devolved subjects. Thus, Provincial Department of Agriculture was established under the Ministry of agriculture, Land, Irrigation Livestock and Inland fisheries to cater services for agriculture crop production development to the community. Coordination, collaboration and linkages between provincial and central agencies are necessary for effective program implementation. Prolong war rendered the community to living with hoping mechanism and the economic status becoming worse than that of pre-conflict situation. Fulfillment of preconditions for Institutional, social, economic and environment development for a full fledge and comprehensive development service to community and economic program implementation are necessary. Modernized form of Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, Reorganization and Revitalization are necessary for speedy and balance development. Any resource becomes redundant unless a positive attitude is instilled in the minds of the people so that the rural five capitals will be developed. Social integration, institutional rebuilding and social mobilization are the principles for rural capital development. The community of Northern Province is well characterized as conflict emerging society and needed a well defined mobilization service leading to community and livelihood development. National economic development is basically depends on rural economic development. Resource

endowments of the northern region spell out needs of agriculture based economic development in the rural sector. The present trend of global agriculture development clearly indicates the type of development the northern region needs. This resulted in a thought of preparing a master plan for agriculture crop development. Consultation with the senior staff of agriculture department and problem tree analysis and needs assessment workshop gave idea of developing strategies and projects. Further, moral encouragement by chief secretary and literal suggestion by Prof T. Sivayoganathan was as a catalyst for this comprehensive plan preparation. This master plan contains the strategic aspect of sustainable crop production of paddy, Other Field Crops and Horticultural crops, agro- enterprise development, market development, institutional and organizational service improvements and sustainable resource managements. Social institutionalization and participation are focused in marketing direction as adopted in the leading Asian countries and some of the aspect of integrated water management concept. Extension strategies and approaches to different group of farmers were focused. This comprehensive master plan which consists of short, medium and long term suggested projects on productivity, capacity and institutional development is the product of Department of Agriculture, Northern Province. With the series of discussion and identification of projects by problem and objective tree analysis with the senior staff of Department of Agriculture, the plan was prepared. The plan was edited by Professor T.Sivayoganathan, Head, Agriculture extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peraadeniya and approved by the chief secretary, Northern Provincial council.

K. Subramaniam, Provincial Director of Agriculture (NP) Department of agriculture (NP) Northern Provincial Council

Chapter 1. General Information of the Province
1.1 -Demography 1.2- Land & Soil 1.3- Land development 1.4-Ecology 1.5-Rainfall 1.6-Temperarture 1.7-Water Source

-03 -04 -05 -05 -05 -05 -06

Chapter 2. Policy, Objectives & Strategies
2.1-Objectives 2.2-Strategies 2.3-Extension Strategy 2.4-Social institutionalization Strategy 2.5-Sustainable resource management strategy 2.6- Investment strategy 2.7-Regional strength for development 2.8- Challenges Ahead

-07 -08 -10 -11 -11 -12 -12 -14

Chapter 3. Agricultural Institutions & Support services
3.1-Agriculture Department 3.2-Agriculture extension Service 3.3- Agricultural training service 3.4- Services of the central Department of Agriculture (CDoA) 3.5- Seed Certification Service (SCS) 3.6- Agricultural Research 3.7- Allied Government Organizations 3.8- Social institutions/Organizations

-16 -17 -18 -19 -19 -20 -21 -22

Chapter 4. Status of the sector, Strategies & Projects for Development
4.1-Cereal Sub Sector Development 4.2- Subsidiary Food Crop Sector 4.3- Yams and Tuber crops Development 4.4- Oil crops 4.5- Horticulture crops sub sector 4.6-Extension programme for horticulture development 4.7- Vegetable Crops 4.8- Diversified Alternative Farming Technology Development for Eco – Management-Green Agriculture 4.9- Organic Farming

-24 -33 -40 -43 -47 -67 -68 -78 -80

Chapter 5. Cultivation of Aromatic crops
5.1- Potential for Cultivation of aromatic crop in the region 5.2- Cultivation of Betel 5.3- Spice cultivation

-82 -83 -83

Chapter 6. Agriculture Related enterprise development
6.1- Fertilizer Related Activities 6.2- Chemical Related Activities 6.3- Value Addition Related Activities 6.4- Floriculture Development 6.5- Development of Apiculture 6.6- Mush room Cultivation 6.7- Cashew Development 6.8- Sugarcane cultivation 6.9-Cocnut development 6.10- Agro-forestry 6.11-Bamboo forest plantation development 6.12- Aquaculture Development

-85 -87 -88 -88 -89 -89 -90 -91 -91 -91 -92 -93

Chapter 7. Agriculture Marketing
7.1- Present Constraints in Marketing in the region 7.2- Market Development Strategy 7.3-Market system development

-98 -97 -100

Chapter 8. Seed & Planting Material Production & Development
8.1-Seed production 8.2- Planting Material Production

-104 -106

Chapter 9.Water Resource Management
9.1- Irrigation Schemes in the Region 9.2- Watershed Management 9.3- Water Conservation and management 9.4- Command Area Development 9.5- Rain Water Harvesting 9.6- Diversion of River 9.7-Integrated wasteland development 9.8-Drought prone area development

-107 -108 -108 -109 -109 -110 -110 -110

Chapter 10. Institutional Development and organizational strengthening
10.1- Provincial Department of Agriculture 10.2- Agriculture Extension and development 10.3-Weakness in present system 10.4-Agriculture development 10.5-Need of the participatory research and technology development approach 10.6- Strategic institutional Requirement for Extension Service Delivery Improvement 10.7- Agriculture Training and Capacity Building 10.8-Requirement of vehicle and other machineries for extension 10.9-Requirement of buildings 10.10-Personnel requirement for agriculture extension

-111 -111 -117 -118 -120 -120 -127 -132 -133 -133

Chapter 11 Agriculture Research and Development
11.1- Research Institutions in the region 11.2- Strategies for Research Development 11.3- Organizational development 11.4-Personnel requirement for research

-134 -135 -136 -137

Chapter 12 Seed and Planting Material Development Centre (S&PMC)
12.1- Personnel requirement for Seed and Planting material production and Seed Certification Service 12.2-Support needed by the government Recommendation Conclusion

-139 -140 -141 -142

Annexure – 01 Present organizational setup Annexure – 02 Suggested organizational structures Annexure – 03 Logical frame matrix Annexure – 04 Implementation calendar

-143 -144 -145 -151

Agriculture is the major economic sector of the Northern Province. The sector includes crop, livestock and inland fisheries. The sector was well developed in the region before the conflict. The crop production and its development had been satisfactory in terms of technology adoption, management and per hectare yield and the region had been an exporter to southern part of the country before start of the conflict. The conflict started in 1983. Since then, the provincial economic development along with crop production sector has deteriorated until today. And the loss of productive assets, damage of infrastructure, restricted access to economic needs and deprivation of opportunities further aggravated the economic deterioration. Population in the region has just been emerging from the impact of the conflict. As such, the province must necessarily go through a process of reconstruction before embarking into a meaningful development. Agriculture is the mainstay of over 65% of the population’s livelihood in Sri Lanka. In the recent past, country’s agriculture sector contribution to GDP has reduced to 12% and labor force reduced to 30%. This resulted in food importation and ever-increasing inflation. It is well attributed to inadequate local/domestic production and import substitution. Agriculture sector, industrial sector and service sector are major role players in economic growth of the country. According to Central Bank (2007) sector-wise contribution to national economic growth is 11% for agriculture, 26% for industry and 63% for service. This indicates deterioration of agriculture sector and the status of agriculture in economic growth despite Sri Lankan is characterized as agriculture country. Therefore, due consideration is to be given to revive agriculture sector in modern way. Agriculture sector was instrumental for development of industrial sector in developed countries and accounts for industrial development in most of the Asian countries. It is no doubt that agriculture is an engine of growth in the countries like Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, agriculture takes 30% of the labor force within its operation. But in the Northern Province, it is more and has potential to absorb yet more labor force within the sector if due development consideration is given to this sector. Sustainable resource base development, agro - based industry development, market development, sophisticated infrastructure development, social institutional development for participatory planning and sustainable productivity measures through an integrated holistic and multi-sectoral planning approach are major considerations for agriculture sector development in the region. Ideal institutional development and organizational strengthening within the regional arm-pit and administrative purview for need based service delivery system improvement are considered vital. However, this book deals a comprehensive strategy options for crop sector development and some related aspect of resource management. It includes projects that take advantages of available resources and opportunities, Projects that directly target the solution of identified weaknesses and projects that need support of the government and private participation for expansion of commercial orientation. Rural Sector Status It is obvious that the persistent poverty is a barrier for country’s development. The poverty exists more in rural areas than urban. About 60% of the population lives in rural area. Agriculture sector will grow in the absolute term generating income in the rural sector

thereby partly contributing to rural poverty. Hence, alleviation of rural poverty helps develop the country. With the liberal economy in 1977, rural peasant sector started declining in its development trend and the government too gave priority to estate sector and industrial sector. Extension of rural agriculture declined further with market changes and other external factors and it also deteriorated the human resource development of the rural areas and limit the investment resource in economic activities. As a result, rural activities turned to non-estate crop cultivation and backyard livestock husbandry which failed to give employment opportunity and led to shift away from agriculture toward other employment opportunities. Nevertheless, small entrepreneurs’ income from rural industries in the region helped to increase their income. Thus, extension of non-farm economic development became a contributory factor for poverty alleviation in rural sector. However, inadequate infrastructure such as market, road, and transport facilities and poor transaction network have become constraints for further development in industrial sector. This reduced not only the opportunity of local marketing but socio-economic benefit from external society. Institutional deficiencies; Access to basic service, information, and market and technology services is another problem faced by rural people to have fundamental requirement for securing a decent livelihood and opportunity for modernizing the economic activities resulting in unable to compete with the market demand. Wide service gap between service providers and end users deprived people to articulate their needs and to gain access to private and public service system and proper knowledge about current information on production and marketing. Further, lack of storage services compels farmers for a distress sale of their fresh products immediately after harvest. This is another cause for ongoing rural poverty. Lack of energy supply caused cultivation of other field crops (OFC), vegetables and fruit crops to be neglected. Inappropriate asset and capability; despite diverse knowledge and coping strategies among rural population, capacity to take advantages of new opportunities and to cope with new challenges are not equally distributed. Further, poor market access and market development interventions constraint the use of resource by the rural people hence deprived of capturing opportunities for development options and participating in market development. Market network infrastructure development in such a way to accommodate rural people in the market process is an indispensable component for rural mass poverty reduction. Further, in rural where resources are consumed by small holders, a sustainable resource management system development become necessary in the region. Rural Livelihood Development Technology transfer service is mainly focused on the farm family’s livelihood development by improving their income from crop production based economic activities with the support of rural infrastructure development and other support activities. Community Development Social institutionalization plays vital role in agriculture development. Production, storage, marketing and enterprise development will be streamlined by institutionalization. Extension service delivery helps developing community through institutionalization for economic promotion. Community empowerment in terms of crop production system is the focal point of the extension system.

Chapter – 1 General Information of the Province
Provincial Councils administration came into being under the 13th amendment of the constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and the Northern Provincial Council was formed with the bifurcation of North-East provincial council in the year 2007. The northern region has a total area of nearly 8850 sq km which is only 12% of the land area of the country, while its population estimated as 1.1million in 1981 constitutes 9% of the total population of the country. The per capita land holding is 1 ha against the National average of 1.5 hectare and only about 17% of total provincial land is for crop sector development. Northern Province covers 05 administrative districts with 33 Divisional Secretariat divisions and 911 village administrative divisions. The region has 28 divisional councils, five urban councils and one municipal council. Northern Province agriculture sector at present can be well characterized as unorganized, unregulated, not market and development oriented and very arbiter. This kind of production feature is common in the region/ country under conflict and crisis management. This situation gives to the sector a great opportunity for re-orientation of development perspectives with modernization while rehabilitating the sector damage. Over the last 50 years, Department of Agriculture concentrated on crop production improvement and the research trend was to find suitable technologies to withstand adverse condition and sustain production. But, in the globalization context, a need based development concept and postproduction sector development take precedence. Agriculture is, in a broad term, encompassing all aspects of crop production, livestock farming, fisheries and forestry. In terms of food security, income level and employment, crop farming is the main pillar of the district economy. The region is a paddy surplus area which supplies rice to other regions, too. The region has a land area of 885000 hectares of which over 50% of the land area is occupied by perennial, annual and seasonal crops. Forest and range lands cover nearly 27,000 hectares of the land area.

1.1. Demography
Northern region was severely affected by prolonged war and the populations were displaced elsewhere. However, the present population is given in table 1. Table1. District wise population District Jaffna Kilinochchi Mullaitivu Vavuniya Mannar Total Population Farm families 604766 66171 198590 19950 132291 21979 180943 28605 103937 10842 1220527 147547

1.2. Land and Soil
The land of the region is relatively flat and of low elevation towards the coast. Six major soil groups have been identified in the region. The dominant group of soil in the region is Reddish Brown Earth (RBE). The association of Low Humic Gley (LHG) with RBE soil (92%) is well suited for paddy cultivation. Red Yellow Latesol, Non-Calsic Brown soil and Grumusol exist in Kilinochchi, Jaffna and Mannar areas respectively. The RBE has low organic matter content and the nitrogen and phosphorus status is usually low while potassium status varies from medium to low. These soils are very well supplied in calcium and magnesium, and they have a very good cat-ion exchange capacity. By tropical standards, these soils could be considered as having a very good chemical quality. The other soil types are alluvial of variable drainage and texture (4%), Rock Knob Plain (2%), Erosion remnants (1%) and Solodized Solonets & Solonchaks (1%).

Fig 1: Major soil distribution in the region

Soil group distribution in the Northern Province

1.3. Land Development
Land is a scarce resource in the region. Efficient and effective eco-friendly land use management, land conservation and preservation and appropriate/ scientific land based resource management are imperative as the land expansion for agriculture is limited. Land use in relation to agriculture is given in Table 2 Table-2 - Land use pattern Vavuniya Total land 196640 area (ha) Agriculture 75550 land Paddy 16841 irrigated land Paddy rainfed 4169 land Forrest land 92210 Mannar 200200 33815 18951 4109 36890 Mullaitivu 251690 53506 9052 7484 167850 Kilinochchi 123711 59782 12487 12555 35110 Jaffna 102369 66241 13131 290 Total 874610 288894 57331 41448 332350

1.4 Ecology
The region falls under low country dry - zone with 04 agro – ecological sub divisional zones as DL1, DL2, DL3 and DL4. The mean annual temperature is 28oC, the highest temperature recorded is 32 oC and the lowest is 28 oC. Annual rainfall is 1200 mm to 1500 mm; 75% of the precipitation is received from North- east monsoon in the months of October- December. Weather is one of the most important factors that determine the crop extent to be cultivated and the yield to be obtained.

1.5. Rainfall
The region falls under the low country dry zone and agro ecological zone of DL1 and DL-4. The total mean annual rainfall ranges from 1250 mm to 1720 mm out of which 65% - 75% is received during October – March period (Maha season) and the rest during April – September period (Yala season). The total rainfall in the region when compared with arid regions is high in aggregate terms but highly seasonal. The North- East monsoon is the main source of rain for the dry zone and lasts from October or early November to late December or early January. During these 2-3 months, most dry zone stations received 45% - 55% of the total annual rainfall. The rainfall during the pre North – East monsoon period, i.e., late September or early October is caused largely by cyclonic activity and provides another 20% 25% of the rainfall. Thus, about 65%-75% of the rainfall is concentrated into a period less than 4 months (October to January). Though occasional heavy rains occur in late March and early April, the seasonality of the rainfall is so marked that three to four months of drought is common in normal years. In lean years, there has been six months of absolute drought. These rainy periods determine the cropping seasons and cropping extent.

1.6. Temperature
Temperature prevailing in the region ranges from 23oC to 38oC with a mean ambient temperature of 28.7oC and it is low during the period of October to January.

1.7. Water Source
1.7.1. Irrigation schemes
There are 65 major and medium irrigation schemes and 698 functional minor irrigation schemes out of 2038 minor tanks. Iranamadu and Giant Tank are the largest and the oldest irrigation schemes in the region. The Irrigation schemes mainly depend on rainfall run off and river basins for capacity filling. As there are no perennial rivers, seasonal rivers drain off the rainfall water into the tank. Nevertheless, Surface runoff water is stored in the irrigation tanks. More than thousand minor irrigation schemes are available but only some of them are functional with irrigation system for crop cultivation. Under the donor agent projects, minor irrigation schemes have been rehabilitated with improved irrigation structures for cultivation. The physical resource base suggests that the region has tremendous potential for agriculture. However, there are certain environmental issues, particularly the inland salinity and major and minor irrigation tank pollution that need careful consideration in the region.

1.7.2. Lift irrigation
There are open dug agro-wells and tube wells constructed by the farmers for agriculture crop production purpose in most of the cropping area and Pumping water from such agrowells and tube wells by water pump is extensively practiced in the region, mainly for the cultivation of high value cash crops. The rate of recharge of the wells with irrigation depends on the ground water level and on the water in the adjoining reservoirs/tanks. Further, some of the irrigation schemes are merely meant for the cultivation of OFC. However the Lift irrigation system of such schemes should be rehabilitated and facilities improved. But Extractions of water from such irrigation schemes for high value food crops cultivation through lift irrigation system constructed was practiced in the pre- conflict period. Due to the conflict, the lift irrigation systems were damaged and the farmers had lost lift irrigation facilities for OFC cultivation. Types of water sources are given in Table 4 Table-4: Types of Water source in the region Major tank Medium tank Minor tank Agro-wells Tube wells Functional no minor tank Open dug well 110000 Abandoned tank / breached Rehabilitated tank Ponds 722 Jaffna no no no 19261 Kilinochchi 04 10 216 14880 16 253 12500 0 25 no Mullaitivu 03 15 178 1890 0 112 0 60 25 35 Mannar 03 08 344 10499 50 144 0 50 26 no Vavuniya 01 21 690 733 25 500 5621 53 40 no Total 11 54 1428 47263 91 1009 128121 163 116 631

Chapter - 2 Policy, Objectives and Strategies
Policy Agriculture sector development after I990 has faced several constraints and was determined by several factors such as success in overcoming constraints faced by the sector, rural economic situation and ability to seek opportunities in the national market as well as strategies toward increasing competitiveness in the market. However, in order to guide the future development of agriculture sector, the National Agricultural Policy (NAP) was launched on 3rd September-2007 which seeks to address the major weaknesses such as the decreasing sectoral productivity and implied income differences between the agriculture sector and other sectors particularly the manufacturing sector, insufficient viable option to supply-side constraint as well as the lack in taking advantages of market opportunities and lack of capability to manage the development challenges at both national and international levels. Hence, agriculture policy thrust continues to accelerate the transformation of the sector into a modern, commercial and sustainable sector. Development of the sector still focuses on market orientation and human resource development. It also intends to create a dynamic and vibrant agriculture sector comprising agribusinesses, farms and enterprises. Rapid innovations in production management, processing, productivity improvement and technology adoption are the basis of the growth of the sector. Intensive efforts on research and development by public and private sector, market development, human resource development and production infrastructure development will be a catalyst to the process of agricultural transformation. The NAP facilitates not only to maintain income maximization through optimal utilization of resources as its overriding objective, but also aims to achieve a balanced development between the agriculture sector and manufacturing sector, enhancing sector integration with the rest of the economy. The NAP outlined main strategies which include the optimization of resource use, accelerating industrial development, enhancement of research development efforts and technological diffusion, encouraging greater role of the private sector in transforming agriculture into viable agribusinesses and commercial undertakings, reformation of marketing to penetrate and explore new and traditional markets, establishing a dynamic food industry, developing viable and self- reliant farmers’ associations and restructuring the agriculture sector. The creation of entrepreneurs and business community among farmers will be the push to achieve the changes in agriculture sector. In addition, potential and roles of overseas market will be focused with greater emphasis and exploited fully to support the growth of the sector. 2.1. Objectives The overriding objective of the policy is the maximization of income through optimal utilization of resources. Its specific aims include the achievement of a balanced development between the agriculture and manufacturing sectors, enhancement of the integration of the sector with the rest of the economy and greater depth of food industry development.

One of the major objectives in crop agriculture is to break away from subsistence agriculture system into commercially oriented agriculture systems by promoting intensive high value market-led crop production. The commercially oriented agriculture would readily find a market, both domestic and external, promote greater employment and incomes and a higher standard of living. Against the above objective of a shift in agricultural policy from monoculture farming to an export oriented agricultural structure, the fact that development of new farm land has essentially approached its critical limit and there has been a likewise shift away from the construction of new irrigation facilities to facilitate rehabilitation in order to upgrade the irrigation efficiency of obsolete irrigation facilities and increase the productivity and cropping intensity of existing cultivated land. In order to achieve this, institutional and organization aspects affecting irrigation and extension system operation have been given priority, and the need to introduce an operation and maintenance system based on the participation of beneficiary farmers has been recognized.

2.2. Strategies
The long term growth and development objectives for the creation of a modern and commercialized agriculture sector will be achieved through the implementation of the following strategies.

2.2.1. Demand- pulls crop cultivation
The crop diversification is advocated under well-drained paddy fields of the irrigation schemes to go for diversified demand pull crop cultivation because of availability of irrigation infrastructure facilities. Most of the paddy land under minor tanks is suitable for diversification. Farmers are more receptive to better management of the water resources and are able to handle the new crops or technologies that would give higher returns than at present. The demand for certain vegetables and fruits is on the increasing trend with growing urban population and the tourist industry in the country. There is also an export potential for selected fruits and vegetables in fresh and processed form. The nucleus farm/ out-grower system will be emphasized to involve larger number of small growers so as to render agroprocessing and marketing commercially viable. Special attention will be given to production of oil seeds to meet local demand in vegetable oil (Sunflower oil, Groundnut oil etc)

2.2.2. Optimization of Resource Use or Conservation Agriculture
The agricultural sector is facing the constraints of increased limitations of water resources, input availability, shortages of labour and above all, the need to sustain and enhance its competitiveness in both domestic and world markets. At the same time, there exist extensive areas of land which are not utilized. Depletion of resources and pollution are the major challenges ahead. The exploitation of substantial growth possibilities arising from the synergistic effect of the linkages (both forward and backward) will be an important consideration in the development of land, crop types and related sub – sector development and production methods within agriculture. The promotion of further downstream development drawing upon local resources and involving integrated projects will therefore be one important feature of this strategy.

Land Rehabilitation and consolidation of abandoned agricultural land will be further focused, expanded and supported with specific annual targets. This effort will be supplemented with the formulation of a comprehensive land use plan which incorporates inter and intrasectoral needs. In addition, short term measures to address problems of specific location will be undertaken. Water The efficiency of water resource management and use in agriculture will be enhanced to increase its yield attainment and ensure the long term sustainability of resources. So the development strategy may focus on rehabilitation of the irrigation schemes based on potential, crop diversification in paddy fields with high value vegetables, fruits and other field crops. Further integrated approach for water management will be the best solution for agriculture.

2.2.3. Agro – Based Dynamic Food Industry Development
There is a large and expanding domestic market which can be used as a base for the creation of a strong local food production and processing industry to supply the national needs both in terms of quantity and quality. In addition to the substantial potentials for import substitution and meeting additional demand arising from population will be met by expanding outlets for products. The research and development (R&D) efforts, promotional and incentive policies will be geared towards the long term development of a viable food production and related processing industry. A Food Policy emphasizing both quality and nutritional aspects will also be formulated and implemented to complement the above efforts. Another approach to agro-industrial development will be to establish industrial zones, provide credit lines to enable farmers to re- establish their operation and to promote private sector initiatives in establishing new industries. Linking of agricultural production and its level structure and composition with the future growth of the manufacturing sector, in particular, agro-based and related downstream industries provide opportunities for further creation of value-added and processing agriculture products which have strong potentials for import substitution and exports.

2.2.4. Extension and Research Development (R&E)
Extension and research innovation are essential ingredients to realize the changes envisaged in the policy. This will involve improvements in resource management, production methods, processes and packaging, and plant varieties that contribute to increase productivity and efficiency consistent with the changing resource endowments of the country. The contribution of R&E to growth will be realized through greater diffusion of technologies, drawing upon both foreign and local resources and the exploitation of potentials offered by biotechnology and high technology farming and husbandry systems. The R&E activities involving joint efforts between the private and public sectors will be promoted and expanded to sustain and enhance productivity and production capabilities. The existing regional research and extension service delivery machinery of the sector will also be

improved, reorganized and strengthened to ensure that they provide the necessary support for the newly oriented agriculture. Training of staff and farmers will be intensified. The NGOs will be supported to undertake activities on post-harvest technology and start involving in food technology.

2.2.5. Role of the Private Sector
The task of transforming agriculture into viable agribusinesses and commercial undertakings and the one that is dynamic and competitive in both world and local markets will involve the predominant role of the private sector. Their expertise viz the rich and varied entrepreneurial, managerial and marketing skills, innovativeness, capital resources, marketing and distribution net work will be tapped and put to efficient use. The regulatory incentives and policy framework will be supportive of the strategy that aims at building- up the growth and development of the agriculture sector on the resources and resourcefulness of the private sector including the farmers’ and fishermen’s organization. Both famers’ and fishermen’s organizations will be encouraged and promoted to participate in commercial and agribusinesses undertakings including joint ventures with local as well as foreign investors.

2.2.6. Market Reformation
The rate and direction of agricultural growth will hinge on the capability of the sector to penetrate and expand new and traditional markets and to generate supplies to meet the quality and quantity needs of domestic and international markets. Issues related to market access, competition, market shares, prices and trade practices will be addressed through an integrated approach combining demand and supply aspects and by creating conditions for market transparency and participation. The marketing efforts will ensure customer satisfaction and that the products are competitive, specifically oriented to changing market and consumer preferences and responsive to market needs and opportunities.

2.2.7 Measure for resource conservation
Measure for rural resource conservation - land, water and environment, rebuilding agriculture organization, renovation of agriculture infrastructure, support for farming activities have to be considered for speedy development. Adoption of subsidy scheme is one optional measure for resource conservation and quick impact activities.

2.3. Extension Strategy
Northern region crop production sector is characterized as small scale and multidiscipline cropping system. The changing agenda of public sector extension requires that extension clients, as they are engaged in number of agriculture related economic activities, increase their efficiency, competitiveness and ability to compete in global market. In this face of competitive forces, producer requires variety of information and skill to be able to respond to market signal and constantly evolving market. These circumstances require extension program to provide more diverse service. Besides, agriculture extension in transition has been influenced by global trend in new challenges and approaches to promote sustainable

agriculture, targeting poverty reduction, natural resource and environmental conservation, market oriented and broader rural information system. Sustainable agriculture development advocates the focus on agro-ecological extension approach while commercial agriculture focus with input substitution strategy and export orientation. Therefore, a holistic, people centered and integrated development approach will be more successful and meaningful. A comprehensive strategy is to have tripartite system of development: That is to focus the following which reflects the Regional Rural Development concept. 1. Natural Resource Management system. 2. Agriculture Production System. 3. Livelihood System and Market system. RLS(Socio-economic dimension) Rural

Rural Development Triad (Political dimension) APS NRM (Environment dimension)

2.4. Social institutionalization strategy
Social Institutionalization is another focal point for developing group participation in production, marketing and resource utilization. Agriculture cooperatives have long history of success in cooperative action even though some failure cases experienced. Agriculture cooperatives usually develop in rural economies during the transformation from self sufficiency to full market production. Agriculture cooperatives had success stories in EU countries. in 20th century. Since the community in the region is characterized as conflict emerging society with limited resource availability, participatory approach is advisable. By joining forces and initiating economic cooperation, farmers can strengthen their position in the production and market. Under the influence of current trend in market-oriented reform, privatization, decentralization and participation, cooperatives are currently being rediscovered as suitable organizational structure for realizing the economic initiatives of farmers.

2.5. Sustainable resource management strategy
Most of the resources are lying in rural region and consumed by small holders, this necessitates to develop a frame condition for sustainable resource management system development and a site and target -group -specific production. Community based participatory resource management will ensure resource exploitation limit of shared and individual owned resource

2.6. Investment strategy
Further, some of the key strategies to attract investment are to develop high quality infrastructure projects like special economic zone, export processing zone and Technology Park etc. This will attract outside investment. Therefore, the following are to be established for better agriculture development • • • • Federated Farmer cooperative /society organization Cooperative economic market and processing centres Research, educational and enterprise development centres Technology Park for entrepreneurships. etc

2.7. Regional Strength for Development
The region has natural endowments, manmade infrastructures and a viable, competitive and enthusiastic social as strength to speedy development of the region

2.7.1. Natural Endowment
Northern region has tremendous natural endowment in its possession. Prudent exploitation of its endowment in the direction of economic development is the superior advantage before going for advanced economic activities. Some of the natural endowments to be mentioned are land and its soil productivity suitable for tropical and semitropical crop cultivation, availability of natural water reservoir and ground water spring for year round cultivation and broader bio diversity for crop selection in breeding.

2.7.2. Social Strength
Almost 85% of the population belongs to agrarian society and has interest and keen in agriculture economic activities. Self reliance policy of society, intrinsically motivated community for self actualization, very receptive for knowledge and change process and curiosity in taking advantage of the available options are the socio- cultural and behavioral strength to economic development. The institutionalized system of participatory crop production and marketing were well established in the region. There were many commodity based societies, and farmer organizations who had contributed in many ways to agriculture development, Due to ethnic conflict, social institutionalized system was disturbed and disorganized. This can be revitalized and reorganized.

2.7.3. Technical Strength
With the advent of Information Communication Technology, global become village and technologies can be easily accessed at any time and by any person. Further, technologies innovated by the research division of the Department of Agriculture are readily available for immediate application for crop production improvement.

2.7.4. Public Institution and organizational Strength
The presence of public service delivery institutions has been facilitating development activities for growth enhancement. Nine developments oriented public Institutions are present in the Northern region for service delivery toward rural community and livelihood development with economic activities. Apart from this, Department of Agriculture with its own peripheral extension and training wings and diverse research institutes are present for delivery of service in all quarters in crop sector development for sustainable livelihood enhancement of the agrarian community.

2.7.5. Marketing
Demand for food commodity with changes in consumption pattern toward healthier and natural food and ever growing standard of livings creates demand for fresh and type of food commodity among population in the world. The globalization and urbanization create competitiveness in crop production requirement and product marketing. A steady market for quality food commodity will prevail.

2.7.6. Bio-diversity
Several traditional species and wild types which possess many desired characters are available in the region for exploitation in genetic engineering and selection make up. Several mango tribes and jack tribes peculiar to the region can be exploited for development with demand.

2.7.7. Advantages of small farming
Productivity is defined as an output per unit input. Biological productivity means output per unit land. Small biodiversity farm has higher productivity than that of monoculture; higher biological productivity translates into higher income to small farmers. As such, Small scale farming feature in the region has another advantage in the promotion of cropping system and organic agriculture which is a growing trend for health concern. Small farmer has tremendous scope for increasing productivity because the natural capital such as soil, water, bio-diversity, can be enhanced through conservation and rejuvenation. A small farmer can intensify bio-diversity and higher the bio-diversity, the higher the productivity and stability and sustainability of agriculture. Small bio-diverse farm based on internal input is the only promise to increase productivity that is defined in terms of biological productivity and financial productivity in terms of energy.

2.7.8. Advantages of Micro organism
Use of micro organism in crop cultivation to sustain soil productivity by mobilizing micro organism in such a way to increase microbial action to improve soil fertility either by (nitrogen) fixation of elements or by conversion of insoluble form (phosphorous) into soluble form. Nitrogen and phosphorous are two of the major elements needed for productivity improvement of the soil. Mobilizing micro organism having the beneficial effect in nutrient cycle of the soil is a natural way of improving soil fertility. This phenomenon can be activated in the soil with application of bio production of micro organism such as azato bactor, azolla and azokpirullam etc.

