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The Data Link Layer

The Data Link Layer

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The Data Link Layer

r_ _ .~. ,

Our goals:

~ Understand principles behind data link layer services:

Sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access,

• Link layer addressing.

, interconnection of different LAN segments.

~ Instantiation and implementation of various link layer technologies

.' 2

_-

LinkLayer: Introduction

Some terminology: ~ hosts and routers are nodes ~ communication channels that

connect adjacent nodes along communication path are links ,. wired links , wireless links ;, LANs

~ layer-2 packet is a frame, encapsulates datagram

data-link layer has responsibility of transferring datagram from one node to adjacent node over a link

11> 3

Link layer: context

~ Datagram transferred by different link protocols over different links:

transportation q_11~

• trip from Princeton to Lausanne " limo: Princeton to JFK

• plane: JFK to Geneva

, train: Geneva to Lausanne

} e.g., Ethernet on first link, frame relay on intermediate links, 802.1 I on last link

• Each link protocol provides different services

> tourist= datagram transport segment :::: communication link

~ transportation mode= link layer protocol

p travel agent:::: routing algorithm

t~fev

I, e.g., mayor may not provide rdt over link

rtt· .~U~I(. Ma.

p 4

2

Physical Media

~ physical link:

Transmitted data bit propagates across link. I' guided media:

signals propagate in solid media (e.g copper, fiber).

I> unguided media:

signals propagate freely (e.g. radio bands).

> The physical Layer defines the "representation" of bits.

It's also provides protection by both detecting and correcting

corrupted bits \",.",.", , . .'."' .. '·.' ,.t ' .. '

~. 5

Physical Media (Examples)

,.,. . .. " ,. -.-

Twisted Pair (TP)

> Two insulated copper wires. May be shielded or not.

" Category 3

Traditional phone wires. Supports I O-Mbps Ethernet. Category 5

Supports IOOMbps Ethernet ("Fast-Ethernet").

3

Physical Media (Examples)

Coaxial cable

~ Two concentric shielded Wires.

;, Baseband

single channel on cable. broadband:

multiple channel on cable.

~ common uses for IO-Mbps Ethernet and TV cables .

.. ~

W 7

J~hy~~<?~a,l.JYI_~?}a (Ex~l?plesL.... .... ..,,~.~.

Fiber

o Glass fiber carrying light pulses. , Single mode or multi mode.

> High point-to-point speed,

" Very low error rate (caused by low fiber's attenuation).

l' Secured.

I> Common used for IOO-Mbps Ethernet and IOOO-Mbps Ethernet ("Gigabit Ethernet").

4

encapsulate datagram into frame, adding header. trailer , link Access (The protocol):

, Addressing:

/)\IN\ l7j ~) )\')~ I!. .. _I----_ Introduces "MAC" addresses used in frame headers to identify hosts

p . ;')3)))) 3) (actually NICs) who are part of the network.

Different for IP addresses!

. j\' Q}()J ,Jt';', Channel Access: 1)~Q) Jrr j)G6cJ

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Physical Media (Examples)

... -_.... . .. ,.,-, , ,,, .. , ,, ,, .. _.,,

" Many more:

j- Radio bands (WiFi. high bit error rate).

Microwave (Requires hosts in light of sight). Satellite (very slow RTT).

I>' 9

Link Layer Services

_ .~. A' __ _,,' ". .. •• ' ..

> Recall that we're actually considering the MAC layer in the IEEE

802 m~del. . J~~ _ (9J l))))) _/IJ{ 5))l.A

, Framing (Frame structure) :V

Defines the set of rules which allows the hosts to use the (possibly

shared) medium. Y.J 0

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5

Link Layer Services

• Flow Co~trol: ... ····:-]J~5~-lJ.H?

;- pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes I> Error Detection:

, errors caused by signal attenuation, noise. , receiver detects presence of errors:

• signals sender for retransmission or drops frame

• Error Correction:

• receive I' identifies and corrects bit error(s) without resorting to retransmission

• Half-duplex and full-duplex:

, with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit, but not at same time

;- RDT:

• Offers some reliability between the hosts (Why is this redundant?).

II' 11

Link Layer Services

link layer protocol

sending node

adapter

adapter " receiving side

, looks for errors, rdt, flow control, etc

f extracts datagram, passes to rcving node

~ adapter is semi-autonomous ~ link & physical layers

link layer implemented in "adaptor" (aka NIC)

, Ethernet card, PCMCI card. 802.1 I card

> sending side:

" encapsulates datagram ill a frame

, adds error checking bits, rdt, flow control. etc.

t;. 12

rcving node

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Link Types

Three types of "links"; ~ point-to-point (P2P)

} PPP for dial-up access.

