House of Leaves

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House of Leaves Mark Z. Danielewski 1 12 14 14 22 35 45 52 65 70 88 94 95 108 118 138 143 152 162 165 169 171 171 176 177 188 189 193 205 205 228

Some Themes
House Stairway Maze Cardinal directions Tattoo Model (person) Photography Videotape Check mark Liberty Bell Parallax Gold Minotaur Labyrinth Morse code SOS Time-Life String Quartet No. 16 (Beethoven)

Bluescreen True north Hexadecimal Hex editor AIFF Calculus

India Los Angeles

Seattle, Washington Virginia

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Literary Topics
Academic writing Cult following Documentary film Ergodic literature Editing Leaf List of fictional books Novel Satire Unreliable narrator

Mental institution Agoraphobia Blindness Claustrophobia Echolalia Panic attack Insanity Murder

Blue Red Purple Grey

Typography Typeface Page (paper) Note (typography) Braille Courier (font) Times Roman

Bookman (typeface)

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Beethoven Harold Bloom Jorge Luis Borges Ken Burns Kevin Carter Ann Danielewski Jacques Derrida Federico Fellini Douglas Hofstadter Homer Stephen King Stanley Kubrick Camille Paglia Milorad Pavić (writer) Poe (singer) Edgar Allan Poe Steven Poole Anthony Quinn Anne Rice Hunter S. Thompson

Phonetic French language German language Italian language Latin Old English Spanish language The Seafarer (poem) The Battle of Maldon Order of the Garter French Union Battle of Dien Bien Phu Viet Minh

French Indochina French Foreign Legion Lost Command

980 987 1011 1014 1014 1017 1020 1023 1025 1028 1033 1035 1037 1042 1048 1056 1061

Album Hello (Poe album) Haunted (Poe album) Hey Pretty Derrida (film) La strada (film) The Whalestoe Letters The Fifty Year Sword Only Revolutions Pantheon Books Random House Bestseller Library of Congress

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 1072 1106

Article Licenses
License 1123

House of Leaves


House of Leaves
House of Leaves

2nd edition paperback cover Author Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) Mark Z. Danielewski Eric Fuentecilla United States English Horror Romance Satire Pantheon Books, Random House 2000-03-07 Print (paperback and hardcover) 709 (paperback) 0-375-70376-4 41641311

Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal LC Classification Followed by

813/.54 21 PS3554.A5596 H68 2000 The Whalestoe Letters

House of Leaves is the debut novel by the American author Mark Z. Danielewski, published by Pantheon Books. The novel quickly became a bestseller following its March 7, 2000, release, having already developed a cult following through gradual release over the Internet. It was followed by a companion piece, The Whalestoe Letters. The novel has since been translated into a number of foreign languages. The format and structure of the novel is unconventional, with unusual page layout and style, making it ergodic literature. It contains copious footnotes, many of which contain footnotes themselves, and some of which reference books that do not exist.[2] Some pages contain only a few words or lines of text, arranged in strange ways to mirror the events in the story, often creating both an agoraphobic and a claustrophobic effect. The novel is also distinctive for its multiple narrators, who interact with each other throughout the story in disorienting and elaborate ways. Danielewski expands on this point in an interview: "I had one woman come up to me in a bookstore and say, 'You know, everyone told me it was a horror book, but when I finished it, I realized that it was a love story.' And she's absolutely right. In some ways, genre is a marketing tool."[3] House of Leaves has been described as a "satire of academic criticism."[4]

House of Leaves


Plot summary
House of Leaves begins with a first-person narrative by Johnny Truant, a Los Angeles tattoo parlor employee. Truant is searching for a new apartment when his friend Lude tells him about the apartment of the recently deceased Zampanò, a blind, elderly man who lived in Lude's building. In Zampanò's apartment, Truant discovers a manuscript written by Zampanò that turns out to be an academic study of a documentary film called The Navidson Record. The rest of the novel alternates between Zampanò's report on the Mark Danielewski fictional film; Truant's autobiographical interjections; a small transcript of part of the film from Navidson's brother, Tom; a small transcript of interviews to many people regarding The Navidson Record by Navidson's partner, Karen; and occasional brief notes by unidentified editors, all woven together by a mass of footnotes. There is also another narrator, Truant's mother, whose voice is presented through a self-contained set of letters titled The Whalestoe Letters. Each narrator's text is printed in a distinct font, making it easier for the reader to follow the occasionally challenging format of the novel.

The Navidson Record
Zampanò's narrative deals primarily with the Navidson family: Will Navidson, a photojournalist (partly based on Kevin Carter), his partner Karen Green, an attractive former fashion model, and their two children, Chad and Daisy. Navidson's brother, Tom, and several other characters also play a role later in the story. The Navidson family has recently moved into a new home in Virginia. Upon returning from a trip to Seattle, the Navidson family discovers a change in their home. A closet-like space shut behind an undecorated door appears inexplicably where previously there was only a blank wall. A second door appears at the end of the closet, leading to the children's room. As Navidson investigates this phenomenon, he finds that the internal measurements of the house are somehow larger than external measurements. Initially there is less than an inch of difference, but as time passes the interior of the house is found to be seemingly expanding, while maintaining the same exterior proportions. A third change asserts itself: a dark, cold hallway in their living room wall that, physically, should extend out into their yard, but does not. Navidson films this strange place, looping around the house to show where the space should be and clearly is not. The filming of this anomaly comes to be referred to as "The Five and a Half Minute Hallway". This hallway leads to a maze-like complex, starting with a large room (the "Anteroom"), which in turn leads to a truly enormous space (the "Great Hall"), a room primarily distinguished by an enormous spiral staircase which appears, when viewed from the landing, to spiral down without end. There is also a multitude of corridors and rooms leading off from each passage. All of these rooms and hallways are completely unlit and featureless, consisting of smooth ash-grey walls, floors, and ceilings. The only sound disturbing the perfect silence of the hallways is a periodic low growl, the source of which is never fully explained, although an academic source "quoted" in the book hypothesizes that the growl is created by the frequent re-shaping of the house. There is some discrepancy as to where "The Five and a Half Minute Hallway" appears. It is quoted by different characters at different times to have been located in each of the cardinal directions. This first happens when Zampanò writes that the hallway is in the western wall (House of Leaves 57), directly contradicting an earlier page where the hallway is mentioned to be in the northern wall (House of Leaves 4). Johnny's footnotes point out the contradiction. Navidson, along with his brother Tom and some colleagues, feel compelled to explore, photograph, and videotape the house's seemingly endless series of passages, eventually driving various characters to insanity, murder, and

House of Leaves death. Ultimately, Will releases what has been recorded and edited as The Navidson Record. Will and Karen purchased the house because their relationship was becoming strained with Will's work-related absences. While Karen was always adamantly against marriage (claiming that she valued her freedom above anything else), she always found herself missing and needing Will when he was gone: "And yet even though Karen keeps Chad from overfilling the mold or Daisy from cutting herself with the scissors, she still cannot resist looking out the window every couple of minutes. The sound of a passing truck causes her to glance away" (House of Leaves 11–12). Zampanò's narrative is littered with all manner of references, some quite obscure, others indicating that the Navidsons' story achieved international notoriety. Luminaries such as Stephen King, Stanley Kubrick, Douglas Hofstadter, Ken Burns, Harold Bloom, Camille Paglia, Hunter Thompson, Anne Rice, and Jacques Derrida were apparently interviewed as to their opinions about the film. However, when Truant investigates, he finds no history of the house, no evidence of the events experienced by the Navidsons, and nothing else to establish that the house or film ever existed anywhere other than in Zampanò's text. Many of the references in Zampanò's footnotes, however, are real—existing both within his world and our world outside the novel. For example, several times Zampanò cites an actual Time-Life book, Planet Earth: Underground Worlds (House of Leaves 125).


Johnny's story
An adjacent story line develops in Johnny's footnotes, detailing what is progressing in Johnny's life as he is assembling the narrative. It remains unclear if Johnny's obsession with the writings of Zampanò and subsequent delusions, paranoia, etc. are the result of drug use, insanity, or the effects of Zampanò's writing itself. Johnny recounts tales of his various sexual encounters, his lust for a tattooed stripper he calls Thumper, and his bar-hopping with Lude throughout various footnotes. The reader also slowly learns more about Johnny's childhood living with an abusive foster father, engaging in violent fights at school, and of the origin of Johnny's mysterious scars (House of Leaves, p. 505). More information about Johnny can be gleaned from the Whalestoe Letters, letters his mother Pelafina wrote from The Three Attic Whalestoe Institution. Though Pelafina's letters and Johnny's footnotes contain similar accounts of their past, their memories also differ greatly at times, due to both Pelafina's and Johnny's questionable mental state. Pelafina was placed in the mental institution after supposedly attempting to strangle Johnny, only to be stopped by her husband. She remained there after Johnny's father's death. Johnny claims that his mother meant him no harm and claimed to strangle him only to protect him from missing her, etc. It is unclear, however, if Johnny's statements about the incident — or any of his other statements, for that matter — are factual.

The Whalestoe Letters
This story is included in an appendix near the end of the book, as well as in its own, self-contained book (with additional content included in the self-contained version). It consists of Johnny's mother's letters to him from a psychiatric hospital. The letters start off fairly normal but Pelafina quickly descends into paranoia and the letters become more and more incoherent. There are also several secret messages in the letters, which can be decoded by combining the first letter of consecutive words.

House of Leaves


Johnny's story
Johnny Truant Johnny Truant serves a dual role, as primary editor of Zampanò’s academic study of The Navidson Record and protagonist as revealed through footnotes and appendices. In the beginning of the book, Truant appears to be a normal, reasonably attractive young man who happens upon a trunk full of notes left behind by the now deceased Zampanò. As Truant begins to do the editing, however, he begins to lose the tenuous grip he has on reality, and his life begins to erode around him. He stops bathing, rarely eats, stops going to work, and distances himself from essentially everyone, all in pursuit of organizing the book into a finished work that, he hopes, will finally bring him peace. Initially intrigued by Zampanò’s isolative tendencies and surreal sense of reality, Johnny unknowingly sets himself up as a victim to the daunting task that awaits him. As he begins to organize Zampanò’s manuscripts, his personal footnotes detail the deterioration of his own life with analogous references to alienation and insanity: once a trespasser to Zampanò's mad realm, Truant seems to become more comfortable in the environment as the story unfolds. He even has hallucinations that parallel those of Zampanò and members of the house search team when he senses "…something inhuman…" behind him (House of Leaves 26). Spiraling downward into a dark labyrinth of his own, Johnny is therefore aware that his life has become unmanageable: his association with Zampanò’s task seems to have consumed him in his vulnerable state. Aside from simply functioning as an editor and protagonist in the novel, Johnny is also presented as an unreliable narrator. The reader is warned of this unreliability early in the novel by one of Johnny's footnotes in which Johnny responds to the problem of Navidson's broken "water heater." After a long liturgy about the need for warm water, Johnny says, "Is it just coincidence that this cold water predicament of mine also appears in this chapter? Not at all. Zampanò only wrote "heater." The word "water" back there—I added that" (House of Leaves, p. 16). It is unclear if Johnny changed other parts of the text and failed to inform the reader. Near the end of the novel, Johnny presents a story of his salvation at the hands of friends as truth, but later recants, saying, "I just made that all up. Right out of thin air" (House of Leaves, p. 509). Zampanò Zampanò is the blind author of The Navidson Record. Danielewski made Zampanò blind as a reference to blind authors Homer and Jorge Luis Borges.[5] Additionally, his blindness acts as one of the key mysteries of Johnny's section of the novel: How and why did a blind man not only write a monograph about a movie, but a movie that is highly visual in nature? Little to no information is given explicitly about Zampanò's past, blindness, or personality. Only vague clues are given throughout the story to suggest at aspects of his past: • On page xxii, it is mentioned that when he was in a bad mood, Zampanò would ruefully repeat a series of female names: Beatrice, Gabrielle, Anne-Marie, Dominique, Eliane, Isabelle and Claudine. These were the names of seven of the French Union Forces' defensive positions at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, a devastating defeat of the French by Viet Minh soldiers, which led to France's withdrawal from French Indochina. Among the French defenders were troops from the French Foreign Legion.[6] • In the appendices, a letter appears that Zampanò wrote to a California newspaper, warning its readers that a local arms merchant is falsely selling shotguns as having been manufactured during World War II; Zampanò then goes into a lengthy discussion about the difference between WWII shotguns and their successors, down to various tactical schematics and shotgun markings; he says that he uncovered the weapons dealer as a fraud by feeling the guns. Earlier in the book, passing reference is made to Johnny and Lude finding a shotgun in Zampanò's

House of Leaves apartment that matches the WWII era shotgun Zampanò describes in his letter. • In one of Pelafina's letters to Johnny, she strangely addresses Zampanò using the code she created to be read by Johnny, asking: "My dear Zampanò, who did you lose?" • The endpapers of the US hardcover edition of the novel contain hexadecimal characters, which are actually an AIFF audio file of an excerpt from Poe's track "Angry Johnny" when saved as a file in a hex editor.[7] "Zampanò" is also the name of the protagonist (a traveling entertainer) in the 1954 film La strada, which was directed by Federico Fellini.[8] The character of Zampanò was played by actor Anthony Quinn. In 1964, Quinn starred in the film Lost Command, which opens with the end of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Pelafina H. Lièvre Pelafina, more commonly referred simply as "P.", is Johnny's institutionalized mother who appears in the appendix to the text. Her story is more fully developed in The Whalestoe Letters. Minor characters in Johnny's story Lude: Johnny Truant's best friend, Lude is also the one that informs him of Zampanò's vacant apartment. Lude is a minor character, but some of his characteristics and actions are important in understanding Johnny. Lude assists Johnny many times in obtaining phone numbers of girls when they visit bars, clubs, and restaurants. Several times, Johnny mentions that he wishes he hadn't answered Lude's call late at night. Every time Johnny and Lude are together they seem to involve themselves in difficult situations. Thumper: A stripper who is a regular client of the tattoo parlour where Truant works. Although Johnny has encounters with many women throughout his narrative, he remains fixated on Thumper (whose real name is eventually revealed to Johnny but never to the reader) throughout.


The Navidson Record
Will Navidson Will is the central character in The Navidson Record subplot of the novel. A stint in the army early in his life leads him to a very successful career as a photographer, primarily in war-torn parts of the world; his role as an impartial documentarist of war affects him deeply. Later in his life, he moves to the eponymous house (located in the southeastern Virginia countryside), in an effort to find "[a] place to drink lemonade and watch the sun set", a place to "once and for all stay in and explore the quieter side of life" (House of Leaves, p. 9). However the unnatural events that occur thereafter have a profound effect upon him and his relationship with his partner, Karen. Karen Green Karen is Will's partner and a former fashion model. She suffers from crippling claustrophobia, and throughout the novel refuses to enter the labyrinth within her house. She also seems to be extremely insecure regarding her relationship with Will; he is 'her rock,' though it is confirmed that she had at least three long-term affairs during the course of their relationship. Curiously, the events of the novel only seem to reduce her dependence on Will (as well as contributing to the eventual dissolution of their relationship). It is speculated that, during Karen's childhood, her stepfather used to take Karen and her sister into a barn in their backyard, put one in a well and rape the other. However, several footnotes and comments about the incident question this claim (another of many examples of the use of an unreliable narrator in the novel). In the aftermath of the events in the house, she becomes an unlikely editor, approaching many real characters (including Stephen King, Stanley Kubrick, Hunter S. Thompson, Douglas Hofstadter, Harold Bloom, and Jacques Derrida) for comment on The Navidson Record, albeit comment within the fictional universe of the novel. Eventually, she is reunited with Navidson after his final exploration of the labyrinth.

House of Leaves Tom Navidson Tom is Will Navidson’s somewhat estranged fraternal twin brother; Tom is a carpenter with substance addiction problems, who is markedly less successful than Will in his personal and professional life. After approximately 8 years of little contact, Will contacts Tom when he notices that his house is larger on the inside than the outside. A section of the novel, called "Tom’s Story" is a partial transcript of documentary evidence and radio communication with the outside world during his vigil within the labyrinth, which he spends alone with his radio, waiting for Will. This section is referred to in the book as a "sometimes funny, sometimes bizarre history of thoughts passing away in the atrocity of that darkness" (House of Leaves 252). He often refers to "Mr. Monster" and many of the jokes and anecdotes he provides are religious in nature. However, in a test of his true character, he bravely saves Will's kids from being swallowed by the house but is swallowed himself. Billy Reston Billy is an engineer and a friend of Will's, whom Will enlists early on in the story to help him try and find a rational explanation for the house's oddities. Billy uses a wheelchair, having been paralyzed from the waist down in a freak engineering accident in India; Will happened to be on the scene and took a photo of Billy moments before he became paralyzed. Billy came across the photo after his accident and kept it as a reminder that he was fortunate to have survived. Once the house's irregularities become more extreme, Billy joins Will and Tom in a thorough analysis; after Holloway and his men go missing, Billy, in spite of his handicap, insists on joining Will on the rescue mission, navigating the maze in his wheelchair. He eventually saves Will and Holloway's men from Holloway by engaging in a firefight with him, holding him back long enough for the house to "consume" Holloway. Billy survives the journey into the maze, but suffers persistent cold spells afterward as well as sustains damage to his wheelchair. Holloway Roberts Holloway is an experienced explorer whom Will contacts in an effort to properly explore the labyrinth beneath his house. Holloway is presented as the consummate outdoorsman: He has successfully engaged in numerous expeditions which would have killed normal men, and is an expert in all forms of survivalist equipment, from spelunking gear to firearms. He engages in two brief explorations of the labyrinth before deciding to take his men on a third, prolonged expedition, prior to which they load themselves up with enough food and water to last several days and enough provisions to—they believe—safely guide them back home. During the course of this exploration, Holloway's resolve slowly deteriorates, until the house's bizarre architecture leads him to believe an image he sees down a hall is the "monster" stalking them when, in fact, he is actually looking at his own men; he shoots one of them, and, upon realizing what he's done, suffers a complete psychological breakdown and tries to murder them, as well as the rescue party of Will and Billy. Eventually, the house "traps" him by sealing him inside a series of locked chambers; alone and insane, Holloway records a series of unsettling final messages on a video camera before filming himself committing suicide. The tape of his death is recovered by Will from the labyrinth. The seconds leading up to the end of the tape reveal that either 1) Holloway's corpse is devoured by the "monster" he is convinced is real or 2) Holloway merely disappears into the blackness of the house. When the House begins to actively attempt to harm the others late in the novel, Reston calls out Holloway's name. Whether Holloway had some influence on the house's actions (before or after his suicide) is left ambiguous. Minor characters in The Navidson Record Kirby 'Wax' Hook: Another explorer of the labyrinth in Navidson's house. He is ultimately shot by Holloway in the shoulder; however, he goes on to survive. The House leaves him with limited functionality in that shoulder, and an inexplicable case of impotence. However, after Navidson reenters the House for a 5th and final exploration, these symptoms disappear. Wax has a reputation as a flirt, who constantly attempts to hook-up with women. He kisses Karen Green, a scene which Will later witnesses on camera. Jed Leeder: The third explorer of the labyrinth in Navidson's house. He is shot by Holloway in the jaw, killing him


House of Leaves nearly instantaneously. Chad Navidson: Will Navidson and Karen Green's son, the older sibling. Around the times of the explorations, Chad is described as becoming increasingly aggressive and wandering. Daisy Navidson: Will Navidson and Karen Green's daughter. During the explorations of the house, Daisy is described as suffering from echolalia.


There are many unusual, and often disorienting, elements of House of Leaves. One feature of some paperback editions of the book is that the cover of the book is slightly smaller than the pages themselves, causing the edges of the pages to peek out of the side of the black cover. The gap on the paperback cover is exactly 1/2 inch (The initial difference in size between the inside and the outside of the house in The Navidson Record is actually 1/4 inch, soon after becoming 5/16 inch, and so on).

The text of the book is arranged on the pages in such a way that the method of reading the words sometimes mimics the feelings of the characters or the situations in the novel. While characters are navigating claustrophobic labyrinthine sections of the house's interior, the text is densely, confusingly packed into small corners of each page; later, while a character is running desperately from an unseen enemy, there are only a few words on each page for almost 25 pages, causing the reader's pace to quicken as he flips page after page to learn what will happen next. The unorthodox typography and arrangement of chapters or sections is similar to works by Milorad Pavić, allowing the reader to jump around from section to section at will while following footnotes or the multilayered narrative. Continuing the ergodic nature of text-reflecting-tale, the chapter in which Navidson, Karen, and Reston hear a knocking from somewhere Page 134 from the book House of Leaves, an deep inside the house, a knocking patterned after the Morse code example of the typography used in the novel. emergency signal SOS - three short, three long, three short - the text itself is broken into a similar pattern. The breaks are often arbitrary, sometimes even in mid-sentence, and done seemingly for the sole purpose of imitating the SOS signal. It has been noted that the font used for the narratives of different people is relevant. Johnny's font is Courier, Zampanò's font is Times, the Editors' font is Bookman, and Pelafina's font is Dante.

Many things are hidden within the text of the book. Going through the first letter of footnotes 27 through 42 spells the author's full name; the first letter of footnotes 46 through 54 spell his surname. Portions are written in alternating short and long paragraphs which turn out to be Morse code that correspond to the text. A seemingly random list of names on pages 64–65 (Second Edition) produce a code when the first letter of each of the individual's last names are added together, spelling out the phrase "A LONG LIST OF VISIONAIRES" A letter from Pelafina to Johnny on pages 620-623 (Second edition) contains seemingly randomized capital letters strewn throughout it, which, when combined, spell out the phrase, "A FACE IN A CLOUD NO TRACE IN THE CROWD." (House of Leaves 621-622) Some codes, like the author's name, are simply fun to notice. Others actually have an impact that gives

House of Leaves greater depth and meaning to the portion being read. One of Pelafina's letters includes a coded message apparently addressed to Zampanò, which reads: "My dear Zampanò, who did you lose?" (House of Leaves 615)


Throughout the entirety of House of Leaves (even including the cover and publishing information), the word house is colored blue (grey for non-color editions of the book and light grey for red editions), as in house, and is, in many places in the book, offset from the rest of the text in different directions at different times. Foreign-language equivalents of house, such as the German Haus and the French maison, are also blue. Red and full-color editions of House of Leaves have the word Minotaur and all struck passages colored red. On the inside cover, where the Library of Congress information is listed, there is a note about differences in editions. In the full-color edition of House of Leaves, a struck line appears in purple in Chapter XXI. Purple is associated throughout the novel with Pelafina, as it is the color of her long nails, and also the color of the ink Johnny is putting into needles when he has his panic attack in the supply closet. The inside of the cover mentions a full-color "first edition" version including braille. The following editions are known and confirmed to exist: • Black-and-White Edition—No colored words. Plain black text. House in grey. No Braille. Black and white appendices. • Blue Edition—House in blue. Minotaur and struck passages in regular black text. No Braille. Black and white appendices. • Red Edition—House in light grey. Minotaur and struck passages in red. No Braille. Black and white appendices. • Full Color Edition—House in blue. Minotaur and struck passages in red. On the jacket, A Novel and the Pantheon logo in purple. In the book, First Edition and the struck line in Chapter XXI in purple. The word "braille" is replaced with seven Xs. Appendices are full color plates.[9] A further edition printed on the inside of the cover, named "Incomplete", promises "no color, no Braille, (and) elements in the exhibits, appendices and index may be missing". It is unclear if any such editions exist. Danielewski leaves much of the interpretation of the choice of colors up to the reader, but he has mentioned in interviews that the choice of the color blue is in part drawn from the bluescreen technique used in filmmaking.[10] The use of color in Danielewski's next full-length novel, Only Revolutions, is even more prevalent, with four colors other than black used throughout (also, the word house is also printed in blue in some sections of this novel).

The check mark
The check mark appears on the lower right hand corner of page 97. It is possibly a reference to Pelafina's letter requesting that Truant "Place in [his] next letter a check mark in the lower right hand corner. That way [she'll] know [he] received this letter" (House of Leaves 609). It also appears to mark the starting point of the book's more eccentric formatting patterns. The check mark is not present in the UK edition of the book.

House of Leaves originally began as a short story, titled Redwood. "Redwood" is also referenced in relation to the cats who have started dying and disappearing: "Redwood. I saw him once a long time ago when I was young. I ran away and luckily, or no luck at all, he did not follow me. But now I cannot run and anyway this time I am certain he would follow" (House of Leaves 547). Zampanò's linking of the cats' disappearance with Redwood could be a connection to the disappearances that occurred in the house and the elusive being which seems to haunt the halls. Redwood was also the main type of wood used in the construction of the Winchester Mystery House (see below).

House of Leaves A great amount of interaction exists between the house and the book, beginning with the title of the book, House of Leaves, where leaves is a synonym for pages, thus making the "house" a book. House of Leaves is also the same title that Zampanò originally uses for his manuscript. Additionally, at the end of the book, when Navidson is falling through nothing inside the labyrinth, he reads a book supposedly called House of Leaves, burning the pages for light as he goes along. Also notable is an untitled poem in Appendix F, seen below: "Little solace comes to those who grieve as thoughts keep drifting as walls keep shifting and this great blue world of ours seems a house of leaves Moments before the wind." (House of Leaves 563)


Foreign languages
As a key part of House of Leaves' fixation with academic, intellectual writing and obscurity in general, there are countless quotations and phrases strewn throughout the book in numerous other languages, ranging from Latin to Spanish to Old English. Some of these are translated, but many are not. A few of these phrases include: • "Muss es sein?", German for "Must it be?" or "Does it have to?" (House of Leaves 1). [see Beethoven's String Quartet No. 16] • "C'est vraiment triste", French for "It's truly sad" (House of Leaves 590). • "bambino dell'oro", Italian for "child of gold". "bambino dell'oro" literally means "the child of the gold", referring to a specific type or amount of gold. A more appropriate translation of "child of gold" is "bambino d'oro" (House of Leaves 592). • "Fuit Ilium." Latin, meaning "There once was a Troy" or "Troy was, but is no more" or "the place is gone." • "Ira furor brevis est." Latin for "Anger is a short madness." A line from the Roman poet, Horace (House of Leaves 597). • "Micel biþ se Meotudes egsa, for þon hī sēo molde oncyrreð", from the Old English poem The Seafarer, meaning "Great is the fear of the Lord, before which the world stands still" (House of Leaves 595). Later, there is a quotation from the poem The Battle of Maldon, meaning "Our hearts must grow resolute, our courage more valiant, our spirits must be greater, though our strength grows less" (House of Leaves 601). • "Honi soit qui mal y pense." French. It is the motto of the Order of the Garter and means "Shamed be he who thinks evil of it." (House of Leaves 601). • At different times, Truant says: "Known Some Call Is Air Am". Although it appears to be a random string of words, it is actually phonetically similar to "Non sum qualis eram", Latin for "I am not as I was," or more aptly said, "I am not what I used to be."

House of Leaves


First-page insert
In the color editions, the first page of the book is a photograph of numerous items scattered on a flat surface. These items include pills, rulers, a broken compass, bullet shells, photographs (the same ones found in Appendix III), and scraps of paper. There are drops and smudges of a red liquid on most of the items. In the center of the picture is a note in Johnny's typeface that suggests "altering the whole thing" and to "kill both children".