2.8. Challenges Ahead
2.8.1. Thrust of the Agriculture Sector
Rehabilitation and revitalization will remain as the main thrust of the agriculture sector in order to enable the sector to secure a higher rate of growth and subsequently to continue its contribution to the GDP. Revitalization will continue to be based on efficient utilization of resources and the modernization of smallholding sub-sector. This will reduce the problems of dualism and will make the smallholding sub- sector more productive and competitive. Efforts will continue to be focused on more effective land development programs. In view of the increasing scarcity of suitable land, new land development can no longer persist as the major strategy for agriculture growth. Therefore, concentration will be more on in – situ development approach with special emphasis given to land rehabilitation and consolidation and also the betterment of existing farm organization through large scale group farming and nucleus- estates with active participation from private sector. The second thrust is to improve the competitiveness of agricultural export commodities, in order to increase their resilience and enable them to compete efficiently in the competitive market, despite the presence of competitors endowed with cheaper factors of production. In this regard, problems of increase in cost of production due to rising factors will be reduced by appropriate technology. This will be achieved through biotechnology and more efficient and effective research and development efforts. The third thrust of the sector will be the continuation of the current diversification efforts, both horizontal and vertical. Diversification is imperative in diversifying the sources of growth to reduce the fluctuation of market earnings due to the fluctuation of commodity prices and to reap economic opportunities in both the domestic as well as national markets. Horizontal diversification will be based on economic viability and agro-climatic consideration and emphasis will be on high valued market oriented cash crops. Vertical diversification will be seen from the development of agro- business and agro- industries. The fourth thrust of the sector is to strengthen human and institutional development mechanism. This will involve the implementation of effective programs in order to inculcate positive values such as being highly motivated, creative and dynamic among farmers. This will make them more responsive to new advanced technologies, willing to work in groups and capable of being self- reliant. Pragmatic approaches are necessary to overcome some weaknesses in institutional development. The fifth thrust is to sustain the resource utilization-land, Water and natural resources such as forest and mangroves and lagoons, for environmental safe guard. Sustainable development- in another term- Green economy is based on the knowledge of ecological economies and green economies that aim at addressing the interdependence of human economies and natural ecosystem and the adverse impact of human economic activities on climate change and global warming. Measures on sustainable development and sustainable resource use has to be seriously focused to reduce the resource depletion. Overall, the agriculture sector’s thrusts are directed towards enhancement of agriculture contribution to the whole economy and strengthening intra and inter-sectoral linkages, especially with industry. The present inherent comparative advantage and commanding

lead acquired thus far in terms of technological application in the development of several crops will constitute the fundamentals for the rapid transformation of the production structure and inter – sectoral linkage. This is anticipated to lead towards a more productive, efficient and resilient agriculture sector specifically as an important foundation for the development of the agro – based industries and to attain distributional objective.

2.8.2. Dentro-Thermal Energy (DTE)
Fuel crisis will be a problem for agriculture development in future in the region. Increase of cost of production is imminent as labour and energy is limited. However, the ever escalating price of crude oil in the world market has caused a continuous increase of price of fossil fuel resulting in finding an alternative way for fuel. Bio-fuel is one option as an alternative as ethanol by-product can be obtained from the plant’s derivatives. Brazil and China have already introduced bio-fuel in their country and 20 % of their fuel requirement is met by the bio-fuel. The production of Giliricedia sebium in the region is high and not being utilized except as green manure to a certain extent. This tree can be explored for dentro- thermal energy production. The DTE manufacturing using Giliricedia has already been started in the Southern province with the assistance of Coconut Development Board.

2.8.3. Bio-Fuel
There are several crops which can be useful in the production of bio-fuel. Exploration of biofuel production may be focused without affecting the food crop production. The demand for bio-mass for bio-fuel will create demand for resource of the food production.

Chapter -3 Agricultural Institutions and Support Services.
The Northern Provincial Department of Agriculture was established in December 2006 under the 13th amendment of constitution of Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, since the demerger of the North –East provincial council on Supreme Court order was taken place. The Provincial Department of Agriculture with already fragile situation was entrusted by the devolution of power for Northern Regional Agriculture Development especially by crop sector economic development through technology transfer extension service delivery process, systems and procedures as mandate of the provincial department of agriculture with other service support of central Department of Agriculture. The other institutions providing support services to the farming community in line with agriculture development are: • Regional Agriculture Research and Development Center. • Seed and Planting Material Production Centre • Seed Certification Service Centre • Department of Agrarian Development. • Coconut Cultivation Board. • Department of Co-operatives. • Department of Industry • Bank of Ceylon, Peoples’ Bank and Rural Banks.

3.1. Provincial Department of Agriculture
Under the devolution of power, agriculture extension, education and training and adaptive research division of the central department of agriculture were devolved to the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Provincial Director of Agriculture- a SLAgS class I officer- as provincial head with the subordinate staff for technical and administrative management is held responsible for entire provincial agriculture development. Provincial Department of Agriculture has peripheral units in different administrative level for effectively having close service delivery and the other units for different purpose. Peripheral units of extension division serve services to the door step of the farming community with forward and backward linkages. Thereby, bottom- up planning process is facilitated. Village – division and district level units are established. The District Agriculture (Extension) Office is manned by senior SLAgS officer in every district who is held responsible, as local head of department, for carrying out agriculture extension and development programs in the districts along with the support staff at segment/division and village level. Assistant Director of Agriculture at divisional level is stationed at segment/divisional office and Agricultural Instructors at village level are stationed at peripheral Agricultural Extension Centres (AECs). There are 83 Agriculture Extension Centres in the region to serve the farming communities at village level. The major task of this division is to disseminate information on agriculture production system development and on production technology to the farming community and mobilize them in such a way to improve their farming income leading to livelihood development.

This is done through many activities appropriate to different farming communities. Agricultural Instructors perform the extension service delivery and programs implementation at grass-root level, while Agriculture Officers at segment level and Subject Matter Officers at the District level are responsible for planning, supervising and monitoring the extension and training programs. Issues The Department has lost its physical assets already developed for quality service performance and been faced many problems in the recent past due to prolonged conflict situation. It has caused damage of office buildings and related infrastructures. The service delivery system has not been effectively implemented with present infrastructure facilities. Further scarcity of staff in executive and field levels, lack of mobility and cross training knowledge sharing facilities causes a limitation in developing vibrant farming communities toward dynamic economic activities. Further Agriculture development is not confined to mere transfer technology for productivity improvement but beyond this, it deals with livelihood development of agrarian community and agriculture dependant community in the region. Therefore, institutional restructuring and organizational strengthening are necessary for all embracing service delivery.

3.2. Agriculture Extension service
Agriculture extension service delivery system has been institutionalized in provincial, district division and village level and infrastructural arrangement were made for effective system functioning. The present Institutional situation and its issues are given for planning rehabilitation for better service. 3.2.1. District Agriculture Office An administratively decentralized district office functions in each district for implementation of agriculture development programs in the district along with the unit of seed farm and training centre. A SLAgS class II officer is functioning as local head of district unit along with other administrative and technical support staff. Issues Functional diversification of already rehabilitated district offices will be strengthened with adequate staff and required facilities. Mullaitivu and Mannar district offices will be reconstructed and facilities given. Vavuniya district office will be rehabilitated. 3.2.2. Segment Agriculture Office Districts had been divided into 2-3 segments based on the number of agriculture instructors’ ranges for having close monitoring and supervision of program implementation and planning of activities suitable for specific divisions. These segment offices were manned by a SLAgS class III officer who was in charge of the segment activity implementation supported with other 03 Agriculture Instructors stationed at segment agricultural office. Issue The segment offices have not been functioning owing to shortage of staff and this will be revived with appointment of SLAgS officers and SLTS staff with material facilities.

3.2.3. Agriculture Extension Centre (AEC) Agriculture Extension Centre had been established in each agrarian service centre area and manned by Agricultural Instructors (AI) as operational level officers to carryout development activities at grass root level. Each AI will cover 15 to 25 villages with 3000 to 7,000 crop cultivation extent. Eighty three (83) such Agricultural Instructors’ centres in the region were established. However, the coverage area of each Agricultural Instructor is high and is unable to cover all the areas alone resulting in a poor service to very remote areas. Issue Area coverage by single Agriculture Instructor is more than the manageable. Operational domain to each AI based on service requirement and potentiality be reduced and additional Agricultural Instructors should be appointed accordingly.

3.3. Agricultural training service
Social empowerment and capacity building program in view of self reliance in agriculture development system and professional quality improvement is part and parcel of Agriculture extension service. 3.3.1. District Agriculture Training Centre The District Agricultural Training Centre (DATC) had been established in each district to promote institutional training for knowledge acquisition toward the promotion of agriculture science knowledge based farming community development. The centre in Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu, Mannar and Vavuniya were completely damaged by war situation in early 1990’s and the services were paralyzed. The DATC at Vavuniya has been reconstructed and functioning well. The rest of the training institutions except the DATC in Jaffna which is functioning with very limited facilities, need reconstruction and rehabilitation for full fledged training services. Issues The DATC of the districts, Mullaitivu, Mannar and Kilinochchi needs reconstruction and provision of facilities for full fledged training service and DATC Jaffna needs rehabilitation with modernized version. 3.3.2. In-service Training Institute (ISTI) There are seven ISTIs established by the government based on agro-ecological zone of the area in the country with the intention of coordinating training with research and extension and promoting learning culture and professional capability. One of such ISTI was established in the district of Kilinochchi in 1977. This was completely damaged by prolonged conflict situation and the service of this institute has not been available for two decades in the region. Issues In-service Training institute is to be rehabilitated with modern facilities for training not only for in-service training for extension personnel but for the competency training to youth in agriculture and provision of staff and facilities should be made.

3.4. Services of the Central Department of Agriculture (CDoA)
Agriculture development depends on the service of other established divisions of the central Department of Agriculture not devolved into provincial system. 3.4.1. Seed and Planting Material Division The service of this division was not devolved to the province. Seed and Planting Material Division of the central Department of Agriculture (DOA) was functioning and held responsible for production and supply of seed and planting material to farmers through its seed production farms and supply net-work in the districts. Consequent to provincial council formation, two such seed farms located in Kilinochchi and Vavuniya were handed over to provincial administration by the CDoA for seed and planting material production and supply to the people in the northern region but other seed production related services like seed certification and nurserymen registration were not handed over to the provincial department. 3.4.2. Provincial Seed production Seed production system was well established in the region with two government seed production farms at Kilinochchi and Vavuniya with full fledged facilities and had been catering seed supply service to farmers not only in the northern region but in other regions of the country. These two farms had the facilities with land and infrastructures for production, processing, and storing of 50,000 bushels of seed paddy and OFC seeds. Five large scale paddy processing plants were established by the Government in the country before 1987. One such plant was located in the Kilinochchi farm. At present, seed production facilities in Kilinochchi are completely damaged and the seed production had collapsed. The paddy farm in Mannar district too has been defunct as the buildings and other agricultural infrastructures are completely damaged. The only Government Seed Production Farm (GSPF) at Vavuniya is functioning at present with a total extent of 74 ha for production of seed paddy and OFC seeds to cater seed supply service to entire region. The main functions of the GSPF are to produce certified seeds of paddy, vegetables, OFC and planting materials of fruits. The farm undertakes seed cleaning service to the farmer produced seeds. However, this farm operates with minimum facilities and is to be strengthened for effective seed production and supply service. Issues Seed production farms located in Kilinochchi should be rehabilitated and facilities be given to revive the seeds and planting material production and supply service to the entire region and also farm in Vavuniya

3.5. Seed Certification Service (SCS)
Seed Certification Service is not devolved to provinces and comes under the administrative purview of Director General of Agriculture of the central Department of Agriculture. The regional SCS activities started in 1977 and its activities in the district were carried out by Seed Certification Officers stationed in each district under the administrative purview of the Regional Office located in Kilinochchi. This office has been temporarily shifted to Vavuniya in 1996 consequent to conflict and functioned to date with limited staff and other facilities for service. At present, functions of this division are limited to one district by the conflict.

As a result, the affected northern farmers are still unable to obtain certified quality seeds for cultivation. The contract growing seed production farms were abandoned due to no seed certification service in the districts. The main functions of the SCS are: • Certification including registration and inspection of fields, checking purity and labeling to confirm good quality seeds of paddy, vegetables, OFC and planting materials of fruit crops. • Coordination of seed testing involves sampling, testing viability and germination level, purity and moisture determination with seed testing laboratories. • Post control measures to check on the quality control operations and examine possible complaints. • Conduct training for seed growers, nurserymen and officers. • Registration of fruit crop nurseries. Issues The SCS has faced many problems for the last two decades due to the conflict situation. As a result, it has not been able to perform its function effectively. The main problems of this sector are: • • • • • • • Lack of land and office buildings Lack of seed testing laboratory buildings and equipment Lack of adequate staff Vacant positions have remained unfilled Lack of transport facilities for field level officers Lack of staff quarters. Lack of post control service

To strengthen the Seed Certification Service, establishment of Seed Testing Laboratory facilities and improving the human resource base are necessary to render valuable services to the seed and planting material producers of the region. This will result in increased production and distribution of certified quality seeds to farmers, so that the crop productivity and the income levels will be improved.

3.6. Agricultural Research
Agriculture research function, the main division for innovation of technology appropriate to northern region, is not a devolved subject and has been administered by Central Department of Agriculture. The Regional Agricultural Research and Development Centre (RARDC) was established in 1977 at Kilinochchi, as one of the seven RARDCs in the country, representing the agroclimatic condition of northern region. The service was to innovate and evaluate improved appropriate technologies to the benefit of farming community of the Northern Region. The RARDC is involved mainly in applied and adaptive research activities. In addition to applied research, to a limited number of basic research investigations were also carried out in rice research at Rice Research Station (RRS), a satellite unit of Rice Research Development Institute, Which was established to innovate rain-fed and irrigated rice production technologies to the rice farmers of the region.

Prior to the conflict, both research stations in the district had contributed significantly to enhance rice productivity and farmer incomes through providing improved varieties, appropriate crop production and crop protection technologies, and breeder/ basic seed paddy to the rice farmers of the North. With the onset of war, the crop production in the whole region was severely affected and the whole infrastructure and research facilities of RARDC and RRS were completely destroyed and consequently this station was shifted temporarily to Adaptive Research Station (ARS) in Vavuniya and the research activities are confined only to problem -based solving research. Issues The research stations should be reconstructed, rehabilitated and strengthened as a modern research station with office facilities and research personnel to reactivate the research activities for crop improvement. 3.6.1. Adaptive Research Station (ARS) Agricultural technology adaptation research in the District was carried out by the Adaptive Research Stations/Units established in 1982 in all the districts in the region to verify the adaptation of the technology found in the main research station and had multiplication trials. This station is a satellite experimental station of the North attached to extension division and administered by Regional Agriculture Research and Development Center. Issues The functions of adaptive research stations / units (ARS/ARU) were completely paralyzed except in the Jaffna district. This system of research should be revitalized for service in all districts.

3.7. Allied Government Organizations
There are other departments and authority board in relation to agricultural development with the different mandate but related service. Most of such organization comes under central government administrative purview 3.7.1. Department of Agrarian Development (DAD) The Department of Agrarian Development (DAD) is responsible for the coordination and supply of agricultural inputs through its peripheral Agrarian Services Centre (ASCs) located in the district. Supply of inputs, marketing of agriculture produce, land utilization in agriculture, operation and maintenance of minor tanks by participatory management concept with the formation of farmer organization to respective tank are the major objectives of the organization. Farmer Organizations (FOs) are registered under the Agrarian Service Amendment Act (1991). FOs is responsible for: • • • • Promoting co- operation and co-ordination with relevant institutions. Marketing of produce and distribution of inputs. Formulation and implementation of agriculture programs of the area. Village level construction, repair and maintenance of minor irrigation works.

Issues A large number of resource-poor farmers are depending on minor tanks for cultivation. These activities should be carried out with close participation of the stakeholders through FOs and CBOs to ensure sustainability of those rural assets. Investment on rehabilitation on rural agricultural infrastructures like minor tanks, agricultural roads would have the positive impact on poverty alleviation and ensure food security in the rural households. service delivery of the DAD is to be strengthened and well coordinated among other organization . 3.7.2. Coconut Development Board Coconut Cultivation Board is responsible for extension, training and supply of good quality coconut seedlings and fertilizer to promote coconut cultivation in the region through development of small holding farms and estates. The Regional Manager administers the development activities through Coconut Development Officers stationed in the district. The service is limited due to lack of officers in the areas. Issues Entire coconut development activities should be revived with necessary facilities and coconut seedling production units too should be rehabilitated for seedlings production and supply. 3.7.3. Cashew Development Board Though Cashew Corporation functioned well in the country with research and development activities and promotional programs, cashew production and its development activities have not materialized in the region due to prevailing situation. Cashew Corporation in Chilawathurai in Mannar district was not functioning. Issues Cashew development activities in the region should be revived and cashew plantations developed in the areas is to given due consideration and strengthen its service.

3.8. Social institutions/Organizations.
Social participation is the most important element in production and marketing system development. Social participation before the conflict was active in the production and technology adoption. Banana Producers’ Society and Onion Producers’ Society was some example societies that functioned well in the region. Due to prolonged war situation, institutionalized system for production and marketing collapsed and producers had been scattered with frequent displacement causing the production activities becoming unorganized and self-styled. Table shows the type of community based organization in the region Table 5: Type of Social institutions in the district District FO IFS RDS Jaffna 225 1 171 Kilinochchi 106 1 91 Mullaitivu 127 1 90 Mannar 123 1 Vavuniya 177 2 WRDS 168 104 85 CBO FPS 28 ACS 13 1 1 2 -

3.8.1. Farmer Organizations Farmer Organizations (FOs) were formed to promote systematic production and marketing process. Most of the FO are not well functioning to achieve the purpose of the existence. Issues Social institutions should be reorganized reformed and strengthened with necessary infrastructure and facilities for effective functioning. 3.8.2. Integrated Farmer Society Integrated Farmer Society (IFS) organized by the department of agriculture in each district with the intention of promoting integrated farming system among the farmers for sustainable agriculture development. 3.8.3. Seed Producers Societies Seed Producers societies were organized and established in each district and the society in Jaffna and Mannar function well and other societies are defunt. Black gram seed producers society has been established and strengthened for black gram seed production. Issues Local seed production will be strengthened for lateral seed supply for quality seed usage in crop cultivation.

Chapter - 4 Status of Crop Sector, Strategies and Projects for Development
The status of crop development of major crops of the region and strategies for development are focused. The crop sector consists of three different categories of farmers namely commercial scale producers (10%), average scale producers (60%) and subsistent level producers (30%). Multidisciplinary crops are cultivated for market demand in the region. Major crops in the region are the paddy as staple cereal crop and maize and kurrakkan as cereal coarse grain, green gram, black gram and cowpea as pulse crops for vegetable protein consumption, Chili and red onion as condiment crops, ground nut and Sesame as oil crops, Cassava and other yams are root crops, potato as cash tuber crop and banana, mango, jack, lime and grape vine as major horticultural fruits crops with varieties of low country and up country vegetable cultivation.

4.1 Cereal Sub Sector Development
Food and nutrition security are two important considerations in the development of healthy population and poverty alleviation. Out of the crop categories, cereals contribute to the consumption of carbohydrate as energy source; 70-75% of the energy is derived from carbohydrate. Most important cereals being cultivated are rice, kurrakan and maize in Northern Province. Rice is the staple food crop and accounting for total population of the region. Annual per capita requirement of rice is about 106 kg/year according to Medical Research Institute (MRI). In this view Northern region needs 0.5 million metric ton of rice per annum. The requirement is produced in the region. 4.1.1 Paddy Sub Sector Among the cereal, paddy is a major subsector in the country and the region as well. Annually 800,000 ha of paddy land are cultivated in the island of which 80,000 ha have been cultivated in the Northern region. About 45% of paddy land comes under irrigated condition and rain-fed land is the rest. The extent and the production have not shown a steady increase or constant over the past two decades due to unfavorable socio-economic and political environment. Nevertheless, the present cumulative annual extent cultivated for paddy production on an average over the past 10 years was 60,000 Ha in both wet and dry seasons. Paddy Cultivation Paddy cultivation takes place in two seasons – rain-fed wet season (October- February) and irrigated dry season. During wet season, most of the paddy tract is used to be sown in dry or semi dry condition. The paddy cultivation tract having irrigation facilities from the irrigation schemes, gets success with supplementary irrigation if rain fall will be inadequate and the absolute rain-fed cultivation tract suffers when rainfall fails. This resulted in variation in the production level.

The cultivation extent under irrigation in dry season is decided upon availability of water in the irrigation schemes. Intensive technical applications for better production has been experienced in dry season cultivation, thus, higher average yield during dry season than the wet season. The estimated average yield in wet season and dry season is 4.5 mt/ha and 3 mt/ha respectively. Figure-1 shows the trend in paddy production during the last twenty years period. The highest extent ever cultivated was 80500 ha. In the past, the unsettled condition that prevailed due to protracted war had badly affected paddy production. Nevertheless, cultivators under crisis management have sustained the rice production at low level with limited resources and technology application. Table- 6 : Northern province paddy cultivated extent and production 1985 - 2007 District Season 1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2007 Cultivated Maha 65629 54758.65 47124.2 39549.8 54668.2 50204.75 Extent(ha) Yala 5994 3796.6 7112.6 6619.2 8658.46 7466 Total 71623 58555.25 54236.8 46169 63326.66 57670.75 Production(mt) Maha 162350.5 133042.846 109792 87540.506 145303.09 146480.29 Yala 15537.9 11256.952 17153.46 19835.2 32807.112 26877.68 Total 177888.4 144299.798 126945.46 107375.706 178110.202 173357.97 Figure 2: Extent and production of paddy in the district.

4.1.1a. Potential for Paddy Development Developed paddy land extent available for paddy cultivation in the region was estimated as nearly as 100,000 ha of which about 45000 ha of land comes under irrigation schemes. Land under schemes has not been fully utilized for cultivation due to poor irrigation facilities. Hence, Rehabilitation of dilapidated schemes and irrigation infrastructure in modernized form will facilitate effective water management and further land development for fully land utilization with crop cultivation. Adoption of technology can boost the yield potential up to

8 mt per ha. However, the highest yield achievement at present was 6mt/ha while 4mt/ha has been the average in the region. Paddy production potential in the region is about 0.8million mt Table- 7: Paddy extent cultivable in the region (ha) District Aswedumized Highest Extent Potential Area in Percentage Extent cultivated High Low Jaffna 13131 8845 90 10 Kilinochchi 25372 22663 80 20 Mullaitivu 17650 13055 70 30 Vavuniya 21010 19000 85 15 Mannar Total 23080 100243 16970 80533 60 40

Table-8: Paddy land extent (ha) under different water sources in the region District Major & Medium Minor Rain-fed Jaffna 13130 Kilinochchi 11925 667 12790 Mullaitivu 5848 4129 6650 Vavuniya 5579 3164 4628 Mannar 14822 10900 4109 Total 38174 18860 41308 Weakness in current production system and strategy for improvement • Irrational land use: • No effective water management as most of the irrigation infrastructure of both downstream and up streams is either in a damaged or dilapidated condition. • Prevalence of scattered cultivation due to poor socio economic condition and shortage of labour. • No competitive production and organized marketing • Unavailability of efficient marketing net work system • Low popularity of rice based product • Inadequate storage facilities and application of poor processing and milling technology • Poor input accessibility and affordability: • Poor and in effective supply of quality seed as and when it is needed. • Lack of technology know how in the rural society. 4.1.2 Development Strategies Paddy land development and value addition of rice and Technology adoption for productivity enhancement are the major strategies for increased paddy production. Strategies that can be adopted to promote the rice production in the region are described below. However, Adoption of the strategies described depends on many factors therefore the factor influencing the paddy production development have to be given due consideration.

Objectives The major objectives of paddy sector development are given below: • • • • • Reduce wheat flour consumption Improve grain and milling quality of rice Emphasize and promote value addition Sustainable productivity management of land and water resources Sustain rice industry as a profitable enterprise

Strategies I. Potential paddy land development & Mapping of potential yield areas

Paddy land can be characterized based on the yield potential of land. Spatial and temporal variations in grain yield realized in farmers’ field across diverse environment stress the variation in varietal reaction. Varying climatic, edaphic and biotic factors is the reason for low yield and poor stability. Thus identification of different rice growing environments with their associated adverse environment factors on the rice yield is important for rice yield mapping and its yield promotion. It is a pre – requisite to go for crop diversification in paddy tract as the production of rice in high potential area determines the required supply of rice to the region. Identification of high potential paddy areas under irrigation schemes by crop yielding evaluation study. Project title Paddy yield evaluation study for Schematic mapping of different potential areas of paddy tract Objectives • • • • • • II. To improve the productivity of paddy land. To identify land and develop for crop cultivation To identify the production potential in different paddy tract. To promote application of organic manure in specific areas. To identify potential extent for crop diversification. To evaluate rice production potential in the region. Productivity Enhancement Program

Project Strategy • Productivity improvement activities consist of land preparation up to harvesting. Paddy sector has been already developed and achieved average yield to the national average. The major problem in improving rice production is to facilitate marketing which will automatically motivate farmers to go for adoption of productivity enhancement technologies. Group action in block demonstration to see the effective of technology thus improve the productivity

Project title Formation of crop producer cooperative society Objectives • • • • • III. To improve productivity To organize marketing through farmer producers’ societies. To promote collective decision and action. To reduce value chain in marketing. To promote IPM and IPNS technology adoption in paddy cultivation Organic Rice Farming development

Project Strategy World population is inclined to consider quality of food that is consumed and its effect on health resulting in to go in search of organically produced food. Organic farming is advocated to safe guard the agro-eco-system. The use of quality compost, bio fertilizer, green manure and green leaf manure and application of enriched farm yard manure are the methods of organic farming to be popularized to ensure economic and integrated plant nutrition management in crop production. Certification standard of organic product will be developed by the Department for national competitive market. Since demand is driven to old varieties like Pachchaiperumal, Henati for those nutritive quality and these varieties are fertilizer non – responsive, Organic rice farming with these traditional rice varieties can be promoted in an organized manner to capture the demand for organic rice in niche market. Further, low potential area may be considered for organic rice farming promotion in future. Project Title Implementation of Organic rice farming demonstration and development program Objectives • • • • • To establish demonstration on organic farming. To produce quality organic rice for niche market. To enter into world organic market. To supply toxic free organic product To minimize environmental pollution by agronomic practices

Crop Yield Competition Creation of a healthy competitive spirit among the farmers and develop motivation for technical applications is essential for increasing the productivity of crop by adopting the advanced scientific techniques. Crop yield competition program will facilitate to achieve the productivity improvement.

Project title Motivation program for appropriate technology adoption Objectives • • • • To promote competitive attitude in production. To Implement farmer competition and award program To encourage application of technologies in production. To encourage participation in extension.

Production of Rice Bran Oil Project Strategy Production of rice bran oil can be exploited by the private entrepreneurs. Policy frame to facilitate environment for investment decision in this direction is to be developed. It is the responsibility of the state to analyze potential with the help of National Engineering Research and Development and Public Enterprise Reform Committee and take action to initiate investment. Project title: Rice bran oil production Objectives • • • To utilize rice by-product in an effective way. To introduce rice bran oil usage in development sector To minimize the use of unhealthy oil

Mechanization in Rice Farming Project Strategy Labour shortage and high wage rate can be complemented by mechanized practice in rice farming. The problem of scattered cultivation and its related pest dynamism could be effectively minimized by mechanization. Mechanization also is instrumental to reduce the cost of cultivation. Most of the farmers were economically affected by prolonged war. A soft loan system will be facilitated to purchase machinery. A well formed society could be given credit to purchase machinery like 2-wheel, 4-wheel, Reaper/Harvestor and Combine Harvester etc for adoption of custom hiring system. Project title: Farm mechanization. Objectives • • • • To promote farm mechanized practices. To make uniformity in cultivation practices. To decrease cost of cultivation. To minimize pest population.

4.1.3. Post-Harvest Technology in Paddy Post-production sector in relation to value addition of rice is in very infantry level in the region. Promotion of value addition of rice will pave way for paddy yield increase and entrepreneurs’ income. Paddy processing in the region is considered as ineffective and inefficient as most of the paddy processing mills are very small and fulfill only the domestic needs with crude processing methods. Raw rice is consumed by the people as cooked rice, steamed rice and pre-gelatinized milled rice. Rice flour is used in some food industries for the production of noodles, instant hoppers and string hoppers etc. But the value addition to rice flour in our region is at very minimal level. Hypoallergenic property of rice is more suitable for infant food. Several technologies have been developed to manufacture instant starch which can be used for several industrial products like carbonless copy paper and filter paper production and to other various starch derivatives. Rice starch can be produced from broken rice during milling. When compared to the price of wheat flour, it is economically feasible to go for many applications by using rice starch. However, the reduction of protein and lipids in the rice starch is to be considered for quality products. Establishment of Standard Rice Mill Present method of processing of paddy after harvest is seen as dried, threshed, winnowed and packed in field with either gunny bag or polyethylene bag to transport to home storage which is not sophisticated one for effective storage. Later paddy is milled for raw rice by the milling machines which are varied in types and operation technology. Hence quality of milled rice depends on type of machine and its operation. Even though the variety of paddy influences the quality of milled rice, type of machine contributes much on quality raw rice production. Percentage of polishing and breaking of rice are the parameters contributing to the quality of milled rice. The existing milling enterprises are not quite suitable for quality rice production. Although there is a demand for high quality premium rice, the region is not in a position to produce such rice due to the poor quality of rice mills available. Further, paddy is parboiled and milled for rice which is used by people for cooking purpose. There is technology in the process of parboiling and milling which influence the quality of parboiled rice. Parboiling temperature and method of drying determine the quality of parboiled rice. Therefore, the quality of rice is determined by many factors. Establishment of state of the art standard rice mill for quality premium rice production is necessary to a competitive market. Objectives: • • • • • To promote quality rice production. To reduce damage in rice milling. To minimize the loss of nutrient. To develop the rice quality standard. To market quality rice

Project title: Establishment of standard rice processing mill in the region

Quality Domestic Rice Production Project Strategy Quality Improvement in domestic rice production: Paddy is parboiled and hand pounded for milling of rice in household level. In households processing of rice, use of technology for quality rice production was not adopted and many farmers do not know the technology involved in parboiling. They are used to parboil paddy with their own method resulting in the loss of quality and nutrition. To improve quality of parboiling, National Engineering Research and Development has manufactured a drum for parboiling in the household. This is a break through for domestic quality rice production promotion. Project Title: Domestic parboiling improvement development Objectives • • • • • To improve quality of rice production in homestead Introduce and supply of parboiling drum to individual household To reduce nutrition loss during processing of rice milling To produce quality hand pound rice in the villages. To promote competitiveness in supplying quality rice to market.