}> Point-to-point link between Ethernet switch and host.

~ Broadcast

} Traditional Ethernet and its predecessors.

" Upstream HFC.

> 802.[1 wireless LAN.

~ Switched Networks ATM (used for WAN).

II- We'll focus on Broadcast media.

r x Blah. blah. blah
Ii ~ A-I~
:fi~ r' .~
F X rl ZZZZZZZZZm,
•• :
shared wjre shared wiretess satellite cocktail party
~. 13 (e.g. Ethernet) (e.g lNavelan) ~ single shared broadcast channel

~ two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes: interference " collision if node receives two or more signals at the same time

Muitiple ACcess_(MAC) Protocol

> distributed algorithm that determines how nodes share channel, i.e., determine when node can transmit

~ communication about channel sharing must use channel itself! ? no out-of-band channel for coordination

~. l4

.,-. ". -" ' .. ''' ,. _ -

Oss; Mokryn - Data link layer

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Human Analogy

> Rules for 'party conversation';

~ "Give everyone a chance to speak."

} "Don't speak until you are spoken to." ~"Don't monopolize the conversation."

~ "Raise your hand if you have a question."

" "Don't interrupt when someone is speaking."

~ "Don't fall asleep when someone else is talking

11' 15

MAC Protocols measures

} Assume a shared medium with a channel rate of R [bpsec]. " Efficient

When one node wants to transmit it ca send at rate R.

oj> Fair

When N users want to transmit, each can send at average rate RlN. Decentralized

No special node uses to coordinate transmission (no "leader"). No synchronization of clocks or slots.

Fault tolerant.

Simple

Should be very fast and implemented in NICs firmware.

16

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Three broad classes:

~ Channel Partitioning

j' Divide channel into smaller "pieces" (Time-Slots, Frequancy-Bands or by code).

• allocate piece to a node for exclusive its use. ~ Random Access

; Cha.nnel not divided, allow collisions. ~ "Recover" from collisions.

w "Taking turns"

• Nodes take turns, but nodes. with more co send can take longer turns.

• Might uses a leader to coordinate the turns.

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Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: TDMA

• .. _ •• ""C • .' •• ~. ", •••.• _.~ •••• • •• "'__ ••••• ,_ ... , 0 •••• ~ •.• "_" • '" •• " ~ •••

TDMA (Time Division MultipleAccess) ~ Access the channel in "rounds",

~ Each station gets fixed length slot (length = packets trans time) in each round. Each slot called a Time-Slot.

t Unused slots go idle.

I> Exa.mple: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packtes, slots 2,5,6 idle

frame---+

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FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

~ Channel spectrum divided into frequency bands. ~ Each station assigned fixed frequency band.

, Unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle.

~ example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packets, frequency bands 2,5,6 idle

time

~ 19

~ FDM: Enables the division of a channel with capacity C bits per seconds to N sub-channels, each gets a different frequency range and capacity of C/N.

~ TDM:The division of channel to N sub-channels, each gets C/N capacity, by giving the entire channel to each of the N stations for I IN of the time.

ji -+ The division makes each sub channel less busy, but the overall waiting time is bigger by a factor of N compared to having one channel (Little theorem).

Iw 20

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Cha~l:lelP<1!t~ti°tliIlg~!\CJ2~<:>~?c:?1f:)~.~P~~ ~ Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

" used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular, satellite, etc) standards

~ unique "code" assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning

" all users share same frequency, but each user has own "chipping" sequence (i.e., code) to encode data

~ encoded signal == (original data) X (chipping sequence)

~decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence

I> allows multiple users to "coexist" and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes

? 2;'are "orthogonal")" . ."............ .

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Random Access MAC Protocols

~ From here on, we'll focus on Random Access MAC protocols. } When node has packet to send

} Transmit at full channel data rate R.

;. No Q priori coordination among nodes

• Two or more transmitting nodes -+ "collision". p Random access MAC protocol specifies:

~ How to detect collisions

;. How to recover' from collisions.

} Examples of random access MAC protocols: " ALOHA.

:> slotted ALOHA

, CSMAlCD (Ethernet). , CSMAICA (Wireless),

I> 22

11

Aloha Protocol

~ Invented at the '70s in Hawaii.