House of Leaves contains rather large appendices. As appendices are generally more common in works on non-fiction and text books, this section is part of the format that immediately sets the book apart from contemporary fiction. Some entries are integral to the story, such as Pelafina’s letters in Appendix II-E, while others provide background on the characters, such as Zampanò’s letter to the editor. Several places in the text refer the reader to the appendices. For example, the Editors suggest that in order to better understand Johnny, the reader should turn to the letters from his mother (House of Leaves 72). Other entries appear to contain only disorganized fragments that could not be fit in elsewhere. These fragments, including poems, photocopies of scraps of paper, collages, notes, quotes, etc., may contain clues to some of the novel’s mysteries, such as the Ground-Air Emergency Code sheet in Collage #1 which may relate to some of the symbols used to denote footnotes. On the whole, however, these clues are seldom conclusive and often contradictory. For instance, the section on Zampanò's notes include a chapter title for Chapter XXI, and although Zampanò's notes were in the "first edition" appendix, Chapter XXI, which includes only a diary from Johnny and nothing about the Navidson Record, is stated to not have appeared in the "first edition" at all. However, this may mean in the flow of the narrative that the contents of Chapter XXI were eradicated by Truant and replaced by his own notes.

An index is included at the end of the book, although it is not complete or even entirely accurate. Not all important words are indexed, incorrect page numbers are listed for some words, and some words have the notation "DNE". There are also such inconsequential words such as and, only, so, in, for, can, and all listed. There is no clear definition provided for "DNE", however it also appears elsewhere in the novel, while discussing true north and in a collage (House of Leaves 121 and 582). "DNE" is used as an abbreviation for "does not exist" in calculus for undefined limit values or non real function solutions. There are precisely 100 words in the index listed with the notation "DNE".

Companion works
The book was followed by a companion piece called The Whalestoe Letters, a series of letters written to the character Johnny Truant by his mother while she was confined in a mental institution. These letters are included in the second edition. House of Leaves was accompanied by a companion piece (or vice versa), a full length album called Haunted recorded by Danielewski's sister, Anne Danielewski, known professionally as Poe. The two works cross-pollinated heavily over the course of their creations, each inspiring the other in various ways. Poe's statement on the connection between the two works is that they are parallax views of the same story. House of Leaves references Poe and her songs several times, not only limited to her album Haunted, but Hello as well. One example occurs when the character Karen Green is interviewing various academics on their interpretations of the short film "Exploration #4"; she consults a "Poet," but there is a space between the "Poe" and the "t," possibly suggesting that Poe at one point commented on the book. It may also be a reference to Edgar Allan Poe. The album Haunted also draws heavily from the novel, featuring tracks called "House of Leaves", "Exploration B" and "5&½ Minute Hallway", and many less obvious references. The video for "Hey Pretty" also features Mark

House of Leaves Danielewski reading from House of Leaves (pages 88–89), and in House of Leaves, the band Liberty Bell's lyrics were also songs on Poe's album.


• Danielewski, Mark Z. (2000-03-07), House of Leaves (2nd ed.), New York: Pantheon Books, Random HouseISBN 0375703764 paperback. ISBN 0375420525 hardcover. ISBN 0375410341 hardcover/signed.

Further reading
• Bemong, Nele (January 2003), "Exploration #6: The Uncanny in Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves" [11], Image [&] Narrative: Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative 5, ISSN 1780-678X • Brick, Martin (January 2004), "Blueprint(s): Rubric for a Deconstructed Age in House of Leaves" [12], Philament 2, ISSN 1449-0471 • Brigitte, Félix (2005), "Exploration #6: l'architecture narrative de House of Leaves de Mark Z. Danielewski", Cahiers Charles V 38: 43–73, ISSN 0184-1025 • Chanen, Brian (2007), "Surfing the Text: The Digital Environment in Mark Z. Danielewski's "House of Leaves"", European Journal of English Studies 11 (2): 163–176, doi:10.1080/13825570701452755, ISSN 1382-5577 • Cox, Katherine (2006), "What Has Made Me? Locating Mother in the Textual Labyrinth of Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves", Critical Survey 18 (2): 4–15, doi:10.3167/001115706780600756, ISSN 0011-1570 • Graulund, Rune (2006), "Text and Paratext in Mark Z. Danielewski’s House of Leaves", Word and Image 22: 379–388, ISSN 0266-6286 • Hansen, Mark B. N. (Winter 2004), "The Digital Topography of Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves", Contemporary Literature 45 (4): 597–636, ISSN 0010-7484 • Hayles, N. Katherine (December 2002), "Saving the Subject: Remediation in House of Leaves", American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 74 (4): 779–806, ISSN 0002-9831 • McCaffery, Larry; Gregory, Sinda (Winter 2003), "Haunted House: An Interview with Mark Z. Danielewski", Critique: studies in contemporary fiction 44 (2): 99–135, doi:10.1080/00111610309599940, ISSN 0011-1619 • Pressman, Jessica (Spring 2006), "House of Leaves: Reading the Networked Novel", Studies in American Fiction 34 (1): 107–128, ISSN 0091-8083 • Slocombe, Will (Spring 2005), "'This Is Not for You': Nihilism and the House That Jacques Built", Modern Fiction Studies 51 (1): 88–109, doi:10.1353/mfs.2005.0015, ISSN 0026-7724

External links
• • • • • • House of Leaves [13] official forum Random House Readers Guide [14] Powells Books review [15] The Modern Word review [16] The Modern Word interview [17] "House of Leaves" [18], reviewed by Ted Gioia (The New Canon [19])

House of Leaves


[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 41641311 [2] One such footnote references Not True, Man: Mi Ata Beni? by Eta Ruccalla. Another references "All Accurate" by Nam Eurtton. Note that "Eta Ruccalla" is "All Accurate" backwards, and "Nam Eurtton" is "Not True, Man" backwards. For more examples of fictional books referenced in House of Leaves, see list of fictional books. [3] Wittmershaus, Eric (2000-05-06), "Flak Magazine" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=House_of_Leaves& action=edit. html), Profile, , retrieved 2008-07-19 [4] Poole, Steven (2000-07-15), "Gothic scholar" (http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ critics/ reviews/ 0,5917,343421,00. html), Guardian Unlimited, , retrieved 2007-03-04 [5] Borges: Influence and References: Mark Z. Danielewski (http:/ / www. themodernword. com/ borges/ borges_infl_danielewski. html). Retrieved March 15, 2007. [6] http:/ / www. experiencefestival. com/ a/ Battle_of_Dien_Bien_Phu/ id/ 1928525 [7] Exploration Z (http:/ / markzdanielewski. info/ features/ guide/ index. html), , retrieved 2010-06-06 [8] Reader's Guide (http:/ / www. randomhouse. com/ catalog/ display. pperl?isbn=9780375703768& view=rg), Random House, , retrieved 2007-02-10 [9] DanSRose (2006-05-22), "Comprehensive guide to printings/editions/ISBNs etc." (http:/ / www. houseofleaves. com/ forum/ showpost. php?p=79391& postcount=110), MZD Forums, , retrieved 2007-02-10 [10] Wittmershaus, Eric (2000-05-06), "Review of House of Leaves" (http:/ / www. flakmag. com/ books/ house. html), Flak Magazine, , retrieved 2007-02-10 [11] http:/ / www. imageandnarrative. be/ inarchive/ uncanny/ nelebemong. htm [12] http:/ / www. arts. usyd. edu. au/ publications/ philament/ issue2_Critique_Brick. htm [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] http:/ / www. houseofleaves. com/ forum/ forumdisplay. php?f=3 http:/ / markzdanielewski. info/ reader. html http:/ / www. powells. com/ biblio/ 1-0375703764-0 http:/ / www. themodernword. com/ review_house_of_leaves. html http:/ / www. themodernword. com/ borges/ Flak%20Magazine-Danielewski. html http:/ / www. thenewcanon. com/ house_of_leaves. html http:/ / www. thenewcanon. com

Mark Z. Danielewski
Mark Z. Danielewski (born March 5, 1966) is an American author. Best known for his debut novel House of Leaves (2000), Danielewski's work is characterized by experimental choices in form, such as intricate and multi-layered narratives, typographical variation, and inconsistent page layouts, otherwise known as visual writing or Ergodic literature.

Danielewski was born in New York City,[1] the son of Polish avant-garde film director Tad Danielewski and the brother of singer/songwriter Annie Decatur Danielewski, a.k.a. Poe.
Mark Danielewski

Danielewski studied English Literature at Yale. He then decided to move to Berkeley, California, where he took a summer program in Latin at the University of California, Berkeley. He also spent time in Paris, preoccupied mostly with writing. In the early 1990s, he pursued graduate studies at the USC School of Cinema-Television. He later served as an assistant editor and worked on sound for Derrida,[2] a documentary based on the life of the Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher Jacques Derrida.

Mark Z. Danielewski House of Leaves, Danielewski's first novel, has gained a considerable cult following and won numerous awards, including the New York Public Library's Young Lions Fiction Award. His second novel, Only Revolutions, was released in 2006. Though released to less critical acclaim than his debut, the novel was a finalist for the 2006 National Book Award. In 2000, Danielewski toured with his sister across America at Borders Books and Music locations, promoting Poe’s album Haunted, which reflects elements of House of Leaves. He is a fan of Biffy Clyro as the band discovered when Danielewski attended one of their shows after they borrowed the title of his novel Only Revolutions for their own album.[3]


• • • • March 2000: House of Leaves October 2000: The Whalestoe Letters October 2005: The Fifty Year Sword September 2006: Only Revolutions

• McCaffery, Larry & Gregory, Sinda. "Haunted House: An Interview with Mark Z. Danielewski" from Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2003: 99-135.

External links
• • • • • • • • Mark Z. Danielewski Forum [4] Mark Z. Danielewski [5] at the Internet Movie Database Interview [6], Flak Magazine Book Reporter interview [7] LAist interview [8] Guardian interview [9] Exploration Z [10] The Ledge interview [11], on The Fifty Year Sword

[1] "Mark Danielewski" (http:/ / www. pen. org/ author. php/ prmAID/ 648). PEN American Center. 2010. . Retrieved June 1, 2010. [2] (http:/ / www. derridathemovie. com/ info. html) [3] Simon Neil meets with Eve Jackson (http:/ / www. france24. com/ en/ 20100831-2010-08-31-1714-wb-en-culture-Biffy-Clyro-Simon-Neil). France 24. 1 September 2010. [4] http:/ / www. onlyrevolutions. com/ [5] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0199767/ [6] http:/ / flakmag. com/ features/ mzd. html [7] http:/ / www. bookreporter. com/ authors/ au-danielewski-mark. asp [8] http:/ / laist. com/ 2007/ 10/ 23/ laist_interview_55. php [9] http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ firstbook2000/ story/ 0,6194,405144,00. html [10] http:/ / markzdanielewski. info/ [11] http:/ / www. the-ledge. com/ flash/ ledge. php?conversation=45& lan=UK


Some Themes
A house is a home, shelter, building or structure that is a dwelling or place for habitation by human beings. The term includes many kinds of dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free standing individual structures.[1] In some contexts, "house" may mean the same as dwelling, residence, home, abode, lodging, accommodation, or housing, among other meanings. The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most commonly, a household is a family unit of some kind, though households can be other social groups, such as single persons, or groups of unrelated individuals. Settled agrarian and industrial societies are composed of household units living permanently in housing of various types, according to a variety of forms of land tenure. English-speaking people generally call any building they routinely occupy "home". Many people leave their houses during the day for work and recreation, and return to them to sleep or for other activities.

A ranch style house in Salinas, California, United States

The English word house is derived from the proto-Germanic hud-dos, thought possibly to be a derivative of the verbal root hûd ‘to hide’ (see OED, s.v. house). Terms in other languages show varying derivations. The oldest house in the world is approximately from 10,000 BC and was made of mammoth bones, found at Mezhirich near Kiev in Ukraine. It was probably covered with mammoth hides. The house was discovered in 1965 by a farmer digging a new basement six feet below the ground.[2] Architect Norbert Schoenauer, in his book 6,000 Years of Housing, identifies three major categories of types of housing: the "Pre-Urban" house, the "Oriental Urban" house, and the "Occidental Urban" house. Types of Pre-Urban houses include temporary dwellings such as the Inuit igloo, semi-permanent dwellings such as the pueblo, and permanent dwellings such as the New England homestead.
A Yurt near the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains (in the background); part of Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park.

Example of an early Victorian "Gingerbread House" in Connecticut, United States, built in 1855

House "Oriental Urban" houses include houses of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and traditional urban houses in China, India, and Islamic cities. "Occidental Urban" houses include medieval urban houses, the Renaissance town house, and the houses, tenements and apartments of the 19th and 20th centuries. Houses of that time were generally made of simple and raw materials (rocks, sticks, woven cloth, etc.)[1]


The developed world in general features three basic types of house that have their own ground-level entry and private open space, and usually on a separately titled parcel of land: • Single-family detached houses – free-standing on all sides. • Semi-detached houses (duplexes) – houses that are attached, usually to only one other house via a party wall. • Terraced house (UK), also known as a row house or townhouse – attached to other houses, possibly in a row, each separated by a party wall.

Wooden chalets in the Swiss Alps, Switzerland.

In addition, there are various forms of attached housing where a number of dwelling units are co-located within the same structure, which share a ground-level entry and may or may not have any private open space, such as apartments (a.k.a. flats) of various scales. Another type of housing is movable, such as houseboats, caravans, and trailer homes. In the United Kingdom, 27% of the population live in terraced houses and 32% in semi-detached houses, as of 2002. In the United States as of 2000, 61.4% of people live in detached houses and 5.6% in semi-detached houses, 26% in row houses or apartments, and 7% in mobile homes.

Some houses transcend the basic functionality of providing "a roof over one's head" or of serving as a family "hearth and home". When a house becomes a display-case for wealth and/or fashion and/or conspicuous consumption, we may speak of a "great house". The residence of a feudal lord or of a ruler may require defensive structures and thus turn into a fort or a castle. The house of a monarch may come to house courtiers and officers as well as the royal family: this sort of A Nalukettu traditional Kerala house in India house may become a palace. Moreover, in time the lord or monarch may wish to retreat to a more personal or simple space such as a villa, a hunting lodge or a dacha. Compare the popularity of the holiday house or cottage, also known as a crib. In contrast to a relatively upper class or modern trend to ownership of multiple houses, much of human history shows the importance of multi-purpose houses. Thus the house long served as the traditional place of work (the original cottage industry site or "in-house" small-scale manufacturing workshop) or of commerce (featuring, for example, a ground floor "shop-front" shop or counter or office, with living space above). During the Industrial Revolution there was a separation of manufacturing and banking from the house, though to this day some shopkeepers continue (or have returned) to live "over the shop".



Inside the house
Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Such designing, known as "interior design", has become a popular subject in universities. Feng shui, originally a Chinese method of situating houses according to such factors as sunlight and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house. Feng shui can also mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling. Compare the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces.
Traditional house in southern Brazil.

Many houses have several rooms with specialized functions. These may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, and (if suitable facilities and services exist) washing and lavatory areas. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) often share part of the house with human beings. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen (or kitchen area), and a living room. A typical "foursquare house" (as pictured) occurred commonly in the early history of the United States of America where they were mainly Floor plan of a "foursquare" house built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, and connected to other sections of the house (including in more recent eras a garage). The names of parts of a house often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include:


Atrium Attic Alcove Basement/cellar Bathroom (in various senses of the word) • • Bath/shower Toilet • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hearth – often an important symbolic focus of family togetherness Kitchen Larder Laundry room Library Living room Loft Nook Window Office or study Pantry Parlour Pew/porch Recreation room / rumpus room / television room Shrines to serve the religious functions associated with a family Stairwell Sunroom Workshop

• • • • •

• • • • •

Bedroom (or nursery, for infants or small children) Box-room / storage room Conservatory Dining room Family room or den • Fireplace (for warmth during winter; generally not found in warmer climates)

• • • •

Foyer Front room (in various senses of the phrase) Garage Hallway / passage / Vestibule

Some houses have a pool in the background, or a trampoline, or a playground.

In the United States, modern house-construction techniques include light-frame construction (in areas with access to supplies of wood) and adobe or sometimes rammed-earth construction (in arid regions with scarce wood-resources). Some areas use brick almost exclusively, and quarried stone has long provided walling. To some extent, aluminum and steel have displaced some traditional building materials. Increasingly popular alternative construction materials include insulating concrete forms (foam forms filled with concrete), structural insulated panels (foam panels faced with oriented strand board or fiber cement), and light-gauge steel framing and heavy-gauge steel framing.

The structure of the house (under demolition). This house is constructed from bricks and wood and was later covered by insulating panels. The roof construction is also seen.



More generally, people often build houses out of the nearest available material, and often tradition and/or culture govern construction-materials, so whole towns, areas, counties or even states/countries may be built out of one main type of material. For example, a large fraction of American houses use wood, while most British and many European houses utilize stone or brick. In the 1900s, some house designers started using prefabrication. Sears, Roebuck & Co. first marketed their Sears Catalog Homes to the general public in 1908. Prefab techniques became popular after World War II. First small inside rooms framing, then later, whole walls were prefabricated and carried to the construction site. The original impetus was to use the labor force inside a shelter during inclement weather. More recently builders have begun to collaborate with structural engineers who use computers and finite element analysis to design prefabricated steel-framed homes with known resistance to high wind-loads and seismic forces. These newer products provide labor savings, more consistent quality, and possibly accelerated construction processes.

The Saitta House, Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, New York, United States built in 1899 is made of and [3] decorated in wood.

Lesser-used construction methods have gained (or regained) popularity in recent years. Though not in wide use, these methods frequently appeal to homeowners who may become actively involved in the construction process. They include: • Cannabrick construction • Cordwood construction • Geodesic domes • Straw-bale construction • Wattle and daub

In the developed world, energy-conservation has grown in importance in house-design. Housing produces a major proportion of carbon emissions (30% of the total in the UK, for example). Development of a number of low-energy building types and techniques continues. They include the zero-energy house, the passive solar house, the autonomous buildings, the superinsulated and houses built to the Passivhaus standard.

Thermographic comparison of traditional (left) and "passivhaus" (right) buildings



Earthquake protection
One tool of earthquake engineering is base isolation which is increasingly used for earthquake protection. Base isolation is a collection of structural elements of a building that should substantially decouple it from the shaking ground thus protecting the building's integrity[4] and enhancing its seismic performance. This technology, which is a kind of seismic vibration control, can be applied both to a newly designed building and to seismic upgrading of existing structures.[5] Normally, excavations are made around the building and the building is separated from the foundations. Steel or reinforced concrete beams replace the connections to the foundations, while under these, the isolating pads, or base isolators, replace the material removed. While the base isolation tends to restrict transmission of the ground motion to the building, it also keeps the building positioned properly over the foundation. Careful attention to detail is required where the building interfaces with the ground, especially at entrances, stairways and ramps, to ensure sufficient relative motion of those structural elements.

Legal issues
Buildings with historical importance have restrictions.

United Kingdom
New houses in the UK are not covered by the Sale of Goods Act. When purchasing a new house the buyer has less legal protection than when buying a new car. New houses in the UK may be covered by a NHBC guarantee but some people feel that it would be more useful to put new houses on the same legal footing as other products.

United States and Canada
In the US and Canada, many new houses are built in housing tracts, which provide homeowners a sense of "belonging" and the feeling they have "made the best use" of their money. However, these houses are sometimes built as cheaply and quickly as possible by large builders seeking to maximize profits. Many environmental health issues may be ignored or minimized in the construction of these structures. In one case in Benicia, California, a housing tract was built over an old landfill. Home buyers were never told, and only found out when some began having reactions to high levels of lead and chromium.

Identifying houses
With the growth of dense settlement, humans designed ways of identifying houses and/or parcels of land. Individual houses sometimes acquire proper names; and those names may acquire in their turn considerable emotional connotations: see for example the house of Howards End or the castle of Brideshead Revisited. A more systematic and general approach to identifying houses may use various methods of house numbering.

Animal houses
Humans often build "houses" for domestic or wild animals, often resembling smaller versions of human domiciles. Familiar animal houses built by humans include bird-houses, hen-houses/chicken-coops and doghouses (kennels); while housed agricultural animals more often live in barns and stables. However, human interest in building houses for animals does not stop at the domestic pet. People build bat-houses, nesting-sites for wild ducks and other birds, bee houses, giraffe houses, kangaroo houses, worm houses, hermit crab houses, as well as shelters for many other animals.



Forms of (relatively) simple shelter may include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bus stop Camper Chalet Cottage Dugout Gazebo Hangar Houseboat Hut Lean-to Log Cabin Shack Tent (see also camp) Caravan

A modern style house in Canberra, Australia

• Umbrella • Yaodong

Houses and symbolism
Houses may express the circumstances or opinions of their builders or their inhabitants. Thus a vast and elaborate house may serve as a sign of conspicuous wealth, whereas a low-profile house built of recycled materials may indicate support of energy conservation. Houses of particular historical significance (former residences of the famous, for example, or even just very old houses) may gain a protected status in town planning as examples of built heritage and/or of streetscape values. Commemorative plaques may mark such structures. Home ownership provides a common measure of prosperity in economics. Contrast the importance of house-destruction, tent dwelling and house rebuilding in the wake of many natural disasters. Peter Olshavsky's House for the Dance of Death [6] provides a 'pataphysical variation on the house.

The house occurs as a rare charge in heraldry.

See also
Institutions • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development • Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse • HUD USER Economics • Affordable housing • Housing bubble • United States housing bubble • Housing tenure

House Functions • Building science • Mixed-use development • Visitability Types • • • • • • • • • • Boarding house Earth sheltering Home automation Housing estate Housing in Japan Hurricane proof house Lodging Lustron house Mobile home Modular home


Miscellaneous • Domestic robot • Housewarming party • Squatting Lists • • • • • List of famous American Houses List of house styles List of house types List of human habitation forms List of real estate topics

External links
• Housing [7] from UCB Libraries GovPubs

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Schoenauer, Norbert (2000). 6,000 Years of Housing (rev. ed.) (New York: W.W. Norton & Company). Gregorovich, Andrew (1994). "Ancient Inventions of Ukraine" (http:/ / www. infoukes. com/ history/ inventions/ ). . Saitta House - Report Part 1 (http:/ / www. dykerheightscivicassociation. com/ saittareport. pdf) YouTube - Testing of a New Line of Seismic Base Isolators (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=HuSiRRoz72Y& feature=related) James M. Kelly, Professor Emeritus Civil and Environmental Engineering. "Base Isolation: Origins and Development" (http:/ / nisee. berkeley. edu/ lessons/ kelly. html). National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering, University of California, Berkeley. . [6] http:/ / www. mcgill. ca/ files/ architecture-theory/ olshavsky. pdf [7] http:/ / ucblibraries. colorado. edu/ govpubs/ us/ housing. htm



Stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs or simply stairs are names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairways may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Special stairways include escalators and ladders. Alternatives to stairways are elevators, stairlifts and inclined moving sidewalks as well as stationary inclined sidewalks.

Components and terminology
The step is composed of the tread and riser. Tread The part of the stairway that is stepped on. It is constructed to the same specifications (thickness) as any other flooring. The tread "depth" is measured from the outer edge of the step to the vertical "riser" between steps. The "width" is measured from one side to the other. Riser The vertical portion between each tread on the stair. This may be missing for an "open" stair effect. Nosing An edge part of the tread that protrudes over the riser beneath. If it is present, this means that horizontally, the total "run" length of the stairs is not simply the sum of the tread lengths, the treads actually overlap each other slightly Starting step or Bullnose Where stairs are open on one or both sides, the first step above the lower floor may be wider than the other steps and rounded. The balusters typically form a semicircle around the circumference of the rounded portion and the handrail has a horizontal spiral called a "volute" that supports the top of the The simplest form of staircase, down to Man balusters. Besides the cosmetic appeal, starting steps allow the o'War Cove, Dorset, England balusters to form a wider, more stable base for the end of the handrail. Handrails that simply end at a post at the foot of the stairs can be less sturdy, even with a thick post. A double bullnose can be used when both sides of the stairs are open. Stringer, Stringer board or sometimes just String
A straight stairway with tiled treads, a double railing and two landings. Antique Theater staircase with multiple repairs of feet-worn stairs


23 The structural member that supports the treads and risers. There are typically two stringers, one on either side of the stairs; though the treads may be supported many other ways. The stringers are sometimes notched so that the risers and treads fit into them. Stringers on open-sided stairs are often open themselves so that the treads are visible from the side. Such stringers are called "cut" stringers. Stringers on a closed side of the stairs are closed, with the support for the treads routed into the stringer.

Winders Winders are steps that are narrower on one side than the other. They are used to change the direction of the stairs without landings. A series of winders form a circular or spiral stairway. When three steps are used to turn a 90° corner, the middle step is called a kite winder as a kite-shaped quadrilateral. Trim Trim (e.g. quarter-round or baseboard trim) is normally applied where walls meet floors and often underneath treads to hide the reveal where the tread and riser meet. Shoe moulding may be used between where the lower floor and the first riser meet. Trimming a starting step is a special challenge as the last riser above the lower floor is rounded. Flexible, plastic trim is available for this purpose, however wooden mouldings are still used and are either cut from a single piece of rounded wood, or bent with laminations Scotia is concave moulding that is underneath the nosing between the riser and the tread above it.

A Stairway with a landing in the middle.

A wide shot of the massacre on the "Odessa Steps" from The Battleship Potemkin (1925).

The railing system
The balustrade is the system of railings and balusters that prevents people from falling over the edge. Banister, Railing or Handrail The angled member for handholding, as distinguished from the vertical balusters which hold it up for stairs that are open on one side; there is often a railing on both sides, sometimes only on one side or not at all, on wide staircases there is sometimes also one in the middle, or even more. The term "banister" is sometimes used to mean just the handrail, or sometimes the handrail and the balusters or sometimes just the balusters.[1] Volute A handrail end element for the bullnose step that curves inward like a spiral. A volute is said to be right or left-handed depending on which side of the stairs the handrail is as one faces up the stairs. Turnout


24 Instead of a complete spiral volute, a turnout is a quarter-turn rounded end to the handrail.

Gooseneck The vertical handrail that joins a sloped handrail to a higher handrail on the balcony or landing is a gooseneck. Rosette Where the handrail ends in the wall and a half-newel is not used, it may be trimmed by a rosette. Easings Wall handrails are mounted directly onto the wall with wall brackets. At the bottom of the stairs such railings flare to a horizontal railing and this horizontal portion is called a "starting easing". At the top of the stairs, the horizontal portion of the railing is called a "over easing". Core rail Wood handrails often have a metal core to provide extra strength and stiffness, especially when the rail has to curve against the grain of the wood. The archaic term for the metal core is "core rail". Baluster A term for the vertical posts that hold up the handrail. Sometimes simply called guards or spindles. Treads often require two balusters. The second baluster is closer to the riser and is taller than the first. The extra height in the second baluster is typically in the middle between decorative elements on the baluster. That way the bottom decorative elements are aligned with the tread and the top elements are aligned with the railing angle. Newel
Staircase between levels at Cabot Circus shopping centre, Bristol, England, United Kingdom. A sitting area is provided on the right of the staircase proper.

Example of Winder Stairs

A large baluster or post used to anchor the handrail. Since it is a structural element, it extends below the floor and subfloor to the bottom of the floor joists and is bolted right to the floor joist. A half-newel may be used where a railing ends in the wall. Visually, it looks like half the newel is embedded in the wall. For open landings, a newel may extend below the landing for a decorative newel drop. Baserail or Shoerail For systems where the baluster does not start at the treads, they go to a baserail. This allows for identical balusters, avoiding the second baluster problem. Fillet A decorative filler piece on the floor between balusters on a balcony railing. Handrails may be continuous (sometimes called over-the-post) or post-to-post (or more accurately "newel-to-newel"). For continuous handrails on long balconies, there may be multiple newels and tandem caps to

Stairway cover the newels. At corners, there are quarter-turn caps. For post-to-post systems, the newels project above the handrails. Another, more classical, form of handrailing which is still in use is the tangent method. A variant of the Cylindric method of layout, it allows for continuous climbing and twisting rails and easings. It was defined from principles set down by architect Peter Nicholson in the 18th century.