Value Addition of Paddy Project Strategy Rice based agro-industrial activities in the region are not much popularized. Value added rice product will not only solve the paddy marketing problem but encourage people to eat value added product rather than go for fast food. Production of rice flour and based product could be an attractive venture for private investment. Commercial productions of rice flour for local and export market will absorb certain percentage of local paddy for value addition as well as provide employment to youth. Since over 60% of the district population is directly involved in paddy production, establishing rice- based agro- industries would provide employment and enhance household income, which can address rural poverty to a great extent. Formation of small group and supply mini rice flour mill for production of rice flour in cottage level and promotion of rice flour based product will be the focal point in this project. Project Title: Cottage level rice flour making and flour based value addition enterprise development. Objectives • • • • • To promote rice flour production and its usage. To promote quality of rice flour making. To develop competitive culture among producers. To promote rice based value added product in the market. To promote nutritive food intake and reduce fast food intake

Value Addition Technology Demonstrations Project Strategy Promotion of rice based product and by-product will be encouraged among the community by training and demonstration. Value addition of raw rice as rice flake, rice puff, and rice flour, production of rice bran oil and use of paddy husk as fossil fuel can pave way for increase paddy production. Project Title : Capacity building on Value addition technology development Objectives • • • • • • To promote value added rice based product To implement demonstrations program To promote cottage industry. To promote marketing of rice based product. To enhance technical know-how. To motivate enterprise development

Sustainable Soil fertility management Project strategy Fertilizer application in Paddy cultivation is continuous and indiscriminate leading to environmental pollution and loss of physical and chemical properties of the soil and soil productivity. This leads to soil degradation in long term eventually become barren. To sustain the soil fertility in long term, application of organic matter in the form of farm yard manure, well rotted cattle manure, compost as soil ameliorate is necessary. The best easiest option is to cultivate sun hemp in the field and incorporate into soil when sun hemp crop is in 50- 60 % matured stage. This bio mass in the field will supply the necessary nutrient during the course of natural decaying. One acre of field will give 3.2 mt of bio mass to the field Project Title: Soil fertility improvement and conservation Objectives • • • • • • To ameliorate the soil Cultivation of Sun hemp in the paddy field after harvest of paddy To increase the soil Organic matter To sustain the soil fertility To increase plant nutrient uptake efficiency To reduce the application of inorganic fertilizer

4.2. Subsidiary Food Crop Sector
The region has responded to the demand created by the “ inward looking import substitution “ policies of the government in late sixties and seventies through cultivation of subsidiary food crops on commercial basis. During this period, a large number of agro–wells and tube wells were constructed. Lift irrigation system was popularized not only to pump underground water but also water from irrigation tanks. The peasant subsistence farming community became profit oriented commercial farmers. The educated youth have recognized farming as a gainful employment venture. The situation has changed since mid eighties with the escalation of ethnic violence and the unrestricted imports of those items under liberalized trade regime, the entire farmers of the Northern Province have lost their competitive edge in the market for those crops. After the signing of peace agreement in February-2002, the displaced farm families have returned to their villages and recommenced cultivation. However, Subsidiary Food Crops (SFC)cultivation in Northern region in the present context is well characterized as small scale and subsistence level cultivation with low value rain-fed high land with minimum tillage, inputs and management as permitted by the soil condition. Consequent to the poor resource and technology used for SFCs production, yields obtained are very low. Though chilli, red onion and potato are cultivated for commercial orientation as cash crop, the extent has been reduced to local market level due to prevailing market situation. Due consideration is necessary to be given in reduction of unit cost of production for national competitive market. Local government needs to extend its arm for proper market infrastructure arrangement to market the product. Potential for Promotion It is observed that soil type of paddy tract in the irrigated command area of the irrigation scheme are not uniform in texture and physical and chemical properties resulting in a variation in yield potential in paddy area. Some of the paddy tract is not economical for paddy cultivation as its yield potential cannot be increased beyond certain limit. There are nearly 20,000 ha of such low potential areas available in the region. This extent can be explored for crop diversification, if paddy production continuously becomes uneconomic as at present. Hence, huge potential for promotion of subsidiary food crops is seen in the region. It is estimated that about 50,000 ha of arable high land available for promotion of SFC crops in near future provided rehabilitation of the land covered with shrub jungle and the land under irrigation schemes. Lands under minor irrigation schemes are yet to be rehabilitated Storage Storage is a major problem for farmers to promote the cultivation. The potential perishable vegetables production is restricted by poor storage facilities in the local condition. Grain productions are subject to be sold at the farm gate with minimal price due to lack of storage facilities in the glut production season. Hence Promotion of coarse grains production is very much restricted and is possible if due consideration is given to local storage facilities and promotion of value addition.

Weakness in Subsidiary Food Production System in the region • • • • • • • • • • • • Inadequate availability of new high yielding varieties Inadequate knowledge on new technologies at village level Low productivity due to rain-fed cultivation. Irrational land use and crop management High incidence of pests and diseases Lack of technology adoption Inadequate availability of quality seed and required varieties Lack of regularized local and institutional seed production and input supply mechanism at village level Lack of farmer group activities lack of private investment in processing and agro – based industries No promotional activities implemented by the policy regulation. No regulatory market arrangement for raw and value added product.

Objectives Major objectives of this crop development are: • • • • • Increase production of selected crops through the development and introduction of new technologies to meet the regional requirement and to national market. Improve productivity, marketing and processing of selected OFCs through farmer cluster extension programs. Ensure adequate supply of quality seed at village level. Increase farm income of OFC producers. Encourage private investment in value addition product preparation.

Elements for improving production • • • • Use of appropriate variety Application of appropriate technology Use of appropriate culture Promotion of value addition of crop produces in cottage level.

4.2.1. Coarse Food Grains Major coarse grain crops are kurrakkan and maize as cereal crops and black gram, green gram and cowpea as leguminous crops which contribute to vegetable protein required to the population. The OFC crops cultivation in the region is mainly focus to supply the local requirement and to capture the opportunity of the national market.

Tables 9-11 and Figure 2-4 show the trend of pulse crop cultivation and production as in 05 year average. The maize is cultivated in a pastoral system during rainy season for human consumption and the kurakkan is cultivated in small scale for traditional domestic consumption. As these two crops have no persistent commercial market demand in the region, cultivation extents are limited. However, the maize production gains market in line with provender industry promotion. Though chick pea and pigeon pea cultivation were proved successful in the region, due to poor post-production sector development and poor post harvest technology, these crops cultivation was not highly taken up. Cultivation of soya been was constrained due to lack of seed supply and its dependency on bacterial inoculums for better production. However this crop can be developed when there is market demand for food industry. Table –9 : Green gram- 5 year average cultivated extent and production, 1985 - 2007
Discription Cultivated Extent(ha) Season Maha Yala Total Production(mt) Maha Yala Total 1985 635 266 901 505 211.1 716.1 1986-1990 593.8 289.2 883 489.8 290 779.8 1991-1995 593.34 192.6 785.94 570.8 134.1 704.9 1996-2000 804.02 155.55 959.57 501.76 127.85 629.61 2001-2005 796.7 275.93 1072.63 616.5874 243.186 859.7734 2006-2007 1093.25 346.075 1439.325 1034.45 410.355 1444.805

Figure 3: Green gram 5 year average cultivation extent and production

Table-10: Black gram 5 year average cultivation extent and production, 1985 - 2007
Description Cultivated Extent(ha) Production(mt) Season Maha Yala Total Maha Yala Total 1985 7539 7539 5892.5 5892.5 1986-1990 5937.4 26.4 5963.8 4917.6 26.2 4943.8 1991-1995 5062.8 28.6 5091.4 3706.26 22.2 3728.46 1996-2000 4303.84 11.3 4315.14 2319.22 7.96 2327.18 2001-2005 4107.96 4.2 4112.16 3224.72 5.32 3230.04 2006-2007 4309.775 22.58 4332.355 3296.6 19.61 3316.21

Figure 4: Black gram 5 year average cultivated extent and production.

Table-11: Cowpea 5 year average cultivation extent and production- 1985 - 2007
Description Cultivated Extent(ha) Production(mt) Season Maha Yala Total Maha Yala Total 1985 976 132 1108 820.1 118.1 938.2 1986-1990 1026.6 135.0 1161.6 891.8 127.9 1019.7 1991-1995 1210.6 188.4 1399.0 881.8 143.4 996.5 1996-2000 1056.1 161.2 1217.2 590.7 197.9 788.5 2001-2005 1023.0 244.6 1267.6 1046.5 241.1 1287.6 2006-2007 1068.8 303.4 1372.2 1270.4 275.7 1546.1

Figure 5: Cowpea 5 year average cultivation extent and production

4.2.2 Development Strategies -Food Grain The present day cultivation is traditional bound and mostly rain-fed condition except the sporadic irrigated cultivation with minimal application of productivity enhancement technology. Hence, development strategy of the food grain will be based on productivity enhancement and value addition programs. Crop Productivity Enhancement Strategy: Crop production system adopted by the farmers at present in the region is mostly in the circle of traditional application practices. Though the farmer’s knowledge on economic cultivation of OFC has been considered sound, It should be further improved with training on diversified alternative technology program and market technology. The formation of commodity based production societies for effective marketing will be encouraged. Project Title: Capacity building on them ways of productivity improvement Objectives • • • • To promote group action in production and marketing. To promote application of technologies suitable to the location. To enhance skill and knowledge in production technologies. To increase food grain production in the region

Expansion of Pulse Cultivation Project Strategy Inter cropping with medium scale coconut and banana cultivation will increase the production of pulse in the region and it is possible. About 8000 ha of coconut plantation and 2000ha of banana plantation land could be put into cultivation of pulse crops during rainy season. Project: Promotion of pulses under plantation crop land Objectives • • • • To cultivate leguminous crops under estate land. To promote fertility of the land by incorporating crop residues in the land. To increase plantation crop production To promote leguminous grain production in the region

Crop Diversification under Minor irrigation schemes Project Strategy: Most of the soil types under the command area of minor tanks are suitable for subsidiary food crop cultivation and economically viable than paddy cultivation. As these tanks are located in remote rural areas, people living in these areas go for paddy cultivation under tank for sustaining food security of the family. This land can be utilized for OFC cultivation instead of paddy if rice is made available to those living in the area at affordable price with a marketing network arrangement. Introduction of subsidy scheme for those who cultivate OFCs in paddy tract with market assurance under a guaranteed price system will help increase the income.

Project Title: Crop diversification under minor tanks Objectives • • • To produce other field crops in paddy tract under minor irrigation scheme. To promote efficient use of land and water in cultivation. To encourage crop diversification for economy of scale.

Crop Diversification in Paddy Field Project strategy: Low potential area for paddy cultivation can be utilized for other food crops cultivation. Chilli, red onion and even potato can be cultivated in low potential area with application of soil ameliorant. Project Title: Crop diversification in uneconomic paddy field Objectives: • • To promote demand -pull crop in suitable paddy tract. To use residual moisture in the land for crop cultivation

Maize Expansion Program Project Strategy: Maize presents a duality. It is cultivated for direct human consumption as green cop and as industrial crop for provender industry. Nearly 20% of the production goes to local poultry feed industry. The need for maize to the production of poultry mash is not fully satisfied by the production and its demand as raw material for the feed industry is expanding rapidly matching the pace of livestock industry. Thus, there is high potential for maize for provender industry. About 80% of the maize is imported annually for industrial sector. The present maize production is 10 % of the country’s demand. To cater the need of local demand for maize for local manufacturing of poultry mash, maize cultivation is to be expanded in areas possible with diminishing per unit cost of production. The well drained paddy soil is suitable for maize cultivation. Project Title: Expansion of maize cultivation Objectives • • • • To produce maize for local poultry mash production To integrate livestock with crop production. To enhance production of maize. To utilized possible piece of land in the home stead for maize cultivation

Specialized Crop Zoning Project Strategy Crop productivity varies with soil variability and degree of intensity. Some crops thrive well with moderate practices in the areas where other crops need high capital and intensive management. Identification of such economically sound crop production areas and mapping this area is necessary for crop zoning strategy. Marketing and transport facilities to other market places will be strengthened. Kilinochchi, Vavuniya and Mullaitivu districts have already been mapped for green gram, black gram and ground nut production respectively. The local authority can coordinate transport facilities to supply crop produces to other areas with the support of local government. Project Title: Identification and mapping of the area for crop zone Objectives • • • • To cultivate economically viable and sound crops in the areas identified based on the suitability mapping. To specialize the area for specific crop production zone. To regularize market linkages. To promote economic utilization of resource

Value Addition of Other Field Crop Produces Strategy Distress sale during seasonal glut of other food grain is the major problem in marketing of food grains as it is extensively cultivated during rainy season. Food grains are potential stuff to be used to prepare value added food product. Consumption of value added product of the food grains promotes good health and reduce malnutrition, stunting and wasting of children. Training and demonstration will be conducted to house hold women to make aware of value addition technology to promote homemade preparation of value added product. Project Title: Capacity building Training and demonstration on value addition technology Objectives: • • • • To promote value added product preparation from the crop produces To change food consumption pattern with agro -based value added product. To increase the keeping quality of the crop product To promote healthy society

Establishment of Community Storage Project Strategy Provision of common storage facilities by state for collective storing of product in specified locations will facilitate farmers to store their produce during glut and sell when better price offer comes. The management arrangement can be made collectively by producers. Incentive provision can also be facilitated by the state to improve this system of storing. This will be facilitated in each DS division

Project Title: Establishment of community storage/ provision of storage facilities for community Objectives: • • • • To facilitate storing of food grain during glut production. To avoid distress sale of crop product at the price lower than the cost To promote pledge loan mechanism among the producers To promote community responsibility and community ownership

Market Facilities with Pledge Market System Project Strategy Pledge marketing arrangement shall be made to purchase crop produces by an organization on payment of 50% of the total value at the time of harvest and the rest will be paid to the farmer after the stocks are sold. This mechanism can be either introduced and operated by Agrarian Development Department with strengthening in both institutional and financial arrangement for purchasing and storing the grains or can also be facilitated with community driven system by strengthening farmer cooperatives and market committee for such activities. The shouldering this mechanism by market committee is successfully adopted in India by Agriculture Marketing Department. Project : Organization and Provision of facilities for purchase and storage by the community based cooperative /farmers’ society/organizations. Objectives: • • • • • To motivate producers for better production with market assurance of production To regularize the marketing To increase profit margin. To reduce value chain in marketing To make instant income of 50 % of the production to farmers

4.3. Yams and Tuber crops Development
Yams are considered as poor man’s diet for food security. Cassava, sweet potato and King yam are cultivated as backyard crop in every homestead. Since yams are long aged crops and need irrigation for longer period for fruitful harvest, yam cultivation in large scale does not exist but are, in small scale, cultivated for market purpose in homesteads. For homestead food security, yams can be cultivated in very small scale with kitchen waste water. Sweet potato is cultivated under rain-fed condition in suitable land and marketed.

Only cassava is cultivated as continuous commercial crop in the region. The price of cassava is very much low enabling all people to buy for requirement of carbohydrate consumption. With the Development of cottage level fried chip production for income generation by the farm women, Cassava /manioc has now become potential crop for enterprise development resulting an increase of cassava production in the region. Sale of value added cassava as fried chip has become a profitable enterprise in the street market. Cassava and sweet potato are important crops for exploring bio- fuel production in industrial sector too. Exploration of value addition of yams will entail the industrial promotion. Potato is cultivated as high value cash crop during the rainy season mainly in Jaffna and in small scale in other districts. Potato cultivation will be promoted to meet the requirement of the region population with reduced cost of production. Table-12 and Figure-5 show five year average cassava cultivation in the region Table-12 :- Manioc cultivated extent and production -1996 - 2007 District Year 1996-2000 2001-2005 Cultivated Extent(ha) Maha 944.1 1240.3 Yala 550.2 689.18 Total 1494.3 1929.5 Production(mt) Maha 15043.6 24597.2 Yala 9884.2 14356.4 Total 24927.8 38953.6

2006-2007 1282.75 564 1846.8 26144.5 12097.5 38242.0

Figure 6: Manioc cultivated extent and production in Northern Province.

4.3.1 Development Strategy for yam and tuber crops Major objectives for yam and tuber crop development are: • • • • • To increase yields, improve quality, and minimize post -harvest losses. To maintain household food security To ensure adequate supply of seed and planting materials of improved varieties. To promote value addition through year – round production and processing To increase marketing efficiency and export share.

Yams cultivation as backyard crop in the homestead Project Strategy Yam cultivation in every homestead sustains household food security due to its high content of carbohydrate which gives energy for human activities. Yam crops such as cassava, sweet potato, king yam, elephant food yam and diascorea etc. will be encouraged to be cultivated in every homestead of vulnerable and less privileged group. Project Title: Expansion of yam cultivation in the home stead Objectives: • • • • To maintain household food security in rural areas, To be as a way for additional income to household To facilitate marketing of value added product To create opportunity for employment

Yam seed material production Project Strategy Promotion of yam cultivation, except cassava, is constrained by non availability of planting materials. The traditional farmers keep their planting material for their own cultivation. Production of planting material to supply for homestead and commercial yam cultivation will be facilitated to promote the yam cultivation in the region. Project : Production of yam planting materials Objectives • • • • To promote yam cultivation To facilitate accessibility to seed materials To make additional income by sale of planting material To maintain food security of the vulnerable group

Value addition of yam Project Strategy As keeping quality of yam is fairly long in normal condition, industrial exploration in converting yam into preferable value added product can contribute to extension of yam cultivation in rural areas. Flour making, fried cassava and potato chip production are explored in cottage and industrial levels. Dissemination of technology knowhow, provision of equipment and machineries will give rise to the occasion to cottage industry promotion. Potential for yam cultivation under irrigation schemes exists for expansion of yam cultivation when private sector investment in yam based product industry increase. Provision of assistance for promotion of value added product preparation at cottage industrial level is to be facilitated.

Project Title : Yam value added product enterprise development Objectives • • • • To promote cottage industries for yam based value added products To promote consumption of yam based product. To develop homemade product as evening snacks. To promote technical knowhow among vulnerable

4.3.2. Potato Potential for promotion of potato cultivation is not limited. This crop is cultivated in during wet season in the region. Farmers obtain the yield of 1:10 fold in the field but it can go upto 15 fold with good management. This crop is considered as high income cash crop by the farmers. Farmers prefer to cultivate imported seed to avoid disease incidence. Accessibility for seed potato will be facilitated to farmers through agrarian service department. Project: Promotion of off season potato cultivation under net house Objectives: • • To increase the potato production during off season To facilitate for net house erection

4.4. Oil crops
Sesame (gingely) and Groundnut are cultivated as oil crops in the region. Though these two crops are cultivated in all districts in the region, Jaffna and Kilinochchi are prominent for sesame production and Mullaitivu is prominent for ground nut cultivation. Mullaitivu area has good potential for expansion of ground nut crop cultivation as well drained soil tract extensively available in the district. Farmers in this area used to cultivate ground nut in large scale during rainy season. Further caster oil production feasibility is to be evaluated in terms of market and economic production for its development in the region. Sesame is generally cultivated with residual moisture in the paddy land after harvest of paddy in the month of February in Jaffna and Kilinochchi district. In some location, high land cultivation takes place at the end of rainy season with night snow fall. High fatty acid content of this crop product paves way for oil extraction enterprise in household level. Fatty acid of the crops product is edible and has high digestible cholesterol (HDL)/ Lipids. White and black seed varieties are available for different purposes of cultivation. For ground nut, many varieties were developed and released by the research for crop production improvement of which Tissa and Indhi are leading in the region. The variety “Walawa” is a confectionary type which can be used for confectionary industry. This crop product has potential platters for industrial sector in oil extraction and confectionary production. Many cottage level industries have been evolved in value addition of sesame and groundnut crop products in the Southern region. Gingerly oil extraction practices using “ Chekku” is popular in Jaffna, Vavuniya and Kilinochchi districts, About 500 Gingelly oil extraction units were developed in the region. But, the production is not enough to supply the requirement.

Groundnut cultivation Groundnut is cultivated in both rain-fed and irrigated conditions. The crop management is very poor due to limited market and the demand is available only for raw nut which is used for fried or boiled consumption. Though oil production is very much feasible, investment environment in this direction is not encouraged. Table- 13 and Figure 6 show the groundnut cultivation trend on average of five year period Sesame Sesame is generally cultivated in paddy land after harvest of paddy in the month of February without much consideration on adoption of technologies. Due to its harvesting and processing difficulties, particular segment of people undertakes this cultivation. Ample potential is ahead to promote sesame cultivation in the region. Table- 14 show the sesame cultivation trend on average of five year period
Table-13: Groundnut cultivated extent and production 1985 - 2007 District Season 1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 Cultivated Maha 217 970.8 2209.4 2516.02 Extent(ha) Yala 97 312 531.6 619.74 Production(mt) Total Maha Yala Total 314 226.2 98.3 324.5 1282.8 927.6 447.2 1374.8 2741 1990.2 248 2238.2 3135.76 1926.2 712.5 2638.7

2001-2005 1949.25 713.96 2663.21 2771.116 1217.76 3988.876

2006-2007 2300.14 819.275 3119.415 3390.875 1392.785 4783.66

Figure 7: Groundnut cultivated extent and production in Northern Province

Table- 14: Sesame cultivated extent and production 1985 - 2007 District Season 1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 Cultivated Maha 537.6 621.4 331 716.5 Extent(ha) Yala 11 96.3 111.3 152.8 Total 548.6 717.7 442.3 869.3 Production(mt) Maha 328.56 403.8 330.44 309.76 Yala 3 67 62.24 67.94 Total 331.56 470.8 392.68 377.7



661.45 38.84 700.29 366.935 22.64 389.575

734.375 58.475 792.85 376.3 35.425 411.725

Weakness in production system: • • • • No seed supply mechanism and use of old varieties, Lack of investment in value added product preparation. Poor crop management and traditional way of cultivation. No market network.

4.4.1. Development strategy for oil crops Crop Productivity Enhancement Project Strategy The major problem of production increase is poor crop management in both cultivation system of ground nut and sesame. Improved agronomic practices and technology adoption in cultivation practices will be enhanced for better production. Application of fertilizer, gypsum and proper water management are important features for improvement. Project Title : Development of Improved Crop production management practices Objectives • • • • To enhance production and productivity. To increase income per unit area of land. To meet the demand with available land and cultivation To improve knowledge and skill in production system

Value Addition of Crop Produces Project Strategy Development of cottage industry in value addition of crop product is very much feasible. Vulnerable and disadvantaged groups can be engaged in value addition process handling with less exertion. Variety “Walawa” can be used for peanut production due to its nut size. Like the Jumbo pea nut production industry developed in the South or produced on sale contact arrangement. Promotion of these crops will be encouraged through value addition and technical capacity building. Mechanical devices are available in the market for easy product processing. Project Title: Capacity building Training and demonstration on value addition technology Objectives • • • • • To promote knowledge on value addition technology. To promote availability of value added product in the market. To facilitate engagement of vulnerable group in value added product preparation. To absorb more labour force into agriculture. To increase number of entrepreneurs.

Seed Production Program Project Strategy Promotion of local supply of seeds by the farmers facilitating contract seed grower mechanism for local seed production and supply will be the strategy. This will improve the use of good quality and preferable seeds in cultivation. Project Title: Development Ground nut and Sesame seed production and supply system Objectives • • • • To promote the use of quality seed in production. To develop seed production units and supply system in each district. To maintain the varietal purity of seeds To increase the production with uniform varietal adoption

Production of castor oil Strategy : Castor oil production Cultivation potential and Castor oil production should be investigated and explored as there is potential for this crop cultivation. Identification of land and production feasibility will be studied. Project Title: Feasibility study for Castor oil production Objectives • • To study the production feasibility of castor oil To identify land for commercial cultivation

Production of sunflower oil Strategy Sun flower cultivation is feasible in the region. However, poor seeds production and poor oil extraction facilities constrained the cultivation in the past. With advance technology, constraints can be overcome and restart sun flower cultivation initially as marginal crop. The promotion of this crop mainly depends on oil extraction potential and investment in this direction. Project: Cultivation of sun flower and oil production feasibility study Objectives • • • To explore the possibility of sunflower cultivation. To initiate local sunflower oil production To reduce the import of vegetable oil

4.5. Horticulture crops sub sector
Horticulture is an “umbrella” word that covers a great array of food and amenity plants, for example: tree nuts (but not coconut), tree fruits (top fruits), berries (soft fruits), leafy vegetables, fruiting vegetables, root, tuber and bulb vegetables, culinary herbs (basil, coriander, parsley, and cloves), melons, gourds, pumpkins and squash, etc. Sri Lanka is a tropical horticultural paradise and blessed with an agro-climate suitable for a wide range of tropical, subtropical and some temperate fruits. Northern region fruits receive a higher preference among consumers due to its unique flavors and taste of consumer preference. This nature is strength to fruit development in the region and the horticultural sector in the region seems to offer the best promise for expansion of the agricultural sector in the future as this sector gains prominence in fruit industry. Production systems in the region are traditional, timed to take advantage of the rhythm of the monsoons and the demands of production thus low yield. Pest management methods in fruits and vegetables are dangerously out of hand. Estimated losses in post-harvest handling channels have been put at approximately 40 percent. Fruit and vegetable processors and exporters cite the unavailability of quality produce in sufficient quantities and the lack of good post-harvest facilities as the major constraints to the growth of their businesses. This is especially crucial for consideration if horticultural sector offers opportunities for economic expansion and development in the agricultural sector, perhaps more than any other group of crops. 4.5.1 Fruit Crop Cultivation in the Region The major fruit crops in the region are banana, grape vine (semi-perennials), mango, and jack, pomegranate (perennials). However, other fruit crops are cultivated sporadically for household needs. Grape vine cultivation is prominent in the district of Jaffna. The banana which is cultivated on commercial scale comes continuously to the market. Other fruits come to market in seasons. The marketable surplus of fruits moves to Colombo during the peak period of production. During the conflict situation, fruit sector and its marketing systems had been disrupted and the banana cultivators have reduced extent of banana cultivation. Management of perennial fruit crop trees is not seriously considered by growers due to marketing problem. Seasonal bearing habit of perennial fruit trees render growers unable to sell considerable quantity within a very short period and avoid damages. However, a good management of existing trees will bring total fruit production of 50,000 mt per annum in the region and it is fairly enough to regional requirement at present at the rate of 100 kg per capita annual consumption as specified by MRI. Another weakness of current production system is growing of numerous varieties which represent different characteristics of product such as size, taste and Bgrown uprix value. This is an unhealthy situation to consider for export and industrial market. Prompt action on development of fruit crop production for quality production with international standard for export will not take time to capture the opportunity.

Potential for Promotion of fruit production in the region Fruits are having tremendous potential in industrial sector such as cordial, juice; puree and canned fruit production. Canned jak fruits have good export potential. Preparation of instant mango puree can be explored. This is available in every street in Thailand. The variety Vellakolumban is suitable for mango puree preparation. Jaffna Chunnakam Fruits Industry (JASUFI) and “Vesta” fruit industry has been leading in the way of exploring fruit based value addition product preparation. These companies received Sri Lanka standard certificate and its products are competitive in the national market. Likewise, fruit value added preparation can be extended to other districts by establishing partial processing units. A prudent planning to utilize fruits produced in the Northern region to develop fruit industry is to be explored in the above possibilities. However, it is impossible for a public institution to provide a substitute for the hands- on involvement for fruit based agro-industry. Private participation is necessary to expand industry. Wood apple is amply available in the region jungle and shrub land. Bring into proper management system for performance is possible. Fruits trees are available in about 10,000 ha of land in the region. Table- 15 and Figure7and 8 show the fruit cultivation trend in the region with production Table –15: Fruit crop cultivation and production in NP Total extent Bearing Banana 4096.6 2953 Lime & Lemon 948.25 630.5 Orange 332.58 248.5 Mango 2171.8 1372 Guava 419.85 250.5 Papaw 524.8 397.4 Jak 750.9 600 Grapes 107.58 99.15 Wood apple 407.25 300 Figure -8 Fruit crop existing extent in Northern Province

Production 60371 5837 1395 10690.75 1259.5 6638.5 7747.5 1819.35 200

Figure-9 Fruit crop production in Northern Province

More than 50 horticultural crops are produced in the region and a revision of classifications to include condiments would add more. While rice sustains the caloric needs of the people, horticultural crops add other nutrients, especially vitamins, minerals, some protein and oil, dietary fiber, flavors and are an attractive addition to any meal. Strategies for Fruit crop Cultivation Some of the major recommendations that imply a general area of focus in the programs implementation or important actions required. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Crop improvement Pesticide management and control Post – Harvest management and marketing Organizational and Management Strengthening Private investment on value added product industry

In the area of crop improvement, existence of numerous cultivars in the region is strength to quick improvement. Propagation of promising cultivars already available will be focused so that uniform plant materials of the selected varieties will be available to farmers within a reasonable time. Selection of additional cultivars will be a major area of concentration in future as well. New introductions would be limited to only the cases where a specific objective has been identified, such as obtaining a cultivar that produces a fruit with desirable qualities. Pest control and pesticide use raise a series of issues ranging from agricultural production to human health and environmental protection. Development Thrust The post- harvest handling and marketing are comprised of three general thrusts. The first thrust is to carry out integrated action aiming at reducing post- harvest handling losses. Although the benefits would be primarily in terms of the local market, improvements in handling systems might make local products more competitive nationally and internationally as well.

The second thrust is to promote export of fresh horticultural products by providing additional information in greater detail for selected crops. This includes gathering additional information on target markets, identification of areas for production in the region, recommended cultivars, cultural practices, handling, and shipping methods, estimates of production costs, etc. This kind of information would be useful to help direct future investments. General Constraints to Growth of the Horticulture Subsector There are numerous constraints to horticultural production in the region and some consideration of these is necessary to understand and plan for horticultural research and development. Small size of holdings- This results in inefficient planting sizes particularly of fruit crops. While small plantings of vegetables are often given detailed attention by farmers and result in reasonable yields and incomes, the production of fruits on a very small scale cannot be afforded sufficient attention. Middle man buys from many small farmers and carries produce to a second middle man in central markets and smallness also impedes the efficient transfer of technology. The marketing channel- The post-harvest handling system for perishables provides the greatest opportunity for economic increases in many crops by reducing the losses between the farmer and the consumer. It is possible that these losses in handling do more to increase food costs to consumers and decrease the returns to the farmer than field production problems. Pest management- This method in fruits and vegetables are dangerously out of hand. As many as a dozen applications of pesticides are given to a single crop including a post-harvest application. Vegetables may arrive in markets with serious pesticide contamination and at times pose a serious threat to the users of the materials and those who consume the products. Pesticide residues and quality control also form a potentially serious matter for export sales. Major Development Objectives: • • • • • • Develop productive, environmentally friendly, sustainable and economically viable production, harvesting and processing technologies. Disseminate appropriate technologies in close collaboration with research. Promote participation of other government and non – government agencies in development programs. Supply high quality basic seeds and planting materials. Develop human resources to promote development. develop conducive environment for private participation and investment

4.5.1. Production Systems Weaknesses and Strategies for Improvement It is obvious that all crops cannot and do not deserve equal research and development attention. For the regional production systems, eight fruit crops are considered major i.e, banana, mango, pineapple, papaya, citrus, jack, grapes and pomegranate. Other minor fruits crops are avocado, wood apple and star fruits.

Extension Strategy: - Market Oriented Extension Service Fruits and vegetables are categorized under horticultural crops. Generally horticultural crops particularly fruits are cultivated in small scale in homestead level except banana crop. Major constraints of promoting horticulture crops are their perishable nature resulting in a need for immediate market. Hence, market strategy is to be implemented to reduce market losses. Effective technology transfer for production of quality fruit from existing fruit trees and vegetables, application of market technology such as poly packed fruits, use of crate for fruit transport and use of packing material are in the hands of extension for fruit and vegetable development service delivery. Heavy losses take place during ripening and transport to market and market handling. So knowledge on ripening, transport and handing technology knowhow by the producers will certainly reduce the losses after harvest. Institutional strategy: Development of Horticulture research and extension unit Project strategies Horticulture development is unique and exclusive service is necessary for quick promotion with technical adoption and market promotion. As there is no officer expert in horticulture crop development in the regional institution, Assistance for organizational and institutional promotion is necessary and a unit in the extension division with an officer in horticultural specialty is needed to coordinate development program and marketing with private entrepreneurs. Specialist is required to assist the program implementation and to learn modern technology in horticulture development. Project title: Development of horticultural research and development unit and Appointment of horticulture crop development specialist/ Subject Metter Specialist Objectives: • • • • To promote quality fruit production To strengthen horticultural crop development. To coordinate horticultural development program To develop location specific technology

Development of Tropical Fruit processing units Project Strategy Tropical fruit processing has the potential to provide an excellent export opportunity for the nation. One such processing unit was already developed in Jaffna which has to be strengthened with market technology.