> Intended for Radio networks, but suitable for every network where the station can listen to the channel while broadcasting, and determine whether others also transmit.

jt Basic idea: every station may transmit when it wants to. If collision is detected between frames, back off and try again later.

" If two frames are broadcast at the same time on the channel, a collision occurs and the both need to retransmit.

I> 23

Aloha Protocol

> All hosts:

:; Transmit on one frequency (fT).

Receive on other frequency (fR)'

I> There is a central node which repeats whatever it receives from fT frequency on the other fR frequency.

~ The central node used as a repeater. ~ Collisions are detected by the hosts:

Receiving corrupted data (host knows what should be received).

"" 24

12

Aloha Protocol

! , Accept a new frame arrives

2. Transmit immediately and listen:

If a collision occurred, wait a random time, and repeat to stage 2,

Otherwise, go back to stage I to handle a new frame.

.-

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Aloha Protocol

~ Simple.

~ Robust against failure of a host.

it Distributed (excluding the central node, which uses as a repeater).

~ High load implicates low utilization of the channel and high delays.

if' 26

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Aloha - efficiency

Efficiency is the long-run fraction of successful ····tf'dhSmfssldnS·whentheredre many nodes, each with many frames to send

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f} Only 18% ...

It Suppose there are n stations, and the probability that a station starts transmitting in a time unit is p.

I> Then:The probability that exactly one node transmits in a time unit is

Aloha - efficiency

Efficiency is the long-run fraction of successful

........ .... . ... ....... "trah$tT\isSlbnswheh'"there'cfre

many nodes, each with many frames to send

" Only 18% ...

IF Maximize the utilization function by differentiation yields maximum point at p = 1/(21'1-1) with utilization of 1/2e '" 0.18

~ Trivial improvement:

Why be vulnerable for 2 time units?

Synchronize, and use slotted time. May transmit only at integer times

~ 28

14

Slotted Aloha

Assumptions

" all frames same size

> time is divided into equal size slots, time to transmit 1 frame

~ nodes start to transmit frames only at beginning of slots

) nodes are synchronized

~ if 2 or more nodes transmit in slot, all nodes detect collision

W' 29

Operation

~ when node obtains fresh frame, it transmits in next slot

~ no collision. node can send new frame in next slot

~ if collision. node retransmits frame in each subsequent slot with prob. p until success

Slotted Aloha

node :2

.. I I

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nocie S l1li

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C E C

SEC E <;

pros

~ single active node can continuously transmit at full rate of channel

.. highly decentralized: only slots in nodes need to be in sync

~ simple

30

~.9ns

I> collisions. wasting slots ~ idle slots

~ nodes may be able to detect collision in less than time to transmit packet

,. clock synchronization

15

~~--~--~---~--

Slotted Aloha - efficiency

Efficiency IS the long-run --~Fo~n-;ax-efficie~~y";"'ithN -

nodes, find p* that maximizes

fraction of successful slots Np(l_p)N-1

when there are many nodes, • for many nodes, take limit of

each with many frames to send Np*(I_p*)N-1 as N goes to infinity; gives lie = .37

, Suppose N nodes with many frames to send, each transmits in slot with probability p

• prob that node I has success in

a slot = p( l_p)N-1

} prob that any node has a success = Np( l_p)N-1

A t best: channel used for useful transmissions 37% of time!

Aloha - Summary

,~. 0.'. "k ."" ,_ 'n ,w. __ ~~~~" _ ., •••••• ,~" _ •• ,," •• ,_, __ • •• ~ •• _ •••• ~_ d _" ••••••••• ~,~ .~n' c •••. ~~A" ..

~ Very popular at the beginning of time (i.e., 70s to 80s). ~ Very simple to handle.

Lots and lots of basic probabilities calculations for students!

~ Major problem: Nodes don't check what's going on in the channel, each acting on its own. No manners!

Ii> 32

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CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)

... ~'''''' .... " ..... - ..... _,. ~., .. ,---

~ CSMA: listen before transmit:

P Protocol:

L Listen to the channel

If channel sensed idle, transmit entire frame If channel sensed busy, defer transmission by.

I-Persistent CSMA: S l.t ). Iii;/

Wait until channel is quiet and transmit immediately. If collision occurs, wait a random time and listen again (go to I). Non-Persistent CSMA: IV CiO 'j. jjj :J

Wait a random time and listen again (go to I).