Other terminology
Balcony For stairs with an open concept upper floor or landing, the upper floor is functionally a balcony. For a straight flight of stairs, the balcony may be long enough to require multiple newels to support the length of railing. In modern homes, it is common to have hardwood floors on the first floor and carpet on the second. The homeowner should consider using hardwood nosing in place of carpet. Should the carpet be subsequently replaced with hardwood, the balcony balustrade may have to be removed to add the nosing. Flight A flight is an uninterrupted series of steps. Floating stairs A flight of stairs is said to be "floating" if there is nothing underneath. The risers are typically missing as well to emphasize the open effect. There may be only one stringer or the stringers otherwise minimized. Where building codes allow, there may not even be handrails. Landing or Platform A landing is the area of a floor near the top or bottom step of a stair. An intermediate landing is a small platform that is built as part of the stair between main floor levels and is typically used to allow stairs to change directions, or to allow the user a rest. As intermediate landings consume floor space they can be expensive to build. However, changing the direction of the stairs allows stairs to fit where they would not otherwise, or provides privacy to the upper level as visitors downstairs cannot simply look up the stairs to the upper level due to the change in direction. Runner Carpeting that runs down the middle of the stairs. Runners may be directly stapled or nailed to the stairs, or may be secured by specialized bar that holds the carpet in place where the tread meets the riser. Spandrel If there is not another flight of stairs immediately underneath, the triangular space underneath the stairs is called a "spandrel". It is frequently used as a closet. Staircase This term is often reserved for the stairs themselves: the steps, railings and landings; though often it is used interchangeably with "stairs" and "stairway". In the UK, however, the term "staircase" denotes what in the U.S. is called "stairway", but usually includes the casing - the walls, bannisters and underside of the stairs or roof above. Stairway
Historical photo of a staircase in the Ford plant in Los Angeles with a double bullnose and two volutes. The photo also shows an intermediate landing as part of this U-shaped stair.

Stairway This term is often reserved for the entire stairwell and staircase in combination; though often it is used interchangeably with "stairs" and "staircase".


Stair measurements: • The rise height or rise of each step is measured from the top of one tread to the next. It is not the physical height of the riser; the latter excludes the thickness of the tread. A person using the stairs would move this distance vertically for each step they take. • The tread depth is measured from the edge of the nosing to the vertical riser. • The going is measured from the edge of the nosing to the edge of nosing in plan view. A person using the stairs would move this distance forward with each step they take. • The total run or total going of the stairs is the horizontal distance from the first riser to the last riser. It is often not simply the sum of the individual tread lengths due to the nosing overlapping between treads. • The total rise of the stairs is the height between floors (or landings) that the flight of stairs is spanning. • The slope or pitch of the stairs is the total rise divided by the total run (not the individual riser and treads due to the nosing). It is sometimes called the rake of the stairs. The pitch line is the imaginary line along the tip of the nosing of the treads. In the UK, stair pitch is measured in degrees from the horizontal. • Headroom is the height above the nosing of a tread to the ceiling above it. • Walkline - for curved stairs, the inner radius of the curve may result in very narrow treads. The "walkline" is the imaginary line some distance away from the inner edge on which people are expected to walk. Building code will specify the distance. Building codes will then specify the minimum tread size at the walkline. • To avoid confusion, the number of steps in a set of stairs is always the number of risers, not the number of treads. The easiest way to calculate the rise and run is to use a stair stringer calculator [2].

Ergonomics and building code requirements
Ergonomically and for safety reasons, stairs have to have certain measurements in order for people to comfortably use them. Building codes will typically specify certain measurements so that the stairs are not too steep or narrow. Building codes will specify:[3] • Minimum tread length, typically 9 inches (230 mm) excluding the nosing for private residences.[4] However, most human feet are longer than this, thus people's feet don't actually fit on the tread of the step. • Maximum riser height, typically 8.25 inches (210 mm). Note that by specifying the maximum riser height and minimum tread length, a maximum slope is established. Residential building codes will typically allow for steeper stairs than public building codes. • Minimum riser height: Some building codes also specify a minimum riser height, often 5 inches (130 mm). • Riser-Tread formula: Sometimes the stair parameters will be something like riser + tread equals 17–18 inches (430–460 mm)[5] or another formula is 2 times riser + tread equals 24 inches (610 mm). Thus a 7 inches (180 mm) rise and a 10 inches (250 mm) tread exactly meets this code. If only a 2 inches (51 mm) rise is used then a 20 inches (510 mm) tread is required. This is based on the principle that a low rise is more like walking up a gentle incline and so the natural swing of the leg will be longer. This makes low rise stairs very expensive in terms of the space consumed. Such low rise stairs were built into the Winchester Mystery House to accommodate the infirmities of the owner, Sarah Winchester, before the invention of the elevator. These stairways, called "Easy Risers" consist of five flights wrapped into a multi turn arrangement with a total width equal to more than four times the individual flight width and a depth roughly equal to one flight's run plus this width. The flights have

Stairway varying numbers of steps. Variance on riser height and tread depth between steps on the same flight should be very low. Building codes require variances no larger than 0.1875 inches (4.76 mm) between depth of adjacent treads or the height of adjacent risers; within a flight, the tolerance between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread can not exceed 0.375 inches (9.5 mm).[6] The reason is that on a continuous flight of stairs, people get used to a regular step and may trip if there is a step that is different, especially at night. The general rule is that all steps on the same flight must be identical. Hence, stairs are typically custom made to fit the particular floor to floor height and horizontal space available. Special care must be taken on the first and last risers. Stairs must be supported directly by the subfloor. If thick flooring (e.g. thick hardwood planks) are added on top of the subfloor, it will cover part of the first riser, reducing the effective height of the first step. Likewise at the top step, if the top riser simply reaches the subfloor and thick flooring is added, the last rise at the top may be higher than the last riser. The first and last riser heights of the rough stairs are modified to adjust for the addition of the finished floor. Maximum nosing protrusion, typically 1.25 inches (32 mm) to prevent people from tripping on the nosing. Height of the handrail. This is typically between 34 and 38 inches (860 and 970 mm), measured to the nose of the tread. The minimum height of the handrail for landings may be different and is typically 36 inches (910 mm). Handrail diameter. The size has to be comfortable for grasping and is typically between 1.25 and 2.675 inches (32 and 67.9 mm). Maximum space between the balusters of the handrail. This is typically 4 inches (100 mm). Openings (if they exist) between the bottom rail and treads are typically no bigger than 6 inches (150 mm). Minimum headroom Maximum vertical height between floors or landings. This allows people to rest and limits the height of a fall. Mandate handrails if there is more than a certain number of steps (typically 2 risers) Minimum width of the stairway, with and without handrails Not allow doors to swing over steps; the arc of doors must be completely on the landing/floor. A Stairwell may be designated as an Area of refuge as well as a fire escape route, due to its fire-resistance rated design and fresh air supply.


• • • • • • • • • • •

Jacques-François Blondel in his 1771 Cours d'architecture[7] was the first known person to establish the ergonomic relationship of tread and riser dimensions.[8] He specified that 2 x riser + tread = step length.[9] It is estimated that a noticeable mis-step occurs once in 7,398 uses and a minor accident on a flight of stairs occurs once in 63,000 uses.[10] Some people choose to live in residences without stairs so that they are protected from injury. Stairs are not suitable for wheelchairs and other vehicles. A stairlift is a mechanical device for lifting wheelchairs up and down stairs. For sufficiently wide stairs, a rail is mounted to the treads of the stairs. A chair is attached to the rail and the person on the chair is lifted as the chair moves along the rail.

Stairs can take a large number of forms, combining winders and landings. The simplest form is the straight flight of stairs, without any winders nor landings. It is not often used in modern homes because: • the upstairs is directly visible from the bottom of a straight flight of stairs. • it is potentially more dangerous in that a fall is not interrupted until the bottom of the stairs. • a straight flight requires enough space for the entire run of the stairs. However, a straight flight of stairs is easier to design and construct than one with landings. Additionally, the rhythm of stepping is not interrupted in a straight run, which may offset the increased fall risk by helping to prevent a misstep in the first place.

Stairway Most modern stairs incorporate at least one landing. "L" shaped stairways have one landing and usually change in direction by 90 degrees. "U" shaped stairs may employ a single wider landing for a change in direction of 180 degrees, or 2 landings for two changes in direction of 90 degrees each. Use of landings and a possible change of direction have the following effects: • The upstairs is not directly visible from the bottom of the stairs, which can provide more privacy for the upper floor. • A fall can be arrested at the landing. • Though the landings consume total floor space, there is no requirement for a large single dimension, allowing more flexible floorplan designs. • For larger stairs, particularly in exterior applications, a landing can provide a place to rest the legs.


Spiral and helical stairs
Spiral stairs wind around a central pole. They typically have a handrail on the outer side only, and on the inner side just the central pole. A squared spiral stair assumes a square stairwell and expands the steps and railing to a square, resulting in unequal steps (larger where they extend into a corner of the square). A pure spiral assumes a circular stairwell and the steps and handrail are equal and positioned screw-symmetrically. A tight spiral stair with a central pole is very space efficient in the use of floor area. The term "spiral" is used incorrectly for a staircase from a mathematical viewpoint, as a mathematical spiral lies in a single plane and moves towards or away from a central point. A spiral staircase by the mathematical definition therefore would be of little use as it would afford no change in elevation. The correct mathematical term for motion where the locus remains at a fixed distance from a fixed line whilst moving in a circular motion about it is "helix". The presence or otherwise of a central pole does not affect the terminology applied to the design of the structure. Spiral stairs in medieval times were generally made of stone and typically wound in a clockwise direction (from the ascendor's point of view),[11] in order to place at a disadvantage attacking swordsmen who were most often right-handed). This asymmetry forces the right-handed swordsman to engage the central pike and degrade his mobility compared with the defender who is facing down the stairs. Extant 14th to 17th century examples of these stairways can be seen at Muchalls Castle, Crathes Castle and Myres Castle in Scotland. Exceptions to the rule exist, however, as may be seen in the above image of the Scala of the Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, which winds up anti-clockwise.

A spiral staircase inside Cremona's Torrazzo, Italy.

Developments in manufacturing and design have led to the introduction of kit form spiral stair. Steps and handrails can be bolted together to form a complete unit. These stairs can be made out of steel, timber, concrete or a combination of materials.

Upward view of the Tulip Stairs & lantern at the Queen's House, Greenwich, United Kingdom.


29 Helical or circular stairs do not have a central pole and there is a handrail on both sides. These have the advantage of a more uniform tread width when compared to the spiral staircase. Such stairs may also be built around an elliptical or oval planform. A double helix is possible, with two independent helical stairs in the same vertical space, allowing one person to ascend and another to descend, without ever meeting if they choose different helixes (examples : Château de Chambord, Château de Blois, Crédit Lyonnais headquarters in Paris). Fire escapes, though built with landings and straight runs of stairs, are often functionally double helixes, with two separate stairs intertwinned and occupying the same floor space. This is often in support of legal requirements to have two separate fire escapes.

Spiral stairway seen from below; Melk Abbey, Austria.

Both spiral and helical stairs can be characterized by the number of turns that are made. A "quarter-turn" stair deposits the person facing 90 degrees from the starting orientation. Likewise there are half-turn, three-quarters-turn and full-turn stairs. A continuous spiral may make many turns depending on the height. Very tall multi turn spiral staircases are usually found in old stone towers within fortifications, churches and in lighthouses. Winders may be used in combination with straight stairs to turn the direction of the stairs. This allows for a large number of permutations. History The earliest spiral staircases appear in Temple A in the Greek colony Selinunte, Sicily, to both sides of the cella. The temple was constructed around 480–470 BC.[12]

Alternating tread stairs
Where there is insufficient space for the full run length of normal stairs, alternating tread stairs may be used. Alternating tread stairs allow for safe forward-facing descent of very steep stairs. The treads are designed such that they alternate between treads for each foot: one step is wide on the left side; the next step is wide on the right side. There is insufficient space on the narrow portion of the step for the other foot to stand, hence the person must always use the correct foot on the correct step. The slope of alternating tread stairs can be as high as 65 degrees as opposed to standard stairs which are almost always less than 45 degrees. The advantage of alternating tread stairs is that An alternating Duplo tread stair (center) between people can descend face forward. The only other alternative in such a half-width stair (left) and full-width stair (right). short spaces would be a ladder which requires backward-facing descent. Alternating tread stairs may not be safe for small children, the elderly or the physically challenged. Building codes typically classify them as ladders and will only allow them where ladders are allowed, usually basement or attic utility or storage areas not frequently accessed. The image on the right illustrates the space efficiency gained by an alternating tread stair. The alternating tread stair appearing on the


30 image's center, with green-colored treads. The alternating stair requires one unit of space per step: the same as the half-width step on its left, and half as much as the full-width stair on its right. Thus, the horizontal distance between steps is in this case reduced by a factor of two reducing the size of each step. The horizontal distance between steps is reduced by a factor less than two if for constructional reasons there are narrow "unused" steps. There is often (here also) glide plane symmetry: the mirror image with respect to the vertical center plane corresponds to a shift by one step. Alternating tread stairs have been in use since at least 1888.[13]

An alternating tread stair climbing the steep slope of a pinnacle in Pinnacles National Monument, California, United States.

Notable stairways
• The longest stairway is listed by Guinness Book of Records as the service stairway for the Niesenbahn funicular railway near Spiez, Switzerland, with 11,674 steps and a height of 1669 m (5476 ft).[14] The stairs are employee-only. • A flight of 7,200 steps (including inner temple Steps), with 6,293 Official Mountain Walkway Steps, leads up the East Peak of Mount Tai in China. • The Haʻikū Stairs, on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, are approximately 4,000 steps which climb nearly 1/2 of a mile. Originally used to access longwire radio radio antennas which were strung high above the Haʻikū Valley, between Honolulu and Kāneʻohe, they are closed to hikers. • The Flørli stairs, in Lysefjorden, Norway, have 4,444 wooden steps which climb from sea level to 740 meters. It is a maintenance stairway for the water pipeline to the old Flørli hydro plant. The hydro plant is now closed down, and the stairs are open to the public. The stairway is claimed to be the longest wooden stairway in the world.[15]

The world's longest stairway at the Niesenbahn funicular in Switzerland has 11,674 steps

• The CN Tower's staircase reaches the main deck level after 1,776 steps and the Sky Pod above after 2,579 steps; it is the tallest metal staircase on Earth. • The Penrose stairs, devised by Lionel and Roger Penrose, are a famous impossible object. The image distorts perspective in such a manner that the stairs appear to be never-ending, a physical impossibility. The image was adopted by M. C. Escher in his iconic lithograph Ascending and Descending.



Image in art
Stairway is a metaphor of achievement or loss of a position in the society, a metaphor of hierarchy (e.g. Jacob's Ladder, The Battleship Potemkin).


Spiral (double helix) stairs of the Vatican Museums

Angkor Wat in Cambodia. 

Modified stairway for the elderly in Thailand. 



The Potemkin Stairs (1834–41) in Odessa, Ukraine. 

Spiral stairs with ornamental balusters. 

Stairs of rock placed in a natural passage. 



Outdoor stairway on the Alameda Ridge in Portland, Oregon, United States. 

Emperor's Stairs in the Residenz of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. 

The 19th century theatre of Weißenhorn, Germany. 



External spiral in the Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo in Venice, Italy. 

Endless stairway at KPMG, Munich, Germany. 

Ascending and descending, lithograph by M.C. Escher depicting penrose stairs. 



See also
• • • • • Fire escape Fish ladder Stair climbing Steel square for use in stair framing. Cable railings

[1] http:/ / m-w. com/ cgi-bin/ dictionary?book=Dictionary& va=banister [2] http:/ / www. homeconstructionimprovement. com/ 2008/ 06/ stair-stringer-calculator. html [3] http:/ / www. amezz. com/ ibc-stairs-code. htm [4] State of California (http:/ / www. dir. ca. gov/ title8/ 3231. html) [5] http:/ / www. popularmechanics. com/ how_to_central/ home_clinic/ 1275341. html [6] NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Handbook Tenth Edition 2006, Coté and Harrington, ISBN 0-87765-697-5, pg.167 [7] http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 65/ bl/ BlondelF. html [8] http:/ / 97. 1911encyclopedia. org/ S/ ST/ STAIRCASE. htm [9] http:/ / www. generativeart. com/ 2000/ KOUTAMANIS_GA_2000. HTM [10] http:/ / www. toolbase. org/ Best-Practices/ Codes-Regulations-Standards/ stair-safety [11] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ dna/ h2g2/ A506611 Spiral stairways in medieval times clockwise [12] Ruggeri, Stefania: „Selinunt“, Edizioni Affinità Elettive, Messina 2006, ISBN 88-8405-079-0, p. 77 [13] Moncktons One Plane Method Of Hand Railing and Stair Building, Copyright 1888 by James H. Monckton, Published by John Wiley & Sons,1891. Plate 2 ,Figure 4 [14] http:/ / www. guinnessworldrecords. com/ gwr5/ content_pages/ record. asp?recordid=49700 [15] http:/ / www. lysefjordeninfo. no/ en/

A maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route. In everyday speech, both maze and labyrinth denote a complex and confusing series of pathways, but technically the maze is distinguished from the labyrinth, as the labyrinth has a single through-route with twists and turns but without branches, and is not designed to be as difficult to navigate.[1] The pathways and walls in a maze or labyrinth are fixed (pre-determined) – puzzles where the walls and paths can change during the game are categorised as tour puzzles. The Cretan labyrinth is the oldest known maze.[2]

Maze construction
Mazes have been built with walls and rooms, with hedges, turf, corn stalks, hay bales,cheese, potatos,old shoes books, paving stones of contrasting colors or designs, bricks and turf,[3] or in fields of crops such as corn or, indeed, maize. Maize mazes can be very large; they are usually only kept for one growing season, so they can be different every year, and are promoted as seasonal tourist attractions. Indoors, Mirror Mazes are another form of maze, where many of the apparent pathways are imaginary routes seen through multiple reflections in mirrors. Another type of maze consists of a set of rooms linked by doors (so a passageway is just another room in this definition). Players enter at one spot, and exit at another, or the idea may be to reach a certain spot in the maze. Mazes can also be printed or drawn on paper to be followed by a pencil or fingertip.



A small maze.

Classical labyrinth.

A computer-generated maze.

Generating mazes
Maze generation is the act of designing the layout of passages and walls within a maze. There are many different approaches to generating mazes, where various maze generation algorithms exist for building them, either by hand or automatically by computer. There are two main mechanisms used to generate mazes. "Carving passages" is where one marks out the network of available routes. "Adding walls" is where one lays out a set of obstructions within an open area. Most mazes drawn on paper are where one draws the walls, where the spaces in between the markings compose the passages.

Solving mazes
Maze solving is the act of finding a route through the maze from the start to finish. Some maze solving methods are designed to be used inside the maze by a traveler with no prior knowledge of the maze, whereas others are designed to be used by a person or computer program that can see the whole maze at once. The mathematician Leonhard Euler was one of the first to analyze plane mazes mathematically, and in doing so made the first significant contributions to the branch of mathematics known as topology. Mazes containing no loops are known as "standard", or "perfect" mazes, and are equivalent to a tree in graph theory. Thus many maze solving algorithms are closely related to graph theory. Intuitively, if one pulled and stretched out the paths in the maze in the proper way, the result could be made to resemble a tree.[4]

Mazes in psychology experiments
Mazes are often used in psychology experiments to study spatial navigation and learning. Such experiments typically use rats or mice. Examples are • the Barnes maze • the Morris water maze • the radial arm maze.



Other types of mazes
Logic mazes See Logic maze. These are like standard mazes except they use rules other than "don't cross the lines" to restrict motion. Mazes in higher dimensions It is possible for a maze to have three or more dimensions. A maze with bridges is three dimensional, and some natural cave systems are three dimensional mazes. The computer game Descent utilized fully three dimensional mazes. Any maze can be topologically mapped onto a three-dimensional maze. Picture maze See Picture maze. A maze that forms a picture when solved. Ball-in-a-maze puzzles Dexterity puzzles which involve navigating a ball through a maze or labyrinth. Dead end maze A maze game where the route creates the dead ends. Turf mazes and Mizmazes A pattern like a long rope folded up, without any junctions or crossings. Loops and Traps Maze

A plan of a Loops and Traps maze, Ridgewood, NJ

A maze that features one-way doors. The doors can lead to the correct path or create traps that divert you from the correct path and lead you to the starting point. You may not return through a door which you have entered. The path is a series of loops interrupted by doors. The maze is not created with dead ends, but dead ends are created by doors that only open from the other side. The Halloween Maze in Ridgewood NJ is an example of this type of maze. Through the use of reciprocal doors, the correct path can intersect the incorrect path on a single plane.

Publications about mazes
Numerous mazes of different kinds have been drawn, painted, published in books and periodicals, used in advertising, in software, and sold as art. In the 1970s there occurred a publishing "maze craze" in which numerous books, and some magazines, were commercially available in nationwide outlets and devoted exclusively to mazes of a complexity that was able to challenge adults as well as children (for whom simple maze puzzles have long been provided both before, during, and since the 1970s "craze"). Some of the best-selling books in the 1970s and early 1980s included those produced by Vladimir Koziakin,[5] Rick and Glory Brightfield, Dave Phillips, Larry Evans, and Greg Bright. Koziakin's works were predominantly of the standard two-dimensional "trace a line between the walls" variety. The works of the Brightfields had a similar two-dimensional form but used a variety of graphics-oriented "path obscuring" techniques - although the routing was comparable to or simpler than Koziakin's mazes, the Brightfield's mazes did not allow the various pathway options to be discerned so easily by the roving eye as it glanced about. Greg Bright's works went beyond the standard published forms of the time by including "weave" mazes in which illustrated pathways can cross over and under each other. Bright's works also offered examples of extremely complex patterns of routing and optical illusions for the solver to work through. What Bright termed "mutually accessible

Maze centers" (The Great Maze Book, 1973) also called "braid" mazes, allowed a proliferation of paths flowing in spiral patterns from a central nexus and, rather than relying on "dead ends" to hinder progress, instead relied on an overabundance of pathway choices. Rather than have a single solution to the maze, Bright's routing often offered multiple equally valid routes from start to finish, with no loss of complexity or diminishment of solver difficulties because the result was that it became difficult for a solver to definitively "rule out" a particular pathway as unproductive. Some of Bright's innovative mazes had no "dead ends" - although some clearly had looping sections (or "islands") that would cause careless explorers to keep looping back again and again to pathways they had already travelled. The books of Larry Evans focused on 3-D structures, often with realistic perspective and architectural themes, and Bernard Meyers (Supermazes No. 1) produced similar illustrations. Both Greg Bright (The Hole Maze Book) and Dave Phillips (The World's Most Difficult Maze) published maze books in which the sides of pages could be crossed over and in which holes could allow the pathways to cross from one page to another, and one side of a page to the other, thus enhancing the 3-D routing capacity of 2-D printed illustrations. Adrian Fisher is both the most prolific contemporary author on mazes, and also one of the leading maze designers. His book The Amazing Book of Mazes (2006) contains examples and photographs of numerous methods of maze construction, several of which have been pioneered by Fisher; The Art of the Maze (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1990) contains a substantial history of the subject, whilst Mazes and Labyrinths (Shire Publications, 2004) is a useful introduction to the subject. A recent book by Galen Wadzinski (The Ultimate Maze Book) offers formalized rules for more recent innovations that involve single-directional pathways, 3-D simulating illustrations, "key" and "ordered stop" mazes in which items must be collected or visited in particular orders to add to the difficulties of routing (such restrictions on pathway traveling and re-use are important in a printed book in which the limited amount of space on a printed page would otherwise place clear limits on the amount of choices and pathways that can be contained within a single maze). Although these innovations are not all entirely new with Wadzinski, the book marks a significant advancement in published maze puzzles, offering expansions on the traditional puzzles that seem to have been fully informed by various video game innovations and designs, and adds new levels of challenge and complexity in both the design and the goals offered to the puzzle-solver in a printed format.