The forms of processed tropical fruit used in international trade are: • single strength juices (bulk pack) • concentrated juices (bulk pack) • pulp and purees (bulk pack) • frozen slices and pieces (bulk pack) • essences Each of the above processes can and often are operated in stand-alone plants in the processing. Project : Development of fruit processing units in vital locations. Objective • • • • • • To promote technical adoption in harvesting To easy transport handling To reduce handling loss on transport To develop enterprises To increase high quality fruit consumption To give employment opportunity

Fruit crop development in the Region Banana Cultivation
Banana is already a popular fruit produced in a variety of ecological zones and is utilized throughout the country. There is significant interest in Jaffna in producing banana for export. The improvement in banana cultivation and selection of banana for export in an integrated approach is necessary. This is attributed by following reasons.

• • • •

Large volume of production /consumption Potential for significant reduction in post harvest losses. Some export and processing potential. Current concentrations of production that will provide the critical mass necessary to support improvements.

The banana cultivation in the region is best described as organic way of commercial cultivation. Estimated extent of 4000 ha of banana are currently under cultivation throughout the year in the region with the largest concentration of 2000 ha (50%) in Jaffna. Varieties Kathali and Kappal are the most popular in the region. However the introduction of Embul has gained momentum and it has good keeping quality and suitable for cultivation in most agro-ecological zones. For export orientation, department promotes KoliKudu variety cultivation. Development Potential Export of processed banana as ‘Banana Pulp’ is one of the principal processed banana products in international trade with estimated sales of 70,000 to 80,000 mt. annually.

Although this business is dominated by the multi- national fruit companies, it is likely that the producers in the region in collaboration with Sri Lanka Producers Association could take a small part of it through various marketing strategies. In addition, there is a significant trade for fried banana chips - a small but rapidly growing business and quick frozen banana slices. Processors will have to determine whether northern region type bananas are acceptable to the trade. Weakness in Current Production System • • • • • Traditional varieties are grown in the region but Kappal variety is used for export. However, Cavendish variety is to be developed for export. Production practices do not follow already known technology to achieve maximum yields and quality. Post- harvest techniques and handling are grossly inadequate. No organized marketing About 40% post-harvest losses occur between harvests to end-users.

Elements of an Improved Production System Cultivation of Appropriate Varieties Many traditional varieties do not have the disease resistance, shipping, and keeping qualities of bananas appropriate for an export market. The international market depends on a very few varieties, including the Valery variety of Cavendish. Short term efforts should be toward market existing varieties of bananas especially Embul. Intermediate efforts should be to select better local varieties for marketing (Kappal). Long- term effort is to introduce and multiply the export quality banana (Eg- valery). Application of Appropriate Culture Use of proper offshoots for planting, adequate spacing, adequate fertilization especially nitrogen and potassium, control of insects and diseases, good weed control, management of the clump to avoid excess shoots, mechanical support and bagging of the bunches are to be focused for better production. Adoption of Appropriate Harvest and Post- harvest Practices Harvest on time, and transport carefully to reduce bruising and heating, washing and drying, packing in boxes, temperature control during transport, possible ethylene treatment to promote ripening. Recommended Strategies and Projects I. Productivity Enhancement Project Strategy Improvement in management practices with advanced technology in production culture will enhance production.

Objectives • • • • To promote adoption of appropriate technology in cultivation. To introduce new technology appropriate to area for better production. To enhance knowledge and skill in fruit crop management. Promotion of Export Potential Banana Fruit crops

Project Strategy Selection of local banana varieties for the domestic market is to be focused. Its goal should be to reduce costs to the consumer, while improving farmer income. This would be accomplished through improvements in plant material, cultural practices and post-harvest handling. These improvements would also indirectly support the fresh and processed export sector. Select among existing banana varieties for a clone more suitable for shipping, then multiply it rapidly for distribution to farmers. Project Title: Multiplication of export potential variety either by tissue culture method or by pseudonymous planting material Objectives • • • To develop export potential banana orchard cultivation To introduce the export variety banana as the potential basis for a further export industry. To develop of banana sucker/Plant-lets production

Post-harvest Handling Improvement with De-handing Centre Project Strategy The post-harvest handling system should revolve around a centrally located packing shed. The packing shed will de-hand the stems and grade the product, and will chemically treat it to retard spoilage. The graded product will then be packed into containers to avoid bruising. Producers will be trained on better methods of harvesting and transporting the product to the shed, as well as the type of container appropriate to the situation in the region. With these other improvements in place, it must be determined if a cold chain is needed, given the short transport time of the product. However, given the volume involved, a cold chain will not add significantly to the unit costs. The packing shed need not be elaborate and could be owned and operated either by an association of the growers, one of the collaborating brokers, or an association of brokers. Procedure This includes procedures to assure harvesting the fruit at the proper time, cutting and handling the fruit, delivery to the packing shed, handling the product in the shed, selection, grading and weighing. These procedures must be evaluated and modified to reflect the needs and conditions of the domestic market. The use of boxes will be the most controversial aspect. However, the economics of reduced loss and easy handling by the truckers should be compelling. Research should be conducted in developing container that will make sense for the region’s situation.

Project: Establishment of de-handing centers in specific location Objectives • • • • To reduce post-harvest losses To reduce unwanted weight in transport. To increase the stuff in transport To facilitate employment opportunity

4.5.3. Mango Cultivation in the Region
Mango The Mango is a traditional local fruit crop already grown in the region and widely used for consumption. The mango is cultivated in home stead as a backyard industry with one to three trees in a home and in some places it goes up to 10 trees. Cultivators take advantages of natural rain fall for crop growing and fruit harvesting and are indifferent for management improvement of higher production. Its potentials are to increase local consumption with better varieties and with processed products and to export high quality fruits and their processed products. Post-harvest handling is complicated by so many wide- spread backyard growers making quality product difficult. Some varieties are grown for tried mango product which potential for export market Potential for Mango Fruit Development • • • Mangoes are grown throughout the region with a variety of cultivars all of which are not having export quality. There is insufficient production to meet domestic demand. There is a strong in- place demand by the existing processors. The region has variety of fruit crops with different taste and aroma. as for the Alfonso and Tommy Atkins, The Alfonso is preferred by processors. The principal fresh market would be the Gulf States where there is stiff competition from India. Selection of best cultivar for export is possible to compete with India

Weaknesses of Current Production System • • • • • • Majority of plants are available in homestead with poor management The majority of the trees are brought by seedlings of varied types. Fruits often have poor shipping and keeping qualities. The improved grafted varieties are not yet produced in quantity for farmers. Fruits are produced in excess during some seasons of the year and are not available in sufficient quantities during other seasons. Existing product is not handled adequately to assure market quality The potential for processed products is not sufficiently tapped.

Elements of an Improved Production System Cultivation of Appropriate Varieties The production system should move towards increased use of selected varieties produced by grafting from those varieties already existing in the region Introduction of variety Alphonse, Malwana, Tommy Atkins, Sensation, and Kent also is possible. Use of Appropriate Culture This includes adequate – sized plantations, use of grafted trees on uniform rootstocks, correct spacing, adequate fertilization, weed control, supplemental irrigation when needed, and possibly protective sprays. The possibility of off- season production induced by potassium sprays will be tested. Application of Appropriate Harvest and Post – Harvest Practices Plucking and Picking by hand at the appropriate stage, packing into containers to avoid bruising and heating during transit, cleaning and grading, packing into shipping containers, storage and transport at controlled temperatures, prompt marketing will reduce the postharvest losses. Strategies for development • Using the best judgment now available on varieties, rapidly prepare mother plant orchards as a source of scion (bud- wood) for future multiplication when current evaluations of varieties are completed. Select best varieties now known for rapid multiplication and distribution to farmers. Search among local seedlings for improved potential cultivars for long term development. Promote improved handling and processing by assistance to the post harvest sector. Promote the planting of some farms with sufficient production to support an industry. One person can manage two hectares of mango and with a little additional help can mange up to four hectares. Study the possibility of stimulating off- season production with potassium sprays. Initiate a program to graft (top work) old trees to better varieties. Adopt pruning and training practices for better quality production

• • • •

• • •

Production and Productivity Improvement of Mango Tree Project strategy As mango producers are meant for having homestead production, productivity improvement should be handled by the extension with various technological practices in the field. Project Title: Capacity building on Mango tree management and quality fruit production and demonstration

Objectives: • • • • • • To encourage adoption of appropriate technologies. To overcome malpractices in fruit tree management. To build capacity in pruning and training of tree. To introduce harvesting device for plucking of fruit. To obtain optimum and uniform size fruits. To rejuvenate old trees.

Pest and Disease Management Project Strategy: Pest management: Mango leaf hopper is a problematic pest in mango production. This can be controlled by timely application of chemical and proper cultural practices. Capacity building of cultivator in integrated pest management will be implemented. Project Title Development of Integrated pest management program for mango tree Objective • • • To manage pest damage to the minimum. To introduce cost effective method. To obtain quality fruits

Quality Mango Fruits Production and Development Project Strategies Promotion of quality fruit with standard for export orientation is one option to capture the international market. Not all the fruits produced are having international quality and consumer preference. Identification of ideal fruit trees as nucleus mother plants to be explored for export potential fruits production in the region is to be taken in to consideration to increase extent of cultivation of identified variety in the region to make sure the quality fruit production in all areas in the region. It is one possible option for export oriented quality fruit production. Project Title: Development and promotion of export potential mango fruit variety within the region. Selection of variety for export orientation and its production of planting material Objectives • • • • • To select suitable variety among existing To develop export potential fruiting cultivars To plant export cultivar in the homestead and orchards as well To promote mango farm with good variety To rapidly multiply best cultivars of selected Fruit

Market Strategy Marketing and post-harvest handling were grouped into three overall areas or thrusts or projects. 1. Reduction of post – harvest handling losses in the domestic market. 2. Development of exports for fresh fruit 3. Laying ground work for a Tropical Fruit Processing Industry. Initiating movement towards more cost effective post-harvest handling can be done through pilot projects. This should be developed in collaboration with the private sector to insure implementation. The problem of high costs, poor quality and loss, is not a problem of post harvest handling alone. It involves the entire process starting with varieties and production. Better varieties and more efficient cultural practices will provide higher quality produce, with better keeping qualities, at a lower cost; and better post-harvest handling will allow the industry to deliver higher quality products, at less cost to the consumer. Horticultural growers in the region are to be generally small farmers, with a hunger for information on how to improve. Tropical Fruit Processing Development (See ealier project) Project Strategy Emphasis will be placed on laying the ground work necessary to encourage the development of an extensive mango fruit processing in the region. The resistance to better post – harvest handling for the domestic market centres may be on its perceived higher costs of the final product. Project Title : Establishment of domestic market centres in the region Objectives • • • • • To promote fresh and hygienic fruits markets To promote whole sale buying and market To reduce market pre and post harvest handling damage To promote community marketing To encourage good fruit tree management at homestead level

4.5.4. Jak fruit cultivation in the region The region has quite famous for jak fruit. Several areas are having jak fruits trees and quality and taste are diverse in nature the varieties grown in the region are specific to the regional areas. Since potential market for processed and canned product and fruits seeds are exist in ethnic and niche markets outside the country. Hence, promotion of Jak cultivation in the region with selected export quality varieties will give rise to the occasion of expanding market to national and global.

Production and productivity enhancement strategy Since seedling propagation give variability in characters due to crossing of varieties. Jak fruit crop should be planted with grafted seedling obtaining scion from the quality and desirable character fruit trees. Selection of good quality nucleus mother is possible from the existing trees. Establishment of jak fruits nurseries for production of quality grafted jak seedlings for re-planting is the strategy for productivity enhancement of export oriented jak fruits Project Title: Production and promotion of export potential varieties. Objectives • • • To promote good quality planting material production and supply To promote existence of good quality jak fruits trees in the region To promoting marketing

4.5.5. Pineapple cultivation in the region Pineapple has been already introduced and existing in homestead level. The potential exists for increasing its cultivation in land of 8000 ha of coconut plantation. Sri Lanka’s extent of cultivation is about 4350 ha and producing only 30,000 mt which is not enough to meet the export demand to neighbor county Pakistan. Cultivation with variety Kew, Red Spanish, and Sugarloaf type will have high potential and canning in several forms for internal use and for export is possible in the region. Weaknesses of Current Production System • • • The present industry is at introductory level. Inadequate supply of planting material. Difficulty in getting planting material.

Elements of an Improved Production System Use of Appropriate Varieties Smooth cayenne is suggested for canning and for export of fresh fruits. Red Spanish and Sugarloaf are suggested primarily for local fresh market. However, the present variety Kew is prominent in Sri Lanka. Appropriate Culture Highly modernized production systems have to be improved. These include methods of propagation, weed control, pest control, and stimulate flowering for uniformity of production. Application of Appropriate Harvest and Post- harvest Systems This may include time and method of harvest, protection from bruising and excess exposure, cleaning, packing and shipping including temperature controls. The technology already available is quite enough to be developed.

Production and Productivity Enhancement Project Strategy Make available through extension the best production techniques to be adopted in pine apple cultivation with the steady supply of pine apple sucker for development. This plant is slightly tolerant to saline soil. Saline tract can be explored for this cultivation regardless the fruit quality. The variety Mauricious or Kew can be promoted and new variety for saline tract is to be explored. Project Title: Implementation of production technology adoption program Objectives • • • • To promote pine apple cultivation both in homestead and under coconut plantation as commercial cultivation To promote pine apple cultivation in suitable location. To introduce pine apple cultivation in crop zoning program. To enhance knowledge and skill in cultivation

Production of planting material Project Strategy Planting material is the major problem in promoting pine apple cultivation in the region. Production of planting material will be developed with promotion of this fruit crop cultivation. Project: Development of production and supply of planting material system Objectives • • • • To supply planting material to farmers. To receive additional income by sale of suckers. To extent pine apple cultivations To adapt to climatic condition

4.5.6. Citrus cultivation in the region-Lime and Orange Requirement for lime, orange and mandarin is ever increasing in both domestic and industrial sector. Lime juice is an essential ingredient in the diet of SriLankan. This is an essential fruit for vitamin ‘C’ supply. Hence lime and orange are cultivated in most of the homesteads. But, minimal management of tree results in poor production. However, the large scale commercial cultivation exists in Vavuniya district. The variety Tahiti is suitable for promotion of lime fruit production in the region. Under the crop zoning program, sweet orange varieties are being promoted. Every household prefers to plant this crop in the

homestead. Pumelo and Mandarin is other citrus family crop which can be exploited as the time goes on with demand for juice and mass melon production industry. Weakness in Production System One of the major weaknesses in the production system is poor tree management and technical knowhow. As it is a very delicate plant, rough handling will damage the plant. It is very susceptible to die back disease and other diseases by physical damage. Development Strategies • • • • Select areas suitable for lime production. Multiply selected lime varieties as rapidly as possible and distribute to farmers. Create awareness on the technology recommendations available for growers, Make available to prospective packers, processors, and shippers the best postharvest and processing information available.

Production and Productivity Enhancement Project Strategy The better tree management and capacity building on tree management will promote the lime production in the region. The variety Tahiti can be promoted. Project: Capacity building Training and demonstration at field level. Objectives • • • To promote knowledge on technical knowhow for better management. To encourage to plant in every household in the rural area. To prepare and distribute reading material.

Development of Citrus Farm Project Strategy Identify suitable zone in the region and promote lime cultivation in commercial scale. A subsidy scheme will be introduced for supply of inputs for one year of management. This will enhance the good management practices by the cultivators Project Title: Development of Lime Farm in identified suitable zone in the region Objectives • • • • To promote commercial scale lime cultivation. To develop lime crop zone in the region. To facilitate citrus product based industry development. To Identify suitable zone in the region and promote lime cultivation

4.5.7. Orange Development of Orange Production and Supply of Sweet Orange Seedlings Project Strategy A huge potential is available to develop Citrus orchard in north of vavuniya Where citrus cultivation was once famous for sweet orange production hence the area will be zoned for sweet orange cultivation and develop in commercial scale. Hence, Revitalization of orange cultivation in the area will be facilitated by supply of good quality orange seedling and subsidy for inputs up to one year. Project Title: Development of Production and supply system of sweet orange grafted seedling. Objectives: • • • • • To promote local quality planting material production To promote orange cultivation with sweet orange variety. To disseminate appropriate technologies among farmers. To train on pruning of water shoot and thinning out techniques To promote pruning technology with the use of bordex mixture

4.5.8. Papaw Papaw is well known as a dessert type fruit throughout the area and any person can consume this fruit. It has a good source of papain used as meat tenderizers. It has some promise as a fresh export crop and definite but limited potential as a processed fruit. Papaw cultivation is very susceptibile for damage in submerged condition and therefore a drainage system is needed during wet season and also it is susceptible to ring- spot virus which limits production. Development of papaw cultivation in small orchard level with variety having red flesh and more shelf life will fetch fairly good income to household. There are hybrid varieties with preferable characters available in the market.

Weaknesses of Current Production System • • • The greatest weakness of the current system is the use of low quality varieties or of non- descript seedlings. Poor tree management Lack of adequate processing methods.

The availability of hybrid varieties shows the potential promotion of this fruit crop as commercial farming

Elements of an Improved Production System Variety The ideal variety is of the so- called hermaphroditic type. Seeds from the hermaphrodite result in 2/3 hermaphrodite and 1/3 females which are usually discarded. Varieties must be kept pure. The variety having long keeping quality is better for promotion. Appropriate Production Techniques These include seed preparation and storage, direct planting or potting of seedlings, control of seedling diseases, proper spacing, heavy fertilization, perfect weed control, control of pests including virus vectors (aphids and white flies) and harvest at the proper stage which is normally mature green with slight yellow in the bottom. Appropriate Post- Harvest Treatment The post-harvest treatment has not been taken serious by either producer or marketer. The post-harvest treatment includes very careful harvest and handling, avoidance of bruising, scratching and exposure to sun, washing and cleaning, grading. Careful packing, shipping and temperature control are necessary in transporting fruit. Possible ethylene fumigation treatment and radiation treatment can be done at port of entry when export is done. Development Strategies: • • • Use hybrid Import fresh seed and other hermaphroditic varieties. Produce seed of the selected varieties under conditions of isolation and rouging to type. Use seed of hermaphrodites only. Make such seed available to farmers. Make the best production technology available through extension services.

Development of papaw cultivation Project Strategy Market oriented extension with promotion of technology application and facilitation for market will be focused. Supply of seedling of hybrid variety will be promoted with private producer. Introduction of papaw harvester for easy plucking of fruits is to be promoted Project title: Production and Productivity Enhancement Objectives • • • To promote papaw cultivation with export variety. To promote application of post-harvest technology. To introduce new technology in papaw production.

Marketing of fruits Project Strategy Application of wraps around the fruits can reduce damage in transport and to promote papaw market value of the fruit and papaw fruit drink is ideal thrust quenching drink with nutritive value. Project title: Papaw fruit related value addition technology development Objective • • • To promote use of papaw juice in daily life To promote proper maintenance of fruit tree. To promote marketing of fruit

4.5.9. Avocado Avocados are a familiar dooryard fruit produced throughout Sri lanka and available in season in local markets and it has good source of vegetable fat. There is great potential for cultivating avocado in the northern region at homestead level to cater domestic needs in the initial stage and go for export later. Avocado plant has already been introduced.

Element s of an improved production system Appropriate Varieties Grafted trees of selected varieties which are early mid season and late should be used for new plantings. Appropriate Culture At least homestead level planting of selected varieties is recommended as a beginning of production later some hectare-sized plantings for export. Good production requires correct spacing, fertilization, weed, and pest control. Appropriate Harvest and Post-Harvest Practices Avocados are picked green when physiologically mature which will be ready to ripen in a few days. This must be determined by trial picking. They must be picked and transported to avoid bruising and overheating. Development Strategies Excellent avocado varieties and local selections are already available in Sri Lanka for introduction. Multiply as rapidly as possible to obtain mother – plant nurseries in the region.

Development of Avacado fruit cultivation Project Strategy Potential of promotion of this fruit crop will be started with introduction at homestead level and make aware of this fruit consumption to promote market. Project Title: Introduction of Avocado Fruit Plant of Homestead Level Objectives • • To introduce avocado fruit crop in home garden. To supply grafted seedling to homestead under agro-forestry program.

4.5.10. Grapevine Grape is cultivated largely in Jaffna district and sporadically in other districts. As the demand for this fruit is high during season, producers concentrate on intensive method of technical application. Grape vine cultivation needs higher initial capital cost and cultivations are limited. As this is a seasonal crop, outside market is necessary for expansion of this crop. There are varieties to be cultivated for different purposes such as vine preparation, dried fruit, and fresh fruit etc. It is a profitable fruit crop and has industrial potential. Weakness Poor technical knowhow and high investment and long period of management limit expansion of the cultivation. Development strategy Expansion of Grape Vine Cultivation Project Strategy Improve production through dissemination of technical knowhow and introduction of seedless varieties with the present “Israel blue” variety cultivation. Expand cultivation through supply of planting material. Project Title: Expansion of grape vine cultivation with seedless variety Objectives • • • To facilitate production and supply of planting material. To introduce new variety suitable for table To make aware of production technology

4.5.11. Expansion of Pomegranate cultivation It performs well in coastal areas. Seedless variety is available in the department to promote this fruit at home garden level. It has a good medicinal value for many ailments

Project Title: Expansion of pomegranate cultivation with consumer preference variety Objectives • • • • Supply of soft seeded variety seedlings for promotion of pomegranate cultivation in the suitable area To promote expansion of this fruit cultivation. To make available of fruits in the market at affordable price To increase the consumption of pomegranate

4.5.12. Expansion of Guava cultivation Guava can be promoted in homestead level and commercial level. There are varieties for good quality guava fruit production such as bankok giant, safeda etc. Department has developed varieties with red flesh, white flesh and seedless. This also can be promoted at home garden level Project Title: Promotion of Guava cultivation with the supply of consumer preference guava seedling Objectives • • • To make realize the potential of this crop To promote good commercial oriented variety in cultivation To promote fruits consumption

4.5.13. Other Fruit Crops Recommended for cultivation Some of the tropical fruits still have potential to grow in the region but not yet favorably taken by the department to give a dynamic encouragement to in developing those fruits tree in a commercial scale with technology development for production improvement. However, these fruit crops have to be taken into much consideration Sapodilla This fruit can be cultivated in the region. Action will be taken to cultivate sapodilla at homestead level by supplying planting material. Dragon fruit This fruit has good potential for hotel industry. This is cactus type of fruit tree which can be cultivated in the region as it needs high temperature for better growth. Cultivation of this fruit crop can be considered depending on market potential. For trial purpose, this will be cultivated in the training centre. Wood Apple The management of Lanka Cannery has stated that there are good international markets for processed wood apple.

Tamarind This crop has export potential but people are not taking interest in cultivating this crop in the homesteads. This is grown naturally all over the area. In future this crop should be given attention for promotion. Areca nut This crop can be promoted in the homestead since it is an ingredient to beetle chewers. Limited but steady market prevails. Selection of potential variety for dry zone and regional requirement is necessary.

4.6. Extension Program for Horticulture Development
Establishment Model Horticulture Farm at DATC Project Strategy Availability of good quality fruits seedlings in the region is very much poor. Supply of quality seedlings is expected from either research station or from farm at south region. To alleviate this problem and to develop model orchard with nucleus plants for future Quality and pedigree planting material production and quality training on horticultural crops development. The DATC will be facilitated by this development. This farm also serves as a model demonstration unit to the farmers in the DATC. Project Title: Establishment of horticulture farm with nucleus fruit plant for training Objectives • • • • • To maintain pedigree plant in the farm. To serve as model horticultural farm in the training centre. To promote integrated crop management. To produce and supply good quality seedling to farmers To supply good scion for bud grafting by private nurserymen

Integrated Horticultural Development Program Project Strategy Development of integrated horticultural farm at commercial level will be facilitated by this project this program aims at expansion of horticultural crop cultivation in an integrated manner. Improving the productivity through adoption of advanced technology will be promoted in this strategy. Objectives • • • • To promote integrated horticulture farming To apply the cropping system technology. To increase the income of unit area of cultivated land. Maintain the eco-system by application of bio-fertilizer and botanic pesticide

4.7. Vegetable Crops
Historically, Vegetable Cultivation in the region is a prominent venture and cultivated with traditional varieties which had potential feature for pest and disease resistibility. With the advent of new technology, Vegetable cultivation was replaced with new inbred and hybrid varieties and also Genetic engineering has advanced to generate Genetically Modified Plants. Hence, farmers in Northern region have good knowledge on vegetable cultivation and cultivate vegetables throughout the year. A wide range of vegetable crops are grown in the region and used in the daily diet. However climate has considerable effect on the production of up-country vegetables, such as beans, leeks and cauliflower etc, in dry season unless cultivated in control condition. Therefore, to get availability of up-country vegetable year round, control system of cultivation (net house, protected agriculture, shade net cultivation) should be adopted. Introduction of net house cultivation has shown encouraging results to farmers. Safe vegetable cultivation technologies are available but costly. This is possible when export markets are explored. Some of the most important vegetable crops being cultivated in the region are grouped by importance or use and listed below, Chilli and red onion are also now included into vegetables. Condiments • • Chili Red onion

High Nutritional Value Pod vegetables • • • • • Green beans Yard long beans Winged beans Okra Tomato

High Nutritional Value Leavy vegetables • • • • Kankun (Ipomia) Spinach (Basella) Gotucola (Centinela) Mukunuwenna (Alternanthera)

Melon and Fruit Vegetables of Little Nutritional Value • • • • • Eggplant Cucumber Luffa Bitter gourd Snake gourd

Weakness in vegetable cultivation The following weakness are identified in vegetable cultivation in the region Vegetable cultivation in the region mostly have been on soil inherent fertility and a few farmers apply fertilizer along with organic manure. The application of fertilizer in large scale commercial production is to get advantages of marketing. As such, the production potential in existing cultivation is yet to be improved. • • • • • • Poor Eco-friendly adoptable technology for pest and diseases Most of the farmers adopt traditional practice in cultivation Mostly subsistence and home stead level Management takes advantage of market Poor post harvest handling and transport causing loss Harvesting depend on market

Vegetable cultivation in the region Vegetable are cultivated all over in the districts as commercial subsistence and home needs. Table 16 and Figure 9 show the trend of vegetable production in the region as an average of five years. Table –16: Vegetable cultivated extent and production 1996 – 2007 Vegetable cultivated extent and production 1996 - 2007 District Year 1996-2000 2001-2005 Cultivated Extent(ha) Maha 3955.79 5497.99 Yala 1876.244 3413.518 Total 5832.034 8911.508 Production(mt) Maha 57451.3 92733.43 Yala 26058.44 54454.244 Total 83509.74 147187.674 Figure 10: vegetable cultivated extent and production 2006-2007 6480.085 3631.65 10111.735 112933.2 52168.1 165101.3

4.7.1. Chili Cultivation and Development Chili is categorized under condiment crops and used in the preparation of curry as powder and sliced green pods to make the taste of the curry as traditionally practiced in all over the regions in Sri Lanka. Chili are grown as cash crop in high land under irrigated condition and are harvested fresh and marketed either fresh or after having been dried or after processing as chili powder. The production of chilli in the region is quite enough to meet the demand of the regional population (Table 17 and Figure 1 and 11). As this crop produce has continuous demand throughout the year, it fetches more income to farmer, thus technology applications are intensive in chili cultivation. Varieties Two old varieties developed in Sri Lanka, MI-I and MI-2, are used as standard. However, new varieties such as KA lines and hybrid MI hot and other varieties under screening are available for better production. Availability or accessibility of seeds is poor in the region. Table 17: Northern Province chili cultivated extent and production 1985-2007 Northern province chilli cultivated extent and production 1985 - 2007
District Cultivated Extent(ha) Season Maha Yala Total Production(mt) Maha Yala Total 1985 2640 1151 3791 2026.4 3210.6 5237 1986-1990 4358.4 3377.2 7735.6 5582.8 4858.25 10441.05 1991-1995 1904.4 1734.2 3638.6 2366.2 1026.8 3393 1996-2000 1543.8 404.3 1948.1 1703.1 306.12 2009.22 2001-2005 1535.7 241.19 1776.89 2388.35 364.756 2753.106 2006-2007 1430.45 270.675 1701.125 2174.575 391.445 2566.02

Figure 11: Chilli cultivated extent in Northern Province

Figure 12: Chilli production extent in Northern Province

Limiting Factors A minor factor limiting production is loss of fruit due to Anthracnose disease during the wet season. A major factor is the curling, malformation, and leaf loss due to a poorly understood complex, possibly a combination of insect or mite and virus. This is called as leaf curl complex or little leaf disease. Further yellowing of leaves too is a problem in some areas. Leaf curl complex (LCC) disease can sometime reduce yields to nothing. This is a crop where pesticides are used excessively. Strategies • • • • Studies are needed to determine the nature of the “narrow leaf disorder’ and then to suggest controls. A package of practice is recommended by the research. Better controls are needed that do not involve more than minor use of pesticides. The entire chili collection should be screened for disease resistant varieties. Varietal substitution or breeding may prove necessary over the long run. Eco friendly technology control of pest and diseases is necessary

Technical Activities that Control Leaf Curl Complex Project strategy The LCC is the most severely affecting disease in chilli cultivation. Control of this menace is imminent and imperative for better production. Package of practice is necessary to control this complex disease Project: Establishment of demonstration plot with package of practices Objectives • • • To manage little leaf curl complex. To increase production. To encourage farmers to cultivate.

4.7.2. Onion Northern region is famous for its red-onion cultivation. Onions are used everywhere, everyday as a condiment vegetable in the country’s household, and therefore onion is a high priority vegetable crop. Onions are used fresh or superficially dried. There is dehydrated onion in the market. People use onion for chutney preparation too. Onion cultivation in the region is good enough to the regional population. But, high demand exists in southern part of the country due to its level of pungency over other region production. Cultivation in the region Onion crops are cultivated in large scale in all districts in the region as cash crop with intensive management with irrigation in dry season and to a lesser extent with rainfall in wet season. Especially shallot type red onion is cultivated in the region. Introduction of micro sprinkler irrigation paved way for improvement in productivity and water management. Table –17 and Figure 12 and 13 show the red-onion cultivation trend in the region, averaged in five years Varieties There are many local recessions /tribes found in the region cultivation. However, basically two kinds of onion are grown- multiplier onion (shallot) with red skin and a large single-bulb type also with red skin. The former was first produced from seeds and is now grown from small bulbs. Many Jaffna local cultivars were found to be cultivated. They are differently named by the farmers. Big onion variety also is cultivated in the area.

Table- 17: Red onion Cultivated Extent and Production 1985 - 2007
District Cultivated Extent(ha) Season Maha Yala Total Production(mt) Maha Yala Total 1985 1682 2754 4436 20118 31152 51270 1986-1990 2458.4 2715 5173.4 28360.4 30630 58990.4 1991-1995 2070.2 2734.5 4804.7 24239.2 30891 55130.2 1996-2000 697.16 992.12 1689.28 5937 11045 16982 2001-2005 1027.16 1501.84 2529 13825.43 20247.54 34072.97 2006-2007 729 1352.25 2081.25 14694.9 17359 32053.9

Figure 13: Red onion Cultivated Extent in Northern Province

Figure 14: Red onion production in Northern Province

Weakness in the Production System: There is lack in inter and intra district seed supply mechanism. Regularized seed production will improve the production. Limiting Factors Disease and insect problems are not serious limitations so far, except the nematode and leaf twisting problem in some areas. The unavailability of red onion in part of the year is a serious limitation for seed onion. Strategies • • • The problem of seasonal availability is already tackled by improved storage facilities, mostly at the farmer level. Since the onion germ-plasm in Jaffna varied with “vetharaniam” variety, this should be protected and identify the better variety for cultivation to market demand. The seed production and storage ability to satisfy onion demands during the rainy season. The efforts already underway on seed production should be extended, and a reliable seed production industry should be developed. Development of Seed Production and Local Storage

Project Strategy Identify farmer group for production of seed onion and make aware to other farmers the availability and assist producer for storing of seed bulb. Project title: Objectives • • • To supply seed onion to farmers. To promote local storage facilities. To facilitate year round production of onion. Development and Improvement onion seed production system

4.7.3. Tomato Cultivation Tomato is the third vegetable (with chillies and onions) used daily in the diet, and is therefore a very important vegetable crop. Tomatoes are used principally fresh, but to a lesser extent as processed paste, puree, and to an even lesser extent, as a juice. There is potential for promotion of this crop product value addition as tomato catch up.