} They differ only by the treatment of IS( transmission. ~ CSMA human analogy: don't interrupt others!

iP- 34

CSMAj CD (Collision Detection)

'T-'"_''''".'r~'' , ••.• , .• ,.- ..... _._, __ •••.. '·'.'~.·.~~~~ •• ~ •• ~ __ "·., .. , •••. "Y.~T""~" V ,u",~.". __ . __ .... " ... " ... ~ ... ." ..

> CSMAlCD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA

> When transmitting. try to sense if there is a collision. ~ collisions detected within short time.

~ colliding transmissions aborted. reducing channel wastage. !> collision detection:

" easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths, compare transmitted, received Signals.

difficult in wireless LANs: receiver shut off while transmitting.

" human analogy: the polite conversationalist

17

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CSMAI CD Minimum Packet Size

Must detect {) collision before finishing the transmission.

~ 35

Must have: minimum packet lehgth 2: 2·PROP

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Ethernet uses CSMAI CD

• ",,-_ _ _. •• M_ ... r •• _.~ .. ,, __ •••••••• _ ••. ., " ••• , ... _._._._~ ...... ,_

~ No slots

~ adapter doesn't transmit if it senses that some other adapter is transmitting, that is. carrier sense

> transmitting adapter aborts when it senses that another adapter is transmitting. that is. collision detection

~ Before attempting a retransmission. adapter waits a random time. that is. random access

--,_

" 36

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Unreliable, connectionless service

) Connectionless: No handshaking between sending and receiving adapter.

~ Unreliable: receiving adapter doesn't send acks or nacks to sending adapter

;. stream of datagrarns passed to network layer can have gaps } gaps will be filled if app is us'ngTCP

o otherwise. app will see the gaps

~ 37

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Ethernet's CSMAjCD (more)

Jam Signal: make sure all other transmitters are aware of collision; 48 bits

Bit urne:. l microsec for 10 Mbps Ethernet;

for K= I 023. wait time is about 50 msec

Exponential Backoff

adapt retransmission attempts to estimated current load

, heavy load: random wait will be longer

• first collision: choose K from {a, I}; delay is K· 512 bit transmission times

> after second collision: choose K from {0.1.2.3} ...

• after ten collisions, choose K from {O, I ,2,3,4, ... , 1023}

See/interact with Java applet on A WL Web site: highly recommended!

~ 38.

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19

802.3 CSMAjCD (Ethernet) Algorithm

.,.... ., .. ' .. ' " , .

j.> 39

Ethernet CSMAj CD algorithm

I.Adaptor receives datagram from net layer & creates frame

2. If adapter senses channel idle, it starts to transmit frame. If it senses channel busy, waits until channel idle and then transmits

3. If adapter transmits entire frame without detecting another transmission, the adapter is done with frame!

... ,._._, .. _

I> 40

4. If adapter detects another transmission while transmitting, aborts and sends jam signal

5.After aborting, adapter enters exponential backoff after the mth collision, adapter chooses a K at random from {a, I ,2, ... ,2m_I }.Adapter waits K·SI2 bit times and returns to Step 2

20

Ethernet Minimum Packet Size

PROPma" ",i/c=1500i2.5xl0s =6ps

::::? Packetsiz« 2: (12ps)x 10Mb i s == 120bils

Eventually,. minimum packet size is 64 bytes = 512 bits.

'" 41

Summary of MAC protocols

• What do you do with a shared media?

Channel Partitioning, by time, frequency or code

~ Time Division, Frequency Division, Code Division ~ Random partitioning (dynamic),

~ ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMAlCD

~ carrier sensing: easy in some technologies (wire), hard in others (wireless)

» CSMAlCD used in Ethernet

~ CSMAICA used in 802.1 I (Wireless).

~ 42

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LAN technologies

Data link layer so far:

i> MAC protocols. The random protocol approach.

Next: LAN technologies } Addressing

• Ethernet

~ Hubs, bridges and switches

P 43

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MAC Addresses and ARP

.. 32-bit IP address:

address

}< used to

to desnnauon tP subnet

Ji. MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address:

i> used to get: connected

burned in the

but tan be

...

II' 44

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LAN Addresses and ARP

... ,_ - _.... """,

Each adopter on LAN has unique LAN address

Broodcastaddr·ess. = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF

D= adapter

OC-C4-11-6F-E3-98

~ 45

LAN Address (mo~~.L_ ... __ .. _ ..... _ ..