Mazes open to the public
• Serendipity Maze, Mouille Point, Cape Town, South Africa. Hedge maze by the sea.[6] • Walkabout Mazes and Botanical Gardens,[7] Robertson, Western Cape, South Africa. 13870 m² net area Google Maps[8]

India • Adham Khan's Tomb, Delhi, India • A maze inside Bara Imambara is there, which is famous as bhulbhulaiya and is also a popular as tourist place in Lucknow, India

Maze Dubai • Gardens Shopping Mall, Dubai (World's Largest Indoor Maze)[9] Japan • • • • • Hikimi no Meiro,[10] Masuda, Shimane, Japan Kodama no Mori,[11] Kiso, Nagano, Japan Kyodai Meiro Palladium,[12] Nikkō, Tochigi, Japan Sendai Hi-Land,[13] Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Shirahama Energy Land,[14] Shirahama, Wakayama, Japan


Australia • • • • The Maze [15], Perth, Western Australia[16] Ashcombe Maze, Shoreham, Victoria, Australia,[17] Mintaro Maze, Mintaro, South Australia,[18] A Maze'N Things,[19] Phillip Island (Victoria), Australia[20]

New Zealand • The Great Maze, The Puzzling World,[21] Wanaka, South Island (1.5 km of passages)

Austria • Schönbrunn Palace, Austria (small entrance fee, tower at the center to overlook the hedge maze)[22] Germany • Altjeßnitz, Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt, near Dessau (hedge maze, c.1750) (51°41′35.7″N 12°19′23.9″E) • Aschaffenburg (Park Schönbusch), Germany, Bavaria (hedge maze, c.1829)(49°57′42″N 9°06′24″E) • Berlin (Erholungspark Marzahn), Germany (hedge maze)[23] • Erlebniswelt Hortus Vitalis - Der Irrgarten,[24] Bad Salzuflen, Germany, North-Rhine-Westphalia (hedge maze) • Hannover (Herrenhausen Gardens), Germany, Lower Saxony Greece • Palace of Knossos
Public hedge maze in the "English Garden" at Schönbusch Park, Aschaffenburg, Germany



Italy • Villa Pisani, Stra, near Venice • Porsenna's Maze,[25] Chiusi, Tuscany (see Pliny's Italian labyrinth) Portugal • Parque de São Roque,[26] District of Porto[27] • Parque do Arnado,[28] Ponte de Lima, District of Viana do Castelo • Reserva Florestal de Recreio do Pinhal da Paz,[29] São Miguel Island, Azores Scandinavia • The Labyrinth in Moomin World, Finland • Labyrinttimaailma (Labyrinth world), Finland • Labyrinthia, Silkeborg, Denmark[30] • Samsø, Denmark,[31] [32] Spain • Amaze'n Laberintos, Spain, Majorca, Alcudia, Playa de Muro (wooden maze, 1998) • Parc del Laberint d'Horta, Barcelona, Spain (hedge maze)[33] • Labyrinth in the Way of Santiago - Spain [34] Laberinto del Camino de Santiago - España. UK • Noah's Ark Zoo Farm, Bristol, England (longest hedge maze in the world, planted 2003)[35] • Alnwick Castle Water Gardens Bamboo Maze, Northumberland. Designed by Adrian Fisher • Blackpool Pleasure Beach Hedge Maze, Lancashire, England. Designed by Adrian Fisher • Blake House Craft Centre, Braintree, Essex, England (Open July-September)[36] [37] • Blenheim Palace Hedge Maze, Oxfordshire, England. Designed by Minotaur Designs, Adrian Fisher, Randoll Coate and Graham Burgess, 1991[38] • St. Catherine's Hill, Hampshire near Winchester, old "Miz-Maze" or "Mizmaze" (unusual square design; path is a narrow groove)[39] • Castlewellan, Northern Ireland, world's largest permanent hedge maze[40] [41] • Chatsworth House, England (hedge maze)[42] • The Crystal Palace, England. A hedge maze built into a copse[43] • Greys Court 'Archbishop's Maze', Oxfordshire, England. Designed by Adrian Fisher, 1981[44] • Hampton Court Palace, England (hedge maze)[45] • Hoo Hill Maze, Shefford, Bedfordshire, England[46] [47] • Kentwell Hall, Long Melford, Suffolk, England. Designed Minotaur designs, Adrian Fisher, Randoll Coate and Graham Burgess.
The labyrinth of Barvaux, Durbuy

Inside the labyrinth of Villa Pisani

Maze • Leeds Castle, Maidstone, Kent, England. Designed by Minotaur Designs Randoll Coate, Adrian Fisher and Graham Burgess[48] • Longleat, Wiltshire, England: hedge maze, designed by Greg Bright, 1978, and mirror maze, designed by Adrian Fisher; Labyrinth of Love, Renaissance style Rose garden labyrinth designed by Graham Burgess. Sun and Moon Maze designed by Randoll Coate. • Murray Star Maze, Scone Palace, Perth, Scotland (hedge maze). Unusual Celtic-weave. Designed by Adrian Fisher[49] • Oak Lane Labyrinth, nr Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk. Open all year round. Free entry.[50] • Paulton's Park, Hampshire, England (hedge maze)[51] • Richings Park Amazing Maize Maze, Richings Park, near Heathrow, England (Open July-September)[52] • Saffron Walden, Essex, England (hedge maze),[53] (The town also has an historic turf maze) • Symonds Yat, Herefordshire, England[54] • Worden Park, Leyland, Lancashire, England[55]


North America
• Magowan's Infinite Mirror Maze, Pier 39, San Francisco, California • Amazing Chicago's Funhouse Maze,[56] Navy Pier, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Designed by Jack Rouse Associates and Adrian Fisher • America's Largest Corn Maze, Shakopee, Minnesota, USA Sever's Corn Maze[57] • Children's maze (made out of packs of hay), Ashland Berry Farm, Ashland, Virginia, USA. • Davis' Mega Maze, Sterling, Massachusetts USA (3-D adventure corn maze). Designed by Adrian Fisher[58] • The Garden Maze at Luray Caverns, Luray, VA, USA • Dole Plantation, Wahiawa, Hawaii, (21°31′29.5″N 158°2′14.9″W) home to the World's Largest Maze.[59] • Labyrinthe du Hangar 16, Montreal, Canada.[60] • Magnolia Plantation and Gardens (Charleston, South Carolina), USA • Maize Quest Fun Park[61] is the "Largest Collection of People-Sized Mazes in the World" with mazes made of fence, rope, stone, turf, corn, Invisible Dog Fencing, Straw Bales, Tiles, Living Bamboo, and Earthen Mounds. New Park, Pennsylvania, USA • Mall of Georgia Paving Mazes, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher • Maze Mania , Garden City, South Carolina USA (Interchangeable fence Maze appropriate for children and adults) • McMaze,[63] St. Andrew's West, Ontario, Canada. Original corn maze designed by Sandy McDonald. • Mohonk Mountain House hedge maze, New Paltz, New York • Mystery Maze, Wild Adventures theme park, Valdosta, Georgia - manufactured by Amazin' Mazes. Removed before 2010 season. • Noah's Ark Water Park Mirror Maze, Wisconsin Dells, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher • Norton Museum of Art West Palm Beach, USA. Pavement Maze, Serpent Mound and Turf Labyrinth. Designed by Adrian Fisher.
[62] Maze at Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis Public maze at Wild Adventures theme park, Valdosta, Georgia. It was removed before the 2010 season.

Maze • Ridgewood Halloween Maze, Ridgewood, New Jersey, USA (Month of October, Loops and Traps Halloween-themed maze. Designed by Tyler Stewart.) Free attraction. • Saunders Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The largest collection of full-sized hedge mazes and labyrinths in North America (11). • Skyline Caverns Mirror Maze, Front Royal, Virginia, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher. • The Maze at the Governor's Palace, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, USA • The Maze on Centre Island, Toronto, Ontario, was a centennial gift to the city by its Dutch-Canadian community in 1967 (Topiary maze, open to public, free, year-round) • Trail of Terror, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (annual event, 3/4 mile indoor Halloween-themed maze)[64] • Magical Mystery Mirror Maze, Mission Beach, San Diego, California, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher. • Monterey Mirror Maze, Monterey, California, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher. • Palace of Sweets Mirror Maze, Wildwood, New Jersey, USA. Designed by Adrian Fisher.


Further reading
• H. Abelson and A. diSessa, Turtle Geometry: The Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics, MIT Press (1980) • Adrian Fisher, The Amazing Book of Mazes, Thames & Hudson, London / Harry N Abrams Inc, New York (2006) ISBN 978-0-500-51247-0 • Adrian Fisher, Armchair Puzzlers: Mad Mazes, University Books, San Francisco, USA (2005) ISBN 978-1-57528-978-6 • Adrian Fisher, Mazes and Follies, Jarrold Publishing, UK (2004) ISBN 978-1-84165-142-2 • Adrian Fisher, Mazes and Labyrinths, Shire Publications, UK (2003) ISBN 978-0-7478-0561-8 • Adrian Fisher and Howard Loxton, Secrets of the Maze, Thames & Hudson, London (1997) / Barron’s Educational Series Inc, New York (1998) ISBN 978-0-500-01811-8 • Adrian Fisher and Jeff Saward, The British Maze Guide, Minotaur Designs, St Albans, UK (1991) - the definitive guide to British Mazes • Adrian Fisher and Georg Gerster, The Art of the Maze, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London (1990) ISBN 0-297-83027-9 • Adrian Fisher and Georg Gerster, Labyrinth - Solving the Riddle of the Maze, Harmony Books USA, New York (1990) ISBN 978-0-517-58099-8 • W. H. Matthews, Mazes and Labyrinths: Their History and Development[65] (1927). Includes Bibliography. [66] Dover Publications (1970) ISBN 0-486-22614-X • Jeff Saward, Magical Paths, Mitchell Beazley (2002) ISBN 1-84000-573-4

See also
• • • • • • • Celtic maze Corn maze Crop circle Garden mazes (article in German Wikipedia) Hedge maze Logic Quest 3D Pac-Man



External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • [67] Briefing Room [68] CNN's Barry Neild offers escape routes [69] Directory of hundreds of mazes in the USA and Canada Images Mazes [70] Real mazes that look like an inkblot portrait Labyrinth Society [71] Labyrinthos [72] Jeff Saward's website Learn how to draw mazes [73] W. H. Matthews, Mazes and Labyrinths (1922) [74] online version of W. H. Matthew's classic book Maze Algorithms [75] This site explains the different types of mazes and how to generate and solve them Multiplayer Maze Game [76] Flash-based free maze game in 2D 4D Maze Game [77] John McIntosh's Java-based free maze game in 3D and 4D first-perspective Times Online: Britain's best mazes [78] Ink Blot Mazes [79] Maze Artist, Yonatan Frimer's page of image mazes that mix art and mazes. Labyrinth Online [80] [81] Board and online game where players build maze

[1] Kern, Through the Labyrinth, p. 23. [2] (http:/ / www. ams. org/ featurecolumn/ archive/ octo-cretan. html) [3] Lappa Valley Steam Railway - Trevithick Brick Path Maze (http:/ / www. lappavalley. co. uk/ maze. htm), Lappa Valley Steam Railway, , retrieved 13 June 2010 [4] (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=k1tSK5V1pds) [5] Mazes, Vladimir Koziakin (Grosset & Dunlap, 1971) ISBN 0-448-01836-5 [6] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?f=q& source=s_q& hl=en& geocode=& q=South+ Africa+ >>+ Western+ Cape+ >>+ Cape+ Town+ >>+ Mouille+ Point& sll=-38. 487703,145. 26178& sspn=0. 001468,0. 001306& gl=au& ie=UTF8& hq=& hnear=Mouille+ Point,+ Cape+ Town,+ Western+ Cape,+ South+ Africa& ll=-33. 904153,18. 398189& spn=0. 003112,0. 004093& t=h& z=18) [7] Soekershof (http:/ / www. soekershof. com) [8] (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?f=q& source=s_q& hl=en& geocode=& q=-33. 81109,+ 19. 98023& mrt=all& sll=-38. 412319,145. 038275& sspn=0. 002942,0. 004093& ie=UTF8& ll=-33. 810969,19. 980161& spn=0. 00624,0. 008186& t=h& z=17) [9] (http:/ / www. ameinfo. com/ 45024. html) [10] (http:/ / www. iwami. or. jp/ hish/ kankou/ meiro/ maze. htm) [11] (http:/ / kankou. kisomura. com/ kodama/ g. html) [12] (http:/ / www. kinugawa. ne. jp/ facilities/ palladium/ palladium. html) [13] (http:/ / www. hi-land. co. jp/ ) [14] (http:/ / www. royalpines. co. jp/ shirahama/ ) [15] http:/ / www. themaze. com. au/ [16] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=-31. 653852,115. 958204& spn=0. 003306,0. 002419) [17] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=-38. 41237,145. 037438) [18] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=-33. 921497,138. 724869) [19] (http:/ / www. amazenthings. com. au/ ) [20] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=-38. 487728,145. 262271) [21] (http:/ / www. puzzlingworld. co. nz/ ) [22] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=48. 182484,16. 309236) [23] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=52. 537715,13. 574654) [24] (http:/ / www. hortus-vitalis. de) [25] (http:/ / www. toscanaunderground. it/ eng/ labirintoporsenna. htm) [26] (http:/ / www. cm-porto. pt/ gen. pl?p=stories& op=view& fokey=cmp. stories/ 2383) [27] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=41. 158021,-8. 587639) [28] (http:/ / www. pontedelima. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=168:jardins-no-parque-do-arnado& catid=76:parques-e-jardins& Itemid=170) [29] (http:/ / www. azores. gov. pt/ Portal/ pt/ entidades/ sraf-drrf/ textoImagem/ Pinhal+ da+ Paz. htm) [30] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=56. 106007,9. 576414)

[31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] (http:/ / www. samsolabyrinten. com/ ) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=55. 971925,10. 551124) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=41. 440237,2. 145832) http:/ / www. orbigo. org Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 45409,-2. 741877) (http:/ / www. greatmaze. info/ maze. html) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 881823,0. 474719) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 837448,-1. 349832) Google Maps (hard to see) (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 04659,-1. 309712) (http:/ / www. guinnessworldrecords. com/ content_pages/ record. asp?recordid=47417) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=54. 258284,-5. 953174) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=53. 223938,-1. 60881) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 422888,-0. 068434) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 545231,-0. 954609) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 406033,-0. 337712) (http:/ / www. wuff. me. uk/ hoo hill maze/ noj. html) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=52. 029145,-0. 321728) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 245228,0. 632325) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=56. 421373,-3. 43348) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=52. 217336,0. 799014) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=50. 947917,-1. 554914) (http:/ / www. farmmaze. co. uk/ ) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=52. 027056,0. 237628) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=51. 853717,-2. 648365) Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com. au/ maps?ll=53. 682094,-2. 702959) (http:/ / www. amazingchicago. com/ ) (http:/ / www. severscornmaze. com/ ) (http:/ / www. davisfarmland. com/ megamaze/ index. htm) (http:/ / www. dole-plantation. com/ Maze/ maze. aspx) (http:/ / www. labyrintheduhangar16. com/ en/ index. html) (http:/ / www. MazeFunPark. com) http:/ / www. mazemaniasc. com (http:/ / www. mcmaze. ca/ ) (http:/ / www. trailofterrorfest. com/ home. htm) (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ etc/ ml/ index. htm) http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ etc/ ml/ ml27. htm http:/ / www. wikipediamaze. com http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 09/ 29/ shortcuts. maze/ index. html http:/ / www. cornmazedir. com http:/ / teamofmonkeys. com/ html/ jan07. html http:/ / www. labyrinthsociety. org/ http:/ / www. labyrinthos. net/ turflabuk. html http:/ / www. amazeingart. com/ maze-faqs/ draw-mazes. html http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ etc/ ml/ http:/ / www. astrolog. org/ labyrnth/ algrithm. htm http:/ / www. jointoplay. com/ maz. html http:/ / www. urticator. net/ maze/ index. html http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ travel/ holiday_type/ family/ article2378169. ece http:/ / inkblotmazes. com/ http:/ / www. labyrinthmazegame. com http:/ / www. quoridor. net


Cardinal directions


Cardinal directions
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions of north, south, east, and west, commonly denoted by their initials: N, S, E, W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the direction of rotation and west being directly opposite. Intermediate points between the four cardinal directions form the points of the compass. The intermediate (intercardinal, or ordinal) directions are north-east (NE), north-west (NW), south-west (SW), and south-east (SE). On Earth, upright observers facing north will have south behind them, east on their right, and west on their left. Most devices and methods for orientation therefore operate by finding north first, although any other direction is equally valid, if it can be reliably located. Several of these devices and methods are described below.

A compass rose showing the four cardinal directions, the four ordinal directions, plus eight further divisions.

Locating the directions
The Sun
The position of the Sun in the sky can be used for orientation if the general time of day is known. In the morning, the Sun rises roughly in the east (due east only on the equinoxes) and tracks upwards. In the evening it sets in the west, again roughly and only due west exactly on the equinoxes. In the middle of the day it is to the south for viewers in the Northern Hemisphere, who live north of the Tropic of Cancer, and the north for those in the Southern Hemisphere, who live south of the Tropic of Capricorn. This method does not work so well closer to the equator (ie between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) since, in the northern hemisphere, the sun may be directly overhead or even to the north in summer. Conversely, at low latitudes in the southern hemisphere the sun may be to the south of the observer in summer. (See seasons and solstice for more on this). In these locations, one needs first to determine whether the sun is moving from east to west through north or south by watching its movements—left to right means it is going through south while right to left means it is going through north; or one can watch the sun's shadows. If they move clockwise, the sun will be in the south at midday, and if they move anticlockwise, then the sun will be in the north at midday. Therefore, a more accurate fix can be made if the time of year and approximate latitude are factored in. It should also be noted that, due to the Earth's axial tilt, no matter what your location, there are only two days each year when the sun rises precisely due east. These days are the equinoxes. On all other days, depending on the time of year, the sun rises either north or south of true east (and sets north or south of true west). For all locations the sun is seen to rise north of east (and set north of west) from the March equinox to the September equinox, and rise south of east (and set south of west) from the September equinox to the March equinox.

Cardinal directions It should also be noted that the amount that the sun appears to be either north or south depends on both the time of year and latitude of the observer. Knowing these will enable the observer to be more precise when determining the cardinal directions from the sun's position, particularly in the early morning or late afternoon.


Watch face
An analog watch can be used to locate north and south. The Sun appears to move in the sky over a 24 hour period while the hour hand of a 12-hour clock face takes twelve hours to complete one rotation. In the northern hemisphere, if the watch is rotated so that the hour hand points toward the Sun, the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate south. For this method to work in the southern hemisphere, the 12 is pointed toward the Sun and the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate north. During daylight saving time, the same method can be employed using 1 o'clock instead of 12.

Specialized 24-hour watch with compass card dial

There are relatively minor inaccuracies due to the difference between local time and zone time, and due to the equation of time. The method functions less well as one gets closer to the equator. The photograph shows a specialized 24-hour watch designed for finding directions using the Sun in the northern hemisphere. With the watch set to indicate local time, the hour hand is pointed directly at the Sun. North is then indicated by the local midnight position.

Nighttime stars
Astronomy provides a more reliable method for finding direction at night. The Earth's axis is currently (but not permanently) pointed, to within a fraction of 1 degree, toward the bright star Polaris. The exact direction of the axis changes over thousands of years due to the precession of the equinoxes. We call the end of the Earth's axis that points to Polaris the North Pole. The opposite end of the axis is named the South Pole. Polaris is also known as the North Star, and is generically called a pole star or lodestar. Polaris is only visible during fair weather at night to inhabitants of the Northern Hemisphere. Picking out a specific single star may leave one uncertain they've found the right one. As an aid to identifying Polaris, the asterism "Big Dipper" may be employed. The 2 corner stars of the "pan" (those opposite from the handle) point above the top of the "pan" to Polaris. This is illustrated at this example [1], the beginning of a tutorial that teaches how to find Polaris. To see the rest of the tutorial click the link at the bottom of the illustration. From the Southern Hemisphere, nightly observations of the sky directly above the vicinity of the true pole will reveal that the visible stars appear to be moving in a circular path. (It is actually the observer that is moving in the circular path.) This becomes completely obvious when a special case of long exposure photography is employed to record the observations, by locking the shutter open for most of the intensely dark part of a moonless night. The resulting photograph reveals a multitude of concentric arcs (portions of perfect circles) from which the exact center can be readily derived. The common center is exactly aligned with the true (as opposed to the magnetic) pole. (This also is true of the northern hemisphere, and can be used to verify one has correctly identified Polaris, which will not appear to move.) A published photograph [2] exposed for nearly 8 hours demonstrates this effect.

Cardinal directions


Inertial navigation
At the very end of the 19th century, to avoid the need to wait for fair weather at night to precisely verify one's alignment with true north, the gyrocompass was developed for ship use in scenarios where the magnetic compass simply wasn't good enough. It has the further advantages of immunity to interference by stray magnetic fields, and not depending on Earth's magnetic field at all. Its major disadvantage is that it depends on technology that many individuals might find too expensive to justify outside the context of a large commercial or military operation. It also requires a continuous power supply for its motors, and that it be allowed to sit in one location for a period of time while it properly aligns itself.

Satellite navigation
Near the end of the 20th century the advent of satellite-based Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provided yet another means for any individual to determine true north accurately. While GPS Receivers (GPSRs) function best with a clear view of the entire sky, they function day or night, and in all but the most severe weather. The government agencies responsible for the satellites continuously monitor and adjust them to maintain their accurate alignment with the Earth. There are consumer versions of the receivers that are attractively priced. Since there are no periodic access fees, or other licensing charges, they have become widely used. GPSR functionality is becoming more commonly added to other consumer devices such as mobile phones. Handheld GPSRs have modest power requirements, can be shut down as needed, and recalibrate within a couple of minutes of being restarted. In contrast with the gyrocompass which is most accurate when stationary, the GPS receiver must be moving, typically at more than 0.1 mph (0.2 km/h), to correctly display compass directions. Within these limitations GPSRs are considered both accurate and reliable. The GPSR has thus become the fastest and most convenient way to obtain a verifiable alignment with the cardinal directions.

Additional points
The directional names are also routinely and very conveniently associated with the degrees of rotation in the unit circle, a necessary step for navigational calculations (derived from trigonometry) and/or for use with Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) Receivers. The four cardinal directions correspond to the following degrees of a compass: • • • • North (N): 0° = 360° East (E): 90° South (S): 180° West (W): 270°

An ordinal, or intercardinal, or intermediate, direction is one of the four intermediate compass directions located halfway between the cardinal directions. • • • • Northeast (NE), 45°, halfway between north and east, is the opposite of southwest. Southeast (SE), 135°, halfway between south and east, is the opposite of northwest. Southwest (SW), 225°, halfway between south and west, is the opposite of northeast. Northwest (NW), 315°, halfway between north and west, is the opposite of southeast.

These 8 words have been further compounded, resulting in a total of 16 named (and numbered) points evenly spaced around the compass. Some languages do not use compound words to name the points, instead assigning unique words, colors, and/or associations with phenomena of the natural world.

Cardinal directions


Usefulness of cardinal points
With the cardinal points thus accurately defined, by convention cartographers draw standard maps with north (N) at the top, and east (E) at the right. In turn, maps provide a systematic means to record where places are, and cardinal directions are the foundation of a structure for telling someone how to find those places. North does not have to be at the top. Portable GPS-based navigation computers can be set to display maps either conventionally (N always up, E always right) or with the current instantaneous direction of travel, called the heading, always up (and whatever direction is +90° from that to the right). The direction of travel required to reach the intended destination is called the bearing. Since the real world presents numerous obstacles, a person must adjust their heading accordingly. Upon moving forward, the bearing will change so that it always points at the destination, thereby giving clues as to which way to turn. When travelling, it is often easier to work out where the next turn is, and whether to turn left or right, when the direction of travel is always up.

Beyond geography
Children are sometimes taught the order of these directions (clockwise, from North) by using a mnemonic, such as "Never Eat Shredded Wheat". In mathematics, cardinal directions or cardinal points are the six principal directions or points along the x-, y- and z-axis of three-dimensional space. In the real world there are six cardinal directions not involved with geography which are north, south, east, west, up and down. In this context, up and down relate to elevation, altitude, or possibly depth (if water is involved). The topographic map is a special case of cartography in which the elevation is indicated on the map, typically via contour lines. In astronomy, cardinal points of the disk of an astronomical body may be four points defined by the direction in which the celestial poles are located, as seen from the center of the disk.[3] [4] A line (here it is a great circle on the celestial sphere) drawn from the center of the disk to the North celestial pole will intersect the body's limb at the North point. Similarly, a line from the center to the South celestial pole will define the South point by its intersection with the limb. The points at right angles to the North and South points are the East and West points. The North point will then be the point on the limb that is closest to the North celestial pole.

Germanic origin of names
During the Migration Period, the Germanic languages' names for the cardinal directions entered the Romance languages, where they replaced the Latin names borealis (or septentrionalis) with north, australis (or meridionalis) with south, occidentalis with west and orientalis with east. It is possible that some northern people used the Germanic names for the intermediate directions. Medieval Scandinavian orientation would thus have involved a 45 degree rotation of cardinal directions.[5] • • • • north (Proto-Germanic *norþ-) from a root *ner- "left, below", i.e. "to the left of the rising Sun". east (*aus-to-) from the word for dawn, see Ēostre. south (*sunþ-) is root-cognate to Sun itself, thus "the region of the Sun" west (*wes-t-) from a word for "evening", root-cognate to Latin vesper.

Cardinal directions


Cardinal directions in world cultures
Many cultures not descended from European traditions use cardinal directions, but have a number other than four. Typically, a “center” direction is added, for a total of five. Rather than the Western use of direction letters, properties such as colors are often associated with the various cardinal directions—these are typically the natural colors of human perception rather than optical primary colors. Some examples are shown here; In many regions of the world, prevalent winds change direction seasonally, and consequently many cultures associate specific named winds with cardinal and ordinal directions. The classical Greeks personified these winds as Anemoi. The article on boxing the compass contains a more recent list of directional winds from the Mediterranean Sea.

Far East
Asia China Ainu Turkic Kalmyks N E S W C Source [6] [7] [8] [9] [8] — [10]



Dynastic Chinese culture and some other Central Asian cultures view the center as a fifth principal direction hence the English translated term "Five Cardinal Points". Where it is different than the west, is that the term is used as a foundation for I Ching, the Wu Xing and the five Naked-eye planets. In traditional Chinese astronomy, the zodiacal belt is divided into the four constellation groups corresponding to the four cardinal directions. Each direction is often identified with a color, and (at least in China) with a mythological creature of that color. Geographical or ethnic terms may contain the name of the color instead of the name of the corresponding direction.[6] [7] These traditions were also carried west by the westward migration of the Turkic peoples. East: Green (青 "qīng" corresponds to green); Spring; Wood Qingdao (Tsingtao) "Green Island": a city on the east coast of China South: Red; Summer; Fire Red River (Asia): south of China Red Sea: south of Turkey West: White; Autumn; Metal White Sheep Turkmen Ak Deniz "White Sea" in Turkish indicates the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, or the Mediterranean Sea Belarus (literally "White Russia"), according to one of the theories is the name given to the Western Rus by the Mongols North: Black; Winter; Water Heilongjiang "Black Dragon River" province in Northeast China, also the Amur River Black Sea: north of Turkey Kara-Khitan Khanate Center: Yellow; Earth

Cardinal directions Mount Huang "Yellow Mountain" in central China Golden Horde: "Central Army" of the Mongols


America N E S W Apache C Source

— [11] — [12] [13]


Cherokee Lakota Mayan Navajo

[8] [14] [8] [8] [12] — [8] [11]


— [8] [14]


— [8]

In Mesoamerica and North America, many traditional indigenous beliefs include four cardinal directions and a center. Each direction was associated with a color, which varied between groups but which generally corresponded to the hues of corn (green, black, red, white, and yellow). There seems to be no “preferred” way of assigning these colors; as shown in the table, great variety in color symbolism occurs even among cultures that are close neighbors geographically.

Unique (non-compound) names of ordinal directions
In some languages, such as Finnish, Estonian and Breton, the ordinal directions have names that are not compounds of the names of the cardinal directions (as, for instance, northeast is compounded from north and east). In Finnish those are koillinen (northeast), kaakko (southeast), lounas (southwest), and luode (northwest).

Non-compass directional systems
Use of the compass directions is common and deeply embedded in European culture, and also in Chinese culture (see South Pointing Chariot). Some other cultures make greater use of other referents, such as towards the sea or towards the mountains (Hawaii, Bali), or upstream and downstream (most notably in ancient Egypt, also in the Yurok and Karuk languages). Lengo (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) has four non-compass directions: landward, seaward, upcoast, and downcoast.

Cardinal directions


See also
• • • • • • • • • Azimuth Boxing the compass for all thirty-two English-named internationally-used principal points of the compass. Elevation – the mapping information ignored by the cardinal point system Geocaching – a international hobby Geographic Information System (GIS) Latitude and Longitude List of cartographers – about famous cartographers through history List of international common standards Magnetic deviation – to understand why a compass does not align perfectly with the Earth's north and south poles. • Orienteering – to learn about an internationally popular hobby and sport that depends on the above knowledge for success. • Uses of trigonometry

[1] http:/ / www. quietbay. net/ Science/ astronomy/ nightsky/ 034. html [2] http:/ / astro. wsu. edu/ worthey/ astro/ html/ im-sky/ south-pole-star-trails. jpg [3] Rigge, W. F. "Partial eclipse of the moon, 1918, June 24" (http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ full/ 1918PA. . . . . 26. . 373R). Popular Astronomy Vol. 26: 373. . Retrieved 2009-12-15. [4] Meadows, Peter. "Solar Observing: Parallactic Angle" (http:/ / www. petermeadows. com/ html/ parallactic. html). . Retrieved 15 December 2009. [5] See e.g. Weibull, Lauritz. De gamle nordbornas väderstrecksbegrepp. Scandia 1/1928; Ekblom, R. Alfred the Great as Geographer. Studia Neophilologica 14/1941-2; Ekblom, R. Den forntida nordiska orientering och Wulfstans resa till Truso. Förnvännen. 33/1938; Sköld, Tryggve. Isländska väderstreck. Scripta Islandica. Isländska skällskapet årsbok 16/1965. [6] "Cardinal colors in Chinese tradition" (http:/ / www. colorsystem. com/ projekte/ engl/ 63chie. htm). . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [7] "Chinese Cosmogony" (http:/ / ignca. nic. in/ ps_01005. htm). . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [8] "Colors of the Four Directions" (http:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ colorsofthefourdirections/ ). . Retrieved 2010-05-16. [9] "Two Studies of Color" (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0020-7071(198207)48:3<339:"SOCIF>2. 0. CO;2-4). . Retrieved 2008-03-14. "In Ainu... siwnin means both 'yellow' and 'blue' and hu means 'green' and 'red'" [10] Krupp, E. C.: "Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets", page 371. Oxford University Press, 1992 [11] "Symbolism of Color" (http:/ / www. princetonol. com/ groups/ iad/ lessons/ middle/ color2. htm). . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [12] "Aztec Calendar and Colors" (http:/ / www. carnaval. com/ dead/ threedaydead. htm). . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [13] "The Aztec Gateway" (http:/ / www. amoxtli. org/ cuezali/ deities. html). . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [14] "Native American Quotes & Proverbs" (http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ ok/ nightowlsgazebo/ page8. html). . Retrieved 2007-02-17.