Weaknesses of Current Production System • • No suitable variety for dry season as heat tolerant Poor technology knowhow for cultivation

Varieties Many varieties have been introduced and tested over the years. There are a number of varieties developed at AVRDC and HORDI. There appears to be suitable, disease resistant, high quality, high yielding variety available. Limiting Factors Tomatoes are limited by a wide range of problems. These tend to be the same almost everywhere in the tropics and are most severe in the rainy season. Therefore, most production occurs during the dry season. Among the most severe problems are bacterial wilt which can be avoided by planting in disease free fields and by resistant varieties, early and late blight which are sporadic as are the various virus problems. In addition, some varieties exhibit physiological diseases including blossom end rot, problems of cracking and cat face and also now it is attacked by mites. Strategies • • The problem of appropriate variety is complex and there are no final solutions. A continuous introduction and through testing of new varieties is desirable. The problem of shortage during the rainy season might be alleviated with variety.

Hi-Tech Tomato Cultivation Project Strategy Promotion of cultivation under control environment such as poly ethylene tunnel, net house etc. will be advocated. Initially it can be started with the cultivation under net house system for promotion of tomato cultivation. Project: Development of protected agriculture system. Objectives • • • • To promote tomato cultivation under control practices. To make available with year round production. To reduce market price fluctuation to optimum. To manage pest and disease effectively.

4.7.4. Green Bean Green Beans are important supplemental vegetables often used cooked alone or mixed with other vegetables. In reality, there are three species that are somewhat interchangeable in uses, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the yard- long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) and the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). However, the region concerns only the second. Most are used fresh although some are pickled in vegetable mixtures. In the region, mostly yard-long bean is cultivated. There are many varieties traditionally being cultivated in the house hold level in the region but those are now become extinct. Weaknesses of Current Production System No dry season cultivation Varieties Most are of the climbing type, although some are bush type. Limiting Factors Green beans are attacked by a wide variety of diseases and insects. None of which are critical. There is a limit of suitable areas for production of green bean. Pod set is limited in hot weather. Strategies The substitution of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by the much better adapted yard – long bean is a very appropriate solution for bean promotion in the region. This can be promoted in home stead farming. However the cultivation of beans can be promoted with control condition. Facilitate Seed Supply in the Time of Requirement. Project strategy Seed production of long bean is costly. This will be produced with special care by private seed and public seed production system. Project: Development of Seed production and supply system Objectives • • • To promote seed production and supply of yard long bean To make available long bean seed at affordable cost. To regularize seed supply system

4.7.5. Melons The word melon refers to fruits of several species of the family Cucurbitacea, especially the general Citrullus (watermelon) and Cucumis (cantaloupe, musk- melon, casaba and honey dew, oriental melon) and their hybrids and selected cultivars. All melons require dry climate, low humidity, and plenty of heat. They prefer soils that are loamy and fertile, and that are neither very acid nor very alkaline. Nevertheless, it will be possible to produce melons in selected environments in the region and during selected seasons. While there is a great potential for a local market in melons, the export market is also likely to be very good. Melon is not much cultivated in the region as it has no demand in the region. However the production will bring the demand from outside Varieties A very large number of varieties are available. However, very few varieties combine the disease resistances, production, shipping characteristics, and eating quality desired. This is true also for the watermelon. Limiting Factors Production techniques for melons, except watermelon, are almost unknown in this region. The varieties of watermelon grown in table quality are inadequate in the country. Seeds of the required varieties are not available in Sri Lanka (including watermelon varieties). There is little knowledge or practice of adequate post-harvest techniques. Promotion of water melon cultivation Project Strategies Select areas and seasons for trials of melon production with varieties recommended. Under best conditions, initiate trials of varieties, including quality. Technology and varieties, including post – harvest practices should be released to growers. Project: Introduction and Promotion of melon cultivation in homestead and selected areas Objectives • • • • To utilize marginal land in the homestead To promote cultivation of melon in rain-fed marginal areas To promote consumption requirement for water melon To introduce new table varieties

Promotion of Upcountry Vegetable Cultivation in the Region Upcountry vegetable cultivation is limited to wet season and very intensive in dry season resulting in higher market price. Inadequate supply of exotic vegetable from the region will be overcome by introduction of protected agriculture in the area.

Project Strategy Hi-tech Horticulture, Up country vegetable cultivation promotion under control condition during uncongenial climatic condition to ensure year round production of such vegetables should be facilitated through promoting cultivation under net house, poly tunnel and shade system and poly green house. The poly – green plastic are used to cultivate vegetables. This is very possible in Jaffna district as farmers cultivate vegetables in their homestead. Net house cultivation is an acceptable technique to the region. To develop this method of cultivation, a subsidy scheme will be introduced among the farmers for establishing one unit of low, medium cost poly green house. Project Title: Promotion of up country vegetable production Objectives • • • To promote up country vegetable. To facilitate year round production. To increase local production of upcountry vegetables

Vegetable Dehydration for Preservation in Glut Season Project Strategy Dehydration of vegetables under solar radiation and packing for future use is advocated for value addition of vegetable during glut production and to increase income. Introduction of solar dryer among vegetable producers and training on technology knowhow will provide solution for wastage of unmarketable vegetables. Project Title: Development of value addition in vegetable and Supply of solar equipment for vegetable dehydration Objectives • • • • To add value to fresh vegetable To preserve surplus as dehydrated vegetables To use vegetable in off season To supply to food city market

Storage of Vegetables Farmers sell vegetable at lower cost in the market as they do not want to take vegetables back home. Vegetables can be stored in cool climate. Cooling effect for storage of vegetable can be given by artificially made cold storage chamber so designed to keep the area cool. This can be achieved by construction of hollow brick wall filled with moisture absorbing material such as soil, saw dust etc and covered with cadjan thatched or straw roofing. This is an intermediate low cost technology for vegetable storage for certain period. Project Title: Construction of local cold storage with intermediate technology to vegetable producers

Objectives • • • • • To store surplus vegetables. To reduce losses in keeping for next day when not marketed. To increase income of farmers. To promote local storage of vegetables. To reduce compelling sale

Leafy Vegetable Cultivation Promotion of leafy vegetable production is to be taken up with suitable location as demands for leafy vegetable are increasing among the consumers. As leafy vegetables are nutritious and contain fiber, it has to include in daily diet. Therefore a daily demand is possible. Identify leafy vegetable home gardeners and promote them in production of leafy vegetable. Project Title: Promotion of leafy vegetable cultivation in home stead under sprinkler system Objectives • • To promote leafy vegetable production through the year To increase the income of household

Urban Agriculture Development Strategy– Potted Agriculture Urbanization promote more fast food consumption and preserved vegetable purchase and use. Vegetable cultivation in appropriate pots filled with fertile soil is an encouraging one to promote in urban areas where arable lands are very inadequate for direct earth planting and where soils are unsuitable for crop. For fresh and daily consumption of vegetables, daily plucking of produces is possible in potted plant cultivation system. This system is already introduced and should be promoted in urban residential areas where soil and water are problems. Project Title : Urban agriculture development through potted plant development. Objectives • • • • To promote urban vegetable home garden To make use of waste water. To give pleasing environment. To consume fresh vegetables

4.8 Diversified Alternative Farming Technology Development for Eco – Management-Green Agriculture
Under the sustainable resource management and environment management context, Eco friendly technology management is highly advocated in the production system. Green farming or green agriculture is the latest concept for ecological sustainability.

4.8.1. Use of the Neem Tree as a Practical Small Farm Insecticide A major problem in the production of vegetables in small holdings is the use of excessive amounts of insecticides. Insecticides cost the farmer money. They are applied too frequently which suggest that in some cases insects are becoming resistant to them. Their uses expose workers to short and long term health hazards including chronic disease and death. New methods of insect control are drastically needed. This problem is recognized by the DOA and studies to alleviate it have been underway for some time. The field of integrated pest management has developed as a sane and safer way to control insects. One alternative method is the use of a natural insecticide. Several of these are known, including Rotenone, Pyrethriune, Bacillus thuringensis, and Neem. The neem tree is recommended because it is tropical, it is well adopted, it can be grown in small farms, it is already introduced and distributed in the region, and some information on its use has already been gained in earlier studies by the DOA. The research using neem should be continued and intensified. Several kinds of research with neem (Azatrica) are suggested. 1. Determine the most effective material in terms of insecticidal value. (green leaves, mature leaves, leaves shed from the tree, seeds) 2. Develop appropriate harvest and post-harvest methods for the neem raw material. 3. Develop several formulations of neem such as dusts and extractions reagents and test their relative toxicity. 4. Test such formulations against crop pests. 5. Draw up recommendations for farmers on home scale production and use of neem and press forward with the technology transfer.

Strategy: Development of research in this direction is considered necessary and recommends Diversified alternative farming technology of different usage. 4.8.2. I.P.M and IPNS strategy The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach is very well acknowledged by the farmers. The object of the project is to maximize the production at a minimum cost and simultaneously obviate the ill effects of application of toxic chemicals. As part of IPM activities pest surveillance should be done periodically. To train the farmers on pest surveillance and also to train the staff in plant protection, the Plant Protection Unit should be established to help propagation of IPM concept and a Bio- Control Agent Production Centre, has to be established to produce and supply bio – control agent to small and marginal farmers at reasonable cost. The production of Tricograme and Tricoderma at an established parasite breeding centre will be focused to promote with feasibility study and the use of microorganism too can be exploited in the future. 4.8.3. Production of Bio-Control Material and Effective Micro Organism Bio -control agent such as Trichograma and Trichoderma can be produced locally. The production of this bio-control agent in pest management program is considered feasible. The objective of this program is improving the control of pest in biological way. The

production of Trichograma was successfully implemented with IPM promotion program in some parts of the northern region earlier. There are several beneficial micro bacterial fungal organism found in the soil such as Rizobium, Azetobactor, Pseudomonus, Verticeilium, Micorisa and Azola etc. This micro organism can be produced in the suitable culture media and introduced into the soil for further development. These are very much beneficial to farmer in fixing nitrogen in the soil and make insoluble phosphorous into soluble form for plants to absorb easily. This will be explored in the future. Strategy: Development of integrated pest management and integrated plant nutrition and diversified alternative farming technology for sustainable eco –management Project Title : Promotion of eco –friendly technology applications in crop cultivation Objectives: • • • • • To promote IPM package of practice in crop management To maintain pest population dynamics in natural phenomenon To minimize the environmental pollution To encourage farmers’ adoption of eco -friendly technologies. To reduce development of resistant tribes.

4.8.4. Nutritional Home Garden Development Nutritional home garden development in every homestead will pave way for production of crop produces for home needs. Effective and efficient land utilization in the homestead for production of vegetables and fruits will be focused in rural areas.

4.9. Organic Farming and Carbonic fertilizer production
Spiraling input price, unsure market mounting debts have forced the farmers to think of viable alternatives. Subsequently organic farming has evolved as the best solution. Compared to inorganic farming, organic farming is within the control of the farmer as all the basic inputs are available in the farm or in the villages. Organic product has several advantages in health and medicine sector. Chinese practice taste for organic food and India developed several organic products in the market. A high demand exists all over the world for organic product not only for fresh organic produce but for value added organic product such as organic juice, cordial and jam etc. The region’s cultivation is best described as small farming and that is very suitable for organic cultivation. Fruits and some vegetables like long bean, gourd and grain like pulses are cultivated with soil of inherent fertility. Hence, development of organic farming in the region will be feasible. However, as organic farming will affect the overall production, in the initial stage, this could be started in marginal areas of the villages with formation of a Small Organic Farmer Association (SOFA) with farmers who organically produced crop produces. A market will be facilitated in potential area for organic product marketing. Criteria for organic product based on the certification standard will be developed by the Department of Agriculture. Most of the countries have developed standard of organic product which is varied with resource limitation and level of harmfulness.

Organic farming development Strategy: Organic farming promotion is necessary to sustain the resource utilization Small scale feature of cultivation in the region is advantageous for quick promotion to organic farming. Organic farming will be started with small number of farmers in the villages where organic manure such as cow dung and bio- mass and farm yard manure are freely available until the market gets prominent and demand created. Project Title: Development of organic farming and carbonic fertilizer production in the region Objectives • • • • • • To introduce organic way of crop cultivation in the villages To promote the organic crop production. To develop the organic market in the region To improve quality supply in competitive market To promote commercial organic farming To promote carbonic fertilizer usage in crop cultivation.

Chapter – 5 Cultivation of Aromatic Crops
Sri Lanka is popular for its production of spice crops. Cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, nutmeg, pepper, coffee and citronella are some of the aromatic crops being cultivated in wet zone and these are called minor export crops. The demand for spice crops in the world market is high and Sri Lanka’s production of spices is not quite enough to meet South Asian regional demand for cinnamon, cloves and cardamom. Though the spices are grown in intermediate zone with average rainfall more than 1500 mm / annum, these crops have been proved to have been grown in the dry zone under coconut plantation. About 8000 ha of well grown coconut plantation exist in the region. This plantation sector can be explored to the cultivation of cinnamon, cardamom, Pepper and coffee for self sufficiency and with time for export with quality production. There is a necessity to grow more spice crops for export to the global markets. This can only be achieved by getting the peasant sector involved in producing spices.

5.1. Potential for Cultivation of aromatic crop in the region
Some of the aromatic crops have already been cultivated and found successful in the region. The possibility for further promotion is to be explored. Cinnamon There is a great potential in increasing exports of cinnamon, pepper and cloves as there is a ready market for these spices in the world markets. World trade in cinnamon (cinnamon esculantum) is around 12,000 to 13,000 tons, Cassia cinnamon is traded to the extent of 65,000 to 75,000 tons. An increase in production in the country can easily take a good share of the cassia trade.

Pepper World trade in pepper has been around 200,000 to 250,000 tons. Sri Lanka’s export is less than 4% of the world trade. Production of pepper and cinnamon could be easily marketed to double or even treble the present quantity being exported. Regional coconut plantation areas can be utilized for pepper cultivation Cloves Practically all cloves from the country are exported to India, because Sri Lanka enjoys a tariff free entry into India as against a 35% tariff into India from other origins. Sri Lanka exports have been around 2,500 to 4,000 tons annually to India. The demand in India is around 10,000 to 12,000 tons annually.

5.2. Cultivation of Betel
Traditionally and culturally people use betel for chewing and for religious ritual activities. Hence it becomes an important leaf for community. The region is famous for the cultivation of betel especially in the Jaffna district. The betel produced in the district has unique aroma and pungency and has high demand for national market. Recently, due to fungal disease, the production has been declined and further, transport constraint to outside market affected the quality of production and management. The potential for export of betel to South East Asian Countries like Pakistan and India exists. Hence, expansion of betel cultivation in the region as commercial cultivation for export and as homestead level cultivation for local needs will be encouraged in future. Cultivation of Aromatic Crops Project Title: Promotion of Betel Cultivation as Second Perennial Crop. Project Strategy Development of betel planting material production and supply to household Objectives • • • To promote betel cultivation in homestead To organize betel marketing To introduce betel in the international market

5.3. Spice Crop Cultivation
Cinnamon, pepper, coffee and citronella are successfully cultivated in the dry zone. There are varieties suitable for dry zone cultivation. Cinnamon and pepper are cultivated recently in Kilinochchi and produced cured cinnamon bark and cured pepper which are quite similar to the production in intermediate zone. The coffee variety “san raman” has already performed well in the dry zone and pepper has already been cultivated under coconut plantation. Therefore, possibility of expanding cinnamon and pepper cultivation is feasible in the region. Project title: Introduction of Spice Crop in Home Garden Project Strategy Cultivation of cinnamon and pepper under coconut plantation and in household can boost income of household and rural employment. Project title: Supply of aromatic plants to household and training on spice seasoning Objectives • • • To promote cultivation of aromatic crop in homestead To promote local production of spice product. To achieve self sufficiency in spice product.

5.3.1. Cultivation of Cinnamon Crop cinnamon has already been started cultivating in the region and production of bark is success in trial level. Action will be taken to promote this crop in the future Project Title: Explore the possibility of cinnamon cultivation at home stead. Objectives • • • To promote cinnamon cultivation and its technology To initiate cottage industry for cinnamon production To compete with national market

5.3.2. Cultivation of pepper Black and green pepper has been cultivated under shade condition of the coconut plantation successfully. The possibility of this crop expansion in homestead level for domestic purpose is to be explored and to commercial level with study of economic feasibility. Project Title: Explore the possibility of pepper cultivation and Supply of pepper plants to homestead

Objectives • • • To meet the local requirement To promote commercial cultivation To utilize land under coconut plantation

Chapter – 6 Agriculture Related Enterprises Development
Agriculture and Agro- based industrial enterprise will be a platform for industrial development. Initially agriculture related enterprise support activities will base for microlevel agro-based production enterprise development and eventually be supportive to major export market enterprise. In this regard, the agricultural and industrial sectors will need to expand in a balanced fashion supportive of one another. Efforts of converting agricultural produces into higher value- added industrial products, particularly for export market will be enhanced through micro scale enterprises. To promote agro- based industries in the rural sector, specific incentives will have to be considered. Emphasis will also be given to the supply of adequate and competitively priced raw materials, intensification of agricultural downstream processing technology and activities, and the involvement of rural labour force in agro- based industries. There are many agriculture crop management related activities which give considerable income to the people. Farm workers and disadvantaged people and even youngsters can undertake economic activities which help improve their economic status. Some of the activities not only support for income generation but support for eco-friendly technology adoption by the crop producers. These can be categorized as fertilizer and agro-chemical related activities.

6.1. Fertilizer Related Activities
Use of bio-mass as fertilizer was a traditional practice before introduction of artificial fertilizer. Crop production improvement technology development and subsequent adoption of technology gradually replaced traditional practices in crop cultivation consequently increased production whilst deteriorating environment. Considering the ill-effect of conventional crop cultivation practices using resource demand technology, the trend is reverse back to the application of traditional practice in modernized form under sustainable concept. This resulted in an encouragement within the farming community in preparation and application of bio- related product. These are in the form of bio-fertilizer, bio-fuel, and bio-pesticide in farming practices. This trend paved way for enterprise initiative on bio – product preparation. 6.1.1. Bio-fertilizer/Carbonic fertilizer Production Use of bio-fertilizer should be advocated and establishment of bio-fertilizer production units is to be implemented. Use of bio-fertilizer is an essential practice for sustainable agriculture development in view of maintaining productivity of natural resources. Solid waste management, the biggest menace for environment is supported by bio –fertilizer production.

Strategy -Compost Making Crop residues, green and dried bio-masses can be used for making compost- a carbonic bio-fertilizer effectively utilized for improving Soil Organic Matter in the soil. Composting technology knowhow is very simple and can be produced locally. Compost making as a profitable venture is ideal for vulnerable and under privileged group trained for making compost. A bag of compost can be sold at a reasonable price to home gardeners and the well compost can be applied directly to the soil. The compost (carbonic fertilizer) is also called as soil ameliorant. By use of compost, soil texture is improved in such a way for easy intake of micro and macro nutrients by the plant. Integrated plant nutrient system for effective plant nutrient intake management is promoted by the compost application in the soil. This enterprise can be promoted to commercial production. For home stead level production, compost bins are avilable to be supplied. Project Promotion of Compost Making as Small Enterprise for income generation. Objectives • • • • • • To promote income through sale of compost. To facilitate assistance to encourage compost making. To reduce environmental pollution To make use of compostable materials as crop manure To make compost preparation as a small Enterprise /venture To encourage compost making among population

Wormy Compost preparation Project Strategy Excreta of soil worms are utilized as manure growing of soil warms for preparation of compost, so called wormy compost. This too can become an enterprise in the rural areas. Certain species of worm will produce its excreta after consumption of humus. These excreta are rich in nutrient in readily available form for easy absorption by the plant. As such, this mixture of soil and worms excreta is used as fertilizer. Cultivation of worm in an acre of land produces two metric tons of wormy compost which is equal to 100 kg of Urea, 150 kg of Potash and 75 kg of Phosphorous in addition to the presence of other major micro-elements. Introduction of wormy compost preparation in the DATC and show farmer the technology knowhow will be activated. Project Title: Promotion of wormy compost making units in house hold Objectives • • To train people on wormy compost preparation technology To assist to engage in wormy compost preparation.

Compost Competition Collection of garbage and composting can be done to prevent environment pollution and health hazard. Compost making competition among urban local bodies can be attractive for development of compost making. Cash prize can be awarded to encourage the endeavor of each municipality in the production of maximum quantity and quality compost. Department of Agriculture will coordinate to promote compost making in household level with local government. Project Title Conduct compost making competition.

6.2. Agrochemical Related Activities
Bio-pesticide Production Project Strategy Many crop plants have chemical compounds having harmful effect to pest. Some of such chemical compound in plant has aggressive/repulsive effect to most of the pests. Aroma of the chemical compound chases away the pest from entering into its aromatic area. The technology has now developed to make use of the chemical in the plants as pest repellant in managing pest population in crop production area. Technology on utilization of such chemical as spray on the plant is simple and can be handled by any villagers. However, instant preparation is necessary before spraying as bio-pesticide as it cannot be stored for more than 3 days. The neem tree is having such chemical properties to be used as pesticide. Preparation of chemical compound as liquid spray for sale is an effective income generation activity. Application of this type of bio-pesticide is not costly despite necessity of repeated spray and is eco friendly. Promotion of preparing bio-pesticide by use of advance technology will lead to chemical free crop production in future.

Farmers and farm workers will be trained in the technology knowhow of preparing biochemical and facilities will be provided for such preparation. Bio product will be prepared on demand and need of the bio-chemical amount and type of chemical as the product should be app-lied soon after preparation. The farmers can make an agreement with producer beforehand. Project Title; Development of bio-pesticide production units in the villages Objectives • • • • • To promote preparation of bio-pesticide. To promote use of bio- chemical application in pest management To increase the income of producer To promote eco-friendly technology application To minimize environmental pollution

6.3. Value Addition Related Activities
Project Strategy Crop product can be added value for better marketing and easy consumption. This can be explored in promotion of marketing and increase of income producer. Facilitate agro-based enterprise development through value addition training to potential youth and household women. Extension of value addition technology among farmers and youth and women headed families will pave way for cottage level enterprise development Project Title: Agro-based Enterprise Development Objectives • • • • • • To promote technology knowhow in value addition of crop produces. To facilitate value added product preparation in homestead. To promote consumption pattern of crop produces. To preserve crop produces in home without degradation. To promote economic utilization of crop produces. To reduce loss of nutrition of crop produces.

6.4. Floriculture Development
Home beautification becomes an essential phenomenon for healthy and pleasurable environment. Department has developed several kinds of flowers for cut flower and house ornamental plants. Floriculture has become an enterprise which fetches high profit for producers in the country. Bouquet flower production is gaining market in the region. Encouraging widows and disadvantaged groups in the production of cut flowers and ornamental plants in homestead level with training on technology knowhow can be facilitated by Department of Agriculture. Small scale flower production and garland preparation fetch considerable income to families. This sector will address the problem of scattered vulnerability to improve their livelihood. Project Title: Establishment of ornamental plant production and cut flowers units in household and commercial basis. Objectives • • • To promote income sources among people. To encourage export of cut flowers. To encourage bouquet making in homestead.

6.5. Development of Apiculture for Production of Honey
Project Strategy Honey is ever demanded by the people as a medicine and as a food ingredient. People obtain honey from bee colonies naturally formed developed in the jungle. However, productions of honey are very much attractive under coconut plantation and other intensive plantation of fruit crops. The honey production can be developed in the region in the homestead level. People who are interested will be trained and supplied with necessary beehives and other equipment. This will give advantage to vulnerable groups to engage in honey production too. Training on beehive management and honey production will be given. Supply of bee boxes will be facilitated by arranging with manufacturer. Project Title : Development of Honey Production Units. Objectives • • • To promote honey production in areas possible. To facilitate honey production activities. To increase income of the producers

6.6. Mush room Cultivation
Mushroom is a very nutritious food and has high demand in hotel industry. There are several types of mushrooms. Some have medicinal properties and some have adverse health and lethal properties. However, edible mushrooms have been identified and cultivated in the country. This crop is rich in protein and other elements preferable to dietary intake for health. Department conducts promotional program for cultivation of mushroom by producing and supplying the mushroom seed. This program will enhance the livelihood of vulnerable, widows and downtrodden people in the rural and urban areas. Cottage level mush room cultivation in rural areas with market buy back system will boost rural people’s economy. Mushroom can be sold afresh as well as dried. Project Title: Mushroom Production and Development Objectives • • • To promote mushroom cultivation. To improve mushroom cultivation technology To increase income of farm families

6.7. Estate crop sector development 6.7.1. Cashew Development
Sri Lanka is one of the cashew producing and exporting countries. Cashew cultivation is prominent in Mannar district. Development of cashew plantation in the region is possible. Prior to the conflict, the Cashew Corporation had its own farm in the district and provided extension and other technical assistance to the cashew cultivators. This was neglected more than 10 years due to the war situation. The Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation had its cashew plantation farms at Kondakachchi with an extent of about 15,000 acres. And its office building complex including residential quarters of the officers and workers were completely destroyed. A large number of cashew plants were damaged due to lack of maintenance and led to decline in productivity. It is estimated that nearly 100,000 kgs of cashew nuts were obtained from Kondachchi cashew plantation farm. And another 30,000kgs cashew were collected from cultivators in Mannar Island and Kilinochchi. There is a definite potential for expanding the cultivation of cashew since there is a growing demand for cashew worldwide. Sri Lanka’s share in the world market is about 0.2%. Therefore, the chances of getting enhanced income by primary cashew producers of the region are high. The rehabilitation and development of cashew cultivation should be aimed at expansion of acreage under cashew plantation along with the development of cashew processing units to create more employment. The present rate of subsidy payment of Rs. 9,500 per acre for new planting program by the government should be extended for the rehabilitation of cashew plantations. The strategy should promote private investors to undertake cashew plantation by providing state land under long term lease. As cashew is a perennial crop which can survive under dry condition, utilizing the existing forest land for cashew cultivation will not have any negative impact on environment. Further, small holders should be encouraged to plant cashew as an inter-crop in their homestead. Cashew Corporation should have its own nursery in Mannar to supply planting material to needy farmers in time at the beginning of rainy season. The office of the CDO should be strengthened through provision of office equipment, and 2 and 4 wheel vehicles and office building. Once Kondchchi farm is rehabilitated, it should be given to private sector for management on a long term lease. This farm would supply required raw nuts for processing and the factory can collect raw nuts from small holders too for processing. Cashew crop development Project Strategy Promotion activities for cashew cultivation in the region for identified potential area with assistance of Cashew Corporation will be taken up. There was cashew plantation in Poonary DS division with 150 acres of land. This will be revitalized with re-planting program. Project Title: Re-establishment and Promotion of Cashew Plantation

Objective: • • • • To promote cashew plantation in potential area. To supply quality cashew seedling for replanting. To promote cottage level cashew nut separation and packing To promote cashew related enterprises

Project title: Expansion of cashew cultivation through Homestead Cultivation Supply of prominent cashew seedling to household will be the way of expanding extent of cashew cultivation and will have a mechanism of cashew nut collection system during the fruiting season so that employment will be created. Objectives: • • • To cultivate cashew tree in the homestead. To encourage the cottage level cashew nut separating and packing. To create facility for additional income

6.8. Sugarcane cultivation and development
Project Strategy Sugarcane can be cultivated in the uneconomic paddy land. There was a sugar cane factory at Akkarayan area in Kilinochchi district where sugar cane was cultivated in nearly 500 ha under irrigation and produced sugar for district needs. Restart sugarcane cultivation with the study of economic and management feasibility to support supplementary sugar supply and employment generation Project Title: Revitalization of Sugarcane Cultivation in the region

6.9. Coconut Development
Coconut is essential ingredient in food preparation and use of coconut oil in the region is abundant. Cholesterol with High Digestible Lipid is advantageous in using coconut oil in dietary preparations. Hence, northern region has developed coconut plantation in entire region sporadically. It was estimated that as nearly as the extent of 8000 ha were available in the region. Due to the prolonged conflict situation in the region, about 40 percent of plantation are at present exists. As per requirement @ 120 nuts per head, annually 76 million nuts are required for the region. Revival and rehabilitation of coconut plantation is obviated Quick rehabilitation of the damaged plantation, supply of high quality seedling like TR-65 and dwarf varieties are required. Coconut Development Board will be reactivated with strengthening of staff and production units and able to supply required amount of seedlings for renewal of plantation

6.10. Agro-forestry
Most of the economic values of perennial plants were damaged due to prolonged war and shortage of timber wood is a constraint to speedy development of resettlement program. Agro-forestry program is considered necessary to improve the natural vegetation in the homestead and maintain a micro-climate for healthy environment and supply fuel wood to household. This will alleviate the demand for fossil fuel in the future.

Project Strategy Social forest, farm forest and community forest are stradtegy for redeeming feature of deforestation. Supply of economic value perennial tree crop to needy household on subsidy basis is advocated to this project. Project Title: Community forest development at Household Objectives • • • • • To develop micro-climate within the household premises. To supply fuel wood to household. To reduce the deforestation effect in the environment. To make available timber wood in the region. To alleviate fossil fuel demand.

6.11. Bamboo forest plantation development
Strategy Bamboo is wonderful gift of nature. its versatility has given rise to use of traditional and cultural value in countries. Bamboo is referred to as “timber for poor man” is now being discovered as nature’s “green gold”. It is most soft wood and are only matched in annual yield by the fastest growing soft woods such as Eucalyptus and radiata pine. Therefore bamboos are competitive or better than wood alternatives in terms of annual yield, showing its potential for the future. Bamboo is the most versatile renewable and eco friendly resource and it has industrial potential too. China, Indonesia, Malaysia are among the countries that use bamboo in paper pulp production- an oldest industrial use. Since the 1990s, a wealth of new bamboo materials has become available through industrial processing of raw culms. Many innovations in production technology led to the development of bamboo materials with different properties and possibilities. Bamboo Mat Board (BMB), Strand Woven Bamboo (SWB), Bamboo Particle Board (BPB), Ply Bamboo, and Bamboo Composites are some of these products with various applications in high end markets in the West. Due to their high densities and annual yields, giant bamboos also have enormous potential for production of bio fuels. The energy value of bamboo reported in the range of 16 to 20 MJ per kg by several researchers is similar to the energy content of woody biomass at 17 MJ per kg. In the northern region, there is ample potential to grow this woody crop in River banks, Tank reserved lands and other areas prone to erosion. an effort to be benefitted by the vast potential that the bamboo can offer for economical and environmental sustenance. Bamboo will be the most promising for reforesting degraded land where trees may not survive.