...

~ MAC address allocation administered by IEEE.

> manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness)

> Analogy:

(a) MAC address: like Social Security Number (b) IP address: like postal address

• MAC flat address -+ portability

can move LAN card from one LAN to another } IP hierarchical address NOT portable

:. depends on IP subnet to which node is attached

;, 46

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23

ARP: Address Resolution Protocol

Question: how to determine MAC address of B

knowing B's IPaddress?

~ Each IP node (Host. Router)

on LAN has ARP table

~ ARPTable: IP/MAe address mappings for some LAN nodes

< IP address; MAC address;TTL>

> TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min)

237

OC-C4-IJ-6F-E3-98

~, 47

~ A wants to send datagram to B, and B's MAC address not in A's ARP table.

• A broadcasts ARP query packet, containing B's IP address

» Dest MAC acdress > FF-FFFF-FF-FF-FF

all machines on LAN receive ARP query

• B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) MAC address

frame sent to A's MAC address (unicast)

I> 48

• A caches (saves) IP-to-MAC address pair in its ARP table until information becomes old (times out)

• soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed

~ ARP is "plug-and-play":

" nodes create rheir ARP tables without intervention from net administrator

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Routing to another LAN

walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R assume A know's B IP address

SS·82~2F~o4-1 :A-OF

R

48-80-02-C7-96-2A

cc- 49· DE· DO-A8· 70

B

• In routing table at source Host, find router II 1.11 I I 11.1 10

~ In ARP table at source, find MAC address E6-E9-00-17 -BB-4B, etc

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~ A creates datagram with source A, destination B

~ AusesARPtogetR'sMACaddressfor 111.111.111.110

~ Acreatesii nk~lityerfr;ime with·oR 'sMACitMress;is dest:frame"

contains A·to-B IP datagram

} A's adapter sends frame

• R's adapter receives frame

~ R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its destined to B ~ Ruses ARP to get B's MAC address

• R creates frame containingA-to-B IP datagram sends to B

A

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25

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Ethernet

"dominant" wired LAN technology, developed at the 70s: ~ cheap $20 for 100Mbs!

? first widely used LAN technology ~ Simple, cheap.

~ Kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps - 10 Gbps

Metcalfe's Ethernet sketch

II' 51

Ethernet topology Through the Years

~~t'tr t1!:iI~~iIO*!,'!ff nN4\il:ill~!i"t ~ Connection choices: hub or switch (more later)

I> Fast Ethernet: 100 Mb/s > Gigabit Ethernet: IGbps

• Shared Bus with CSMA/CD

• Bus maximal length: 500 m . ·Transmission rate: lOMb/s .

r,;::~-.:·--~~·------·--·-·--·~····----···---·

~U9h the years the only common is: The Frame]

26

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Ethernet Frame Structure

Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame

Type Type/length: length or type of frame

. 6"+keh-et £; CP'tJ1i) 9)'~ 'P';'IO je

Preamble:

~ 7 bytes with pattern 10 I 0 10 I 0 followed by one byte with pattern I 0 I 0 I 0 I I

~ used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates: what is the length, in clock ticks, of one bit .

..

~,. 53

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Ethernet Frame Structure (more)

~ Addresses: 6 bytes

• if adapter receives frame with matching destination address, or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet), it passes data in frame to net-layer protocol

" otherwise, adapter discards frame

MAC addresses, also called: Physical addresses

} Type: indicates the higher layer protocol (mostly IP but others may be supported such as Novell IPX and AppleTalk)

~ CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected. the frame is simply dropped. Before Ck.C there is a padding field for the Ck.C to pad to 64 bytes.

27

Ethernet Technology: lOBase2

• 10: I OMbps; 2: under 200 meters max cable length ;. thin coaxial cable in a bus topology

tee connector

transmitted pacKet tmvels in both o'lrections +---r'

terminator

~ repeaters used to connect up to multiple segments

~ repeater repeats bits it hears on one interface to its other interfaces; p~y~ic.all~yec.~evic~ 0~1x!. .... ....

55

Ethernet technology: 100BaseT

_'~~" •• ~.·'_''' •• _n·_'' ~" •. ~ •. _ •• "_'_·_"·'~'·"~"o ••• '~ , •.• ,," ••

p 10/' 00 Mbps rate; latter called "fast ethernet" i> T stands for Twisted Pair

~ Nodes connect to a hub: "star topology"; 100 m max distance between nodes and hub

Ethernet MAC Protocol

11OOBose- T41 1100B" •• - Txl ~OOBose-FXI

Up to 100m of cable per segment.