A tattoo is a marking made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment for decorative or other reasons. Tattoos on humans are a type of decorative body modification, while tattoos on animals are most commonly used for identification or branding. The term "tattoo" or from Samoa, "Tatau" is first referred to by Joseph Banks, the naturalist aboard Cook's ship the "Endeavour" in 1769 where he mentions it in his journal. To paraphrase. he states, "I shall now mention the way they mark themselves indelibly, each of them is so marked by their humor or disposition". Tattooing has been practiced for centuries worldwide. The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, traditionally wore facial tattoos. Today one can find Berbers of Tamazgha (North Africa), Māori of New Zealand, Arabic people in East-Turkey and Atayal of Taiwan with facial tattoos. Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples and among certain tribal groups in the Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Mentawai Islands, Africa, North America, South America, Mesoamerica, Europe, Japan, Cambodia, New Zealand and Micronesia. Despite some taboos surrounding tattooing, the art continues to be popular in many parts of the world.

A Māori Chief with tattoos (moko) seen by Cook and his crew

The OED gives the etymology of tattoo as "In 18th c. tattaow, tattow. From Polynesian tatau. In Tahitian, tatu." The word tatau was introduced as a loan word into English, the pronunciation being changed to conform to English phonology as "tattoo".[1] Sailors on later voyages introduced both the word and reintroduced the concept of tattooing to Europe.[2] Tattoo enthusiasts may refer to tattoos as "Ink", "Tats", "Art", "Pieces", or "Work"; and to the tattooists as "Artists". The latter usage is gaining greater support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs. Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as flash, a notable instance of industrial design. Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers.

Japanese painting of Yan Qing, who is famous for his tattoo in Chinese Classical Masterpiece "The Outlaws of the Marsh". (c.1800s)

The Japanese word irezumi means "insertion of ink" and can mean tattoos using tebori, the traditional Japanese hand method, a Western-style machine, or for that matter, any method of tattooing using insertion of ink. The most common word used for traditional Japanese tattoo designs is Horimono. Japanese may use the word "tattoo" to mean non-Japanese styles of tattooing. In Taiwan, facial tattoos of the Atayal tribe are named "Badasun"; they are used to demonstrate that an adult man can protect his homeland, and that an adult woman is qualified to weave cloth and perform housekeeping. The anthropologist Ling Roth in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names of tatu, moko, cicatrix, and keloid.[3]



Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice at least since around Neolithic times. Ötzi the Iceman, dating from the fourth to fifth millennium BC, was found in the Ötz valley in the Alps and had approximately 57 carbon tattoos consisting of simple dots and lines on his lower spine, behind his left knee, and on his right ankle. These tattoos were thought to be a form of healing because of their placement which resembles acupuncture. [19] Other mummies bearing tattoos and dating from the end of the second millennium BC have been discovered, such as the Mummy of Amunet from Ancient Egypt and the mummies at Pazyryk on the Ukok Plateau.[4] Pre-Christian Germanic, Celtic and other central and northern European tribes were often heavily tattooed, according to surviving accounts. The Picts were famously tattooed (or scarified) with elaborate dark blue woad (or possibly copper for the blue tone) designs. Julius Caesar described these tattoos in Book V of his Gallic Wars (54 BC). Tattooing in Japan is thought to go back to the Paleolithic era, some ten thousand years ago. Various other cultures have had their own tattoo traditions, ranging from rubbing cuts and other wounds with ashes, to hand-pricking the skin to insert dyes.

A tattoo on the right arm of a Scythian chieftain, whose mummy was discovered at Pazyryk, Russia

Tattooing in the Western world today has its origins in Polynesia, and in the discovery of tatau by eighteenth century explorers. The Polynesian practice became popular among European sailors, before spreading to Western societies generally.[5]

Decorative and spiritual uses
Tattoos have served as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, punishment, amulets and talismans, protection, and as the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother/father or daughter/son) or about an unrelated person.
Tattooing is a tradition among many of the indigenous peoples around the world.



Today, people choose to be tattooed for cosmetic, sentimental/memorial, religious, and magical reasons, and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs (see criminal tattoos) but also a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture. Some Māori still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. In Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, the yantra tattoo is used for protection against evil and to increase luck. A memorial tattoo of a deceased loved one's In the Philippines certain tribal groups believe that tattoos have initials magical qualities, and help to protect their bearers. Most traditional tattooing in the Philippines is related to the bearer's accomplishments in life or rank in the tribe. Among Catholic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina, tattoos with Christian symbols would be inked on to protect themselves from the Muslim Turks. Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition.

People have also been forcibly tattooed. A well known example is the identification system for inmates in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. Tattoos have also been used for identification in other ways. For example, in the period of early contact between the Māori and Europeans, Māori chiefs sometimes drew their moko (facial tattoo) on documents in place of a signature. Tattoos are sometimes used by forensic pathologists to help them A Nazi concentration camp identification tattoo identify burned, putrefied, or mutilated bodies. Tattoo pigment is buried deep enough in the skin that even severe burns are not likely to destroy a tattoo. For many centuries seafarers have undergone tattooing for the purpose of enabling identification after drowning. In this way recovered bodies of such drowned persons could be connected with their family members or friends before burial. Therefore tattooists often worked in ports where potential customers were numerous. The traditional custom continues today in the Royal Navy (Great Britain) and in many others. Tattoos are also placed on animals, though very rarely for decorative reasons. Pets, show animals, thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattooed with identification and other marks. Pet dogs and cats are often tattooed with a serial number (usually in the ear, or on the inner thigh) via which their owners can be identified. Also, animals are occasionally tattooed to prevent sunburn (on the nose, for example). Such tattoos are often performed by a veterinarian and in most cases the animals are anesthetized during the process. Branding is used for similar reasons and is often performed without anesthesia, but is different from tattooing as no ink or dye is inserted during the process.

Mark of a deserter from the British Army. Tattoo on skin and equipment. Displayed at Army Medical Services Museum.


Tattoo When used as a form of cosmetics, tattooing includes permanent makeup and hiding or neutralizing skin discolorations. Permanent makeup is the use of tattoos to enhance eyebrows, lips (liner and/or lipstick), eyes (liner), and even moles, usually with natural colors as the designs are intended to resemble makeup.


Medical tattoos are used to ensure instruments are properly located for repeated application of radiotherapy and for the areola in some forms of breast reconstruction. Tattooing has also been used to convey medical information about the wearer (e.g. blood group).

Tattoos have experienced a resurgence in popularity in many parts of the world, particularly in North and South America, Japan, and Europe. The growth in tattoo culture has seen an influx of new artists into the industry, many of whom have technical and fine arts training. Coupled with advancements in tattoo pigments and the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for tattooing, this has led to an improvement in the quality of tattoos being produced.[6] During the first decade of the 21st century, the presence of tattoos became evident within pop culture, inspiring television shows such as A&E's Inked and TLC's Miami Ink and LA Ink. The decoration of blues singer Janis Joplin with a wristlet and a small heart on her left breast, by the San Francisco tattoo artist Lyle Tuttle, has been called a seminal moment in the popular acceptance of tattoos as art.[7] Formal interest in the art of the tattoo has become prominent in the 1990s through the beginning of the 21st century. Contemporary art exhibitions and visual art institutions have featured tattoos as art through such means as displaying tattoo flash, examining the works of tattoo artists, or otherwise incorporating examples of body art into mainstream exhibits. One such 2009 Chicago exhibition Freaks & Flash featured both examples of historic body art as well as the tattoo artists which produced it.[8]

Woman with a lower back tattoo



In many traditional cultures tattooing has also enjoyed a resurgence, partially in deference to cultural heritage. Historically, a decline in traditional tribal tattooing in Europe occurred with the spread of Christianity. However, some Christian groups, such as the Knights of St. John of Malta, sported tattoos to show their allegiance. A decline often occurred in other cultures following European efforts to convert aboriginal and indigenous people to Western religious and cultural practices that held tattooing to be a "pagan" or "heathen" activity. Within some traditional indigenous cultures, tattooing takes place within the context of a rite of passage between adolescence and adulthood. Many studies have been done of the tattooed population and society's view of tattoos. In June 2006 the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology published the results of a telephone survey which took place in 2004. It found that 36% of Americans ages 18–29, 24% of those 30-40 and 15% of those 41-51 had a tattoo.[9] In September 2006, the Pew Research Center conducted a telephone survey which found that 36% of Americans ages Woman with Tattoo 18–25, 40% of those 26-40 and 10% of those 41-64 had a [10] tattoo. In January 2008, a survey conducted online by Harris Interactive estimated that 14% of all adults in the United States have a tattoo, just slightly down from 2003, when 16% had a tattoo. The highest incidence of tattoos was found among the gay, lesbian and bisexual population (25%) and people living in the West (20%). Among age groups, 9% of those ages 18–24, 32% of those 25-29, 25% of those 30-39 and 12% of those 40-49 have tattoos, as do 8% of those 50-64. Men are just slightly more likely to have a tattoo than women (15% versus 13%)[11]

Negative associations
In Japan, tattoos are strongly associated with a particular organized crime organization known as the yakuza, particularly full body tattoos done the traditional Japanese way (Tebori). Many public Japanese bathhouses (sentō) and gymnasiums often openly ban those bearing large or graphic tattoos in an attempt to prevent Yakuza from entering.[12] The Government of Meiji Japan had outlawed tattoos in the 19th century, a prohibition that stood for 70 years before being repealed in 1948.[13] In the United States many prisoners and criminal gangs use distinctive tattoos to indicate facts about their criminal behavior, prison sentences, and organizational affiliation.[14] A tear tattoo, for example, can be symbolic of murder, with each tear representing the death of a friend. At the same time, members of the U.S. military have an equally well established and longstanding history of tattooing to indicate military units, battles, kills, etc., an association which remains widespread among older Americans. Tattooing is also common in the British Armed Forces.

Conspicuous tattoos and other body modification can make gainful employment difficult in many fields.

Tattooing was also used by the Nazi regime in Nazi concentration camps to tag prisoners. Insofar as this cultural or subcultural use of tattoos predates the widespread popularity of tattoos in the general population, tattoos are still associated with criminality. Although the general acceptance of tattoos is on the rise in

Tattoo Western society, they still carry a heavy stigma among certain social groups. Tattoos are generally considered an important part of the culture of the Russian mafia. The prevalence of women in the tattoo industry, along with larger numbers of women bearing tattoos, appears to be changing negative perceptions with the exception of so called "tramp-stamp",a lower back tattoo. A study of "at-risk" (as defined by school absenteeism and truancy) adolescent girls showed a positive correlation between body-modification and negative feelings towards the body and self-esteem; however, also illustrating a strong motive for body-modification as the search for "self and attempts to attain mastery and control over the body in an age of increasing alienation."[15]


Religious perspectives
There is no consistent Christian position on tattooing. The majority of Christians do not take issue with the practice, while a minority uphold the Hebrew view against tattoos (see below) based on Leviticus 19:28. Tattoos of Christian symbols are common. When on pilgramage, some Christians get a small tatoo dating the year and a small cross. This is usually done on the forearm. Catholic Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina used tattooing, especially of children, for perceived protection against forced conversion to Islam during Turkish occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1463-1878). This form of tattooing continued long past its original motivation, though it was forbidden during Yugoslavian communism. Tattooing was performed during spring time or during special religious celebrations such as the Feast of St. Joseph, and consisted mostly of Christian crosses on hands, fingers, forearms, and below the neck and on the chest.[16] [17]

Coptic Christians who live in Egypt tattoo themselves with the symbols of Coptic crosses on their right wrists.

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (often referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or "Mormons") have been advised by their church leaders to not tattoo their bodies.[19] In the Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints it states that the Latter-day Saints accept the Bible to be the word of God[20] Therefore, the church believes that the body is a sacred temple as preached in the New Testament,[21] and that they should keep it clean, inside and out, which the church interprets as forbidding tattoos.

Tattoos are usually considered forbidden in Sunni Islam. According to the book of Sunni traditions, Sahih Bukhari, "The Prophet forbade [...] mutilation (or maiming) of bodies."[22] Sunni Muslims believe tattooing is haraam (i.e. forbidden) because it involves changing the creation of Allah, and because the Prophet cursed the one who does tattoos and the one for whom that is done.[23] There is, however, difference of scholarly Sunni Muslim opinion as to the reason why tattoos are forbidden.[24] The use of temporary tattoo made with Henna is very common in Muslim North-Africa. The permissibility of tattoos is debated in Shi'a Islam, with some Shi'a pointing to a fatwa by Ayatollah Sistani stating they are halal (permitted).[25]



Tattoos are forbidden in Judaism[26] based on the Torah (Leviticus 19:28): "You shall not make gashes in your flesh for the dead, or incise any marks on yourselves: I am the Lord." The prohibition is explained by contemporary rabbis as part of a general prohibition on body modification that does not serve a medical purpose (such as to correct a deformity). Maimonides, a leading 12th century scholar of Jewish law and thought, explains the prohibition against tattoos as a Jewish response to paganism. Since it was common practice for ancient pagan worshipers to tattoo themselves with religious iconography and names of gods, Judaism prohibited tattoos entirely in order to disassociate from other religions. In modern times, the association of tattoos with Nazi concentration camps and the Holocaust has given an additional level for revulsion to the practice of tattooing, even among many otherwise fairly secular Jews.

Tattooing involves the placement of pigment into the skin's dermis, the layer of dermal tissue underlying the epidermis. After initial injection, pigment is dispersed throughout a homogenized damaged layer down through the epidermis and upper dermis, in both of which the presence of foreign material activates the immune system's phagocytes to engulf the pigment particles. As healing proceeds, the damaged epidermis flakes away (eliminating surface pigment) while deeper in the skin granulation tissue forms, which is later converted to connective tissue by collagen growth. This mends the upper dermis, where pigment remains trapped within fibroblasts, ultimately concentrating in a layer just below the dermis/epidermis boundary. Its presence there is stable, but in the long term (decades) the pigment tends to migrate deeper into the dermis, accounting for the degraded detail of old tattoos.[27]

Modern tattoo machine in use: here outfitted with a 5-needle setup, but number of needles depends on size and shading desired.

Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents; some cultures continue this practice, which may be an adjunct to scarification. Some cultures create tattooed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones (made like needles) with clay formed disks or, in modern times, needles. Traditional Japanese tattoos (Horimono) are still "hand-poked," that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel. This method is known as tebori.


59 The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electric tattoo machine, which inserts ink into the skin via a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit. The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to 150 times a second. This modern procedure is ordinarily sanitary. The needles are single-use needles that come packaged individually. The tattoo artist must wash not only his or her hands, but they must also wash the area that will be tattooed. Gloves must be worn at all times and the wound must be wiped frequently with a wet disposable towel of some kind.

Prices for this service vary widely globally and locally, depending on the complexity of the tattoo, the skill and expertise of the artist, the Traditional two coil tattoo machine attitude of the customer, the costs of running a business, the economics of supply and demand, etc. The time it takes to get a tattoo is in proportion with its size and complexity. A small one of simple design might take fifteen minutes, whereas an elaborate sleeve tattoo or back piece requires multiple sessions of several hours each. The modern electric tattoo machine is far removed from the machine invented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891. O'Reilly's machine was based on the rotary technology of the electric engraving device invented by Thomas Edison. Modern tattoo machines use electromagnetic coils. The first coil machine was patented by Thomas Riley in London, 1891 using a single coil. The first twin coil machine, the predecessor of the modern configuration, was invented by another Englishman, Alfred Charles South of London, in 1899.

Dyes and pigments
Early tattoo inks were obtained directly from nature and were extremely limited in pigment variety. Today, an almost unlimited number of colors and shades of tattoo ink are mass-produced and sold to parlors worldwide. Tattoo artists commonly mix these inks to create their own unique pigments. A wide range of dyes and pigments can be used in tattoos, from inorganic materials like titanium dioxide and iron oxides to carbon black, azo dyes, and acridine, quinoline, phthalocyanine and naphthol derivates, dyes made from ash, and other mixtures. Iron oxide pigments are used in greater extent in cosmetic tattooing. Modern tattooing inks are carbon based pigments that have uses outside of commercial tattoo applications. In 2005 at Northern Arizona University a study characterized the makeup of tattoo inks (Finley-Jones and Wagner). The FDA expects local authorities to legislate and test tattoo pigments and inks made for the use of permanent cosmetics. In California, the state prohibits certain ingredients and pursues companies who fail to notify the consumer of the contents of tattoo pigments. There has been concern expressed about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo pigments, some of which contain trace metals. Allegedly, the magnetic fields produced by MRI machines could interact with these metal particles, potentially causing burns or distortions in the image. The television show MythBusters tested the hypothesis, and found a slight interaction between commonly used tattoo inks and MRI. The interaction was stronger with inks containing high levels of iron oxide.[28] [29] Professional tattooists rely primarily on the same pigment base found in cosmetics. Amateurs will often use drawing inks such as low grade India ink, but these inks often contain impurities and toxins which can lead to illness or infection.



Studio hygiene
The properly equipped tattoo studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, sharps containers for old needles, and an autoclave for sterilizing tools.[30] Certain jurisdictions also require studios by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water. Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil, between clients, and at any other time where cross contamination can occur. The use of single use disposable gloves is also mandatory. In some states and countries it is illegal to tattoo a minor even with parental consent, and (except in the case of medical tattoos) it is usually not allowed to tattoo impaired persons, people with contraindicated skin conditions, those who are pregnant or nursing, those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity or those under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Before the tattooing begins the client is asked to approve the final position of the applied stencil. After approval is given the artist will open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies, and fresh ink for each session (loaded into disposable ink caps which are discarded after each client). Also, all areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved (such as counter tops, machines, and furniture) will be wiped with an approved disinfectant.[31] Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, generally helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. However, many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. While specific requirements to become a tattooist vary between jurisdictions, many mandate only formal training in bloodborne pathogens, and cross contamination. The local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many jurisdictions. For example, according to the health departments in Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. Performing a tattoo in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is a felony offense.[32] Tattooing was legalized in New York City in 1997,[33] and in Massachusetts and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2006.

Tattoo artists, and people with tattoos, vary widely in their preferred methods of caring for new tattoos. Some artists recommend keeping a new tattoo wrapped for the first twenty-four hours, while others suggest removing temporary bandaging after two hours or less. Many tattooists advise against allowing too much contact with hot tub or pool water, or soaking in a tub for the first two weeks. This is to prevent the tattoo ink from washing out or fading due to over-hydration and to avoid infection from exposure to bacteria and chlorine. In contrast, other artists suggest that a new tattoo be bathed in very hot water early and often.

General consensus for care advises against removing the scab that forms on a new tattoo, and avoiding exposing one's tattoo to the sun for extended periods; both of these can contribute to fading of the image. Furthermore, it is agreed that a new tattoo needs to be kept clean. Various products may be recommended for application to the skin, ranging from those intended for the treatment of cuts, burns and scrapes, to cocoa butter, hemp, salves, lanolin, A&D or Aquaphor. Oil based ointments are almost always recommended to be used in very thin layers due to their inability to evaporate and therefore over-hydrate the already perforated skin. In recent years, specific commercial products have been

Tattoo specific salves have become prevalent in recent years.

Tattoo developed for tattoo aftercare. Although opinions about these products vary, there is near total agreement that either alone or in addition to some other product, soap and warm water work well to keep a tattoo clean and free from infection.[34] Ultimately, the amount of ink that remains in the skin throughout the healing process determines, in large part, how robust the final tattoo will look. If a tattoo becomes infected (uncommon but possible if one neglects to properly clean their tattoo) or if the scab falls off too soon (e.g., if it absorbs too much water and sloughs off early or is picked or scraped off), then the ink will not be properly fixed in the skin and the final image will be negatively affected.


Health risks
Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattooing may carry health risks, including infection and allergic reactions. Modern tattooists reduce such risks by following universal precautions, working with single-use items, and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have bloodborne pathogen training, such as is provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. In amateur tattoos, such as those applied in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection. Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin, herpes simplex virus, tetanus, staph, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis, tuberculosis, and HIV.[35] In the United States there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted via commercially-applied tattooing process.[36]
Modern tattoo artist's nitrile gloves Tattoos increase the risk of hepatitic disease, which will be exacerbated by the and sterilized equipment steatohepatitis that alcohol induces. Therefore it has been highly reccommended not to drink for at least 2 months after getting a tattoo, though the risk will still not have completely diminished. Hepatitic disease is a serious condition frequently involving jaundicing - to be exact, the yellowing appearance of the skin, furthermore, spontaneous bleeding primarily from the joints. Risk of infections is also increased, and coupled with hepatitic disease, can result in exsanguination.

Tattoo inks have been described as "remarkably nonreactive histologically".[27] However, cases of allergic reactions to tattoo inks, particularly certain colors, have been medically documented. Occasionally, when a blood vessel is punctured during the tattooing procedure a bruise/hematoma may appear.[37] [38]

Tattoo removal
While tattoos are considered permanent, it is sometimes possible to remove them with laser treatments, fully or partially. Typically, black and darker colored inks can be removed more completely. An ink trademarked as InfinitInk is designed to be removed in a single laser treatment. The expense and pain of removing tattoos will typically be greater than the expense and pain of applying them. Some jurisdictions will pay for the voluntary removal of gang tattoos. Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery, and excision which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos.



Temporary tattoos
Temporary tattoos are popular with models and children as they involve no permanent alteration of the skin but produce a similar appearance that can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. The most common style is a type of body sticker similar to a decal, which is typically transferred to the skin using water. Although the design is waterproof, it can be removed easily with oil-based creams. Originally inserted as a prize in bubble gum packages, they consisted of a poor quality ink transfer that would easily come off with water or rubbing. Today's vegetable dye temporaries can look extremely realistic and adhere up to 3 weeks due to a layer of glue similar to that found on an adhesive bandage. Henna tattoos (Mehndi) and silver nitrate stains that appear when exposed to ultraviolet light can take up to two weeks to fade from the skin. Temporary airbrush tattoos (TATs) are applied by covering the skin with a stencil and spraying the skin with ink. In the past, this form of tattoo only lasted about a week. With the newest inks, tattoos can reasonably last for up to two weeks.

Temporary tattoo being applied to a human ankle

Types of tattoos
The American Academy of Dermatology distinguishes 5 types of tattoos:[39] Traumatic tattoos, also called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries, especially asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead; Amateur tattoos; Professional tattoos, both via traditional methods and modern tattoo machines; Medical tattoos; Cosmetic tattoos, also known as "permanent makeup".

Traumatic tattoos
According to George Orwell, coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds. This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. Similarly, a traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several different layers of skin, and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. In addition, tattooing of the gingiva from implantation of amalgam particles during dental filling placement and removal is possible and not uncommon. A common example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin.

See also
• • • • • • Chinese character tattoos Five Dots Tattoo Foreign body reaction Legal status of tattooing in the United States List of tattoo artists • • • • • • Marquesan tattoo SS blood group tattoo Tattoo convention Tattooing of Minors Act 1969 (in the UK) Tear tattoo Three Dots Tattoo UV tattoo

Lucky Diamond Rich, world's most tattooed person. •



Anthropological • Buckland, A. W. (1887) "On Tattooing," in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1887/12, p. 318-328 • Caplan, Jane (ed.) (2000): Written on the Body: the Tattoo in European and American History, Princeton U P • DeMello, Margo (2000) Bodies of Inscription: a Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community, California. Durham NC: Duke University Press • Fisher, Jill A. (2002). Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture. Body & Society 8 (4): pp. 91–107. • Gell, Alfred (1993) Wrapping in Images: Tattooing in Polynesia, Oxford: Clarendon Press • Gilbert, Stephen G. (2001) Tattoo History: a Source Book, New York: Juno Books • Gustafson, Mark (1997) "Inscripta in fronte: Penal Tattooing in Late Antiquity," in Classical Antiquity, April 1997, Vol. 16/No. 1, p. 79-105 • Hambly, Wilfrid Dyson (1925) The History of Tattooing and Its Significance: With Some Account of Other Forms of Corporal Marking, London: H. F.& G. Witherby (reissued: Detroit 1974) • Hesselt van Dinter, Maarten (2005) The World of Tattoo; An Illustrated History. Amsterdam, KIT Publishers • Jones, C. P. (1987) "Stigma: Tattooing and Branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity," in Journal of Roman Studies, 77/1987, pp. 139–155 • Juno, Andrea. Modern Primitives. Re/Search #12 (October 1989) ISBN 0965046931 • "Tattooing Among Japan's Ainu People" [40]. Lars Krutak. Retrieved 2009-08-24. • Lombroso, Cesare (1896) "The Savage Origin of Tattooing," in Popular Science Monthly, Vol. IV., 1896 • Raviv, Shaun (2006) Marked for Life: Jews and Tattoos (Moment Magazine; June 2006) • Comparative study about Ötzi's therapeutic tattoos (L. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract) [41] • Robley, Horatio (1896) Moko, or, Maori tattooing. London: Chapman and Hall • Roth, H. Ling (1901) Maori tatu and moko. In: Journal of the Anthropological Institute v. 31, January-June 1901 • Rubin, Arnold (ed.) (1988) Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformations of the Human Body, Los Angeles: UCLA Museum of Cultural History • Sanders, Clinton R. (1989) Customizing the Body: the Art and Culture of Tattooing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press • Sinclair, A. T. (1909) "Tattooing of the North American Indians," in American Anthropologist 1909/11, No. 3, p. 362-400 Popular and artistic • Green, Terisa. Ink: The Not-Just-Skin-Deep Guide to Getting a Tattoo ISBN 0-451-21514-1 • Green, Terisa. The Tattoo Encyclopedia: A Guide to Choosing Your Tattoo ISBN 0-7432-2329-2 • Krakow, Amy. Total Tattoo Book ISBN 0-446-67001-4 Medical • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC's Position on Tattooing and HCV Infection [42], retrieved June 12, 2006 • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Body Art (workplace hazards) [43], retrieved September 15, 2008 • United States Food and Drug Administration, "Tattoos and Permanent Makeup" [44], CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors (2000; updated [2004, 2006]), retrieved June 12, 2006 • Haley R.W. and Fischer R.P., Commercial tattooing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection, Medicine, March 2000;80:134-151