However the constraint for establishing bamboo plantations was lack of good quality propagules which can be produced bio technology concept as tissue culture. Project: Bamboo development in marginal land Objectives • To make a quick green cover • To subtitue for fossil fuel • To use as timber for housing as alternative • To utilize marginal land effectively

6.12. Aquaculture Development
About 11 major and 50 medium and over 500 minor tanks are at present functional. Major and medium reservoirs are perennial tanks and the minor tanks are considered seasonal. This situation paves the way for cultivation of seasonal and perennial fresh water. Despite fresh water fish catching activities are activated in the recent past, continuous production is affected by lack of fingerling supply. This has to be strengthened with steady supply of fingerlings supply program. There are varieties of fish found in the aqua-research which can grow rapidly and produce more weight within a short period of time. This option will be explored. 6.12.1. Development of fingerlings production Promotion of fresh water fish development could be feasible when a fingerlings supply mechanism is developed. There are different types of fresh water fishes available in the aquatic fauna. Some of them are very tasty and having fast growing ability. Seasonal fish can grow up to 05 kg within a season. Therefore a supply system of fingerlings/fry lings will be developed in possible locations so that a continuous supply will be assured. Project Title: Development of hatchery pond for fingerlings supply Objectives • • • • To promote supply of local fingerlings production To promote fresh water fish production and consumption To assure continued supply of fingerlings to seasonal and perennial tanks To increase income of fishermen

Chapter – 7 Agricultural Marketing
Market infrastructure plays a pivotal role in fostering and sustaining the tempo of rural and economic development. Marketing is a process which starts with a decision to produce a saleable farm commodity and it involves all the aspects of market structure or system and includes pre and post harvest operations such as assembling, grading, storage, transportation and distribution. By performing this operation on farm product, it adds value to the produce. Marketing is as important to better performance in agriculture as farming itself. So Due consideration will be given to market development in the region to rural, regional and national market contribution. Market net work system keeping in mind with the small scale farmers in modern agric-food system has to go with regoverning market program. Proper consideration should be given to four key concepts: concept of modern market, value chain approach, Institutions and policies and multi- stake holder processes. Modern market are associated with today’s large scale supermarket and whole sale operation and demand for such market is for large volume and low price produce that meets stringent quality and safety standard. Value chain perspective has become recent international agriculture development strategy which includes all the activities that are undertaken in transforming raw material into a product that is sold and consumed. This includes the direct functions of primary production collection, processing, wholesale and retailing as well as support functions such as input supply financial service, transport, packaging and advertising. Institution and policies are implicitly and explicitly agreed way of interacting that governs individual and collective behavior at different scale. So a wider institutional environment should be developed. Multi-stakeholder processes is referring to any set of activities that enable different groups to interact with each other for shared learning, joint decision-making and collective action. This is not a one-off events but rather a series of activities carried over time for win-win benefit. Core methodology involves six main activities in market development. This six activities come together to help understand how different policies and institutions are opening up or closing off opportunities for small scale producers across an entire value chain. With this understanding it is then possible to devise and advocate for changes that would support appropriate participation by small scale producers these changes may relate to government policies and support programmes, to the ways producers organize themselves, or to the contract and payment conditions for producers set by market retailers. In most situations, multiple approaches will be required.

The six main activities are: • Mapping out the value chain and identifying the main actors and the flows of products, money and information. It will often be important to understand where along the chain most value is created and how profit is made by different actors. Mapping key policies and institutions that influence the functioning of the value chain and the inclusion or exclusion of small- scale producers. Establishing the key drivers, trends and issues affecting the value chain and its actors. Drivers are the main external factors influencing change: trends are the directions of change in the chain, such as types of producers, prices or marketing channels. The issues are the positive or negative implications of the trends for the different actors in the chain. Exploring future scenarios in relation to uncertainties about drivers and trends and understanding the future implications for the value chain, its actors and the inclusion of small – scale producers. Identifying the options for better inclusion of small – scale producers. Developing strategies for supporting change of policies and institutions within the public, private and civil society sectors.

• •

• •

Fig15: analytical frame work for mapping and influencing policies and institution in dynamic agri food marketing PLANNING THE PROCESS 1 MAPPING AND UNDERSTANDING THE VALUE CHAIN Current Structure How things might change Arrangements supportive of inclusion Influencing actors in the chain





1 MAPPING AND UNDERSTANDING THE VALUE CHAIN Current Structure How things might change Institutional Influencing implications/ institutional requirements change


7.1. Present Constraints in Marketing in the region
The prolonged war and crisis situation in the region and policy changes had caused damaged to market infrastructure and its safety network. Close down of paddy marketing system is one example. • • • • Rural-regional- national market net-work and farmers participation in the market development has been derelict. Market value chain and supply chain was neglected or ruined. Farmers have their own marketing and production system. No supply / value chain approach and integration. No social institutionalization for collective decision in coping with production and market challenges and dyanamics.

Therefore, a complete regoverning of market system in the region in view of emerging trend of global market has to be planned for peasant sector who are not prepared for global changes and in ways that contribute to the resilience of rural economy. Actors in the agric food market and value chain integration do not get opportunities to talk with each other on market issues. Key drivers of vertical integration is seen as quality and safety of food. Given the dynamic and rapid transformation, public sector interventions aiming at increasing the inclusion of small scale producers in the newly evolving market structure will require an in-depth understanding of • • • Underlying drivers and trends behind this change incentives driving actors behavior institutions enabling this change to take place

To understand the dynamic of the agric-food sector in a particular country or defined region understanding of drivers of change and trend they creates is necessary. Drivers of market in global and domestic vary. This includes push and pull factors, however, Pull or demand driven socio economic factors might be real per capita income growth. Push factors includes modern private sectors’ procurement system. Influencing factors driving agric-food market • • • • • • Change of consumer demand and awareness Market liberalization and deregulation Competition among retailers Quality and food safety standard Social and environmental responsibility Information technology

Domestic drivers influencing agric-food market • • • • Foreign direct investment rules and taxation National trade policies Domestic regulation traditional whole sale and retail out lets Type of retail outlets

To develop of both export and domestic marketing in the region, market institutions and institutionalization for sustainable market access and improving stages in market concentration process and development is imperative. The Nothern regional market at present has been characterized as fragmented market with traditional whole sale and independent retail outlets. The present emerging trend in marketing is • • • • • • • Market concentration Develop centralized procurement Specialized wholesalers Preferred suppliers Public and private standard Price Penetration into lower socio economic market segment

The knowledge on the market system in the regional productive sector population has been very poor and the present position of marketing for agriculture is described. 7.1.1. Paddy Marketing Paddy marketing has been one of the major constraints for paddy producers resulting in the realization that paddy cultivation is not a profitable venture. Paddy farmers are unable to market with optimum price and compelled for distress sale. The private millers, Multipurpose Co- operative Societies and the PMB were the main actors in the paddy marketing value chain before the conflict. The government closed down the PMB. The MPCSs have lost their capital assets, transport Lorries, stores facilities and are unable to be involved actively in paddy purchasing. The banks are reluctant to provide loan for working capital without sufficient collateral facilities. There were about 50 private standard rice mills functioning before the conflict and most of them have been curtailed its activities due to unpredictable situation. At present, only a few mills have been renovated and restarted processing in a limited scale. Government intervention in paddy purchasing through Agrarian Development Department is very limited in the region. 7.1.2. OFC and Horticultural Crop Marketing Poorly developed market infrastructure affected the subsidiary food crop sector development in the region. Renovation and Rehabilitation of rural roads network and its link with rural markets and urban markets is necessary catalyst for crop production enhancement and paving the way for latent potential to expand vegetable and fruit production in the rural areas. This constraint can be addressed properly through private and public partnership that could facilitate better marketing infrastructure. Further, it will create a close link between the producers and traders. Private investors and the entrepreneurs should be encouraged to involve in the market value chain. 7.1.3. Market Institutionalization and participation Institutional development of both public and social institutions is vital for speedy market economic development. Social participation, public facilitation, private investments are the three main pillars upon which market development will be built. Marketing is a main forum for production. Present market system is not effectively institutionalized and price and

supply gap between producer and end user is very wide. Establishment of proper market network system in such a way to have high producer participation in the market is strategic way to streamline the major bottleneck in marketing. Rural small scale producers should have facilities for storage and transport to ride out seasonal price fluctuation and make up for site –specific price discrepancies. This can be facilitated with community storage establishment and pledge market system development through market institutionalization. The aim of market institutionalization is to provide opportunity for participation of small scale producers in dynamic local and national market and in the way that food supply chain are governed and develop small scale farmers resilience to all market matters in the region which support the livelihood of majority of rural poor who are not prepared for market changes. Users may be market actors interested in creating direct link with small scale suppliers and government policy makers tasked with rural development. Cooperative governance in institutionalization is advocated as prospective as to cover “inclusive” and “exclusive” farming community. There were Agriculture Cooperative Societies in the region However, some are defunct and disorganized. Revitalizing and strengthening of Agriculture Cooperative and Marketing Society is one focal point for market institutionalization. 7.1.4. Market Coordination Coordination of market activities with the market actors, supporters and service providers is major function of public institution. This function is not at all implemented by the provincial department due lack of personnel qualified in this direction. There should be a separate unit in the Department of Agriculture to carry out market function such as handling coordination for backward and forward linkages and market technology dissemination. As such, Establishment of Product market and Information Unit in the Department of Agriculture to achieve the objective of market coordination, streamline and regulate agricultural crop production for the benefit of the farming community will be envisaged. Publicity and propaganda, market survey, dissemination of market technology and also development of practice of commercial grading of crop produce at farm and market level will help to get remunerative price for crop produce. This unit will handle the marketing aspect of crop produces and market institutionalization and its trouble shooting etc. A cooperative market society is suggested to be formed.

7.2. Market Development Strategy
Agric food sector has been transforming from largely supply driven to demand driven. This change demands a change of governance structure and quality and safety requirement. Agric food sector is now often characterized by both horizontal and vertical concentrationThis concentration is critical in balancing market efficiency and fair competition. More centralized and consolidated produces and supplies or process will generally be preferred. Good organization and coordination between chain actors is a crucial element of value chain development. Produce - seller - end-user link determines the economic resilience to producer and consumer. The higher the supply chain, lower the economic profit to producer. The strategy will focus on economic broadly finding practical way to enhance opportunities for small

scale farmers in marketing benefit to producer. For sustainable participatory marketing, market institutionalization with corporate social responsibility strategy is focused “Cooperative marketing” is one such strategy suggested in this plan to be promoted. Formation of agriculture producers’ cooperatives society as an initiative and basic driver of the market institution process in the region at different levels and forming a federated cooperative at district level is considered. The formation of Regional Agriculture Cooperative Alliance (RACA) in the region is also advocated as an apex regulatory body. 7.2.1. Establishment of Cooperative Production and Marketing System Institutionalization in crop production and marketing is well known strategy in many countries. Earlier in the region there were about 29 agriculture cooperative societies formed in each divisional secretariat division and looked after the matters relating to agriculture production and marketing. Some of these cooperative societies are disorganized and defunct but a few are functioning with limited resources but not supportive to goods and services to crop product marketing. Revitalization and reorganizing of agriculture cooperative societies with membership drive and preparation of by-laws to accommodate functions in relation to goods and services for agriculture production and marketing will be strengthened. Project Strategy Market institutionalization is a strategy for regulated market development Project title: Establishing and strengthening Agriculture Cooperative Societies. Objectives • To institutionalize the marketing • To regularize resource mobilization, input supply and product market • To promote market-led crop production • To promote public and private market participation and investments • To operate agri-business more efficiently • To develop self reliance in production and marketing • To facilitate formation of cooperative alliance • To empower cooperative governance in production and marketing • To ensure fair market access to all strata of the farming community Federated Cooperative Society Regulated marketed will be established in each district for whole sale. Federated Agriculture cooperative society in district and regional level will regulate whole sale and retail supply to district and national market. This body can act as market regulatory body in consultation with Department of Agriculture and Agriculture Cooperative Alliance. This cooperative body will also regulate quality and quantity production of market -led crops with assistance of the Department of Agriculture. No middlemen will be allowed to operate in the regulated market. The local government can play a vital role in the marketing system.

Agriculture Cooperative Alliance Federated cooperative society will have to establish RACA as a high level market committee for the region. This will have a forum with provision for the producers and traders on equal footing for marketing of agricultural produces in the regulated market. The high level market committee membership will be decided in a forum in collaboration with the federation. Expenditure to be incurred by market committee in pursuit of regulatory action can be worked out as a percentage of the value of the produces transacted as market fee from the traders. High Level Market Committee A high level committee on agricultural marketing may be constituted with public- privateproducers’ representation. This committee can act as trouble shooting committee when the dispute arises by cooperative society and they also suggest advice on forming a regulatory market act. This will be formed by the provincial administration in case of provincial marketing. Establishment of Marketing Board Establishment of Provincial Agricultural Marketing Board to have regulatory functions and also for making standards for commercial grading which will be considered for quality supply of goods and services. Laboratory facilities will be facilitated by provincial administration with the Department of Agriculture and related public organizations for quality testing. This marketing board may be either administrated by state or have independent function with the finance derived from the market development fund of the market institutions.

7.3. Market system Development
Establishment of a three tier market system at National –Regional – Retail/ village level and street market for travelers is possible options for systematic marketing in different administrative area. National level market will handle wholesale and export activities and regional level will handle local distribution and village or street market will be the individual market regulated by village level committee. Regulated markets with sub-markets and Rural Go downs and Grading Centre will be established and these market units will be managed by federated cooperative committee. A forum will be provided for the producers and traders on equal footing for marketing of agricultural produces in the regulated market. 1. Regulated market

Project Strategy Establishment and maintenance of regulated market in order to regulate buying and selling of agriculture produce for the benefit of farming community through cooperative marketing system. This will be facilitated by local government in collaboration with Department of Agriculture and cooperative market committee Project title: Establishment of Regulated Market

Objectives • • • • • To reorganize agriculture Marketing. To regulate product marketing, quality and safety. To establish three tier regulated market. To promote participation of producers in marketing To improve marketing condition for both advantage and disadvantage group.

Pledge Loan system for distress sale Under any market system, distress sale by the small and medium farmers in the peak season cannot be avoided but can be minimized by establishing pledge loan facilities. Under this scheme, the farmers can store their agriculture produce in the rural go-down in community storages built for this purpose in each division, for a specified period which can be decided by the committee and take pledge loan on decision of the committee. However, the rate is permissible to be 50 -75% of the value of produce up-to a certain maximum as and when decided. Amount and interest rate can be decided by the committee. This can be facilitated either by Agriculture Cooperative Society or Commodity Based Producers’ Societies. Project Strategy Formation of Commodity Based Producers’ Society in relation to production control and market price decision coordinating with Cooperative society and other input supply arrangement is needed to regularize crop production among the farming community and supply to market demand. Strengthening of already fragile societies will be facilitated for proper functioning of the system. Since societies newly formed will not be in a position to develop pledge loan system, the facilities required will be given to societies in the strengthening process. Project: Establishment of Producers’ Society and Strengthening Objectives • • • • • • To strengthen the functions of societies with provision of facilities. To enhance group action in production and regularize market system. To promote market–led crop production and supply. To coordinate among producers and marketers To establish appropriate organizational frame work for community based planning and resource management To position service system appropriate to resource management and production

7.3.1. Contract Arrangement in Marketing Forward Sale contract arrangement system has been already established in marketing of certain production. However, based on types of contract arrangements, the cooperative societies can make contract arrangement with wholesale buyers. The following strategy will be applicable for such contract arrangement. Market Specification Contract This operates based on future purchase contract considering the quantity, quality, time and price at the time of purchase.

Resource Providing Contract In this system, selected crop will be cultivated and if necessary credit and technology service will be facilitated. Here even qualities will be the factor to be considered. Production management contract Farmers will produce the commodity with credit support for production management such as for input accessibility and labor which will be looked after by contractors. The following types of contract farming may be considered for the region. • • • • Centralized model Nucleus estate model Multipartite model Intermediary model

Producers’ societies on behalf of farmers can make contract arrangement appropriate to the producers capabilities and capacities. At the present situation, the last model will be adoptable in the region. Market Institutionalization - A Conceptual Perspective Functions
Provincial / state level Coordination, regularize export and import market and maintain standard


Trouble shooting, dispute resolution, control national market

Market committee/ Cooperative Alliance/Marketing board

Regularize whole sale market and supply among district

Market subcommittee/ Federated cooperatives

Control local market

Regulate production and determine & selling price Coordination & linkages contract arrangement Regulate production at divisional level-input and market coordination

Agriculture producers society /Cooperative society

Productions integration, dispute resolution

Agriculture Production Society/Commodity based society

Dispute handling

Regulate production at village levelinputs coordination

Village Farmer Society/Village agric committee

Resource utilization management


Supply to village Market/ Rural go down

Individual Producers

Quality and production



Chapter- 8 Seed and Planting Material Production and Development
Seed is supreme and the basic element of crop production. Seedling vigor depends on the seed itself. Higher the seedling vigor better the crop performance, therefore use of quality seed is indispensable for better crop. In the region, seed requirement for cultivation is much more than that of seed production and supply through present seed production system. Traditionally farmers have developed reliability in its quality on the seeds supplied by department when comparing with private seed supply. However, the seed policy of the department is to facilitate development of private seed industry with the supply of basic or foundation seeds required by private industry. It is experienced in the other regions that the market of seeds by private seed producers would eventually become monopoly and consequently price of seeds are subject to increase with demand. This is especially crucial to vegetable seeds. Status of Seed and Planting Material production in the North In the northern region, two Government Seed Production Farms are available for production of seeds and planting material to cater supply to farmers in the region. These two farms are located in Kilinochchi and Vavuniya. The farm at Vavuniya has been functioning at present and producing seeds and planting materials for the supply to regional requirements. There is another seed paddy production farm at Murunkan in Mannar District Seed production in GSPF Kilinochchi Farm at Kilinochchi was affected due to prolonged war situation and has been defunct. This farm has nearly 125 acres of paddy land and 25 acres of high land for seed production with irrigation facility from the major irrigation scheme and a minor scheme located near the farm. And the farm at Vavuniya has 40 acres of paddy land and 20 acres of high land for seed production and 05 acre with nucleus mother plants for planting material production. In the past, the farm in Kilinochchi was the major supplier of paddy, OFC and vegetable seeds to north and also to other districts in the east and south region. This farm had the potential of producing 10, 000 bushels of seed paddy and 10,000 kg of OFC seeds and 1000 kg of vegetable seeds with storage facilities. Rehabilitation of this farm will facilitate to produce required seeds of all crops. As this farm is located in an isolated area, production of genetically pure seeds will be maintained. Seed production at GSPF in Vavuniya The GSPF in Vavuniya has been functioned with full fledge facilities and producing necessary seeds and planting materials to the extent possible to cater the seed supply service in the region but this production serve only 5% of the total requirement of the region. Hence, Rehabilitation of the farm (GSPF) at Kilinochchi to increase the supply of seeds to farmers is necessary.

Seed production in Mannar To cater farmers in Mannar Seed production farm with seed cleaning and sorting facilities are existing in Murunkan DS division. Seed production should be reactivated in the farm by the provision of staff and other facilities to seed and planting material division.

8.1. Seed Production
Strengthening Seed Production Production of seeds in the Government Seed Production Farm to supply certified seeds to both seed producers and farmers in need are facilitated by the department. Registered seeds will be supplied by the department to private seed producers. It is experienced in the other region that the market of seeds by private seed producers would eventually become monopoly and subsequently price of seeds will go racketeering especially vegetable seeds. The function of government seed production farm is continuously vital in producing seeds to avoid such development of monopolistic seed sale to people in the region. Further, production local vegetable seeds which are exclusively meant to the region should be done in the seed farm. As vegetable seeds production is very costly, private vegetable seeds production will not be at affordable price for society. Therefore, the rehabilitation of seed production farms for potential seeds production will be implemented. Projects 1. Strengthening of Government Seed Production Farm at Vavuniya. Strengthening of seed production farm with irrigation infrastructure, modernized cultivation practices, renovation of damaged infrastructure such as drying floor and cold storage, renovation of office buildings and livestock infrastructures is necessary to effective increase the seed production from the present level, of production etc Objectives • • • To increase seed production from present level To modernize seed production for effective utilization of resource To improve storage facilities and cold storage.

2. Rehabilitation of Government Seed Production Farm at Kilinochchi. GSPF located in this district have been completely damaged resulting in a necessity of complete rehabilitation from land development up to infrastructure development to reactivate seeds production farming activities in this farm. Objectives • • • • • To produce basic seed to supply seed producers To render seed and planting material supply service in the region To supply registered seed paddy to private seed producers To render service to sorting and cleaning of seeds To strengthen seed supply by the Department of Agriculture

3. Rehabilitation of Murunkan Seed Production Farm 8.1.1. Seed Industry Development Use of quality seeds by total farmers cannot be achieved over short period. it can only be achieved by local seed production. Institutionalization of local private seed production is a strategic approach to overcome seed supply problem Basing Seed Act no 22 of 2003 to the private seed production development policy, Local seed production as a private enterprise will be facilitated through formation of seed producers’ association in the districts leading the formation of Regional Seed Producers Society. Each district will have seed processing unit for sorting and cleaning of seed produced. Despite this system establishment in Kilinochchi and Mannar by FAO in 1995, strengthening and follow-up action had not been taken place by the project resultant the collapse of system. This system will be followed to be strengthened and developed the seed industry in the region. Establishment of Seed Production Units by Producers’ Society Seed industry development program will be implemented with seed producers with the supply of registered seeds for production of standard certified seed. In each D.S. Division, seed producers’ society will be formed and facilitated to produce good quality seeds by technology dissemination. Project Title: Establishment of Seed production local Units in each district Objectives • • • To promote the use of quality seed in crop cultivation. To develop seed production and supply system among farming community To produce local seeds in each locality.

Self seed production and development Project Strategy Achieving the objective of increasing productivity by promoting use of quality seed and required variety by all farmers is only possible by the promotion of self seed production. The concept is to supply of mini-kits consisting of seeds and fertilizer package among the farmers to produce their own quality seed from their small piece of land with adoption of seed production technology. Farmers unable to buy quality seeds at higher price can be assisted to produce their own seeds by this program implementation. Project title; Supply of mini-kits with basic seeds and fertilizer for self seed production Objectives • • • To promote use of quality seed in crop production To make farmers to produce their own quality seeds To spread the seed production technology among poor farmers

Establishment of Seed Processing Unit Project Strategy Quality seed production needs mechanical processing to remove unwanted materials such as chaff, small stone and weed seed to maintain the standard of the seed. Seed cleaning and sorting machine is necessary in each district for processing of seeds produced by the seed producers’ association. Further, varietal purity of seed is another concern. Sorting out of offspring can be done only manual by in the laboratory after harvest and in the field before harvest by routine inspection. Therefore, the laboratory facilities also will be improved. Objectives • To facilitate seed processing in the district • To reduce the quantity of seed paddy usage for an acre. • To maintain the standard of seed paddy and OFC seeds • To strengthen laboratory testing with provision of equipment.

8.2. Planting Material Production
At present in the region, variety of fruit trees are managed by the house hold farmers leading diversity in fruits production. This situation will not be a conducive to promote quality fruit production. Development of good quality fruits for processing and export orientation needs renewal of fruit trees in existing area with high quality plants to improve the quality fruits production and to replant in the area where the fruits trees were damaged by the war situation. Hence, the quality planting material production and maintenance of mother plants for pedigree development is major requirement for fruit production improvement. Government production is not quite enough to supply the current needs. The establishment of private nursery units in each DS division to produce with high quality planting material will facilitate needy people an easy access to purchase quality planting materials. 1. Establishment of Private Nursery Units Project Strategy Planting material needs careful transportation to the planting point. The more the distance to be transported the more liable to be damaged. As such facilitating planting material production in local area with monitoring and supervision for standard production by department is recognized as one activity for promotion of quality planting material production. Objectives • To promote availability of quality planting material in the locality • To create an employment opportunity. • To facilitate farm hand for income generation. • To develop competiveness in production. 2. Identification of mother plants and maintenance Extension in collaboration with research will take action to identify nucleus mother plants and maintain detail list of mother plants. Private Nurserymen are facilitated by the department for obtaining good quality budding and grafting material for planting material production.

Chapter - 9 Water Resource Management
The water is a precious resource for every living organism and indispensable for agriculture crop cultivation. Land and water are the dominant resource for food production. The per capita water availability is estimated at only 0.01 cubic feet in the region. The conservation, development and management of water sources to attain increased productivity per unit area of the land and unit volume of water used is of paramount importance in the region to a future crop development program. Rain water is reserved in water reservoirs in different capacities. Water reservoirs are categorized into perennial and seasonal reservoirs Most of the Minor schemes are season reservoirs. Available water in these reservoirs is used for crop cultivation. The rain water is harvested in Jaffna district with ponds and act as minor water reservoir from which cultivators irrigate their crop when needed. This man-made water harvesting system entails water availability in the open dug wells of the surroundings too. Creation of additional irrigation facilities, stabilization of the area already under irrigation and promotion of conjunctive use of surface water and ground water resource and effective resource management is necessary for potential water utilization in the region. This chapter did not cover all the aspect of irrigation management but some ideas are expressed.

9.1. Irrigation Schemes in the Region
There are 15 major and 35 medium irrigation schemes and 2033 minor tanks available for water harvesting in the region. However, only nearly 800 minor tanks are functional for irrigated agriculture. Nevertheless, only 540 minor tanks are having water conveyance facilities for irrigation to crop cultivation. Major drawback in utilizing the irrigation schemes is that they are not fully developed with modernized way of irrigation system resulting in a poor irrigation efficiency and heavy conveyance loss. This situation has been well addressed by eminent people. But it is still remain unattended. The Iranamadu scheme, as one of the 10 major schemes of the country, too needs rehabilitation for potential use of the scheme. Indiscriminate use of water due to several factors is the major impediments for effective utilization of irrigation water for cultivation of crops. And derelict water management infrastructure in the existing developed irrigation schemes causes unproductive loss of irrigation water. Weakness in the present system • Poor application of irrigation management techniques • Poor appropriate organizational frame work for community based planning and integrated management of water resource • Poor established service system for water resource management • Inadequate adoption of efficient water use and saving technology • Poor adoption of modern structures to mitigate conveyance losses • Gap between crop requirement and water supply

9.2. Watershed Management
The island’s natural endowment is the monsoonal rainfall. Rainfall in wet season is not fully utilized in a productive way. About 80% of the rainfall is said to be run off to the sea. The rain fed land which constitute major portion of the cultivated land area has not received adequate attention compared to irrigated land. There is a need to increase the productivity in rain-fed land, particularly in the context that 80 percent of the surface water and 60% of the ground water in the region have been exploited. Water shed development program is meant to check soil erosion, optimum rain water utilization, encourage pattern of land use and cropping and agronomic practices which will augment the production potential of the land in an integrated way covering all category of land in a watershed. So, the effective water conservation practice is necessary to reserve the precipitation. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of reservoirs to harvest maximum water in the reservoir will be promoted.

9.3. Water Conservation and Management
An area of 50,000 ha is under rain-fed agriculture. This area is the production base for crops like paddy, pulse and groundnut. Improving soil moisture and creating water harvesting facilities in water sheds predominantly under rain-fed agriculture are necessary. The introduction of micro-irrigation system is well adopted in onion cultivation and it has to be promoted to horticultural crops too. Training on watershed and water management will be improved. Agro-wells, tube wells and water reservoir schemes are used for agriculture crop cultivation in the region. It is estimated that consumptive use of irrigation water from the tank is 60% due to conveyance loss. Appropriate irrigation structure in such a way to minimize water conveyance losses or optimize consumptive use of water is to be designed. 9.3.1. Gravity Irrigation Irrigation system in the northern region is yet to be improved for optimum use of water. Most of the tank irrigation system needs modernization though irrigation is managed by participatory concept. The use of water based on plant water requirement has yet to be improved. However, the modernized irrigation infrastructure such as on-farm infrastructure for regulated distribution etc. will optimize the use of irrigation water. Even though irrigation is done for paddy crop by the schemes, some schemes - Iranamadu, Piramathal-aru and Akarayan irrigation schemes is also meant to supply water for OFC cultivation, too. 9.3.2. Lift Irrigation Well irrigation has gained importance in the region for other field crop and vegetable cultivation. About 45% of the net area irrigated is covered by wells. There are about 30,000 wells being used for irrigated agriculture. The well water is more precious and needs to be used judiciously and loss in conveyance and application have to be minimized. The use of flexible fire delivery pipe can be used for minimizing delivery loss through channel irrigation.

9.3.3. Micro-irrigation system development Micro-irrigation system is advantageous for vegetable and cash crop cultivation like chilli and red onion. Drip irrigation is one of the water saving methods of irrigation at homestead level. This system of micro-irrigation saves water, enhance plant growth, increase yield, improve quality of produce and saves cost of cultivation by saving energy, labour, and fertilizer and weeding cost. As cost of installation of micro-irrigation is high, cultivation of high value crops under micro irrigation is encouraged. A subsidy scheme for small and marginal farmers is well advocated. Department has introduced micro sprinkler system of irrigation in the region in order to popularize the micro-irrigation system and farmers have installed nearly 1200 units of sprinkler system in the area. 9.3.4. Tank Rehabilitation Tank rehabilitation should be focused on modernized way of irrigation rehabilitation rather than having rehabilitation to repair the damage. Losses during water conveyance through distributor channel up to the field are as high as consumptive use of water by the plants. Therefore the modernization in rehabilitation of tank in such a manner to reduce the conveyance loss will pave way for increase the water use efficiency.

9.4. Command Area Development
Command area development program in participatory management concept will be strengthened with more effective institutional arrangement adopting a three tier set-up such as organizing farmer association at sluice level and farmer council at distributor level and federation at schemes level. An optimum flow block concept can be adopted with farmer’s participation.

9.5. Rain Water Harvesting
Implementation of appropriate water harvesting system in rural, urban and town areas is necessary for tapping rain water. It will not only be useful for crops but also to maintain the ground water level. Erecting soil bund In rural system, adoption of cultural practices in cultivation of crops-erecting of bund, dyke around the premises- in order to block the run-off in such a way to facilitate maximum water infiltration into the soil to increase underground water level will be appropriate to be encouraged among the society.

In house Water harvesting structure In urban and town areas, constructing underground or over head water harvesting structure is appropriate. Strict measure should be adopted against those who are non-adopters of the system. An incentive or subsidy scheme can be implemented to encourage the system. It is estimated that 20’x20’ roof area will save 100,000 litres of water per an hour intensive rainfall.

Water conservation in bonds The water management concept in Thailand is an example where farmers adopt a systematic practice for land utilization and it is called 30.30.30:10 land use systems. It indicates the percentage of land for different objectives of land use. The last 10% of the total land is meant for water harvesting system adoption. The rest of the lands are used for crop production of domestic (30%), national (30%) international (30 %) market. In Jaffna, water harvesting in the bonds near the field has been adopted. Likely it will be constructed in the main land cultivation area too.

9.6. Diversion of River
Possible diversion of river basin into productive reservoir and reconstruction of such reservoir to store water to possible maximum capacity will be explored. Most of the tank’s maximum capacities can be increased by strengthening embankment structures and protecting catchment areas.

9.7. Integrated Wasteland Development
Waste land available in the region could be brought into productive. The broader objectives of this development is to maintain sustainability equity and environmental conservation to meet timber, fodder and fuel needs and to increase the employment opportunities in the rural areas

9.8. Drought Prone Area Development
This can be implemented with prime objective of promoting the overall economic development of the watershed community by putting the natural resources like land, water to the optimum use so as to mitigate the adverse effects of drought and prevent further ecological degradation, besides employment generation through non-farming activities.

Chapter- 10 Institutional Development and Organizational Strengthening
Department of Agriculture implements agriculture extension and communication and adaptive research activities as mandate under devolution of power to the provincial council. Implementation of other crop development related institutional activities - Research, Seed Production and Seed Certification and Supply service and Socio Economic Planning service are coming under the administrative purview of Director General of Agriculture at central level. Institutional arrangement with manpower and material resources is indispensable for achieving the objectives of agriculture development. Institutional arrangements within the arm bit of regional set up and its capacity at present are not congenial for agriculture economy development in a new competitive direction. An institutional reform is imperative for full fledge and need based extension service delivery along with other support services for sustainable livelihood development of the farming community. Confining agriculture extension within transfer technology service will not develop a sustainable livelihood of farming community. Hence, Institutional Development and Organization Strengthening with in the northern development requirement is necessary. Action required for ID/OS are addressed herein to strengthen extension service.

10.1. Provincial Department of Agriculture
Northern Provincial Department of Agriculture was established in December 2006 and equipped for its service. Agriculture extension service delivery system to promote agriculture based economic development is not merely confined to transfer technology for crop production improvement but embrace all possible activities in terms of socio economic and livelihood development of farm and farm dependant community. This necessitates IS/OD action. Considering the significance of agriculture extension in improving crop production in line with market competition and consumer preference and mostly livelihood of farming community, organizational strengthening with necessary institutional development to cater all the needs of farming society of different categories is considered vital. During inception of Provincial Council in 1990, there were 5 SLAgS officers and two SLTS officers in provincial head office with attachment of SLAgS officers and SLTS officers stationed at district and peripheral units of the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Therefore, the provincial extension system will be strengthened both personnel and institutional on a rational basis.