100Base· T4 Uses four pairs of Cakgory-3 cable. lOOBose- TX, Uses two pairs of Cotegory-5 cable. lOOBo,e-FX, Uses two optical fibers.

jb 56

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28

Ethernet technology: 100BaseT

.. - .. . . ... ',." ~ .... " .... ,.

~ Problem: must keep minimal packet size when bandwidth increases.

l< With fixed cable length and propagation speed, must ~ increase minimal size proportionally to bandwidth increase!

l' E.g. IOOMb/s, ISOOm of cable: prop remains 61.15, minimal , size becomes 1200 bits.

~ Solutions:

• Cable length limited to 100m.

f Prevent collisions by "Ethernet Switches" (later).

" Max distance from node to Hub is 100 meters

~ 57

Gbit Ethernet

} use standard Ethernet frame format.

I> allows for point-to-point links and shared broadcast channels. " in shared mode, CSMAlCD is used; short distances between

nodes to be efficiency.

> uses hubs, called here "Buffered Distributors" ) Full-Duplex at I Gbps for point-to-point links. ~ 10 Gbpsec now!

~ 58

29

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Hubs

Q;Why not just one big LAN?

~ limited amount of supportable traffic: on single LAN, all stations must share bandwidth

.. limited length: 802.3 (Ethernet) specifies maximum cable length

I> large "collision domain" (can collide with many stations)

~ limited number of stations: 802.5 (token ring) have token passing delays at each station

l> 59

Hubs (Multiport repeaters, Bus in a box)

• __ .'A, ;_~ ~ •• _, • ,_~ __ , • ~_ _. ,.~.~ •• _. ,,_., .~. __ ~ ' "~~A_." __ " "'~A'''' 0 __ • OA_ "O.OA I ." ," __ .". <A.,,'O •• _. __ •

~ Physical Layer devices: essentially repeaters operating at bit levels: repeat received bits on one interface to all other interfaces

> Can't interconnect I OBase T & I OOBase T (because segments don't share the same rate).

> Hubs can be arranged in a hierarchy (or multi-tier design), with backbone hub at its top

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30

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Hubs (Multiport repeaters, Bus in a box)

..•.•• ". __ • •.. . . _ ••• ,.,. , .. ". - - , •.• , ~.. • ... ~ •. , .,-" I, .. ." •... , ... ,,---_. , ... ". , .•.• " ...

I> Each connected LAN referred to as LAN segment

} Hubs do not isolate collision domains: node may collide with any node residing at any segment in LAN

~ Extends max distance between nodes. but all the segments become one large collision domain.

~ Hub Advantages:

simple. inexpensive device

" Multi·tier provides graceful degradation: portions of the LAN continue to operate if one hub malfunctions

~ extends maximum distance between node pairs (100m per Hub)

Bridges

» Link Layer devices: operate on Ethernet frames, examining frame header and selectively forwarding frame based on its destination

~ Bridge isolates collision domains since it buffers frames

I> When frame is to be forwarded on segment. bridge uses CSMAlCD to access segment and transmit

I> Store and forward element. So different types of Ethernet types can be connected.

~ Transparent: no need for any change to hosts LAN adapters » Forwarding is selective: do not always flood. All connected segments can work independently in parallel!

$- 62

31

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Bridge Filtering

? bridges learn which hosts can be reached through which interfaces: maintain filtering tables

b when frame received. bridge "learns" location of sender: incoming LAN segment

r records sender location in filtering table

~ filtering table entry: (j) J}h -r 71

~.41 ,·H:;. ..,J-,y

> (Node LAN Address, Bridge Interface, Time Stamp)

~ stale entries in Filtering Table dropped (TTL can be 60 minutes)

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Bridge Operation

~ "." ,~ . ~ ... " ....

I> bridge procedure(in_MAC, in_port,out_MAC) lookup in filtering table (out_MAC) receive outport

if (out_port not valid) i" no envy found TOt" <lE:stin;:;tio[l "l 't.h,szn flood; F" fi::wward Gn en but die jn2erf;)('E: on

·~v,hk:h (rarne on"{vcd,j-)

(in .. port = out ... port) !'destim.tiQi'l IS on LAN on which frarne \VBS r~;:ceived },if

then drop the frame

Oeh"nvi';,,,, (out_port is valid) r"entr-;( found fOf destination "~I then forward the frame on interface indicated:

32

Bridge Learning: example

......... '"... ..," ...

address port

A 1 B 1 E 2 H 3 J 3

o C sends frame, bridge has no info about D, so floods to both LANs

~.) bridge notes that C is on port 1 ) frame ignored on upper LAN

···fframe-received·byD···"· ......_ .