[1] Samoa: Samoan Tattoos (http:/ / www. polynesia. com/ samoa/ samoan-tattoos. html), Polynesian Cultural Center, [2] Tattoo 2. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000 (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 61/ 89/ T0058900. html) [3] Roth, H. Ling (1900) On Permanent Artificial Skin Marks: a definition of terms. Anthropological Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Bradford, September 11th 1900 [4] Tattoos: Egyptian Mummies from Encyclopedia (http:/ / wiki. bmezine. com/ index. php/ Egyptian_Mummies); Tattoos: Pazyryk Mummies from Encyclopedia (http:/ / wiki. bmezine. com/ index. php/ Pazyryk_Mummies) [5] "Tattoo" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 584263/ tattoo#tab=active~checked,items~checked& title=tattoo -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia), Encyclopaedia Britannica [6] Mifflin, Margot. Bodies of Subversion A secret History of Women and Tattoo. New York City: Juno Books, 1997. [7] Deb Acord "Who knew: Mommy has a tattoo", Maine Sunday Telegram November 19, 2006 [8] The Chicago art exhibition, Freaks & Flash (http:/ / www. art. org/ exhibitions/ archives/ 2009/ tattoo. htm), for example, juxtaposed circus sideshow banners depicting tattooed performers like "The Tattooed Lady" alongside art inspired by the tattoo Renaissance of the 1960s and 1970s. [9] Laumann AE, Derick AJ (September 2006), "Tattoos and body piercings in the United States: a national data set", Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 55 (3): 413–21, doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.03.026, PMID 16908345 [10] The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. A Portrait of "Generation Next" (http:/ / people-press. org/ report/ 300/ a-portrait-of-generation-next) [11] Harris Interactive. Three in ten Americans with a tattoo say having one makes them feel sexier or more artsy (http:/ / www. harrisinteractive. com/ harris_poll/ index. asp?PID=868) [12] (http:/ / travel. nytimes. com/ frommers/ travel/ guides/ asia/ japan/ tokyo/ frm_tokyo_0085022417. html) [13] Ito, Masami, " Whether covered or brazen, tattoos make a statement (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20100608i1. html)", Japan Times, June 8, 2010, p. 3. [14] Andrew Lichtenstein, Texas Prison Tattoos (http:/ / www. foto8. com/ issue01/ dprisontattoos/ prisontattoos1. html), , retrieved 2007-12-08 [15] Carroll L, Anderson R (2002), "Body piercing, tattooing, self-esteem, and body investment in adolescent girls", Adolescence 37 (147): 627–37, PMID 12458698 [16] Darko Zubrinic (1995), Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina (http:/ / www. croatianhistory. net/ etf/ et02. html), [17] (http:/ / www. croatianhistory. net/ etf/ et02. html#tattoo) [18] Customs and folkways of Jewish life‎, Theodor Herzl Gaster. [19] Latter-day Saints commanded to not be tattooed (http:/ / lds. org/ ldsorg/ v/ index. jsp?hideNav=1& locale=0& sourceId=c6f0b5658af22110VgnVCM100000176f620a____& vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD) [20] "We believe the Bible to be the word of God ..." (http:/ / scriptures. lds. org/ en/ a_of_f/ 1/ 8#8) [21] 1 Cor 3:10-17 (http:/ / scriptures. lds. org/ en/ 1_cor/ 3/ 10-17#10); read all these verses to understand the full context [22] Sahih Bukhari, Oppressions, Volume 3, Book 43, Number 654 [23] ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood wrote: “May or may not Allaah curse the women who do tattoos and those for whom tattoos are done, those who pluck their eyebrows and nose hairs, and those who file their teeth for the purpose of beautification and alter the creation of Allaah.” (al-Bukhaari, al-Libaas, 5587; Muslim, al-Libaas, 5538) [24] "Ruling of Tattoos in Islam". Retrieved 2009-03-25 (http:/ / www. muslimconverts. com/ cosmetics/ tattoos. htm/ ) [25] Rulings of Grand Ayatullah Sistani - Youth's Issues Posted 18 October 2006 (http:/ / www. alulbayt. com/ rulings/ 15. htm) [26] "Tattooing in Jewish Law". Retrieved 2009-06-25 (http:/ / www. myjewishlearning. com/ practices/ Ethics/ Our_Bodies/ Adorning_the_Body/ Tattoos. shtml) [27] Tattoo lasers / Histology (http:/ / www. emedicine. com/ derm/ topic563. htm#section~histology), Suzanne Kilmer, eMedicine [28] "Mythbusters: Can a tattoo explode in an MRI machine?" (http:/ / youtube. com/ watch?v=PAnz95zzEzk). . [29] Karen L. Hudson. "Tattoos and MRI Scans" (http:/ / tattoo. about. com/ cs/ tatfaq/ a/ mri_scan. htm). . [30] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Body Art: Preventing Needlestick Injuries (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ bbp/ bodyart/ needlestick. html). Retrieved September 15, 2008. [31] Tattoos (http:/ / www. kidshealth. org/ teen/ your_body/ skin_stuff/ safe_tattooing. html), Renee Kottenhahn, TeensHealth [32] Oregon State Health Department (http:/ / www. oregon. gov/ OHLA/ links. shtml) [33] (http:/ / www. nyc24. org/ 2003/ issue4/ story4/ page2. html) [34] Tattoo Post Operative Care (http:/ / www. thetattoocollection. com/ tattoo_post_operative_care. htm) [35] Tattoos: Risks and precautions to know first - (http:/ / www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ tattoos-and-piercings/ MC00020) [36] HIV and Its Transmission (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ hiv/ resources/ factsheets/ transmission. htm) July 1999, CDC [37] Bruising (http:/ / wiki. bmezine. com/ index. php/ Bruising#Bruising_around_fresh_tattoos), , retrieved 2009-10-08 [38] All Experts, New Tattoo - Bruising or Leaking (http:/ / en. allexperts. com/ q/ Tattoos-3028/ 2008/ 8/ New-tattoo-Bruising-Leaking. htm), , retrieved 2009-10-08 [39] Tattoos, Body Piercings, and Other Skin Adornments (http:/ / www. aad. org/ public/ Publications/ pamphlets/ cosmetic_tattoos. html) [40] http:/ / www. vanishingtattoo. com/ tattooing_among_japans_ainu. htm

[41] http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=GatewayURL& _origin=AUGATEWAY& _method=citationSearch& _piikey=S0003552103000840& _version=1& md5=f6dd58d559c19d58799b93a66225b038 [42] http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ ncidod/ diseases/ hepatitis/ c/ tattoo. htm [43] http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ bbp/ bodyart/ [44] http:/ / www. cfsan. fda. gov/ ~dms/ cos-204. html


Model (person)
A model (from Middle French modèle),[1] sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed for the purpose of displaying and promoting fashion clothing or other products and for advertising or promotionall purposes or who poses for works of art. Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is not considered modeling. However, models may be considered to express emotion in their photographs or video.

Cougar in a Dress.

Types of modeling include fashion, glamor, fitness, bikini, fine art, and body-part models. Models are features in a variety of media formats including books, magazines, movies, newspapers, and TV. The models themselves can be a featured part of a movie (Looker, Tattoo), reality television show (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), or music video (Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters").

Social construction
Various representations of beauty and fashion using models have caused controversy and is known to have some social impact, particularly on young people - both male and female.

Fashion models
Models may be used to display and promote clothing. Fashion modeling may involve catwalk or runway modeling or editorial modeling, covering photography for magazine spreads, ad campaigns, catalogues, print etc. The emphasis of fashion photography is on the clothes or accessories, not the model. Fashion models may be used to display or promote various types of clothing, such as lingerie, swimsuit, and bikini. Models may be used in showroom, fit modeling, fitness or sporty modeling. Some are used for petite modeling or plus-size modeling.

Fashion models on the runway.

The first person described as a fashion model is Parisian shopgirl, Marie Vernet Worth. She was a house model in 1852, to her fashion designer husband, Charles Frederick Worth.[2] [3]

Model (person)


Body types
Because clothing is needed to be modeled for all people, a variety of shapes and sizes is required in models. Many models weigh about 110 pounds (50 kg) to 125 pounds (57 kg).

Female body type
The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34-24-34 in (86-61-86 cm) and between 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m) and 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m) tall.[4] The ideal measurements used to be 35.5-23.5-35.5 in (90-60-90 cm), which were the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. However, today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA recommended shape, although by no means do all models have these exact statistics, and fashion houses may require other sizes for their models. Although in some fashion industries, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.[5] The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for allegedly warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders.[6] Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand.[7] In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos - also a model - died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third international model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston.[8] Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk.

Male body type
The preferred average dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) to 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), a waist of 26–33 in (66.04–83.82 cm) and a chest measurement of 32–40 in (81.28–101.60 cm).[4] Male runway models have been noted as being skinny and well toned to fit the clothes, whereas editorial models cover all body types from slender to muscular.[9]

Supermodels are highly paid, high profile fashion models. These (usually female) celebrities, also known as cover girls, appear on top fashion magazine covers, in catalogues and in fashion shows. The first model widely considered to have paved the way for what would become the supermodel was Lisa Fonssagrives.[10] The relationship between her image on over 200 Vogue covers and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping future supermodels. Her image appeared on the cover of fashion magazine during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town & Country, Life and Vogue to the original Vanity Fair. Models like Dorian Leigh and Jean Shrimpton have also been dubbed the first supermodels.

Model (person)


Glamour models
Glamour photography emphasizes the model and the model's sexuality rather than products, fashion or the environment. Glamour modelling often focuses on the body of the subject and insinuations of sexuality serve to enhance a product's attractiveness. Glamour models may be used for mass-produced calendars, pinup and for men's magazines, such as Playboy magazine. Famous glamour models include Pamela Anderson, Jordan, Jodie Marsh, Lucy Pinder, and Louise Glover.

Glamour models posing on the red carpet - Hollywood, CA 03/09/2008

Fitness models
Fitness modeling centers on displaying an athletic physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscles like bodybuilders, but with less emphasis on muscle size. Their body weight is usually similar to (or heavier than) fashion models, but they have a lower body fat percentage due to increased muscle mass relative to fat mass.

Bikini models
Bikini models are also usually required to be obviously fit and with an appealing body shape. Bikini models can usually be shorter, around 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) to 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)

Fitness model posing with dumbbell

Model (person)


Artist's models
Art models are models who pose for photographers, painters, sculptors, and other artists as part of their work of art. Models are frequently used for training art students, but are also employed by accomplished artists. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography. Although commercial motives dominate over the esthetics in advertising, its 'artwork' commonly employs models. Throughout the history of Western Art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most useful tool in developing the skill of draftsmanship. In the art school classroom setting, the purpose is to learn how to draw humans of all different shapes, ages and ethnicities, so there are no real limitations on who the model can be. In some cases, the model may pose with various props, one or more other models, animals etc., against real or artificial background, in natural or artificial light and so on. Models for life drawing classes are often entirely nude, apart from visually non-obstructive personal items such as small jewelry and Artist's model at work sometimes eyeglasses. In a job advertisement seeking nude models, this may be referred to as being "undraped" or "disrobed". (Alternatively, a cache-sexe may be worn. Eadward Muybridge's historic scientific studies of the male and female form in motion, for example, has examples of both usages.) In Western countries, there is generally no objection to either sex posing nude for or drawing members of the opposite sex. However, this was not always so in the past, particularly prior to the 20th century. In 1886 Thomas Eakins was famously dismissed from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art for removing the loincloth from a male model in a mixed classroom. Similarly, Victorian modesty required the female model to pose nude with her face draped (illustration). European arts academies did not allow women to study the nude at all until the end of the nineteenth century. Up into the present day some rare art classes prefer male models to wear a jockstrap. Policies vary regarding male models having an erection. Some instructors don't mind at all (especially with younger or inexperienced models), while others, including the Register of Artists' Models (RAM) in the United Kingdom, consider this as cause for termination.[11] In any case, it may be inconvenient for the artists, as the subject is not exactly the same as when the drawing session commenced.

Alternative models
An alternative model is any model that does not fit into the conventional model types, and may include emo, punk, goth, fetish, tattooed models or having a distinctive attribute. These mix with high fashion and art models. Publishers such as Goliath in Germany have enabled alternative models and punk photography to become known to a larger audience.

Masked nude, drawing by Thomas Eakins (c. 1863–66)

Model (person)


Body part modeling
Some models are employed for their particularly attractive body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote nail care products, leg models are useful for showcasing tights, and wrist models are used to showcase watches or bracelets. Petite models or females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) have found success through body part modeling.

Working conditions
Despite the stereotype of modeling as a lucrative and glamorous profession, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the median wage for models was only $11.22 per hour in 2006.[12] MarketWatch listed modeling as one of the ten worst jobs in America.[12]

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • Child modeling Figure drawing Hip hop model House model Internet modeling List of black fashion models Modeling agency Plus-size model Promotional model Spokesmodel Supermodel Time for print

[1] http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ model [2] History from Modelworker (http:/ / www. modelworker. com/ history. html) [3] Walker, Harriet (4 May 2009). "Fabulous faces of fashion: A century of modelling" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ life-style/ fashion/ features/ fabulous-faces-of-fashion-a--century-of-modelling-1678417. html). The Independent. . [4] AMA - AMA code of practice - Getting Started as a Model (http:/ / www. associationofmodelagents. org/ become-a-model/ getting-started-as-a-model. html) [5] Where Size 0 Doesn't Make the Cut (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 09/ 22/ opinion/ 22fri4. html?_r=1& scp=1& sq=Where Size 0 Doesn't Make the Cut& st=cse) [6] Nanci Hellmich, Do thin models warp girls' body image? (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ health/ 2006-09-25-thin-models_x. htm) USA Today 9/26/2006 [7] Skinny models banned from catwalk (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 09/ 13/ spain. models/ index. html). CNN. September 13, 2006. [8] Ban on stick-think models illegal (http:/ / www. news. com. au/ dailytelegraph/ story/ 0,22049,21232157-5001021,00. html), Jennifer Melocco, The Daily Telegraph, February 16, 2007. [9] The Vanishing Point (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 02/ 07/ fashion/ shows/ 07DIARY. html) [10] Rosemary Ranck, "The First Supermodel" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1997/ 02/ 09/ books/ the-first-supermodel. html), The New York Times February 9, 1997. Retrieved September 24, 2006 [11] RAM Guidelines on selection of life models - Register of Artists' Models (http:/ / www. modelreg. co. uk/ 4. htm) [12] Mantell, Ruth (November 1, 2007). "The 10 worst jobs in America: Low pay, no benefits put these workers in a tough spot" (http:/ / www. marketwatch. com/ news/ story/ 10-worst-jobs-america/ story. aspx?guid={6345DDB1-03BA-4760-B763-4F98BA9D9145}& dist=MostReadHome). MarketWatch (Dow Jones). . Retrieved 2008-01-31.



Photography is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or an electronic sensor. Photography uses foremost radiation in the UV, visible and near-IR spectrum.[1] For common purposes the term light is used in stead of radiation. Light reflected or emitted from objects form a real image on a light sensitive area (film or plate) or a FPA pixel array sensor by means of a pin hole or lens in a device known as a camera during a timed exposure. The result on film or plate is a latent image, subsequently developed into a visual image (negative or diapositive). An image on paper base is known as a print. The result on the FPA pixel array sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel which is electronically processed and stored in a computer (raster)-image file for subsequent display or processing. Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (f.i. Photolithography), art, and recreational purposes. As far as can be ascertained, it was Sir John Herschel in a lecture before the Royal Society of London, on March 14, 1839 who made the word "photography" known to the whole world. But in an article published on February 25 of the same year in an unknown and quite anonymous newspaper called the Vossische Zeitung, Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, used the word photography already.[2] The word photography is based on the Greek φῶς (photos) "light" and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light".[3]

The camera or camera obscura is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory. Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film. The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a A historic camera: the Contax S of 1949 — the rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still first pentaprism SLR. camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[4]

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera.



In all but certain specialized cameras, the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use, manually or automatically, of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear, sharp and well illuminated. The controls usually include but are not limited to the following:

Nikon F of 1959 — the first 35mm film system camera.

Late Production Minox B camera with later style "honeycomb" selenium light meter

A portable folding reflector positioned to "bounce" sunlight onto a model



Control Focus Aperture

Description The adjustment to place the sharpest focus where it is desired on the subject. Adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number, which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction – the higher the f-number, the smaller the opening, the less light, the greater the depth of field, and the more the diffraction blur. The focal length divided by the f-number gives the effective aperture diameter. Adjustment of the speed (often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane; 'faster' shutter speeds (that is, those of shorter duration) decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion of the subject and/or camera. On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature. Measurement of exposure so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically. Before automatic exposure, correct exposure was accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device or by the photographer's knowledge and experience of gauging correct settings. To translate the amount of light into a usable aperture and shutter speed, the meter needs to adjust for the sensitivity of the film or sensor to light. This is done by setting the "film speed" or ISO sensitivity into the meter. Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. The higher the ISO number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower ISO number, the film is less sensitive to light. A correct combination of ISO speed, aperture, and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light, hence it is 'correctly exposed,' indicated by a centered meter. On some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many Single-lens reflex cameras (SLR) feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.

Shutter speed

White balance


ISO speed

Autofocus point

Many other elements of the imaging device itself may have a pronounced effect on the quality and/or aesthetic effect of a given photograph; among them are: • • • • Focal length and type of lens (telephoto or "long" lens, macro, wide angle, fisheye, or zoom) Filters placed between the subject and the light recording material, either in front of or behind the lens Inherent sensitivity of the medium to light intensity and color/wavelengths. The nature of the light recording material, for example its resolution as measured in pixels or grains of silver halide.

Exposure and rendering
Camera controls are inter-related. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations. The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that don't have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. Aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. If the f-number is decreased by a factor of , the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

Photography Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field. For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used. For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125th of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250th of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography. Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures. Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include: • Chemicals and process used during film development • Duration of print exposure – equivalent to shutter speed
A photographer using a tripod for greater stability during long exposure


• Printing aperture – equivalent to aperture, but has no effect on depth of field • Contrast – changing the visual properties of objects in an image to make them distinguishable from other objects and the background • Dodging – reduces exposure of certain print areas, resulting in lighter areas • Burning in – increases exposure of certain areas, resulting in darker areas • Paper texture – glossy, matte, etc. • Paper type – resin-coated (RC) or fiber-based (FB) • Paper size • Toners – used to add warm or cold tones to black and white prints



Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories of favorite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment.

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BC.[6] [7] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[8] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[7] [9] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[10] and Georges Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silver chloride.[11] Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568.[12] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[13] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[12]

First known surviving heliographic engraving, made by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1825 by contact under an [5] engraving with the "heliographic process". This seminal work was a step towards the first permanent photography from nature taken with a camera obscura, in 1826.

Invented in the first decades of the nineteenth century, photography (by way of the camera) seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional mediums, such as painting and sculpting.[14] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822[5] by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed by a later attempt to duplicate it.[5] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the first permanent photograph from nature with a camera obscura in 1826.[15] However, because his photographs took so long to expose (8 hours), he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1816 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure (several minutes). Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839. Daguerre continued work on the Daguerreotype in hopes of reducing exposure and furthering the development of photography, eventually culminating in financial discrepancies between the two men concerning Niépce's original work not being accredited by Daguerre (consider the name "Daguerreotype"). Because of these discrepancies, the two men discontinued their partnership and retired from photographical research after selling the rights to the Daguerreotype to the French government.



Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions to the new Mid 19th century "Brady stand" photo model's methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the armrest table, meant to keep portrait models more "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" still during long exposure times (studio and "positive". He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a equipment nicknamed after the famed US solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of photographer, Mathew Brady). his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839. In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1860s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper. Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today. In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, also known as the Lippmann plate.

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image of blue and white for example. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones. Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.


A black-and-white image showing a (monochrome) photograph being developed.

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid 1800s. Early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.



One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession. Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as H. W. Vogel, emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.

The first commercially successful color process, the Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the market in 1907. It was based on a 'screen-plate' filter made of dyed grains of potato starch, and was one of many additive color screen products available between the 1890s and the 1950s. The presumably final use of the additive screen process for color photography on film was Polachrome, an "instant" 35 mm slide film introduced in the mid-1980s and discontinued in the mid-2000s. In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern ('integrated tri-pack') color film which was developed by two musicians Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky ("Man" and "God") working with the Kodak Research Labs. It was Kodachrome, based on multiple layered silver gelatin emulsions that were each sensitized to one of the three additive colors—red, green, and blue. The cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes were created in those layers by adding color couplers during processing. This was followed in 1936 by Agfa's Agfacolor Neu. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, use such incorporated-coupler techniques, though since the 1970s nearly all have used a technique developed by Kodak to accomplish this, rather than the original Agfa method. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963. Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.

Early color photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii (1915).

Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared
Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions. Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[16] Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red, and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).

Photography Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics & law enforcement, and even some claimed use in ghost hunting.


Digital photography
Traditional photography burdened photographers working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines. In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications. Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On May 25, 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[17] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[18] [19]

A handheld digital camera, Canon Ixus class.

Olympus E-420 Four Thirds entry-level DSLR.

The Nikon D1, the first DSLR to truly compete with, and begin to replace, film cameras in the professional photojournalism and sports photography fields.

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[20] According to the U.S. survey results, more than two-thirds (68 percent) of professional photographers prefer the results of film to those of digital for certain applications including:



• film’s superiority in capturing more information on medium and large format films (48 percent); • • • • creating a traditional photographic look (48 percent); capturing shadow and highlighting details (45 percent); the wide exposure latitude of film (42 percent); and archival storage (38 percent)

Digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "illustrations," passing them as real photographs. Today's technology has made picture editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allows digital fingerprinting of RAW photos to verify against tampering of digital photos for forensics use. Camera phones, combined with sites like Flickr, have led to a new kind of social photography.

Nikon DSLR and scanner, which converts film images to digital

Modes of production
An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby and not for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in its choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward.

Sony Ericsson K800i camera phone.

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

Manual shutter control and exposure settings can achieve unusual results.

• Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. • Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case. • Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.

Photography • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills. • Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine. • Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story. • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images. • Landscape photography: photographs of different locations. • Wildlife photography that demonstrates life of the animals. • Photo sharing: publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online. • Paparazzi The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism "A picture is worth a thousand words", which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography. Many people take photographs for self-fulfillment or for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.


During the twentieth century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else. The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art shows unique aesthetic of black and white photos. would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light"; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art. Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art. There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres,

Photography Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto's frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. —[21] On February 14, 2006 Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph "99 Cent II Diptychon" for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder making it the most expensive of all time. • Conceptual photography Photography that turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.


Science and forensics
The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro Wootton bridge collapse in 1861 photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861 and the Staplehurst rail crash of 1865. One of the first systematic applications occurred at the scene of the Tay Rail Bridge disaster of 1879. The court, just a few days after the accident, ordered James Valentine of Dundee to record the scene using both long distance shots and close-ups of the debris. The set of over 50 accident photographs was Original Tay Bridge from the north showing structure based on towers built from used in the subsequent court of inquiry so cast iron columns. When enlarged this plate shows a key design flaw in the bridge: the smaller surviving towers were supported by a continuous girder at their tops, that witnesses could identify pieces of the while the fallen towers lack this essential reinforcing element. wreckage, and the technique is now commonplace both at accident scenes and subsequent cases in courts of law. The set of over 50 Tay bridge photographs are of very high quality, being made on a large plate camera with a small aperture and using fine grain emulsion film on a glass plate. When the surviving positive prints are scanned at high resolution, they can be enlarged to show details of the failed components such as broken cast iron lugs and the tie bars


81 which failed to hold the towers in place. The set of original photographs is held at Dundee City Library. The photographs show that, in the words of the Public Inquiry the bridge was "badly designed, badly built and badly maintained". The methods used in analysing old photographs are collectively known as forensic photography. Between 1846 and 1852 Charles Brooke invented a technology for the automatic registration of instruments by photography. These instruments included barometers, thermometers, psychrometers, and magnetometers, which recorded their readings by means of an automated

Fallen Tay Bridge from the north. The two surviving high towers show a gap in their tops when the picture is enlarged.

photographic process. Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and developed much further since that time.

Other image forming techniques
Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are brothers' first flight, 1903. available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic film, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.
5×7 in. unretouched photograph of the Wright

Social and cultural implications
There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing "On Photography" (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[22] Sontag argues, "To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one’s self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power."[23] Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation. Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its impact on society. In Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as a promoter of voyeuristic inhibitions. 'Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing'.[23] Michal Powell's Peeping Tom (1960) portrays the camera as both sexual and sadistically violent technology that literally kills in this picture and at the same time captures images of the pain and anguish evident on the faces of the female victims.

Photography "The camera doesn't rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate - all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment."[23] Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[24] Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed." Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[23] One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze"[25] in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a "reverse gaze"[26] through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.


Photography is both restricted and protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[27]

Computational Inference of Photo Aesthetics
Since 2005, computer and information scientists at Penn State University have been developing a real-time system, ACQUINE (Aesthetic Quality Inference Engine), to infer photo aesthetics. The system leverages machine learning and statistical modeling techniques, as well as online manual ratings of photos. After a photograph is uploaded to the system, a score between 0 and 100 is given.[28]

See also
Forms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aviation photography Architectural photography Candid photography Cloudscape photography Digiscoping Documentary photography Erotic photography Fashion photography Fine art photography Fire photography Food photography Forensic photography Glamour photography Head shot Landscape art

• Landscape photography • Miksang (contemplative photography)

Photography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nature photography Wedding photography Social photography Nude photography Old-time photography Photojournalism Portrait photography Sports photography Still life photography Stock photography Street photography Travel photography Underwater photography Vernacular photography VR photography War photography Wedding photography


• Wildlife photography Photographers and photographs • List of most expensive photographs • List of photographers • Movie stills photographer Equipment (cameras, etc.) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Camera Camera Phone Color chart Digital camera Digital single-lens reflex camera Dry box Film base Film format Film holder Film scanner Film stock Filter Flash Gray card Lenses for SLR and DSLR cameras List of photographic equipment makers Monopod Movie projector Perspective control lens Photographic film Photographic lens

• Reflector • Rangefinder camera

Photography • • • • • • • • • • • SD Card(for digital photography) Single-lens reflex camera Slide projector Soft box Still camera Toy camera Tripod Twin-lens reflex camera Video camera View camera Zone plate


History • • • • Albumen print Calotype Daguerreotype Timeline of photography technology

Techniques • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aerial Photography Afocal photography Astrophotography Bokeh Contre-jour Cross processing Cyanotype Fill flash Film developing Full spectrum photography Harris Shutter High dynamic range imaging High speed photography Image fusion Infrared photography Kinetic photography Kite aerial photography Lead room Light painting Lith-Print Macro photography Micrography, or Photomicrography Monochrome Photography Motion blur Night photography Panning Panoramic photography

• Photogram • Photograph conservation

Photography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Photographic mosaic Photographic print toning Push printing Push processing Rephotography Rollout photography Sabatier Effect Schlieren photography Stereoscopy Sun printing Tilted plane focus Time-lapse Ultraviolet photography Wide dynamic range Zoom burst


General concepts • Adobe Photoshop • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Camera obscura Composition in visual arts Diana camera Early photographers of York Gelatin-silver process Gum printing Hand-coloring Holography Kirlian photography Lomography Mourning portraits Negative North American Nature Photography Association Photograph Print permanence Vignetting

Technical principles • • • • • • • • • • Angle of view Aperture Color temperature Depth of field Depth of focus Digital versus film photography Double exposure Exposure F-number Film format

• Film speed • Perspective distortion

Photography • • • • • • • • • Photographic printing Photographic processes Pinhole camera Reciprocity (photography) Red-eye effect Rule of thirds Science of photography Shutter speed Zone System


Further reading
• Tom Ang (2002). Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer [29]. Watson-Guptill. ISBN 0817437894. • Freeman Patterson, Photography and The Art of Seeing, 1989, Key Porter Books, ISBN 1-55013-099-4. • The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed. by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005 • Image Clarity: High Resolution Photography by John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-8. • Franz-Xaver Schlegel, Das Leben der toten Dinge - Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914-1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 3-00-004407-8.