10.2. Agriculture Extension and Development
Agricultural Development means the shift from traditional methods of production to new science based methods of farming in a sustainable way. It is the job of Agricultural Research to continuously modify the technological components of production as the changing situation demands. The job of diffusing innovations among the rural masses is performed by the Agricultural Extension Service, which not only acts as the carrier of improved technology from research to the farmers but also provides questions of immediate importance/problem from farmer’s fields to the Agricultural researchers. In this way, it also keeps agricultural scientists abreast of real field problems. Extension service is thus a vital link between the Researcher and farmers.

There are wide gaps between the yields which can be obtained through the use of available production technologies and the yields obtained by the majority of farmers. Research during the last two decades at National Research Institutes and the Agriculture Research Centres has generated technologies which have still not been used widely by farmers. Other reasons for low yields must be sought in the economic, social and political situation in rural areas. Hence, Agriculture extension is a technology delivery service to the people for production enhancement and empower them to be self reliant in agriculture production system and process with scientific advancements and in decision making in utilizing appropriate technologies and resources available for their livelihood betterment. It is an action deals with transferring modern agriculture technology to the farmers for adoption and to increase their production in order to improve their socio economic conditions. Therefore, the agriculture extension is helpful in the management of resource utilization, technologies in the production system. Agriculture research finds technologies and supply to the extension division for dissemination among the farming community to adopt the technologies in farming practices. There are several activities involved in between technical innovation and field adoption. The process involved in between initial awareness up to final adoption is called adoption process. The adoption or rejection of innovations depends on factors like awareness, interest, trial and evaluation. In this situation, disseminating agricultural information is only creating awareness. Appealing to the attitudes and persuading farmers to adopt innovations is an educational process in its true sense of extension. Extension management system promotes research-extension- farmer linkage in this process. A national policy priority is to be articulate an updated and a comprehensive policy to effectively see the scope of the extension whether extension should focus only on technology transfer or be made responsible for other rural development and whether extension program transmit pre-defined and circumscribed technical package or to focus to educate farmers to understand process and resources flows on which they have to make on their own management decision. Further a mechanism is needed to assess candidate technology to the needs of different category of farmer or diversity of client and which category of farmer should receive priority and also to see the diversity of instrument and its cost effective. 10.2.1. Philosophy of Extension 1. Technology delivery (TD) is an ongoing process of getting useful information to people (Communication dimension) 2. The TD assists rural people to acquire the necessary skills, knowledge and technology to help themselves (Education Dimension ) 3. By extension service delivery, people are reached, mobilized and empowered to actively participate in development effort and reap fruits of their involvement (Participation)

10.2.2. Extension Strategy • • • • • • • • • • • • Keep in line with national policy Aim basically at people’s interest and needs Work through understanding of people Use local leaders Make program as broad as needs of the people Use community approach Help people recognize their needs and direct them to help themselves Involve people in action that promote welfare Develop program gradually Utilize trained specialist Strategies based on condition that exist Work with all classes and society

10.2.3. Extension Component Component of extension delivery system is again tripartite- research system (a change /process system) - delivery system and client system (local knowledge). There are many models of extension approach. Department had implemented training and visit (T&V) system of approach until 1987. The new extension model recognizes that farmers should be treated first and the last. i.e farmer – technology – farmer model. This gives a farmer based extension model. This has three components--farmer first and the last model, farming system research and extension (FSR&E) and Indigenous knowledge research. This leads to a participatory research development approach to be adopted. 10.2.4. Objectives of Agriculture Extension Overall Objectives: Overall objectives as defined by Kelsey & Hearne “experience of end towards which our efforts are directed. An objective in extension is a “direction of movement” or the “product to reach through educational process”. There are several specific objectives that leads to achieve overall objectives. To reach self sufficiency in food and other crops for the region/nation. Through transfer of package of technology received from Research to farmers and make them aware of condition prevailing in developed countries. To improve the living condition of small scale farmers. By adopting, measures to increase the yield per acre through best use of agriculture practices, so that their income is increased. To generate an exportable surplus of agricultural production/channel to earn foreign exchange Fruits, vegetables and other crops potential production and quality production can make a break through if Export Promotion Bureau cooperates.

To pursue Agriculture Development on sustainable basis. For this purpose, the Agriculture bio-diversity and Natural Resource Management (NRM) are the proper keys. To encourage a dynamic Agro-based enterprise development Promotion of pattern of food habit and shift from synthetic food to natural food and development of market competitiveness. To implement government policies regarding agriculture development. Agriculture policy and plans be prepared and implemented. 10.2.5. Activities of Agriculture Extension Improving working condition of staff through pre-service and in-service training. Pre-service training for preparation and producing well trained personnel in various skills from Agricultural Training Institute & Agricultural University. In-service training to the persons on job is to enhance the skills of the staff so that they can cope with the existing situation prevailing in the field. Communication with Client/Target Group The target group includes both male and female farmers. Extension addresses in principle agricultural problems of all categories of farmers, however it deals with small scale farmers in rendering special activities. The transfer of knowledge involves communications at each step. Therefore, it is important for extension agent to know the basics of the communication process. Mass communication media including electronic media such as Radio, Television, Internet, printed media such as newspapers, magazines, posters, leaflets and hand outs etc which may be utilized effectively. Coordination Coordination of all the departments linked with Agriculture development such as Agriculture Research, Livestock and Dairy Development, On Farm Water Management, Agriculture Development Banks, Cooperatives, local councilors, District Members and other Departments. (Non Government Organizations, Irrigation and Agriculture Engineering, Farm Machinery Training Input supplying agencies e.g. Seed, Fertilizers, Pesticides working on Agriculture must frame a District Coordination Committee under the patron and Chairmanship of District secretariat. Plant Protection Plant protection is an important objective/scope to be addressed. In this connection the staff and farmers training be arranged and the legislation already available may be implemented and the Quarantine procedures be adopted by the Government departments. In order to combat with the adulteration of pesticides, the Vigilance Committee for pesticides may be made at District level to address the problems timely as included in mandate.

Preparation of Statistical Data • • • • • Crop reporting services be created and Management Information Syetem to be developed so as to provide accurate data regarding. Crop Estimates area/production of all crops. Cost of production of various crops. Per capita Consumption of food per annum. Future forecasting at regional Level for domestic requirement and surplus for export purpose

Marketing Marketing is the main part of mandate to be discussed as it concerned with the production process. The following innovations are to be kept in mind for dealing with as included in mandate. • Market Information system (MIS). • Market Research (post harvest losses). • Establishment of regulated market. • Market legislation. • Storage for food, fruit, and vegetables crops etc. • Supply and demand situation. • Rural markets. • Supply of inputs for marketing. • Provision of soft loans. Inputs Supply Facilitating role of extension for all inputs, seed, fertilizers, pesticides, through advice to relevant authorities and private sector on timely supply of inputs and information to the farmers on availability of inputs -a gradual disengagement from production and direct supply e.g. Seed multiplication and nurseries. Organizing farmers Work with existing farmers groups and organization and if necessary establishing permanent farmers groups or organization and facilitating input supply and marketing of crop production. Dissemination of Extension messages Development of extension tools, written extension materials (leaflet, booklets posters, flip charts, video production and programme for Radio and Television, training of farmers, Non Government Organization (NGO’s) and dealers, field demonstration and field days observation. Quality Control of Inputs Registration of dealers for chemical inputs (Pesticides and Fertilizers) registration of growers for seed production and nurseries, physical check up of chemical, seed, fertilizer and nurseries.

Establishment of Rural Support and Farm Services Centres. Address the farmer’s current production constraints in the area of extension services, planning and input supply. Facilitate a shift to participatory approach i.e. working together with the farmers in the target area and in cooperation with relevant research institutions, develop and provide technology package. Mobilize extension service within the target area as effective support system for Farm Services Centres and making available farm machinery on easy rates to the farmers. Besides this training on the job, touring and other inputs to the research centers, organization and areas of interest to enhance their knowledge and skill for adoption and improvement in their overall farm produce, income and better living condition. Feed back Feed back is the real position which is the most important while conducting processes etc. It can be assessed through periodic meeting, individual contact, reporting system etc. Monitoring & Evaluation Though there is no direct evaluation of the extension impact, however the funds provided are financially and physically evaluated through quarterly review. Besides the impact is judged from crop yields, food production and cash returns to the farmers & overall improvement in their life / living. 10.2.6. Agriculture System Agriculture system is made up of the interacting internal crop and social component that influence the production distribution and consumption of agriculture production. This agriculture system has two divisions - agriculture eco-system and social system. The traditional agriculture system controls the environment pollution. This includes shifting agriculture from nomadic agriculture to continuous agriculture. The continuous agriculture is based on consumer orientation. The consumer oriented agriculture can be managed by contract farming as tool. This contract farming will vary with areas of interest. This was explained elsewhere in the context ( p-125). 10.2.7. Extension Approaches Extension service clients are varied with socio- economic -cultural and behavior, the level of literacy and the objective of farming. Therefore, the extension approach will be differing for pluralistic population. The possible approaches are: Commercial farming community This community produces food commodities for market and needs commodity based market oriented extension service with advanced technology for intensive, competitive production.

Average farming community For subsistence or part time farmers whose opportunities and inclination to innovate are limited, experiment could assess the cost effectiveness of multipurpose, non- specialized village level workers as referral agents for extension needs. The expertise needed in later time. This community produces food commodities for market and self consumption and their resources are limited and need interdisciplinary and participatory integrated farming system approach. Sustainable resource utilization and appropriate labor saving technology dissemination are considered to be better service to them. Vulnerable farming community This community includes both the resource poor and small farm holders and landless farm workers depending on agriculture sector for livelihood. Implementation of self-help programs, household economic development programs and mostly multidisciplinary ecofriendly agriculture with input substitution are considered effective.

10.3. Weaknesses in Present System
• • • The required institutional reforms for realizing effective research, extension and marketing linkages. The plurality and breadth of the research and extension systems need to be well acknowledged in all categories of farmers of the region. Absence of participatory research and research outreach programs. It is important that researchers and extension workers interact with farmers as a team to gain comprehensive insights. Sectoral segregation in program planning and implementation Inter- sectoral cooperation needs to be strengthened Poor competence in research and extension personnel, and poorly designed learning and capacity building (LCB) programs. Technology innovation not based on pro-poor application. Low quality of extension service and unclear extension responsibility in term of livelihood. Agro and village-based industries need to be integrated into the R-E-F linkage framework to provide for sustainable livelihood options for the poor farmers. Inter agency support activities not align with Public- Private – NGO partnership to be encouraged to foster effective functional linkages. Cooperative spirit among farming communities needs to be revived by appropriate interventions like training and sensitization, linking to supply chain and support services like credit and insurance to cope and overcome agrarian crisis. The potential of modern tools like ICT is yet to be harnessed to brink research – extension –farmer closer for mutual benefit. An agriculture development planning body needs to be organized at provincial, district, divisional level and to develop bottom –up planning process- Multi- sectoral approach needs to be strengthened.

• • • • • • • •

• •

10.4. Agriculture Development
Agriculture development is basically depends on investment, production and marketing. The present extension addresses its service delivery in production dimension and other two dimensions are left to private sector. This is not an ideal situation for agriculture development. Department must have a role to play in between investment and marketing even though these two (so called economic dimensions) can be privately administered. Some activities such as, market information and technology dissemination, market intelligence, market contract are to be performed by the department (this may be performed by well established market committee) Therefore, institutional development in order to render facilitating service on marketing and investment to be addressed. For consumer oriented agriculture, extension will be operated in three areas. i.e. market provision, resource provision and management provision. 10.4.1. Village Agriculture Development Development of rural peasant sector by strengthening their capacity in terms of technology and productivity will facilitate them to entering into the main streaming of economic activities. Formation of Village Agriculture Development Committee (VADC) will be the main feature of agriculture development in the villages. This will facilitate participatory planning process and resource allocation for commodity production. VADC will be formed in the villages and join Agriculture Cooperative Society during the institutionalization process. The following will be prepared by the committee. Preparation for village vision mapping (See Figure 15) Preparation of village agriculture development plan 10.4.2. Institutional development Social Institutionalization is another focal point for developing group participation in production, marketing and resource utilization. Agriculture cooperatives have long history of success in cooperative action in Europe countries even though some failure cases experienced. Agriculture cooperatives had developed rural economies of the country during the transformation from self sufficiency to full market production. Since the northern region economy is in transition, the following institutional development deem necessary to be established. • Federated Farmer cooperative /society organization • Dedicated economic market. • Local processing centres • Research, educational and enterprise development centres • Technology Park for entrepreneurships. etc 10.4.3. Micro-credit and Financing Facility for obtaining micro-credit from the lending agencies/ credit bank without any collateral will be made available for mostly affected farmers to restart agriculture. Grameen Bank system is one option for micro-financing system development in the rural sector. I. Action for micro credit and financing

10.4.4. Urban Agriculture Development With the industrial development, People move toward to urban area.. There are urban poor to be looked after. Therefore, crop cultivation in urban area should be promoted. Technologies are available for urban area cultivation. Hydroponic, net house cultivation and potted agriculture techniques will be focused in urban agriculture development. Action for urban agriculture development 10.4.5. Branding of agricultural production Branding is defined as a unique product of the particular area or symbol or design or name for identity of the product which is exclusively recognized by consumer as best wanted product. Most of the crop product in the northern region has unique feature for consumer demand and still exist. Therefore banding of regional product either as regional uniqueness or as individual private product will be considered in the future for capturing global market. Action for branding of product Schematic Vision map for Village Agriculture Development

Widows & handicap

Wholesale Market

Agro – based small Enterprise


Farmer Federation
Collection & handling

Forward link

Service Providers
Backward link

Market Information Forward Sale Contract

Commodity based society

Backward link

Commercial Producer organization

Average Farmer Society

Agro well farmers, Tank irrigation farmers & Commercial home gardeners


Agriculture services supporters (Labor, Machinery hirer & unemployed youth)

Farmers homestead developers

10.5. Need of the Participatory Research and Technology Development Approach
In the context of ever- demanding and knowledge intensive agricultural technology systems (ATS), Research- Extension - Farmer (REF) linkage is a crucial component for sustainable agricultural and user friendly technology development. Farmers’ field is the main arena for pro poor technology research and it is emphasized in the concept of “farmer first and the last extension model” which • • • • • • recognize farmers ’ involvement in research enhance and strengthen participation of all stakeholders require more integrated, interdisciplinary and holistic view and gives participatory technology development through farmer participatory research and Farmer field school.

Local level field diagnostic work requires researchers and extension personnel to conduct joint studies in the field to analyze constraints causes and factor affecting yield potential, to identify yield gap reduction means. These means would then be trialed by adaptive research program.

10.6. Strategic institutional development for Extension Service Delivery Improvement
The following institutional development is recommended for effective and quality extension service. 10.6.1. Establishment of Audio visual unit Audio program with visualization is one the extension strategy to disseminate technology among rural mass as quick as possible. Mass media technology diffusion program strategically involves many approaches like posters, leaf-lets, bulletin and broad-casting services. It involves techniques for material preparation for mass media propaganda of the technology and also facilitates broad casting of good practices in the areas of research and extension. Hence an AV unit has to be established with other facilities for the effective mass media service in the region. Audio-visual Units The functions of audio–visual units are to support farm broadcast programs for farming community, to develop interactive discussion, to form e-based discussion group, to prepare technical bulletin, interactive CD and audio-visual products for dissemination of technology and other production related information transfer to the mass as quickly as possible in an understandable manner. Further, preparation of teaching materials and handouts and formulation of presentation materials will be facilitated by this unit. The Unit will also facilitate development of interactive CD –ROM to be used in cyber extension units in the districts To facilitate e –extension in the near future with the above activities, Establishment of Audio –Visual unit in the region is necessary.

Project 1. Establishment of audio-visual unit at head office and provision of audio-visual equipments Objectives • • • • • To develop mass media information delivery product and e-Extension To prepare audio-visual products for farmers to get first-hand knowledge on crop development technology To prepare effective handouts for reading and training To store and retrieve technical information To prepare interactive CD for cyber extension units

Agriculture broadcasting service Agriculture broadcasting service is one way of technology delivery system by which a new technology could be spread among the rural mass in the quickest possible time. Radio broadcasting and Tele-dramas can be designed to disseminate technology in an effective way. This system of technology delivery will be explored by organizing Regional Agriculture Broadcasting System in the region. Project 2. Establishment of regional agriculture broadcasting service Objectives • • • • To quick dissemination of information To facilitate the understanding of technology to the rural masses in time To air the technical information to facilitate to know the technology at people’s own time. To air region specific technical information.

10.6.2. Establishment of Regional Socio-economic Planning and Resource management unit Regional Socio-economic Planning and Resource Management Unit Planning is a major component of the institution. Agriculture planning process needs a frequent socio-economic survey and analysis as prerequisite for planning improvement in crop production pattern. This unit will facilitate prudent management of resources, analyze production and evaluate economic status of production, advice the direction to production pattern with market competition, production forecasting, discussing the routine of cost of cultivation surveys and statistics. This unit will be attached to head office facilitated with an appointment of Regional Agricultural Economist and other facilities.

Project Title :1. Establishment of Regional Socio-economic Planning and Resource Management Unit in the Department Objectives • • • • • • • To analyze and evaluate production system and its cost-benefit To collect socio-economic and production related information To have close coordination with agriculture related business development entrepreneurs To guide the development planning of the region. To position service system appropriate to resource management To establish organizational frame work for resource management To identify appropriate resource management techniques

10.6.3. Establishment of Product Marketing , Information and agro-enterprise unit Agriculture Information and technology development consist of changes in material input, complementary farming technology, storage technology ,research supply and market institution. Effective integration of these factors is closely link with information flow. A technical stream of new technical knowledge and a flow of industrial input in which knowledge is embodied represent a necessary condition for agriculture development. Stream of input must complemented by investment in information transformation in general and in production for farmers. Hence there is no doubt that the information system is crucial for agriculture growth. Information flow in agriculture can be divided in to three broad categories. Information flow to farmers which includes education, extension and market information and information that help to group organizing then information flow to agriculture technician pre and in-service training and supervision, the third is the flow from the field to research and supply institution that is feed forward. In recent years, there are tremendous explosion of data and information in the field of agriculture science and technology. The total number of journal has been exceeded 15000. This posses several challenges to make information available and system development. This necessitates a unit for agricultural product marketing and information to be established in the region. Marketing of product and its related market information dissemination will facilitate them to indentify the production direction, regularization of production, value addition and marketing. The unit will help to integrate marketing information into research, extension and production program of the department. This service delivery will be part and parcel of the extension system, Therefore, product marketing and information unit be attached to the extension for market oriented extension and to ensure timely provision of market information to extension personnel in-turn to farmers at farm level. Inclusion of market information and discussion as part of their routine activities is considered necessary. Education and promotion on quality control and the ways to produce quality product also need promotion and reinforcement. These are probably the most problematic and expensive tasks which no institution alone is able to accomplish effectively and efficiently. They require that private rural collectors and private traders be recognized as proper and useful components in the system that needs guidance and support to act fairly and effectively.

Project Title :1. Agriculture Product Marketing and Information Unit establishment Objectives • • • • • • • To act as agriculture related information bank To promote market oriented extension To develop campaign to explicitly help market oriented farmers To disseminate market related information To make awareness on market situation and production relationship To regularize production and marketing To promote, motivate and help farmers to obtain produce of superior quality

10.6.4. Mobile Extension, Clinic and Soil Testing Service –A Mobile Unit. To advise farmers on specific fertilizer recommendation on the basics of native soil fertility and analysis of soil sample, soil testing service is necessary. Mobile soil testing facilities will solve the soil related problem then and there. These mobile soil laboratories also will suggest suitable remedial measures for problematic soil, prepare village level fertility index and assessing the quality of irrigation water. The mobile soil testing unit is an effective propaganda aids to disseminate the soil related bio-fertilizer and micro-nutrient technologies among pluralistic farming community with village adoption program, soil testing campaigns and exhibition etc. This service can develop the application of prudent and judicial inputs which is important in economic and sustainable productivity. Introduction of soil card system among the farming community will also be initiated for effective utilization of inorganic fertilizer in the field. However, this system needs frequent testing of soil for content of N, P and K and soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil. Project Title :1. Establish Mobile Extension, Clinic and Soil Testing Service –A Mobile Unit. Objectives: • • • • To solve problem on the spot. To promote judicial application of inputs. To have farmers with better knowledge on the resources. To initiate soil card system for effective fertilizer application decision.

10.6.5. Cyber Extension Service Unit The potential of modern tools like information and communication technologies (ICTs) will be harnessed to bring research, extension and farmers closer for mutual benefit. To promote ICT among the farming community, cyber extension system introduction is focused. In this system, farmer in the village can access and discuss with research sceintist and extension personnel through web camera video conference. By the development of this system, farmers can easily view the cultivation and technology adoption through interactive CD Rom and multimedia filming. This will be facilitated in each farmer training centre which is suggested to be established in each divisional area. In the long term, these cyber extension services will give information on market.

Cyber Extension Service Unit Project Strategy: Dissemination of technology through cyber extension approach is a cost effective tool for agriculture extension. Cyber extension facilitates all walks of people to have direct and interactive discussion with extension and scientist and have hands-on information in the quickest manner. Project Title :1. Establishment of cyber extension unit in each farmer training centre. Objectives • • • To facilitate direct discussion with scientist To disseminate hands-on technology in the quickest manner To facilitate farmer discussion with interactive CD display.

10.6.6. Plant Protection Unit and Plant Clinic Service Improvement Project Strategy Crop plants are affected by a variety of pests and diseases which cause tremendous damage to the crops and sometime destroy the crops to nothing. Plant protection service of the department once it was actively functioned will be reactivated with facilities to handle quality plant protection service. Service of of Registrar of Pesticides was created to monitor the use of high toxic chemical in legislative procedure. And also quarantine service renders barrier to introduce potentially harmful organism to the country. Therefore, an effective pest management and plant protection service in districts have to be developed with necessary equipment as this service has been limited to advisory level to the farmers at present. The plant protection service will include investigation, analysis and diagnosis problems and give remedial measure. A plant protection unit will be re-established in the districts and improve the application of IPM strategies in plant protection. This unit is vital for plant clinic service delivery Project 1. Plant Protection Unit and Plant Clinic Service Improvement Objectives • • • • • • To have farmers with better knowledge in pest management To promote IPM technologies in crop management. To make a quick investigation on the problem and give solution. To conduct FFS /FFR training program effectively. To promote better utilization of resources. To initiate plant clinic service to farmers

10.6.7. Rehabilitation of Agriculture Extension centre Most of the agriculture extension centre situated in peripheral area of the district to catering service to people in their door step were damaged by the prolonged war prevailed in the region, as a result, agriculture instructors lost their office facilities and have to share with adjoining extension centre facilities or have office in a temporary rented house and travel to his /her operational area for service delivery. This resulted in an attitudinal change in service performance. Rehabilitation of damaged extension centre in such a manner to have residential facilities near/attach to the office will facilitate officer not only to reside in the area but farmers in the area can have free wheel discussion at any time with extension officer. Damaged extension centre will be reconstructed as extension office cum residential quarters for agriculture instructor to reside in the area and deliver service. Project Title :1. Rehabilitation of agriculture extension centre cum quarters Objectives • • • • To cater service in the door step of the farming area To make agricultural instructor available at any time in his /her operational area for farmer to reach for advice in their free time To develop a better rapport among the farming community To make agriculture instructor available in operational area

10.6.8. Re-arrange agriculture extension service area Under training and visit system of extension service, there was village extension service personnel attached to each agriculture instructor service area to operate in village level covering 2-3 villages for catering effective service to the people in close supervision. With the absorption of VEW in to Grama Officers, agriculture instructor has to cover the whole area with single handed. This renders a limitation in the service delivery by an individual officer. To improve the delivery system in an effective way, the present agriculture operational area will be rearranged in to manageable ranges. 10.6.9. Women Agriculture Extension Service Gender sensitivity is an issue in the rural service delivery. Women are the people often left out from service provision. Department of agriculture have started extension service for economic development of the women in agriculture and house hold. Agriculture crop production, product preservation and effective food preparation and home economic related activities are implemented and will be strengthened to be more effective in women mobilization in Agro-based economic activities in the rural area. Agriculture extension officers were deployed in all districts to look after women in agriculture. Project Title :1. Household Economic Development Program Objectives • • • To improve household food habit To increase economic food preparation To promote value added food consumption

10.6.10. District Soil Atlas Soil atlas has to be prepared to highlight general information of the district, kinds of soils, their characteristics, land capability, productivity, potential and constraints. The soil atlas will disclose saline and alkaline lands that need reclamation practices. Soil atlas will also help plan potential crop cultivation areas with crop suitability mapping. For economic crop cultivation, crop suitability mapping is an essential practice to cultivate right crop at right place. Research should prepare the soil atlas for the region and recommend the possible crop varieties. Project Title :1. Development of regional soil atlas Objectives • • • To be a tool for planning. To use to identify potentiality. To plan effective land utilization.

10.6.11. Participatory Research and Technology Development Research-extension-farmer linkage is considered for farmer friendly and participatory technology development. The present research findings are resource demanding and capital intensive which does not address the needs of resource-poor small farmer groups whose problem have not been well to be well addressed in research and technology development. Participatory research and technology development approach to produce low cost and pro poor technology for small farmers will improve the productivity of the poor people, Therefore, strengthening research- extension- farmer linkage will be facilitated for success of PRTD approach. Project Title :1. Development of effective research- extension -farmer linkage Objectives • To make farmer as scientist and partner of the technology finding. • To make research technology adoptable and people friendly. • To promote better extension research and farmer linkage. • To promote farmer involvement in research activities 10.6.12. Provision of Mobility Extension field officers’ visit to farming area and individual farm is indispensable for effective planning, service delivery develop better rapport so that farmers develop credibility in the service provision. Mobility is very necessary to visit the field and individual farmer as farming is characterized as small scale farming and involve many farmers in cultivation of variety of crop. Hence, a extension has to with package of information to satisfy his service in the rural areas where farmers are sparsely living and farming.

Project Title :1. Provision of facility for field travelling Objective • • • To cover as many farmers as possible in a visit To reduced torn out by service providers. To serve quickly in case of outbreak or endemic situation

10.7. Agriculture Training and Capacity Building
Training and capacity building are essential services for empowerment and self reliance development. With the emerging new trends, functions and responsibilities, there is a continuous need to upgrade and professionalize the knowledge and skill of the farmers and extension personnel and prepare them to take up the new challenges with high sense of responsibility, confidence and competence. To achieve this task, Department of Agriculture has developed training units in the districts for training of farmers and youth in agriculture competency. In-service Training Institute was established for extension personnel on-thejob training. Since extension education is a non-formal education involving adult and youth, development of training facilities to cater effective training with different methodology is essential. Need for Human Resource Development Human resource capacity development is of paramount importance for any economic development in the country. Human resource capital is the capital for economic development. HRD plays a very vital role in agriculture development. Training is an important element for agriculture development especially at a time when technologies are changing fast. Farmers are to be trained in new technologies and their capacity in production system should be built for self reliance. Production system includes all the production process up to end users’ requirement. Farmers have to be empowered to withstand in competitive culture for which agriculture extension personnel too should have hands on information in technology changes and new strategies that are successfully practiced elsewhere to plan out development programs. Therefore, the training and capacity building program should be carried out to both producers and service providers. Countries such as India, Japan and others can cater to our training needs in integrated farming and multidisciplinary approach in farming. Agriculture training is part and partial of technology transfer programs. Department of Agriculture has developed District Agriculture Training centre in each district for practical oriented institutional training on agriculture competency. However, three Such DATC, were completely damaged by prolonged war situation and trainings were paralyzed in three district. Skill and Knowledge Acquisition Strengthening of capacity building services will facilitate social empowerment in production system. Producers are talented and enthusiastic in crop production enterprise. Proper empowerment, mobilization and gender main streaming program will pave the way for collective participation in the production process. Even through DATC render capacity building training with practical aspect, rural people are not much benefited by this arrangement.

There are attributes for this problem. However, establishment of farmer training centre in each division will give better climate for training of rural people; rural people having their own way of learning in the training centers in the rural locality will facilitate their accessibility for learning. 10.7.1. In-Service Training Institute Agriculture extension strategy expects the extension officer to have general knowledge of farming to be able to advice farmers on farming system. Specialized problems that cannot be resolved by specialists are forwarded to research institute; hence training of officer from one agency in the specialization of the other agencies to gain knowledge on the whole farming system is essential. This is referred to as on-the-job cross-training. Further, agriculture extension staff will be trained on change of technology and latest information on various aspects of crop development. This in-service training was held at the In-Service Training Institute located at Kilinochchi. This ISTI was completely damaged by the prolonged conflict. Project Title:I. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of In-service Training Institute Objectives • • • To facilitate in service training To promote knowledge and skill development in the field of extension To enhance quality extension service delivery

10.7.2. District Agriculture Training Centre Training is imperative for social empowerment which needs information in the way they understand, technical and production related non-technical information are disseminated among the society by means of training, group discussion, verbal and non-verbal cues, individual interaction and audio and visual media considering the adult learning principles. Extension manipulates all communication channels to disseminate information as farming is operated by all walks of people. Institutional strengthening in such a way to disseminate information specific to the area is recommended. The training system at DATC is gradually promoted with rehabilitation programs. Yet the institutional rehabilitation has not been completed as full fledged functional training institutes. The rehabilitation program will be continued for effective training and practical management. DATC Training Facilities Improvement District Agriculture Training Centre situated in each district caters practical oriented capacity building service to all walks of people in agriculture. Lack of facilities in the DATC hinders effective training to end-users. Further, three DATCs need full rehabilitation to function as training institutes.

Project Title :1. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Damaged Training Centres at Kilinochchi, Mannar and Mullaitivu Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of training institutions damaged by prolonged war situation will be given priority as no other training facilities are available in these districts. Objectives: • • • • To promote institutional training for capacity building. To develop competency in agriculture with practical oriented training. To develop a model trial farming for investigation. To facilitate development of knowledge based farming community.

Modernization of DATC in Jaffna Project strategy Jaffna District had the facilities for training youths in agriculture. This training was very much supported for youth engagement in agriculture. However, This facilities was relinquished with the formation of provincial administration. To improve youth’s self employment, A competency training in Agriculture is necessary to develop inherent capacity and motivate youth engaging in agriculture enterprises. The present training complex at DATC in Jaffna is adequate for residential training for educated youth in different aspect of agriculture enterprise. As the building complex are very old and needs repairing, this youth training facilities is not possible with present facilities, modernization of existing facilities will provide a conducive learning climate for youth and have a long term capacity development program by the department than the present one day program. Project Title :2. Modernization of Jaffna District agriculture training centre Objectives • • • To promote long term training on enterprise development To develop knowledge based community in agriculture To facilitate modern training for youth in agriculture

Facilities for Crop Management Improvement Training With the advent of ICT, training is facilitated with more effective methods. Adult learning principle needs different methodology for appropriate learning climate as adult participants are in various levels of knowledge. Institutional rehabilitation and improvement in effective transmission of information to community in addition to present instructional facilities are necessary for effective training. Project

3. Training Improvements Project Strategy Androgogy is an art and science of adult education differing from pedagogy principle. Improvement in training methodology will facilitate creation of learning motivation and interest in learning. Provision of facilities to DATC will pave way for conducting effective training program with conducive learning climate to adult learners. Objectives • • • • To develop training facilities at DATC. To improve learning climate. To show the effect of technology in crop production. To be a model for training.