Bridge Learning: example

.•• ~'C .,. •. ~T.··"_'~ __ ""r_ ~ _~.' •••••....• __ ~.". ~ .. ~.e. __ ...... ·~.~,.

B

address port A 1

E 2 H3 J 3 C 1

CJ D generates reply to C, sends 'j bridge sees frame from D

<) bridge notes that D is on interface 2

bridge knows C on interface 1, so selectively forwards frame out via interface 1

33

What will happen with loops?

tnc6ri~ecflearnlng '"

B

What will happen with loops?

'Frame" Io'oiJlng' . .

c

34

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What will happen with loops?

Framelo'oplng" .

B

> Allow a path between every LAN without causing loops (loop-free environment)

I> Bridges communicate with special configuration messages (BPDUs)

j. Standardized by IEEE 802.10

Note: redundant paths are good, active redundant paths are bad (they cause loops)

..

~ 71)

35

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How to Construct a Spanning Tree?

.. ..... ,-- - - .... -~, ..... -." . _. . .- ..... ,- -. _.. _ ... _. . .. , ...

~ Bridges run a distributed spanning tree P Algorithm

~ Select what ports (and bridges) should actively forward frames:

~ Finding the root: flooding

> Building a tree: Bellman-Ford Algorithm b Can combine efficiently

> Standardized in IEEE 802.1 specification

'/

b~l1e7) )))'V p, .----'--------------.

.~ \U1JG ),~Irl Spanning Tree Requirements

pf/{OIJ _/'~'j))) pi>'») y/J J' AJ {.A\t{

I> Each bridge is assigned a unique identifier j> A broadcast address for bridges on a LAN

~ A unique port identifier for all ports on all bridges

MAC address

;. Bridge id + port number

.. ~-. , ..

72

36

Spanning Tree Concepts:

Root Bridge

~ The bridge with the lowest bridge 10 value is elected the root bridge

~ One root bridge chosen among all bridges

l> Every other bridge calculates a path to the root bridge

Spanning Tree Concepts:

Path Cost .

• A cost associated with each port on each bridge " default is !

> The cost associated with transmission onto the LAN connected to the port

• Can be manually or automatically assigned

~ Can be used to alter the path to the root bridge

P 74

37

Spanning Tree Concepts:

Root Port p.

~ The port on each bridge that is on the path towards the root bridge

~ The root port is part of the lowest cost path towards the root bridge

}' If port costs are equal on a bridge, the port with the lowest I D becomes root port

I> 7.1

Spanning Tree Concepts:

Root Path-Coat .. -"'·,,"-_···· ._ .....

~ The minimum cost path to the root bridge ~ The cost starts at the root bridge

j. Each bridge computes root path cost independently based on their view of the network

38

Spanning Tree Concepts: Designated Bridge

, Only one bridge: on a LAN at one time is chosen the designated bridge

l> This bridge provides the minimum cost path to the root bridge for the LAN

" Only the designated bridge passes frames towards the root bridge

Example Spanning Tree

.~, ,~-." .. "- ..... -~ .... --~~.-- ... ~, ..

I ..

Protocol operation:

1. Picks a root

2. For each LAN,

picks a designated bridge. ...that is closest to the root.

3. All bridges on a LAN send packets towards the root via the designated bridge.

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39

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Example Spanning Tree

_ - ,.-.-.. . .. ,.. . ", .

Ii' 79

Spanning Tree Algorithm:

AnOverview,,··,,··,

~ I. Determine the root bridge among all bridges

~ 2. Each bridge determines its root port

Ii' The port in the direction of the root bridge

.. 3. Determine the designated bridge on each LAN

~ The bridge which accepts frames to forward towards the root bridge If The frames are sent on the root port of the designated bridge

40

Spanning Tree Algorithm:

Selecting Root Bridge

~ Initially, each bridge considers itself to be the root bridge

~ Bridges send BDPU frames to its attached LANs

The bridge and port ID of the sending bridge

> The bridge and port ID of the bridge the sending bridge considers root

? The root path cost for the sending bridge ~ Best one wins

(lowest root lD/cost/priority)

Spanning Tree Algorithm:

Selecting-·RootPorts··.... . __ --.- .