External links
• The Center for Fine Art Photography [30] A non profit organization dedicated to promoting Photography as an Art Form. • World History of Photography [31] From The History of Art. • Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Process [32] From the State Library & Archives of Florida. • Judging the authenticity of Photographs: 1800s to Today [33] Guide for collectors and historians • Rarities of the USSR photochronicles [34] Pioneers of Soviet Photography. • Aperture [35] A not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the advancement of photography. • "Every Picture Has a Story" [36] – uses pictures from the Smithsonian's collections to show the development of the technology through the nineteenth century. • Shades of Light (Australian Photography 1839 - 1988) [37] the online version of the original Shades of Light published 1998, Gael Newton, National Gallery of Australia. • The Royal Photographic Society [38] Promotes the art and science of photography in the U.K. • The virtual Cabinet Card museum [39] Historical photography of the 19th century

[1] Spencer, D A (1973). The Focal Dictionary of Photographic Technologies. Focal Press. p. 454. ISBN 240 50747 9. [2] Eder, J.M (1945) [1932]. History of Photography, 4th. edition [Geschichte der Photographie]. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.. pp. 258–259. ISBN 0486235866. [3] Online Etymology Dictionary (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?search=photography& searchmode=none) [4] Joseph and Barbara Anderson, "The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited," Journal of Film and Video, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Spring 1993): 3–12. http:/ / www. uca. edu/ org/ ccsmi/ ccsmi/ classicwork/ Myth%20Revisited. htm [5] "The First Photograph - Heliography" (http:/ / www. hrc. utexas. edu/ exhibitions/ permanent/ wfp/ heliography. html). . Retrieved 2009-09-29. "from Helmut Gernsheim's article, "The 150th Anniversary of Photography," in History of Photography, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1977: ... In 1822, Niépce coated a glass plate ... The sunlight passing through ... This first permanent example ... was destroyed ... some years later." [6] Jan Campbell (2005). " Film and cinema spectatorship: melodrama and mimesis (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lOEqvkmSxhsC& pg=PA114& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". Polity. p.114. ISBN 074562930X

[7] Robert E. Krebs (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=MTXdplfiz-cC& pg=PA20& dq=Mo-Ti+ pinhole+ camera+ obscura). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313324336. . [8] Alistair Cameron Crombie, Science, optics, and music in medieval and early modern thought,p.205 [9] Wade, Nicholas J.; Finger, Stanley (2001). "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective". Perception 30 (10): 1157–1177. doi:10.1068/p3210. PMID 11721819. [10] Davidson, Michael W.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (2003-08-01). "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You - Timeline - Albertus Magnus" (http:/ / micro. magnet. fsu. edu/ optics/ timeline/ people/ magnus. html). The Florida State University. . Retrieved 2009-11-28. [11] Georges Potonniée (1973). "The history of the discovery of photography". Arno Press. p.50. ISBN 0405049293 [12] Helmut Gernsheim (1986). " A concise history of photography (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=GDSRJQ3BZ5EC& pg=PA3& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". Courier Dover Publications. pp.3-4. ISBN 0486251284 [13] Helmut Gernsheim, Alison Gernsheim (1955). "The history of photography from the earliest use of the camera obscura in the eleventh century up to 1914". Oxford University Press. p.20. [14] Witt, Brown, Dunbar, Tirro, Witt. The Humanities, Cultural Roots and Continuities, Seventh Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. New York. 2005 [15] Seizing the Light: A History of Photography (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=vftTAAAAMAAJ& q=Joseph+ Nicephore+ Niepce+ View+ From+ the+ Window+ of+ Gras& dq=Joseph+ Nicephore+ Niepce+ View+ From+ the+ Window+ of+ Gras& client=safari& cd=3) By Robert Hirsch [16] Spectral curves of RGB and Hot Mirror filters. (http:/ / surrealcolor. 110mb. com/ IR_explained_web/ IR_explained. htm#CamColor) [17] “Canon to Stop Making Single-Lens Camera” (http:/ / www. indexstockimagery. com/ archives/ 2006/ 05/ canon_to_stop_m. html) Associated Press, 25 May 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006. [18] (http:/ / www. voigtlaender. de/ cms/ voigtlaender/ voigtlaender_cms. nsf/ id/ pa_fdih7jzkae. html) [19] The new Voigtlaender Vitolux S70 and Bessa III 667 (http:/ / www. dcviews. com/ press/ Voigtlaender-Bessa. htm) [20] (http:/ / www. photographypress. co. uk/ news/ news. phtml/ 6443/ 7467/ Kodak-Survey-Photographers-Use-Film. phtml) [21] Clive Bell. " Art (http:/ / www. csulb. edu/ ~jvancamp/ 361r13. html)", 1914. Retrieved 2 September 2006. [22] Bissell, K.L., Photography and Objectivity (2000) (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3677/ is_200007/ ai_n8895320) (accessed 24/10/2008). [23] Sontag, S., On Photography, Penguin, London (1977), pp 3–24. [24] Levinson, P., The Soft Edge: a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York (1997), pp 37–48. [25] John Urry (2002). The tourist gaze (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=bhhtg1sz0YAC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q=) (2nd ed.). SAGE. ISBN 9780761973478. . [26] Alex Gillespie. "Tourist Photography and the Reverse Gaze" (http:/ / stir. academia. edu/ documents/ 0011/ 0117/ Gillespie_tourist_photography_and_the_reverse_gaze. pdf). . [27] British Journal of Photography article (http:/ / www. bjp-online. com/ public/ showPage. html?page=836675) [28] ACQUINE Aesthetic Quality Inference Engine (http:/ / acquine. alipr. com) [29] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=fu3akyrFZEMC& pg=PP1& dq=intitle:Dictionary+ intitle:of+ intitle:Photography+ intitle:and+ intitle:Digital+ intitle:Imaging+ inauthor:ang [30] http:/ / www. c4fap. org [31] http:/ / all-art. org/ history658_photography1. html [32] http:/ / www. floridamemory. com/ photographiccollection/ photo_exhibits/ photographic-processes/ [33] http:/ / www. cycleback. com/ photoguide/ index. html [34] http:/ / www. borodulincollection. com/ index_eng. html [35] http:/ / www. aperture. org/ [36] http:/ / www. smithsonianeducation. org/ educators/ lesson_plans/ every_picture/ index. html [37] http:/ / www. photo-web. com. au/ shadesoflight [38] http:/ / www. rps. org/ [39] http:/ / kabinettfoto. de/




Videotape is a means of recording images and sound on to magnetic tape as opposed to movie film or random access digital media. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. In most cases, a helical scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions, because video signals have a very high bandwidth, and static heads would require extremely high tape speeds. Videotape is used in both video tape An assortment of video tapes recorders (VTRs) or, more commonly and more recently, video cassette recorders (VCRs) and video cameras. Tape is a linear method of storing information and, since nearly all video recordings made nowadays are digital, it is expected to gradually lose importance as non-linear/random-access methods of storing digital video data become more common.

Early formats
The electronics division of entertainer Bing Crosby's production company, Bing Crosby Enterprises (BCE), gave the world's first demonstration of a videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951. Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device gave what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images, using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch (0.6 cm) audio tape moving at 360 inches (9.1 m) per second.[1] [2] A year later, an improved version, using one-inch (2.6 cm) magnetic tape, was shown to the press, who reportedly expressed amazement at the quality of the images, although they had a "persistent grainy quality that looked like a worn motion picture". Overall, the picture quality was still considered inferior to the best kinescope recordings on film.[3] Bing Crosby Enterprises hoped to have a commercial version available in 1954, but none came forth.[4] BCE demonstrated a color model in February 1955, using a longitudinal recording on half-inch (1.3 cm) tape, essentially similar to what RCA had demonstrated in 1953 (see below). CBS, RCA's competitor, was about to order BCE machines when Ampex introduced the superior Quadruplex system (see below).[5] RCA demonstrated the magnetic tape recording of both black-and-white and color programs at its Princeton laboratories on December 1, 1953.[6] [7] The high-speed longitudinal tape system, called Simplex, in development since 1951, could record and play back only a few minutes of a program. The color system used half-inch (1.3 cm) tape to record five tracks — one each for red, blue, green, synchronization, and audio. The black-and-white system used quarter-inch (0.6 cm) tape with two tracks, one for picture and one for sound. Both systems ran at 360 inches (9.1 m) per second.[8] RCA-owned NBC first used it on The Jonathan Winters Show on October 23, 1956, when a pre-recorded song sequence by Dorothy Collins in color was included in the otherwise live program.[9] [10] The BBC experimented from 1952 to 1958 with a high-speed linear videotape system called VERA, but this was ultimately unfeasible. It used half-inch (1.27 cm) tape traveling at 200 inches (5.08 m) per second.



Broadcast video
The first practical professional videotape machines capable of replacing kinescopes were the Quadruplex machines introduced by Ampex on April 14, 1956 at the National Association of Broadcasters convention in Chicago. Quad employed a transverse (scanning the tape across its width) four-head system on a two-inch (5.08 cm) tape, and linear heads for the sound track. CBS first used the Ampex VRX-1000[11] Mark IV at its Television City studios in Hollywood on November 30, 1956 to play a delayed broadcast of Douglas Edwards and the News from New York to the Pacific Time Zone.[11] [12] On January 22, 1957, the NBC game A reel of 2-inch quad videotape compared with a modern-day show Truth or Consequences, produced in Hollywood, miniDV videocassette became the first program to be broadcast in all time zones from a prerecorded videotape.[13] Ampex introduced a color videotape recorder in 1958 in a cross-licensing agreement with RCA, whose engineers had developed it from an Ampex black-and-white recorder.[14] NBC's 1958 special, An Evening With Fred Astaire, is the oldest surviving network color videotape. Although Quad became the industry standard for over 20 years, it had drawbacks such as an inability to freeze pictures, and no picture search; also, in early machines, a tape could reliably be played back using only the same set of hand-made tape heads, which wore out very quickly. Despite these problems, Quad could produce excellent images. Subsequent videotape systems have used helical scan, where the video heads record diagonal tracks (of complete fields) on to the tape. Very few early videotapes still exist.[15] While much less expensive and more convenient than kinescope, the high cost of 3M Scotch 179[11] and other early videotapes ($300 per one-hour reel)[16] meant that most broadcasters erased and reused them, and (in the United States) regarded videotape as simply a better and more cost-effective means of time-delaying broadcasts than kinescopes. It was the four time zones of the continental United States which had made the system very desirable in the first place.

Type C and Type B
The next format to gain widespread usage was the 1" (2.54 cm) Type C format from 1976 onward. It introduced features such as shuttling and still framing, but the sound and picture reproduction attainable on the format were of just slightly lower quality than Quad (although 1" Type C's quality was still quite high). However, unlike Quad, 1" Type C machines required much less maintenance, took up less space, and consumed much less electrical power. In Europe a similar tape format was developed, called Type B. Type B machines (also known as BCN) used the same 1" tape as Type C but they lacked C's shuttle and slow-motion options. The picture quality was slightly better, though. Type B was the broadcast norm in continental Europe for most of the 1980s. December 7, 1963 - Instant Replay is used for the first time during the live transmission of the Army Navy Game by its inventor, director, Tony Verna.



Cassette formats
In 1969, Sony introduced a prototype for the first widespread video cassette, the 3/4" (1.905 cm) composite U-matic system, which Sony introduced commercially in September 1971 after working out industry standards with other manufacturers. Sony later refined it to Broadcast Video U-matic or BVU. Sony continued its hold on the professional market with its ever-expanding 1/2" (1.27 cm) component video Betacam family (introduced in 1982), which, in its digital variants, is still among the professional market leaders. Panasonic had some limited success with its MII system, but never could compare to Betacam in terms of market share.

A U-matic tape

The next step was the digital revolution. Among the first digital video formats Sony's D-1, which featured uncompressed digital component recording. Because D-1 was extremely expensive, the composite D-2 and D-3 (by Sony and Panasonic, respectively) were introduced soon after. Ampex introduced the first compressed component recording with its DCT series in 1992. Panasonic trumped D-1 with its D-5 format, which was uncompressed as well, but much more affordable. The DV standard, which debuted in 1996, has become widely used both in its native form and in more robust forms such as Sony's DVCAM and Panasonic's DVCPRO as an acquisition and editing format. However, due to concerns by the entertainment industry about the format's lack of copy protection, only the smaller MiniDV cassettes used with camcorders became commonplace, with the full-sized DV cassettes restricted entirely to professional applications. For camcorders, Sony adapted the Betacam system with its Digital Betacam format, later following it up with the cheaper Betacam SX and MPEG IMX formats, and the semiprofessional DV-based DVCAM system. Panasonic used its DV variant DVCPRO for all professional cameras, with the higher-end format DVCPRO50 being a direct descendant. JVC developed the competing D9/Digital-S format, which compresses video data in a way similar to DVCPRO but uses a cassette similar to S-VHS media.



High definition
The introduction of HDTV production necessitated a medium for storing high-resolution video information. In 1997, Sony bumped its Betacam series up to HD with the HDCAM standard and its higher-end cousin HDCAM SR. Panasonic's competing format for cameras was based on DVCPRO and called DVCPRO HD. For VTR and archive use, Panasonic expanded the D-5 specification to store compressed HD streams and called it D-5 HD. By Don Ortiz

Home video
The first consumer videocassette recorders were launched in 1971 (based around U-matic technology). Philips entered the domestic market the following year with the N1500[17] . Sony's Betamax (1975) and JVC's VHS (1976) created a mass-market for VCRs and the two competing systems battled the "videotape format war", which VHS ultimately won. At first VCRs were very expensive, but by the late 1980s the price had come down enough to make them affordable to a mainstream audience. Videocassettes finally made it possible for consumers to buy or rent a complete film and watch it at home whenever they wished, rather than simply catching it at a movie theatre or having to wait Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed until it was telecast. It also made it possible for a VCR owner to record films and other television programs "off the air". This caused an enormous change in viewing practices, as one no longer had to wait for a repeat of a program that had been missed. The shift to home viewing also changed the movie industry's revenue streams, because home renting created an additional "window" in which a film could make money. In some cases, films that did only modestly in their theater releases went on to have strong performance in the rental market (e.g., cult films). VHS has become the leading consumer VCR format after the "war", though its follow-ups S-VHS, W-VHS and D-VHS never caught up in popularity. In the late 1990s in the prerecorded video market, VHS began to be displaced by DVD. The DVD format had several advantages over VHS tape. A DVD disk is much better able to take repeated viewings than VHS tape, which can crack or break, which makes DVDs a better format from a rental store's perspective. As well, whereas a VHS tape can be erased if it is exposed to a magnetic field (such as by being left near a speaker), DVDs are not affected by magnetic fields. Even though DVDs do not have the problems of tapes, such as breakage of the tape or the cassette mechanism, DVDs can still be damaged by scratches. Another factor for movie rental stores is that DVDs are smaller and take less space to store. DVDs offer a number of advantages for the viewer: DVDs can support both standard 4x3 and widescreen 16x9 screen aspect ratios and DVDs can provide twice the video resolution than VHS. As well, a viewer who wants to skip ahead to the end of a movie can do so much quicker with a DVD than with a VHS tape (that has to be rewound). DVDs can have interactive menus, multiple language tracks, audio commentaries, Closed Captioning and subtitling (with the option of turning the subtitles on or off, or selecting subtitles in several languages). Moreover, a DVD can be played on a computer. Due to these advantages, by the mid-2000s, DVDs were the dominant form of prerecorded video movies in both the rental film and new movie markets. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, though, consumers continued to use VCRs to record over-the-air TV shows, because consumers could not make home recordings onto DVD disks. This last barrier to DVD domination was broken in the late 2000s, with the advent of inexpensive DVD recorders and digital

Videotape video recorders (DVR). DVR devices, which record shows onto a hard disk, can be purchased from electronics stores or rented from cable or satellite TV providers. Despite the mainstream dominance of DVD, VHS continues to have a role. The conversion to DVD has led to the marketplace being flooded with used VHS films, which are available at pawnshops and second-hand stores, typically for a cheaper price than the equivalent film on a used DVD. As well, due to the large number of VHS players in schools and libraries, VHS tapes are still produced for the educational market.


Early consumer camcorders used full-size VHS or Betamax cassettes. Later models switched to more compact formats, designed explicitly for camcorder use, like VHS-C and Video8. VHS-C was a downsized version of VHS, using the same recording method and the same tape, but in a smaller cassette. It was possible to play VHS-C tapes in a regular VHS tape recorder by using an adaptor. After Super VHS had appeared, a corresponding compact version, Super VHS-C, was released as well. Video8 was an indirect descendant of Betamax, using narrower tape and a smaller cassette. Because of its intricate U-shaped tape loading and DV cassettes narrower tape, it was not possible to develop an adapter Left to right: DVCAM-L, DVCPRO-M, DVC/MiniDV from Video8 to Betamax. Video8 was later replaced with Hi8, which provided better resolution and high-quality sound recording, and was similar to Super VHS-C. The first consumer digital video recording format, introduced in 1995, used a smaller Digital Video Cassette (DVC).[18] The format was later renamed MiniDV to reflect the DV encoding scheme, but the tapes still carry "DVC" mark. Some later formats like DVC Pro from Panasonic reflect the original name. The DVC/MiniDV format provided near-broadcast quality video and sophisticated nonlinear editing capability on consumer equipment. In 1999 Sony backported the DV recording scheme to 8-mm systems, creating Digital8. By using the same cassettes as Hi8, many Digital8 camcorders were able to play analog Video8/Hi8 recordings, preserving compatibility with already recorded analog tapes. As of 2008, Digital8 camcorders have been removed from the equipment offered by Sony. Sony introduced another camcorder cassette format called MicroMV, but consumer interest was low due to the proprietary nature of the format and limited support for anything but low-end Windows video editors, and Sony shipped the last MicroMV unit in 2005. In the late 2000s, MiniDV and its high-definition cousin, HDV, are the two most popular consumer tape-based formats. The formats use different encoding methods, but the same cassette type. Since 2001, when MicroMV was presented, no new tape form factors have been introduced.

Future of tape
The latest trend in consumer camcorders shows the switch from tape-based to tapeless solutions, like built-in hard disk drives, optical discs and solid-state memory. In particular, Canon have not introduced a completely new HDV consumer camcorder for a third year in a row, confining itself to minor modifications to the 2007 model. Sony and Panasonic have removed their consumer tape-based camcorders from the North American market completely. In professional video recording settings, such as broadcast television, videotape was still heavily used in the mid- to late 2000s, but tapeless formats like DVCPRO P2, XDCAM and AVCHD, are gaining broader acceptance.



External links
• The Loss of Early Video Recordings [19] • History of Recording Technology [20] (WayBack Machine) • History of Magnetic Tape [21] (WayBack Machine)

[1] "Tape Recording Used by Filmless 'Camera'," New York Times, Nov. 12, 1951, p. 21. [2] Eric D. Daniel, C. Denis Mee, and Mark H. Clark (eds.), Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years, IEEE Press, 1998, p. 141. ISBN 0-070-41275-8 [3] "Tape-Recorded TV Nears Perfection," New York Times, Dec. 31, 1952, p. 10. [4] "New Deal on TV Seen at Parley," New York Times, May 1, 1953, p. 30. [5] Daniel et al., p. 148. BCE was acquired by 3M Company in 1956. [6] "Magnetic Tape Used By RCA to Photograph Television Program," The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 2, 1953, p. 1. [7] " Color TV on Tape (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Nd8DAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA157)", Popular Mechanics, April 1954, p. 157. [8] Stewart Wolpin, "The Race to Video" (http:/ / www. americanheritage. com/ articles/ magazine/ it/ 1994/ 2/ 1994_2_52. shtml), Invention & Technology, Fall 1994. [9] " TV Goes to Tape (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=vyoDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA238)", Popular Science, Feb. 1960, p. 238. [10] Ed Reitan, RCA-NBC Firsts in Color Television (commented) (http:/ / novia. net/ ~ereitan/ rca-nbc_firsts. html). [11] " Charles P. Ginsburg (http:/ / books. nap. edu/ openbook. php?record_id=4779& page=84)". Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Vol. 7. 1994: The National Academies Press, Washington DC. [12] Ampex Corporation, Ampex Chronology (http:/ / www. ampex. com/ 03corp/ 03corp. html). [13] "Daily N.B.C. Show Will Be on Tape", New York Times, Jan. 18, 1957, p. 31. [14] " Industry Agrees to Standardize Tape Recording on Ampex Lines (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ICkEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA3)", Billboard, Oct. 28, 1957, p. 3. [15] Some early broadcast videotapes have survived, including The Edsel Show, broadcast live in 1957, and 1958's An Evening With Fred Astaire, the oldest color videotape of an entertainment program known to exist (the oldest color videotape is the May 1958 dedication of the WRC-TV studios in Washington, DC). In 1976, NBC's 50th anniversary special included an excerpt from a 1957 color special starring Donald O'Connor; despite some obvious technical problems, the color tape was remarkably good. [16] Elen, Richard G. " TV Technology (http:/ / www. screenonline. org. uk/ tv/ technology/ technology10. html)". BFI Screenonline. [17] http:/ / www. rewindmuseum. com/ philips. htm [18] "DVC Product Probe" (http:/ / www. videomaker. com/ article/ 2381/ ). . [19] http:/ / palimpsest. stanford. edu/ byorg/ abbey/ an/ an21/ an21-7/ an21-708. html [20] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20040603152849/ http:/ / www. tvhandbook. com/ History/ History_recording. htm [21] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20040603153341/ www. tvhandbook. com/ History/ History_tape. htm

Check mark


Check mark
A tick (known as a check mark or check in American English) is a mark (✓, ✔, ☑, etc.) used to indicate the concept "yes", for example "yes; this has been verified" or, "yes; that is the correct answer". The x mark is also sometimes used for this purpose (most notably on election ballot papers), but otherwise usually indicates "no", incorrectness, or failure. As a verb, to tick (off) or to check (off) means to add such a mark. It is quite common, especially on printed forms, printed documents, and computers (see check box), for there to be squares in which to place ticks. In some European countries (e.g., Finland and Sweden), and in Japan, the tick can be used as an error mark and indicates "no" rather than "yes". In Japan, an "O Mark" (in the appearance of a circle, Unicode symbol "◯"), also known as "丸印" marujirushi, is used instead of a tick to mean "yes"; this symbol is also used in Korea and China. A tick placed in brackets can mean a previously used or acceptable fact or definition is being looked into, usually for the purpose of expanding academic research. A rainbow-colored tick was also used for the Amiga logo during the Commodore era of the Amiga (1985–1994).

Unicode provides various related symbols, including:
Symbol Unicode Codepoint (Hex) Name CHECK MARK (tick) HEAVY CHECK MARK (bold tick) BALLOT BOX (square) BALLOT BOX WITH CHECK (square with tick)

✓ ✔ ☐ ☑

U+2713 U+2714 U+2610 U+2611

See also
• Tally marks • X mark • Brackets

External links

Liberty Bell


Liberty Bell
Geographical coordinates: 39°56′58.15″N 75°9′1.06″W

Liberty Bell
Independence Bell, Old State House Bell Tower Bell

Country State City Location  - elevation  - coordinates

United States Pennsylvania Philadelphia Liberty Bell Center 30 ft (9 m) 39°56′58.15″N 75°9′1.06″W

Circumference 12 ft (3.7 m) Weight Caster Materials Cast Owner 2080 lb (900 kg) Whitechapel Bell Foundry Copper, Tin 1752 (Recast 1753 by Pass and Stow) City of Philadelphia

Location of the Liberty Bell within Pennsylvania Website: Liberty Bell Center

The Liberty Bell is one of the iconic symbols of American independence. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it most likely was rung to mark the public reading of the American Declaration of Independence on July 8, 1776.

Liberty Bell The bell was commissioned from the London firm of Lester and Pack (today the Whitechapel Bell Foundry) in 1752, and was inscribed with part of a verse from the Book of Leviticus (25:10): "Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof." It originally cracked when first rung after arrival in Philadelphia, and was twice recast by local workmen John Pass and John Stow, whose last names appear on the bell. The bell hung for years in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House (today known as Independence Hall), and was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens to public meetings and proclamations. Bells were rung to mark the reading of the Declaration on July 8, 1776, and while there is no contemporary account of the Liberty Bell ringing, most historians believe it was one of the bells rung. After American independence was secured, it fell into relative obscurity for some years. In the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies, who dubbed it the "Liberty Bell". It acquired its distinctive large crack sometime in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became widely famous after a 1847 short story claimed that an aged bell-ringer rang it on July 4, 1776, upon hearing of the Second Continental Congress's vote for independence. While the bell could not have been rung on that Fourth of July, as no announcement of the Declaration was made that day, the tale was widely accepted as fact, even by some historians. Beginning in 1885, the City of Philadelphia, which owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions and patriotic gatherings. The bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, but returned to Philadelphia with additional cracking and with pieces chipped away by souvenir hunters, and the city put an end to these journeys after 1915. After World War II, the city allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership. The bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a popular site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its longstanding home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976, and then to the larger Liberty Bell Center adjacent to the pavilion in 2003. The bell has been featured on coins and stamps, and its name and image have been widely used by corporations.