Facilities for Farm Machinery Training Capacity building training on farm machinery and its operation and maintenance is at present available at Anuradhapura Farm Machinery Training Centre where the trainings are conducted in Sinhala medium. Therefore, farmers in the northern region face difficulty to be trained there. Hence, farm machinery training will be facilitated in the DATC in Vavuniya to conduct training on operation and maintenance of agriculture implements and machineries for needy people in the region which is lacking so far in the region. Project Title :4. Establishment of Farm Machinery Training Unit at DATC in Vavuniya Project Strategy Farm mechanization is an accepted activity for reduction of cost of cultivation and compensates the labor shortages. Further, to avoid scattered paddy cultivation in the region, use of machinery in paddy cultivation helps carry out timely action from planting to harvest. Besides, use of water pumps and sprayers is needed for advanced crop cultivation. The training on operation and maintenance of agricultural implements and machineries is the need of the day. Objectives • • • • • To facilitate farm machinery training in the northern region. To train farmers on operation and maintenance of farm machinery. To facilitate youth to undertake mending activities as income generation. To develop the capacity of training facilities on machineries at DATC, Vavuniya To develop farm machinery repairing units in the district.

Project Title :5. Establishment of Food Technology Training Unit at DATC. Project Strategy Food technology in value added food product preparation will promote the quality of production to the competitive edge of market. Department of Agriculture has Food Technology Unit at research level. The technology generated in research has to be disseminated to the people in need with hands-on practical demonstration on their learning and understanding. Hence a Food Technology Unit is necessary to be established in the province and supplied with necessary equipment for effective delivery of technology which is imperative for micro-enterprise development that will create a positive attitude and behavioral change in production. Objectives • • • • • To improve effective technical dissemination by hands-on demonstration. To spread the knowledge of operation and management of equipment. To create interest in cottage industry. To improve quality of production. To improve food technology dissemination service.

10.7.3. Farming community empowerment Empowerment of farming community in the agriculture production process and the system will facilitate producer to be self -reliant in their livelihood development path and involve in participatory planning process to improve the good governance. Extension personnel will facilitate empowering process in the production system development. Hence, People planning process and participatory action will be promoted. Facility for farmer field training Farmers should be facilitated to learn from their colleagues and have peer discussion within their locality. Establishment of farmer training centre in close proximity of farming places and developed facilities to interact with peer group is one important aspect. Project Title :-

1. Establishing Farmer Training Centre at divisional level
The main aim of FTC is to facilitate farmers to obtain training on agriculture development technologies for adoption in the field and other production related information very closer to their location. Training to farmers / farm women and farmer group discussion are facilitated at village level. Hence, farmers are encouraged to participate in large number for sharing their experience and problems. One of the adult learning principles is that they learn through their colleagues. This principle is facilitated at this centre.

Project Strategy The proposed FTC will facilitate rural farmers to get together for discussion and training, and it will act as an information receiving centre. Objectives • • • • • To facilitate learning near the vicinity of the production area. To create learning climate to farming community To develop learning facilities to farmers To facilitate- e – learning with Cyber Extension Unit To facilitate exposure visit

10.7.4. Establishment of Agriculture Technology and Entrepreneurial Development Training Institute Development of Agriculture Technology and Entrepreneurial Development Institute in the northern region will help in many ways to develop a scientific knowledge based community in relation to crop production and agro- industry in line with economic promotion. The proposed ATEDTI is considered necessary to build capacity of the people interested in agroenterprise development and to improve the quality of entrepreneurship. This institute will be affiliated with university and research for quality standard and also this will function as an informatics. Project Title :1. Establishment of Agriculture Technology and Entrepreneurial Development Training Institute Objectives • • • • To make available agriculture technology and information for needy people. To promote agriculture related enterprise training. To do research on quality of value added product preparation with university. To innovate technology for quality improvement of the product.

10.8. Requirement of vehicle and other machineries for extension
Extension service needs heavy and regular field visits to the service in the door step of the farm families. Ever changing technology and production pattern needs quick decision making in agricultural production process. Since farming are characterized as small scale multidisciplinary cropping pattern with involvement of literarily different category of farmers in different state of economic level. Motor cycles and jeeps are required for the transport of officers and materials and also small buses for transport of farmers for training centre and officers for outside training to be arranged under human resource development program. Machineries are required to farm division for seed production.

Type of vehicle Jeep Bus lorry Motor cycle Three wheeler Tractor-4w Tractor-2w Combine Harvester Seed cleaner Reaper

No of required 18 06 03 85 05 09 07 02 02 10

10.9. Requirement of buildings
Many building were damaged by the war situation in the region. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of buildings is necessary to revive the extension activities hitherto paralyzed due to conflict situation. Further, construction of farmer training centre with facilities for having cyber unit in each divisional administrative area to enable farmers to access for elearning and to have interactive group discussion with extension personnel and their other colleques will be made available for farmers. Extension and training facilities that were derelict have to be re-provided for service delivery. Type of building District Agriculture Office District Training Centre Segment Agriculture Office In-service Training institute Farmer training centre Agriculture extension centre Farm Building complex Community storage building Dedicated Economic Zone District Market Rural Markets No required 03 03 13 01 33 83 15 33 02 05 300

10.10. Personnel requirement for agriculture Extension.
One of the major resource constraints in the service institutions is lack of technical staff for effectively carry out the research, extension and seed certification service in the region. Scarcity of staff is major problem in each division in the department of agriculture. Division Agriculture Officers /SMS SLAgS 35 Adaptive Research Officers 6 Economic assistant Agriculture Instructors Farm machinery Instructor 2 Lab assistant

Extension units




Chapter-11 Agriculture Research and Development
Research function was not devolved to provincial administration except the adaptive research activity which is meant for evaluation of climatic adaptation of the technology. Research finding should be technically feasible, socially acceptable and economically sound. Social acceptance of the technology in all occasions is a factor for economic acceptance. Most of the station research finding is resource demanding and capital intensive which cannot be adopted by poor farmers. About 90% of the farming societies cultivate crops at subsistent level and the technologies for subsistent level cultivation differ from the commercial type. Besides sustainable resource management securing productivity of the production factors is considered as state of the art technology. Technically related sustainable productivity improvement needs a participatory research and technology development approach by which scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge could be mixed for sustainable technology development. The participatory research and technology development approach will make farmers scientists and develop a knowledge based society. Hence research activities will be focused in the farmer’s field with the participation of farmers.

11.1. Research Institutions in the region
Research and Development component in productivity and market improvement activities in the crop sector development is the center of agriculture development and it plays a multiple role in research and extension system. It is the pivotal point of the extension. As such research institutions were established based on the ecological perspective in different ecological zone with different research activities for group of crop discipline. There are seven such Regional Research Station were established in seven ecological areas in the island with satellite adaptive research station in the respective districts. There were Adaptive Research Units in each district under the supervision of Regional Research Station located in Kilinochchi district, as central place for ecological representation, in the research development network system. Service of the Regional Research and Development Institute and it peripheral adaptive research activities were completely paralyzed and RARDC is temporarily functioning in Vavuniya district. Regional Agriculture Research and Development Centre (RARDC) Regional Agriculture Research and Development Centre (RARDC) was established at Kilinochchi in 1977 as the main research station to represent research activities of dry zone of different ecological condition with establishment of satellite adaptive research centres in each district. This RARC with the support of other established RARC in the country undertake research activities subject to the condition for northern agriculture development and mainly focus on innovative station trial under crop improvement program. And the Adaptive research units undertake on-farm trial for verification of innovations to particular locality and other solution providing research for crop management problem encountered by the farmers.

Horticulture Sector Research Development Horticulture sector of the region specially fruit sector is a promising sector due to its exclusive potential for quality fruit production for export and enterprise development. As mentioned earlier, to cater service to the proposed horticultural development projects for commercial production with nucleus/ out- growers, intensified research on selected fruits and vegetables will be undertaken at a site closer to the commercial orchards. This obviates a new horticultural sub-unit to be established in the regional research station coordinated with main Horticulture Research Development Institute. Adaptive Research Development Adaptive research functions are multifaceted and it has a key role in effective extension service delivery Not only finding adaptation of technology to specific location or climatic conditions but it help extension people in giving information regarding market, value addition, economic analysis, system controlling etc. The needs of the adaptive research service are well recognized in the concept of sustainable agriculture. In the northern region characteristic of agriculture, Crops are cultivated in different edaphic areas in the region resulting in a variation in productivity even with recommended application of technology. The small-scale nature cultivation of food crops in the region tent to involve as many farmers as in crop cultivation and not all farmers are same in resource potential both in physical and financial, therefore adoption of resource demanding conventional technology for crop production improvement will not be possible by all farmers. A participatory approach in a farmer field school method to identify suitable and appropriate technology which can be adoptable by resource poor farmers should be initiated and further local technology for solution to problem be identified. This necessitates adopting different principles of technology in differing potential area. Hence, adaptive research become imminent and to be carried out with participation of farmers. Therefore, Each District should be established adaptive research units under the administrative purview of district extension office. The location of adaptive research unit establishment will be identified considering the potential cultivation areas, edaphic variability and crop discipline. There are five such adaptive research units should be established.

11.2. Strategies for Research Development
There are varies strategies that can be identified for research development on crop improvement. However, the bellow mentioned strategies should be considered in research development. 11.2.1. Participatory Research and Technology Development The option for sustainable development is to encourage farmers’ involvement in research findings. Participatory research and technology development programs should be facilitated for farmer-friendly technology innovation which will make farmers as scientists and promote need based research activities while focusing development research.

11.2.2. Precision Agriculture By development of global positioning system (GPS) and global information system (GIS) the precision agriculture can be explored in the region. This can facilitate for a specialized crop production and development Affiliation with University Agri-business has interlinked two sector- production sector and business sector. Production house should be linked with research and universities and the business house be linked with business agencies. University will be offered research contracts to undertake research for the development of new technology particularly for post-harvest operations (storage and processing) with a view to reducing losses due to glut and low prices and for producing processed products for the markets, socio economics studies in relation to technology adoption and its impact on production improvement and economics of production. The university should develop curriculum in such a way to have close relationship with farmers and extension personnel during the course of study.

11. 3. Organizational development
Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of RARC Strategy The existing Regional Research Station in the region will be reconstructed and strengthened and facilities improved to plan, organize and implement applied and adaptive research programs in respect of paddy, other field crops, vegetables and fruits. Adaptive research trials in farmer’s fields will be extended to cover micro agro-ecological regions. The research stations will also undertake soil testing and also inventories of the soil resources to prepare Soil Atlas of the region for optimum use. Project Title :Rehabilitation of RARDC Objectives • • To restart regional research activities To have research innovation suitable to regional climatic and edaphic conditions District Research Centre and Adaptive Research Unit District Research Units affiliated with adaptive research are necessary to strengthen the participatory research and research- extension- farmer linkages. This unit will have a close coordination with extension and be attached to district extension office in order to facilitate field research, cross training and knowledge sharing. Further, farmers in the villages will be visited frequently and supported morally by the extension and research office personnel and research officers can easily join the extension staff to the field if they are attached to extension office.

Regional soil types are varied in the district with fertility level and soil organic content and even the crop cultural practices such as irrigation methods and fertilizing differ according to the soil and climatic conditions. This too needs to have an outreach research program with extension. Strategy Farmer’s problem and technology needs vary with cropping practices. And the need for participatory research development is recognized as eco-friendly technology development and solution for location specific problems. Objectives • • • • • To research on location specific technology funding. To have participatory research and technology innovation facilities. To conduct technology verification trial with extension. To have better link of research-extension-farmer. To strengthen coordination of central and provincial services.

Project Title :Establishment of District Research Unit attached to Extension Division.

11.4. Personnel requirement for Research
One of the major resource constraints in the service institutions is lack of technical staff for effectively carryout the research, extension and seed certification service in the region. Scarcity of staff is major problem in each division in the department of agriculture. Division Agriculture Officers Research Officers Research assistant Agriculture Instructors Farm machinery Instructor Lab assistant

Research units






Chapter-12 Seed and Planting Material Development Centre (S&PMC)
The S&PMC attached to central departmental administration provides seed certification service and supply of basic seeds for contract seed growers and coordinating seed supply from the government seed production farm. Further contract seed growing activities are undertaken through this service This division is responsible for supply of basic seed for seed multiplication in the field and in the farm and certifying quality seeds to farmer for crop cultivation. The service delivery of the division is limited to certain area of the region due to its limited facilities in both human and material resources. This division needs building and infrastructure for basic seed production to supply to contract growers for further multiplication. As the service of S&PMC is closely related with extension, this unit will be attached to extension division in each district with the coordination to regional unit. A seed certification officer will be attached to district DD’s office to coordinate all seed production activities in the district in close collaboration with regional unit of S&PMC. Rehabilitation of Seed and Planting Material Supply Service Strategy The Seed and Planting Material Unit will be strengthened with laboratory facilities for testing of seed viability and germination. Testing of seed outside the region will cause unnecessary expenditure and delay. Project Title :Rehabilitation of regional offices at Kilinochchi , Mannar and Vavuniya. Objectives • • • • To assure quality seed distribution. To develop out grower system. To regularize seed and planting material production. To strengthen regional seed production program.

Seed Certification Service Improvement Strategy Seeds will be produced by seed out growers. Several quality parameters determine the quality of the seeds such as seed germination, varietal purity, etc. A timely monitoring and supervision is necessary to advocate seed producers on field technology for quality seed production. The seed certification unit delivers service in production of good quality seed to the national standard by out-growers, whose seed production is supplementary to government seed production and distribution. The out growers system is imminent for quality seed supply for the requirement of the region. An Agriculture Instructor will be attached to extension division to coordinate this service with S&PMC unit and arrange contract growing farmers in the district. The region needs a full-fledged seed certification service in each district to handle the seed production system to be developed in future.

Project Title :Establishment of Seed Certification Unit attached to extension division in each district under regional seed certification centre. Objectives • • • • To produce basic seeds for multiplication in out grower system To deliver seed production technology service for standardization To strengthen coordination with central and provincial services To develop seed production committee

Improvement of Seed out growers System Strategy Formation of Seed Producers’ Association in each district will be will be advocated and implemented with seed production unit’s net work. And formulate working modalities for strengthening the society Project Title :Formation of Seed Producers’ Association. Objectives • • • • To regularize seed industrial promotion. To encourage private seed production. To privatize seed industry under quality control of Department of Agriculture. To make seed availability and accessibility to rural farmers

12.1. Personnel requirement for Seed and Planting material production and Seed Certification Service
One of the major resource constraints in the service institutions is lack of technical staff for effectively carryout the research, extension and seed certification service in the region. Scarcity of staff is major problem in each division in the department of agriculture.
Division Agriculture Officers SLAgS 01 Research Officers Research assistant Agriculture Instructors Farm machinery Instructor 06 Lab assistant

Seed certification units Seed &planting material unit











12.2. Support needed by the Government
12.2.1. Crop insurance Crop insurance scheme has not been implemented to all crops in the region. Crops are subject to damage by inclement weather condition. Cash crops like chilli, red onion and potato consume large amount of money for cultivation as such only limited farmers cultivate these crops. If there is any assurance under crop insurance scheme for failure of crop, most farmers can be encouraged. Therefore, reintroduction of crop insurance scheme for major crops with attractive terms and conditions will facilitate farmers cultivating more extent. 12.2.2. Farmers pension scheme The scheme is being implemented in some part of the northern region and to be made implementable in the other part by developing encouraging situation. The implementation of farmers’ pension scheme is to be activated in the region and enrolled more beneficiaries in this scheme. 12.2.3. Assistance for revitalization of agriculture The prolong war situation has caused tremendous loss of productivity asset and economic infrastructure. While economic infrastructure is rehabilitated, farmers who lost their productive asset like agriculture implements machineries and water pumps etc have to be supplied to them for restart their agriculture activities. Preparation of project proposal and request for funding from the donor agent for assisting the community to revitalize agriculture is to be done. Action has to be taken for exploring project funding.

RECOMENDATION Recommendation for organizational strengthening and motivation • Since subjects and its matters related to crop sector development are not fully devolved to provincial department of agriculture, statutes should be prepared in the areas where applicable by the law in interest of the agrarian community under provincial council authority. • Use of good quality seed is indispensable in cultivation. Seeds certification is necessary to maintain the seed standard. To have effective seed certification service, Regional seed certification service should be made statute. • Development of good quality planting material production and supply system with standard is needed for continuous supply to requirement. This is possible by developing private enterprises. Maintenance of standard of material production privately have to be strengthened. Authority should be facilitated for Provincial Department of Agriculture to register such enterprises and issue permit for establishing nursery units with required standard in the region. • Development of standard for organically produced sustainable crop product. • A government intervention for legislation for incentive system or price system favoring sustainable production method Designing and Introduction of a subsidy system for sustainable resource uses is recommended • A frame condition for community based participatory resource management to limit resource exploitation can be developed by local government and authority. • A legal provision for resource management to the province is recommended since province remains responsibility of sustainable resource management. • Provision of system for safety net or social security within the provincial system to cover up emergency, epidemics circumstances that cause a drastic economic overturn that cannot be cope up on the farmers own strategy. • Development of a statutory body for market development • Institutional development and strengthening of provincial department of agriculture for planning and marketing and agro enterprise development in order to cater effective and need based extension service specific to the region under provincial administrative purview. See suggested organizational adjustment in the annexure • Patent Right for intellectual properties of the region to be confirmed. • Establishment of a formalized micro credit system for a regularized and uniform credit provision.

A number of projects are indentified and elaborated for implementation in short, medium and long term prospective. Though projects implementation for crop production development is administratively in the hands of Agriculture Department, the full benefit of the projects cannot be achieved without the support of other public and private organizations. Activities of number of public and private organizations support agriculture development but coordination among the institutions in development program implementation in such a way for people to get maximum benefit have still been needed. Social auditing in activity performance and project implementation is a necessary tool for coordination and accountability. Social mobilization towards empowerment and social capital improvement towards capturing development options are instrumental for full potential resource utilization. Public, private and people participation is vital for growth achievement. A structural rearrangement to that effect is necessary for effective rural development which will definitely be based on agriculture development.

Present Organizational Setup
Director of Agriculture

Annexure - 01

Deputy Director of Agriculture
Provincial level

Technical section

Administration section

Financial sectionAccount

Transference Technology

Deputy Director of Agriculture (Ext.) (05 District) Technical section
District level Government Farm Segment Agricultural Office

Administration Branch DATC

Segment level Frontline officers

Range Agricultural Extension office (84 Ranges)

Suggested Organizational Structure
Research Division -

Annexure - 02
Seed certification Division -

Dept. of Agriculture Head -

Provincial level

Socio- Economic Planning & Resource Management unit-

Deputy Head of Dept

Information, Marketing& Enterprise development unit

Technical section
Progress monitoring

Administration section

Financial sectionAccount

Audio Visual Unit

Adaptive Research unit

District Agriculture office (05 District) Administration Branch
Seed & PM production section

Technical section
District level
Plant Production Unit

Training section
Segment Agricultural Office

Segment level Frontline officers

Adaptive Research Unit
Progress monitoring & evaluation

Technology Transfer Unit

Seed certification

Socio Economic


Range Agricultural Extension office (84 Ranges)

Annexure - 03

Logical Frame Matrix
Narrative summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means Of Verification Assumption/Risk

High literate population Provision of effective, quality, Improved standard of living, Reduced poverty index needs based, sustainable Agriculture extension services to raised prosperity and social status Contribution to GDP farming community for sound of the farming community and sustainable socio- economic and livelihood development. Availability of resource and social motivation Provision of required facilities and Institutional strengthening Prevalence of liberalized market economy

• To facilitate and pursue adoption of sustainable base scientific technical applications for productive farming To reach food and nutrition security. To generate exportable surplus of agriculture production. To empower to be self reliance in organized agriculture crop production and marketing Open market economic situation, Increased farm production and Annual central bank report Contribution to livelihood improvement and Percentage Liberal accessibility for inputs Provincial and National GDP Extension of crop cultivation Progress report on quantity of production

• •

Amount of Quality exportable surplus beyond self sufficiency in food production Institutionalized production and marketing and No of farmer production and market organization

Farmers’ acceptance in Provincial GDP report cooperative/group action is high Central bank report Market survey report and percentage contribution to national equirmrent Market price report Bank report on private


High return on investment Reduction in post harvest loss

investment on crop production Favorable environment and entrepreneurship. Demand and consumer preference for crop based value added product exists.

To develop dynamic post Consumer and producer harvest operation and Increased trend in natural food. satisfaction Private participation improved. agro- based enterprises Forward sale and management High return on investment Higher price for synthetic food contract arrangement increased. product Existence of viable Commercial Availability of different Ago based Adequate market net work and information enterprise and small scale agro value added product in the linkages connectivity market with brand name. based enterprise units Market competition for local To achieve quality and branded product quantity of service Knowledge based self reliance delivery community developed Client satisfaction of the service To implement government policy in agriculture development

High participation development planning activities. Demand for service

institutional in Adequate and development and strengthening and organizational support. Provision of necessary training and adequate mobility for field monitoring and supervision. Conducive and encouraging environment for private participation and investment with no legal shortcoming and practical bottleneck.


Narrative summary

Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Means Of Verification

Assumption/Risk Conducive socio, physical and political climate and policy frame Interest in private investment Competition for product market Donor agent support Social integration

High literate population Food and nutrition Reduced poverty index Crop sector development No of assets owned 1. Increased Quality & Quantity of crop production and security achieved Exportable surplus crop based value added product for self sufficiency 2. Exportable surplus quality crop produced for production and Enterprise competitive market a. Paddy sub sector improvement in production development ,value addition and bran oil production export b. OFC sub sector developed in production and value Quality potential fruits plants Central bank Report on addition enterprise export c. Horticulture sector quality produce developed and supply assured Quality fruits Established production a. Processing centre Increased income by b. Banana dehanding centre d. Nucleus mother plants for quality fruit plants value addition Increased Progress report on fruits production development. opportunities for production and employment percentage loss Community Agro enterprise development ownership d. Post production sector developed d. Agro based micro enterprises developed Reduction in market supply chain No of viable enterprises Market oriented crop in the report Market institutionalization e. Market access and participation developed production No of market institutions through Agriculture cooperative society revived in the report and market institutionalized.

Out put

Credit facilities, private investments, market demand availability


Institutions development - Socio Economic & Resource Planning Unit - Audio visual unit - Plant protection unit



Professional capacity for effective, efficient sustainability, quality, and quantity of need based extension service delivery for client satisfaction developed Adaptive Research unit Participatory Rehabilitated of seed production farms and research development facilities provided. Regional specific tech development Rehabilitated of RARC and facilities provided Functions of ISTI for Reconstructed In-service Training Centre and professional enhancement facilities provided training quality Strengthened seed & planting material and Improved supply of required seed certification units Seeds and Planting materials Service strengthened with staff deployment Quality service and mobility given delivery to all community based Agriculture Technology and Enterprise Knowledge Development Training Institute society development

Client satisfaction on local govt social survey report Support of donor agent or Government funding

No of pro-poor technologies available for farmers. No of research findings and rate of adoption

Approval of national planning department No of I.S.T program conducted on progress rweport Amount of seed supplied in each year and percentage use of good quality seed by farmers of on department progress Approval requirement report Social survey report






Narrative summary


1. Extension service delivery improvement 2. Supply of lost productive assets. Crop sector development activities • Paddy area potential mapping. • OFC crop development activities • Horticulture crop development activities 3. Identification and mapping of nucleus mother plants 4. Seed and planting material Production and Supply of exportable quality fruit plants 5. Value addition for home economic activities Agro enterprise development activities 6. Fruits Processing centre establishment 7. Banana Dehanding centre establishment 8. Post production sector development activities 9. Establish private modern Rice processing mill 10. Value addition enterprise activities

Objectively Verifiable Means Of Verification Assumption/Risk Indicators Quality extension Rate of Rural employment in Donor support in development service agriculture sector in central bank report High community participation system Revival of agriculture Political support Soft loan schemes and Credit facilities with minimum collaterals and function of credit agencies Grant of approval for appointment by the authority.

Production and productivity improvement and income generated

Crop production processing units for value addition and employment opportunities

Percentage labour force utilized and Demand for natural food and Percentage of unemployment private investment on central bank report


Social institutionalization activities 11. Market technology promotion activities 12. Market institutionalization activities 13. Reorganization of farmer cooperatives

Social participation in crop production system

Institutional development activities 14. Establish Socio economic & resource planning unit 15. Establish Audio visual unit 16. Establish Plant protection units 17. Establish Adaptive Research units

Institutional and organizational development and report of the strengthening for Progress respective units sustainable agriculture demand No of Functional units in the driven and needs organization based service delivery 18. Rehabilitation of seed production farms Supply of quality seed activities

Adequate provision of fund and Project approval by the authority

19. Reconstruction of district agriculture Impart of Knowledge for under training centre understanding 20. Farm machinery training unit 21. Rehabilitation of RARC activities Revitalized regional Research and technology In-service Training development Professional enhance ment training on hands on technology

22. Reconstruction of Centre activities


23. Strengthening activities for seed & planting material and seed certification units. 24. Provision of staff, mobility, and capacity building training and facilities. 25. Agriculture technology and enterprise development training institutive

Contract Seed growers

Adequate provision of fund and approval by the Reduction in unemployment Project Quality service and self employment bank authority provision to all farmers report Provision of opportunity for youth Policy frame available and entrepreneurs to capture the development options for self employment.


Annexure - 04

Implementation Calendar
1. Paddy Sector Development
Paddy yield evaluation study for Schematic mapping of different potential areas of paddy tract Formation of crop producer cooperative society Implementation of Organic rice farming demonstration and development program Motivation program for appropriate technology adoption Rice bran oil production Farm mechanization Establishment of standard rice processing mill in the region Domestic parboiling improvement development Cottage level rice flour making and flour value addition. Capacity building on Value addition technology development Soil fertility improvement and conservation



2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2. Subsidiary Food Crop Sector
Capacity building on them ways of productivity improvement Promotion of pulses under plantation crop land Crop diversification under minor tanks Crop diversification in paddy field Expansion of maize cultivation Identification and Mapping of the area for crop zoning Capacity building Training and demonstration on value addition technology Establishment of community storage/ provision of storage facilities for community Organization and Provision of facilities for purchase & storage by the community based cooperative farmers’ society












3. Yam & Tuber Crops Development
Expansion of yam cultivation in the home stead Production of yam planting materials Yam value added product enterprise development Promotion of off season potato cultivation under net house











4. Oil Crop Development
Development of Improved Crop production management practices Capacity building Training and demonstration on value addition technology Development Ground nut and Sesame seed production and supply system Feasibility study for Castor oil production Cultivation of sun flower and oil production feasibility study 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5. Fruit Crop Development
Development of fruit processing units in vital locations Fruit crop production Improvement and management Multiplication of export potential variety either by tissue culture method or by pseudonymous planting material Establishment of de-handing shed in specific location Appointment of horticulture crop development specialist/ Subject Metter Specialist Establishment of horticulture farm with nucleus fruit plants for training Integrated horticultural development program Capacity building on fruit trees management 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


5.1 Mango
Capacity building on Mango tree management and quality fruit production and demonstration Development of Integrated pest management program for mango tree Development and promotion of export potential mango fruit variety within the region Establishment of domestic market centres in the region 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.2 Jak
Production and promotion of export potential varieties by supplying grafted good quality seedlings 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.3 Pine apple
Extension of production technologies Development of production and supply of planting material system 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.4 Lime and Orange
Capacity building Training and demonstration at field level Development of Lime Farm in identified suitable zone in the region Development of Production and supply system of sweet orange grafted seedling 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


5.5 Papaw
Production and Productivity Enhancement Papaw fruit development related value addition technology 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.6 Avocado
Introduction of Avocado Fruit Plant of Homestead Level 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.7 Grape vine
Expansion of grape vine cultivation with seedless variety 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.8 Pomegranate
Expansion of pomegranate cultivation with consumer preference variety 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

5.9 Guava
Promotion of Guava cultivation with the supply of consumer preference guava seedling 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


6. Condiments Crop Development
Establishment of demonstration plot with package of practices Development and Improvement onion seed production system 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

7. Vegetable Crop Development
Development of protected agriculture system Promotion of up country vegetable production Development of value addition in vegetable and Supply of solar equipment for vegetable dehydration Promotion of leafy vegetable cultivation in home stead under sprinkler system Potted agriculture promotion Development of seed production and supply system Introduction and Promotion of melon cultivation in homestead and selected areas Construction of local cold storage with intermediate technology to vegetable producers Promotion of eco –friendly technology applications in crop cultivation Development of organic farming and carbonic fertilizer production in the region 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

8. Cultivation of Aromatic Crop
Development of betel planting material production and supply to household Supply of aromatic plants to house hold and training on spices seasoning Explore the possibility of cinnamon cultivation at home stead Explore the possibility of pepper cultivation and Supply of pepper plants to homestead 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


9. Agriculture Enterprises Development
Promotion of Compost Making as Small Enterprise for income generation Promotion of wormy compost making units in house hold Conduct compost making competition Development of bio pesticide production units in the villages Promotion of value added product preparation Establishment of ornamental plant production and cut flowers units in household and commercial basis Development of Honey production units. Mushroom Production and Development Re-establishment and Promotion of Cashew Plantation Expansion of cashew cultivation through Homestead Cultivation Community forest development at Household Bamboo development in marginal land Development of hatchery bond for fingerlings supply 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

10. Agricultural Marketing
Establishing and strengthening Agriculture Cooperative Societies Establishment of regulated market. Establishment of producers society and strengthening 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


11. Seed and Planting Material Production & Development
Establishment of seed processing unit in each district Supply of mini kits with basic seeds and fertilizer for self seed production Establishment of seed processing unit Establishment of private nursery units Identification of mother plants and maintenance 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Institutional Development 1. Extension Service Delivery Improvement
Establishment of audio visual unit at head office and Provision of Audio visual equipments. Improvement in agriculture broad casting service Establishment of Socio economic planning and Resource management unit in the department Agriculture Product Marketing and Information Unit establishment Establish Mobile Extension, Clinic and Soil Testing Service –A Mobile Unit Establishment of cyber extension unit in each farmer training centre 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


1. Extension Service Delivery improvement
Plant Protection Unit and Plant Clinic Service Improvement Rehabilitation of agriculture extension centre cum quarters Development of regional soil atlas Development of effective research- extension -farmer linkage Rehabilitation of District Agriculture Training Centre. Modernization of Jaffna District agriculture training centre Provision of facilities for training Develop farm- machinery training unit at DATC in Vavuniya. Establishment of farmer training centre at divisional level Household economic development program Provision of facility for field travelling Professional enhancement for quality extension service Rehabilitation of RARDC Establishment of District Research Unit and adaptive research units in each district Rehabilitation of seed and planting material supply service Establishment of seed certification unit in each district under regional seed certification centre with adequate facilities Formation of Seed producer’s association 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2. Farmer Training Centre
Establishment of farmer training centre at divisional level Establishment of agriculture vocational training and Technology Institute 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019


Prepared by
K. Subramaniam, B.Sc (Agric Eng) SL, M.Sc (Agric Ext) U.S.A, Dip in Public ManagementProvincial Director of Agriculture.

Assisted by
Mr .M. Jeganathan, B.Sc (Agric), M.Sc (Forestry) -Deputy Director, Mannar. Mrs .J.Jeganathan, B.Sc(Agric), M.Phil( Pathology)-Deputy Director Vavuniya. Mr. M .Kugathasan, B.Sc (Agric), M.Sc (Ext and Com)-Deputy Director (HQ). Mr. A .Selvarajah, B.Sc (Agric), M.Sc (Renewal Natural Resource)-Deputy Director, Jaffna. Mr. R .Kokuladasan, B.Sc (Agric)-Deputy Director, Mullaitivu. Mrs. S. Anandarajah, (Dip in Agric) - Deputy Director, Kilinochchi. AND Mr. S.J. Arasagesary, B.Sc (Agric), M.Sc (Plant breeding), India-Deputy Director (Research) Mr. S. Satheeskumar, B.Sc (Agric), Asst Director, Seeds Division Mr.K. Sathiamoorthy, B.Sc (Agric), Agriculture Officer, Seed Certification Division. Edited by Prof. A.Sivayoganathan, Head, Department of Agriculture Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.