.. Each bridge selects one of its ports which has the

minimal cost to the root bridge

I> In case of a tie, the lowest uplink (transmitter) bridge ID is used

t> In case of another tie, the lowest port ID is used

41

Spanning Tree Algorithm:

Select.Designated.Bridges ....

~ Initially. each bridge considers itself to be the designated bridge

" Bridges send BDPU frames to its attached tANs The bridge and port ID of the sending bridge

The bridge and pOrt ID of the bridge the sending bridge considers root ~ The root path cost for the sending bridge

I> 3. Best one wins

» (lowest ID/cost/priority)

~ Root and designated bridges will forward frames to and from their attached LANs

I> All other ports are in the blocking state

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Ethernet Switches

} layer 2 (frame) forwarding, filtering using LAN addresses

l> A-to-B and A' -to-B'

simultaneously, no collisions

~ large number of interfaces

> often: individual hosts, starconnected into switch

S't(It( ~ "' '0 y7) [,1§l.N J) ~ J))

jkl\y', )))),';J ~kJllf P Confused with Ethernet

Nt191[il /'6lf j\ L---?>_~,_br_id_ge_s,_ .. ,_.",_" "_""_' __ ., '_""_"'"_'''- __ '_'''_'''_''' _ .. ---J

Ethernet, but no collisions!

Y)')J)! y'}3 pl

?wlC>?) ~~ Fr Ethernet Switches . F" 'Pi &

,~ ~ ,f) }J}JQ.,.,._.-I-- "cut-through switching! frame forwarded from input to

) ) G: C! V output port without awaiting for assembly of entire frame

, '01)0)) " ' ..

r.. / I' slight reduction In latency

<)''''o?}P01'-'D)) iQ/ " combinations of shared/dedicated, 10/ I OOf 1000 Mbpsi

,_:., o I \.1~- Onv_):)

.r- V JI~I interfaces p.))'2.> ~~'3)J...0 'UJJ)Jj,,) ') QJcJ~J

. k) \ " ';) ) S'r\: - 'i)

l- Offers VLANS (Virtual LANs),

I> Nowadays routers are actually combined with Ethernet switches.

wG;)}J : p2f .» ~>:J-" ~ )',

43

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Ethernet Switches (more)

- ,.... .", .. __ ." " ,,- " .. __ _, "., '"

I ()(J Mbps

hubs
traffic no
isolation
plug & play yes
optil"al no
routing
cut yes
through routers Bridges

no yes

no

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44

Road-Map and Keywords

..... .. ,... .. ~.

, IEEE B02 Model compared to the OSI. , LLC, MAC.

• Physical Media

, Coax. Twisted Pairs, Fibers. , Link Types

Point-to-point. Broadcast. Switched.

Different MAC protocol approaches:

} Channel Partiuoning, Random Access, "Taking Turns". , Portioning MAC protocols:

, TDMA, FDMA COMA.

, Random Access MAC protocols: , Aloha. Slotted Aloha.

, LAN technology - Ethernet Protocol:

, MAC Addresses, Frame Structure.Akf LAN interconnect:

• Hubs Bridges and Ethernet SWitches.

I> 89

IEEE 802 Model Compared to the OS1

~~~_._~_~~.~..... ~ ~._ ··~····~,"".c_ .. ... ~ ... " ...... ,."~. ~,."~~ ...• ~ .. ".~~ ,_._._

The Data-Link and Physical layers in the OSI model are divided to other layers according to the IEEE 802 model:

IEEE 802.1
Higher Levels Interface
IEEE 802.2
Logical Link Control (LLC)
IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.5
CSMA/CD Wireless Toke" Ring
Medium Medium Medium
Access Access Access
Control Centr-o I Control
CSMA/CD Wireless Token Ring
Medium Medium Medium Higher Layers

Data-link Layer

Physico] Layer

OSI

IEEE 802

P 90

45

IEEE 802 Model Compared to the OSI

~ The LtC provides common interface for common LAN functionality.

t There are various media which offer different methods for communication (OSI so called Physical layer).

• Each LAN technology uses different MAC (Medium Access Control) method to use its corresponding medias.

~ What kind of medias do we have?

~ What kind of corresponding MAC protocols do we have?

J;l> 91

46

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