Founding (1751–1753)
Philadelphia's city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the city's 1682 founding. The original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) and was said to have been brought to the city by its founder, William Penn. In 1751, with a bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality, which could be heard at a further distance in the rapidly-expanding city.[2] Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colony's London agent, Robert Charles, to obtain a "good Bell of about two thousands pound weight".[3] We hope and rely on thy care and assistance in this affair and that thou wilt procure and forward it by the first good oppo as our workmen inform us it will be much less trouble to hang the Bell before their Scaffolds are struck from the Building where we intend to place it which will not be done 'till the end of next Summer or beginning of the Fall. Let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined carefully before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it vizt. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince  [sic] of Pensylvania  [sic] for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof.-Levit. XXV. 10.[3] Charles duly ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack (today the Whitechapel Bell Foundry)[4] for the sum of £150 13s 8d,[5] (equivalent to approximately $36,400 today)[6] including freight to Philadelphia and insurance. It arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752; Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, but they had not yet sounded it, as they were building a clock for the State House's

Liberty Bell tower.[7] The bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, and at the first strike of the clapper, the bell's rim cracked. The episode would be used to good account in later stories of the bell;[8] in 1893, former President Benjamin Harrison, speaking as the bell passed through Indianapolis, stated, "This old bell was made in England, but it had to be re-cast in America before it was attuned to proclaim the right of self-government and the equal rights of men."[9] Philadelphia authorities tried to return it by ship, but the master of the vessel which had brought it was unable to take it on board.[10] Two local founders, John Pass and John Stow, offered to recast the bell. Though they were inexperienced in bell casting, Pass had headed the Mount Holly Iron Foundry in neighboring New Jersey and came from Malta, which had a tradition of bell casting. Stow, on the other hand, was only four years out of his apprenticeship as a brass founder. At Stow's foundry on Second Street, the bell was broken into small pieces, melted down, and cast into a new bell. The two founders decided that the metal was too brittle, and augmented the bell metal by about ten percent, using The Bell's First Note by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris copper. The bell was ready in March 1753, and Norris reported that the lettering (which included the founders' names and the year) was even clearer on the new bell than on the old.[11] City officials scheduled a public celebration with free food and drink for the testing of the recast bell. When the bell was struck, it did not break, but the sound produced was described by one hearer as like two coal scuttles being banged together. Mocked by the crowd, Pass and Stow hastily took the bell away and again recast it. At the time, metalworkers were not aware that repeated recasting of a bell would weaken it. When the fruit of the two founders' renewed efforts was brought forth in June 1753, the sound was deemed satisfactory, though Norris indicated that he did not personally like it. The bell was hung in the steeple of the State House the same month.[12] The reason for the difficulties with the bell is not certain. The Whitechapel Foundry, still in business today, takes the position that the bell was either damaged in transit or was broken by an inexperienced bell ringer, who incautiously sent the clapper flying against the rim, rather than the body of the bell.[13] In 1975, the Winterthur Museum conducted an analysis of the metal in the bell, and concluded that 'a series of errors made in the construction, reconstruction, and second reconstruction of the Bell resulted in a brittle bell that barely missed being broken up for scrap".[14] The Museum found a considerably higher level of tin in the Liberty Bell than in other Whitechapel bells of that era, and suggested that Whitechapel made an error in the alloy, perhaps by using scraps with a high level of tin to begin the melt instead of the usual pure copper.[15] The analysis found that, on the second recasting, instead of adding pure tin to the bell metal, Pass and Stow added cheap pewter with a high lead content, and incompletely mixed the new metal into the mold.[16] The result was "an extremely brittle alloy which not only caused the Bell to fail in service but made it easy for early souvenir collectors to knock off substantial trophies from the rim".[17]


Liberty Bell


Early days (1754–1846)
Dissatisfied with the bell, Norris instructed Charles to order a second one, and see if Whitechapel would take back the first bell and credit the value of the metal towards the bill. In 1754, the Assembly decided to keep both bells; the new one was attached to the tower clock[18] while the old bell was, by vote of the Assembly, devoted "to such Uses as this House may hereafter appoint."[18] The Pass and Stow bell was used to summon the Assembly.[19] One of the earliest documented mentions of the bell's use is in a letter from Benjamin Franklin to Catherine Ray dated October 16, 1755: "Adieu. The Bell rings, and I must go Independence Hall as it appeared in the 1770s among the Grave ones, and talk Politiks. [sic]"[20] The bell was rung in 1760 to mark the accession of George III to the throne.[19] In the early 1760s, the Assembly allowed a local church to use the State House for services and the bell to summon worshipers, while the church's building was being constructed.[20] The bell was also used to summon people to public meetings, and in 1772, a group of citizens complained to the Assembly that the bell was being rung too frequently.[19] Despite the legends that have grown up about the Liberty Bell, it did not ring on July 4, 1776, as no public announcement was made of the Declaration of Independence. When the Declaration was publicly read on July 8, 1776, there was a ringing of bells, and while there is no contemporary account of this particular bell ringing, most authorities agree that the Liberty Bell was among the bells that rang.[21] [22] However, there is some chance that the poor condition of the State House bell tower prevented the bell from ringing.[22] According to John C. Paige, who wrote a historical study of the bell for the National Park Service, "We do not know whether or not the steeple was still strong enough to permit the State House bell to ring on this day. If it could possibly be rung, we can assume it was. Whether or not it did, it has come to symbolize all of the bells throughout the United States which proclaimed Independence."[23] If the bell was rung, it would have been most likely rung by Andrew McNair, who was the doorkeeper both of the Assembly and of the Congress, and was responsible for ringing the bell. As McNair was absent on two unspecified days between April and November, it might have been rung by William Hurry, who succeeded him as doorkeeper for Congress.[24] Bells were also rung to celebrate the first anniversary of Independence on July 4, 1777.[22] After Washington's defeat at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia was defenseless, and the city prepared for what was seen as an inevitable British attack. Bells could easily be recast into munitions, and locals feared the Liberty Bell and other bells would meet this fate. The bell was hastily taken down from the tower, and sent by heavily-guarded wagon train to the town of Bethlehem. Local wagoneers transported the bell to the Zion German Reformed Church in Allentown, where it waited out the British occupation of Philadelphia behind a false wall.[25] It was returned to Philadelphia in June 1778, after the British departure. With the steeple of the State House in poor condition (the steeple was subsequently torn down and later restored), the bell was placed in storage, and it was not until 1785 that it was again mounted for ringing.[26]

The Liberty Bell is paraded through the streets of Philadelphia, 1908, in a recreation of its 1777 journey to Allentown

Mounted on an upper floor of the State House, the bell was rung in the early years of independence on the Fourth of July and on Washington's Birthday, as well as on Election Day to remind voters to hand in their ballots. It also rang

Liberty Bell to call students at the University of Pennsylvania to their classes at nearby Philosophical Hall. Until 1799, when the state capital was moved to Lancaster, it again rang to summon legislators into session.[27] When the State of Pennsylvania, having no further use for its State House, proposed to tear it down and sell the land for building lots, the City of Philadelphia purchased the land, together with the building, including the bell, for $70,000.[28] In 1828, the city sold the second Whitechapel bell to St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church, which was burned down by an anti-Catholic mob in the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of 1844. The remains of the bell were recast into a new bell, which is found at Villanova University.[29] It is uncertain how the bell came to be cracked; the damage occurred sometime between 1817 and 1846. The bell is mentioned in a number of newspaper articles during that time; no mention of a crack can be found until 1846. In fact, in 1837, the bell was depicted in an anti-slavery publication—uncracked. In February 1846 Public Ledger reported that the bell had been rung on February 23, 1846 in celebration of Washington's Birthday (as February 22 fell on a Sunday, the celebration occurred the next day), and also reported that the bell had long been cracked, but had been "put in order" by having the sides of the crack filed. The paper reported that around noon, it was discovered that the ringing had caused the crack to be greatly extended, and that "the old Independence hangs in the great city steeple irreparably cracked and forever dumb".[30] The most common story about the cracking of the bell is that it happened when the bell was rung upon the 1835 death of the Chief Justice of the United States, John Marshall. This story originated in 1876, when the volunteer curator of Independence Hall, Colonel Frank Etting, announced that he had ascertained the truth of the story. While there is little evidence to support this view, it has been widely accepted and taught. Other claims regarding the crack in the bell include stories that it was damaged while welcoming Lafayette on his return to the United States in 1824, that it cracked announcing the passing of the British Catholic Relief Act 1829, and that some boys had been invited to ring the bell, and inadvertently damaged it. David Kimball, in his book compiled for the National Park Service, suggests that it most likely cracked sometime between 1841 and 1845, either on the Fourth of July or on Washington's Birthday.[31] The Pass and Stow bell was first termed "the Liberty Bell" in the New York Anti-Slavery Society's journal, Anti-Slavery Record. In an 1835 piece, "The Liberty Bell", Philadelphians were castigated for not doing more for the abolitionist cause. Two years later, another work of that society, the journal Liberty featured an image of the bell as its frontispiece, with the words "Proclaim Liberty".[32] In 1839, Boston's Friends of Liberty, another abolitionist group, titled their journal The Liberty Bell. The same year, William Lloyd Garrison's anti-slavery publication The Liberator reprinted a Boston abolitionist pamphlet containing a poem entitled, "The Liberty Bell," which noted that, at that time, despite its inscription, the bell did not proclaim liberty to all the inhabitants of the land.[33]


Liberty Bell


Becoming a symbol (1847–1865)
A great part of the modern image of the bell as a relic of the proclamation of American independence was forged by writer George Lippard. On January 2, 1847, his story "Fourth of July, 1776" appeared in Saturday Review magazine. The short story depicted an aged bellman on July 4, 1776, sitting morosely by the bell, fearing that Congress would not have the courage to declare independence. At the most dramatic moment, a young boy appears with instructions for the old man: to ring the bell. The story was widely reprinted and closely linked the Liberty Bell to the Declaration of Independence in the public mind.[34] The elements of the story were reprinted in early historian Beson J. Lossing's The Pictorial Field Guide to the Revolution (published in 1850) as historical fact,[35] and the tale was widely repeated for generations to come in school primers.[36]
The Bellman Informed of the In 1848, with the rise of interest in the bell, the city decided to move it to the Passage of the Declaration of Assembly Room (also known as the Declaration Chamber) on the first floor, Independence: an 1854 depiction of where the Declaration and United States Constitution had been debated and the story of the Liberty Bell being signed.[37] The city constructed an ornate pedestal for the bell. The Liberty Bell rung on July 4, 1776 was displayed on that pedestal for the next quarter-century, surmounted by an eagle (originally sculpted, later stuffed).[38] In 1853, President Franklin Pierce visited Philadelphia and the bell, and spoke of the bell as symbolizing the American Revolution and American liberty.[39] At the time, Independence Hall was also used as a courthouse, and African-American newspapers pointed out the incongruity of housing a symbol of liberty in the same building in which federal judges were holding hearings under the Fugitive Slave Act.[40]

In February 1861, the President-elect, Abraham Lincoln, came to the Assembly Room and delivered an address en route to his inauguration in Washington DC.[41] In 1865, Lincoln's body was returned to the Assembly Room after his assassination for a public viewing of his body, en route to his burial in Springfield, Illinois. Due to time constraints, only a small fraction of those wishing to pass by the coffin were able to; the lines to see the coffin were never less than 3 miles (4.8 km) long.[42] Nevertheless, between 120,000 and 140,000 people were able to pass by the open casket and then the bell, carefully placed at Lincoln's head so mourners could read the inscription, "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof."[41]

Traveling icon of freedom (1866–1947)
In 1876, city officials discussed what role the bell should play in the nation's Centennial festivities. Some wanted to repair it so it could sound at the Centennial Exposition being held in Philadelphia, but the idea was not adopted; the bell's custodians concluded that it was unlikely that the metal could be made into a bell which would have a pleasant sound, and that the crack had become part of the bell's character. Instead, a replica weighing 13000 pounds (5900 kg) (1,000 pounds for each of the original states) was cast. The metal used for what was dubbed "the Centennial Bell" included four melted-down cannons: one used by each side in the American Revolutionary War, and one used by each side in the Civil War. That bell was sounded at the Exposition grounds on July 4, 1876, was later recast to improve the sound, and today is the bell attached to the clock in the steeple of

The Liberty Bell on its ornate stand, 1872

Liberty Bell Independence Hall.[43] While the Liberty Bell did not go to the Exposition, a great many Exposition visitors came to visit it, and its image was ubiquitous at the Exposition grounds—myriad souvenirs were sold bearing its image or shape, and state pavilions contained replicas of the bell made of substances ranging from stone to tobacco.[44] In 1877, the bell was hung from the ceiling of the Assembly Room by a chain with thirteen links.[45] Between 1885 and 1915, the Liberty Bell made seven trips to various expositions and celebrations. Each time, the bell traveled by rail, making a large number of stops along the way so that local people could view it.[46] By 1885, the Liberty Bell was internationally recognized as a symbol of freedom, and as a treasured relic of independence, and was growing still more famous as versions of Lippard's legend were reprinted in history and school books.[47] In early 1885, the city agreed to let it travel to New Orleans for the World Cotton Centennial exposition. Large crowds mobbed the bell at each stop. In Biloxi, Mississippi, the former President of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis came to the bell. Davis delivered a speech paying homage to it, and urging national unity.[48] In 1893, it was sent to Chicago's World Columbian Exposition to be the centerpiece of the state's exhibit in the Pennsylvania Building.[49] On July 4, 1893, in Chicago, the bell was honored with the first performance of The Liberty Bell March, conducted by "America's Bandleader", John Phillip Sousa.[50] Philadelphians began to cool to the idea of sending it to other cities when it returned from Chicago bearing a new crack, and each new proposed journey met with increasing opposition.[51] It was also found that the bell's private watchman had been cutting off small pieces for souvenirs. The city placed the bell in a glass-fronted oak case in the Assembly Room.[52] In 1898, it was taken out of the glass case and hung from its yoke again in the tower hall of Independence Hall, a room which would remain its home until the end of 1975. A guard was posted to discourage souvenir hunters who might otherwise chip at it. [53] By 1909, the bell had made six trips, and not only had the cracking become worse, but souvenir hunters had deprived it of over one percent of its weight. When, in 1912, the organizers of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition requested the bell for the 1915 fair in San Francisco, the city was reluctant to let it travel again. The city finally decided to let it go as the bell had never been west of St. Louis, and it was a chance to bring it to millions who might never see it otherwise.[54] However, in 1914, fearing that the cracks might lengthen during the long train ride, the city installed a metal support The Liberty Bell visits Bunker Hill (obelisk structure inside the bell, generally called the "spider."[55] In February visible background left) in 1903. 1915, the bell was tapped gently with wooden mallets to produce sounds which were transmitted to the fair as the signal to open it, a transmission which also inaugurated transcontinental telephone service.[56] Some five million Americans saw the bell on its train journey west.[57] It is estimated that nearly two million kissed it at the fair, with an uncounted number viewing it. The bell was taken on a different route on its way home; again, five million saw it on the return journey.[58] Since the bell returned to Philadelphia, it has been moved out of doors only five times: three times for patriotic observances during and after World War I, and twice as the bell occupied new homes in 1976 and 2003.[51] [59] Chicago and San Francisco had obtained its presence after presenting petitions signed by hundreds of thousands of children. Chicago tried again, with a petition signed by 3.4 million schoolchildren, for the 1933 Century of Progress Exhibition and New York presented a petition to secure a visit from the bell for the 1939 New York World's Fair. Both efforts failed.[60] In 1924, one of Independence Hall's exterior doors was replaced by glass, allowing some view of the bell even when the building was closed.[61] When Congress enacted the nation's first peacetime draft in 1940, the first Philadelphians required to serve took their oaths of enlistment before the Liberty Bell. Once the war started, the bell was again a symbol, used to sell war bonds.[62] In the early days of World War II, it was feared that the bell might be in danger from saboteurs or enemy bombing, and city officials considered moving the bell to Fort Knox, to be stored with the nation's gold reserves. The idea provoked a storm of protest from around the nation, and was abandoned. Officials


Liberty Bell then considered building an underground steel vault above which it would be displayed, and into which it could be lowered if necessary. The project was dropped when studies found that the digging might undermine the foundations of Independence Hall.[63] The bell was again tapped on D-Day, as well as in victory on V-E Day and V-J Day.[64]


Park Service administration (1948–present)
After World War II, and following considerable controversy, the City of Philadelphia agreed that it would transfer custody of the bell and Independence Hall, while retaining ownership, to the federal government. The city would also transfer various colonial-era buildings it owned. Congress agreed to the transfer in 1948, and three years later Independence National Historical Park was founded, incorporating those properties and administered by the National Park Service (NPS or Park Service).[65] The Park Service would be responsible for maintaining and displaying the bell.[66] The NPS would also administer the three blocks just north of Independence Hall, which had been condemned by the state, razed, and developed into a park, Independence Mall. [65] In the postwar period, the bell became a symbol of freedom used in the Cold A National Park Service ranger gives War. The bell was chosen for the symbol of a savings bond campaign in 1950. a talk about the Liberty Bell to The purpose of this campaign, as Vice President Alben Barkley put it, was to tourists, Independence Hall, July make the country "so strong that no one can impose ruthless, godless ideologies 1951 on us".[66] In 1955, former residents of nations behind the Iron Curtain were allowed to tap the bell as a symbol of hope and encouragement to their compatriots.[67] Foreign dignitaries, such as Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and West Berlin Mayor Ernst Reuter were brought to the bell, and they commented that the bell symbolized the link between the United States and their nations.[66] During the 1960s, the bell was the site of several protests, both for the civil rights movement, and by various protesters supporting or opposing the Vietnam War.[68] Almost from the start of its stewardship, the Park Service sought to move the bell from Independence Hall to a structure where it would be easier to care for the bell and accommodate visitors. The first such proposal was withdrawn in 1958, after considerable public protest. [69] The Park Service tried again as part of the planning for the United States Bicentennial. The Independence National Historical Park Advisory Committee proposed in 1969 that the bell be moved out of Independence Hall, as the building could not accommodate the millions expected to visit Philadelphia for the Bicentennial.[70] In 1972, the Park Service announced plans to build a large glass tower for the bell at South Third Street and Chestnut Street, two blocks east of Independence Hall, at a cost of $5 million, but citizens again protested the move. Instead, in 1973, the Park Service proposed to build a smaller glass pavilion for the bell at the north end of Independence Mall, between Arch and Race Streets. Philadelphia Mayor Frank Rizzo agreed with the pavilion idea, but proposed that the pavilion be built across Chestnut Street from Independence Hall, which the state feared would destroy the view of the historic building from the mall area.[71] Rizzo's view prevailed, and the bell was moved to a glass and steel pavilion, about 100 yards (91 m) from its old home at Independence Hall as the Bicentennial year began.[72]

Liberty Bell

103 During the Bicentennial, members of the Procrastinator's Club of America jokingly picketed the Whitechapel Bell Foundry with signs "We got a lemon" and "What about the warranty?" The foundry told the protesters that it would be glad to replace the bell—so long as it was returned in the original packaging.[10] In 1958, the foundry (then trading under the name Mears and Stainbank Foundry) had offered to recast the bell, and and was told by the Park Service that neither it nor the public wanted the crack removed.[69] The foundry was called upon, in 1976, to cast a full-size replica of the Liberty Bell, which was presented to the United States by the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, and which is now in a tower adjacent to one of the Park Service's buildings on South Third Street.[73]

In 2001, the Park Service began work on a new home for the Liberty Bell, on the same block as the pavilion, but significantly larger, allowing for exhibit space and an interpretative center. Archaeologists discovered evidence that the construction site included an area that was once the location of a structure used by George Washington, while living in Philadelphia as president, to house his slaves. The Park Service was reluctant to include exhibits commemorating the slaves at the new Liberty Bell Center, but after protests by Black activists, agreed. The new facility, which opened after the bell was installed on October 9, 2003, is adjacent to an outline of the slaves' house marked in the pavement, with interpretive signs explaining the significance of what was found. Inside, visitors pass through a number of exhibits about the bell before reaching the Liberty Bell itself. Due to security concerns following an attack on the bell by a visitor with a hammer in 2001, the bell is hung out of easy reach of visitors, who are no longer allowed to touch it, and all visitors undergo a security screening.[74]
A crowd of tourists gathers around the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, July 1951

Today, the Liberty Bell weighs 2080 pounds (940 kg). Its metal is 70% copper and 25% tin, with the remainder consisting of lead, zinc, arsenic, gold and silver. It hangs from what is believed to be its original yoke, made from American elm.[75] While the crack in the bell appears to end at the abbreviation "Philada" in the last line of the inscription, that is merely the 19th century widened crack which was filed out in the hopes of allowing the bell to continue to ring; a hairline crack, extending through the bell to the inside continues generally right and gradually moving to the top of the bell, through the word "and" in "Pass and Stow", then through the word "the" before the word "Assembly" in the second line of text, and through the letters "rty" in the word "Liberty" in the first line. The crack ends near the attachment with the yoke.[76]

Replicas and popular culture
In addition to the replicas which are seen at Independence National Historical Park, early replicas of the Liberty Bell include the so-called Justice Bell or Women's Liberty Bell, commissioned in 1915 by suffragists to advocate for women's suffrage. This bell had the same legend as the Liberty Bell, with two added words, "establish justice", words taken from the Preamble to the United States Constitution. It also had the clapper chained to the bell so it could not sound, symbolizing the inability of women, lacking the vote, to influence political events. The Justice Bell toured extensively to publicize the cause. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment (granting women the vote), the Justice Bell was brought to the front of
Bicentennial dollar

Liberty Bell Independence Hall on August 26, 1920 to finally sound. It remained on a platform before Independence Hall for several months before city officials required that it be taken away, and today is at the Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley Forge.[77] As part of the Liberty Bell Savings Bonds drive in 1950, 55 replicas of the Liberty Bell (one each for the 48 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories) were ordered by the United States Department of the Treasury and were cast in France. The bells were to be displayed and rung on patriotic occasions.[78] Many of the bells today are sited near state capitol buildings.[78] Although Wisconsin's bell is now at its state capitol, initially it was sited on the grounds of the state's Girls Detention Center. Texas's bell is at Texas A & M University in College Station.[78] The Texas bell was presented to the university in appreciation of the service of the school's graduates.[78] The Liberty Bell appeared on a commemorative coin in 1926 to mark the sesquicentennial of American independence.[79] Its first use on a circulating coin was on the reverse side of the Franklin half dollar, struck between 1948 and 1963.[80] It also appeared on the Bicentennial design of the Eisenhower dollar, superimposed against the moon.[81] The first U.S. stamp showing a depiction of the Liberty Bell was issued for the Sesquicentennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1926,[82] though this stamp actually depicts the replica bell erected at the entrance to the exposition grounds. [83] The bell appears on the forever stamp issued since 2007, which increases in face value as postal rates rise.[84]


The name "Liberty Bell" or "Liberty Belle" is commonly used for commercial purposes, and has denoted brands and business names ranging from a life insurance company to a Montana escort service.[85] A large outline of the bell hangs over the right-field bleachers at Citizens Bank Park, home of the Philadelphia Phillies baseball team, and is illuminated whenever one of their players hits a home run.[86] This bell outline replaced one at the Phillies' former home, Veterans Stadium.[87] On April 1, 1996, Taco Bell announced via ads and press releases that it had purchased the Liberty Bell and changed its name to the Taco Liberty Bell. The bell, the ads related, would henceforth spend half the year at Taco Bell corporate headquarters in Irvine, California. Outraged calls flooded Independence National Historical Park, and Park Service officials hastily called a press conference to deny that the bell had been sold. After several hours, Taco Bell admitted that it was an April Fools Day joke. Despite the protests, company sales of tacos, enchiladas, and burritos rose by more than a half million dollars that week.[88]

Outline of the bell at Citizens Bank Park, fully illuminated when a Phillies player hits a home run

Liberty Bell


The bell's inscription is given below:

At the time, “Pensylvania” was an accepted alternative spelling for “Pennsylvania.” That spelling was used by Alexander Hamilton, a graduate of Columbia University, in 1787 on the signature page of the United States Constitution.[89]

See also

The Liberty Bell in the new Liberty Bell Center. The former State House (now Independence Hall) is in the background, with the Centennial Bell visible in its steeple.

• The Mercury spacecraft that astronaut Gus Grissom flew on July 21, 1961, was dubbed Liberty Bell 7. Mercury capsules were somewhat bell-shaped, and this one received a painted crack to mimic the original bell. • Margaret Buechner composed a work for chorus and orchestra, "Liberty Bell", that incorporates a 1959 recording of the actual bell made by Columbia Records. • The superhero Liberty Belle whose powers are derived from the ringing of the bell.

• de Bolla, Peter (2008). The Fourth of July and the Founding of America. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-58567-933-1. • The Franklin Institute. (1962) Report of the Committee for the Preservation of the Liberty Bell. Philadelphia, PA: The Franklin Institute. (Report). (reprinted in The Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 275, Number 2, February 1963), obtained from Independence National Historical Park Library and Archive, 143 S. 3rd St., Philadelphia PA 19106) • Hanson, Victor F.; Carlson, Janice H.; Papauchado, Karen .. (1975) Analysis of the Liberty Bell: Analytical Laboratory Report #379. Winterthur, DE: Winterthur Museum. (Report). (obtained from Independence National Historical Park Library and Archive, 143 S. 3rd St., Philadelphia PA 19106) • Hudgeons Jr., Tom (2009). The Official Blackbook Price Guides to United States Coins 2010 [90] (48th ed.). New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 0375723188. • Kimball, David (2006). The Story of the Liberty Bell (revised ed.). Washington, DC: Eastern National (National Park Service). ISBN 0915992434. • Nash, Gary B. (2010). The Liberty Bell. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300139365. • Paige, John C. (1988) The Liberty Bell: A Special History Study. Denver, CO: National Park Service (Denver Service Center and Independence National Historical Park). (Report). (obtained from Independence National Historical Park Library and Archive, 143 S. 3rd St., Philadelphia PA 19106)

Liberty Bell


External links
• Liberty Bell Center [1]. Independence National Historical Park. National Park Service official website • The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan [91]. National Park Service official website • Liberty Bell Center, National Park Service [92]. Bohlin Cywinski Jackson (architects) website. Retrieved 2010–03–16.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. nps. gov/ inde/ liberty-bell-center. htm Nash, pp. 1–2 Paige, pp. 2–3 The Franklin Institute, p. 19 One hundred fifty pounds, thirteen shillings and eightpence. Purchasing power of British Pounds from 1264 to present (http:/ / www. measuringworth. com/ ppoweruk/ result. php?use[]=CPI& use[]=NOMINALEARN& year_early=1752& pound71=150& shilling71=13& pence71=8& amount=150. 68333333333334& year_source=1752& year_result=2008). . Retrieved 2010–08–26. The same site indicates that the pound sterling was worth $1.85 in 2008. [7] Kimball, p. 20 [8] Nash, p. 7 [9] Pierce, James Wilson (1893). Photographic History of the World's fair and Sketch of the City of Chicago (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=guZNAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_atb#v=onepage& q=Liberty Bell& f=false). Baltimore: R. H. Woodward & Co. p. 491. . Retrieved 2010–08–17. [10] "The Liberty Bell" (http:/ / www. whitechapelbellfoundry. co. uk/ liberty. htm). Whitechapel Bell Foundry. . Retrieved 2010–08–09. [11] Nash, p. 7–10 [12] Nash, pp. 10–11 [13] Nash, p. 9 [14] Hanson, p. 7 [15] Hanson, p. 5 [16] Hanson, p. 4 [17] Hanson, p. 3 [18] Nash, pp. 11–12 [19] Kimball, pp. 31–32 [20] Paige, p. 13 [21] Kimball, pp. 32–33 [22] Nash, pp. 17–18 [23] Paige, p. 18 [24] Paige, pp. 17–18 [25] Nash, p. 19 [26] Kimball, p. 37 [27] Kimball, pp. 37–38 [28] Kimball, p. 38 [29] Kimball, p. 70 [30] Kimball, pp. 43–45 [31] Kimball, pp. 43–47 [32] Nash, p. 36 [33] Nash, pp. 37–38 [34] Kimball, p. 56 [35] Paige, p. 83 [36] de Bolla, p. 108 [37] Nash, p. 47 [38] Nash, pp. 50–51 [39] Kimball, p. 60 [40] Nash, pp. 48–49 [41] Hoch, Bradley R. (Summer 2004). "The Lincoln landscape: Looking for Lincoln's Philadelphia: A personal journey from Washington Square to Independence Hall" (http:/ / www. historycooperative. org/ journals/ jala/ 25. 2/ hoch. html). Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 25 (2): 59–70. . Retrieved 2010–08–10.

Liberty Bell
[42] Schwartz, Barry (2003). Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7hL8-GLkHaYC& dq=abraham+ lincoln+ liberty+ bell& source=gbs_navlinks_s). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 40. ISBN 0226741982. . Retrieved 2010–08–10. [43] Nash, pp. 63–65 [44] Nash, pp. 66–68 [45] Kimball, p. 68 [46] de Bolla, p. 111 [47] Nash, p. 77 [48] Nash, pp. 79–80 [49] Nash, pp. 84–85 [50] Nash, pp. 89–90 [51] Kimball, p. 69 [52] Nash, p. 98 [53] Paige, p. 43 [54] Nash, pp. 110–112 [55] The Franklin Institute, pp. 28–29 [56] Nash, p. 113 [57] Nash, p. 123 [58] Nash, pp. 113–115 [59] Paige, p. 54 [60] Nash, p. 140 [61] Paige, p. 57 [62] Nash, pp. 148–151 [63] Paige, pp. 64–65 [64] Kimball, p. 71 [65] Nash, pp. 172–173 [66] Paige, p. 69 [67] Paige, p. 71 [68] Paige, pp. 76–78 [69] Paige, p. 72 [70] Paige, p. 78 [71] "New home sought for Liberty Bell" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F50714FB3A59137A93C6A91782D85F478785F9& scp=5& sq=liberty+ bell& st=p). The New York Times (New York): p. 15. 1973–09–04. . Retrieved 2010–08–10 (subscription required). [72] Wooten, James T. (1976–01–01). "Move of Liberty Bell opens Bicentennial" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F1091FF73B5514758DDDA80894D9405B868BF1D3& scp=1& sq=liberty+ bell+ pavilion& st=p). The New York Times (New York): p. 1. . Retrieved 2010–08–10 (subscription required). [73] Nash, pp. 177–178 [74] Yamin, Rebecca (2008). Digging in the City of Brotherly Love: Stories from Philadelphia Archeology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AL_G5WIDbqkC& pg=PA52& dq=liberty+ bell+ october+ 9+ 2003& hl=en& ei=aM5hTM_vA8H98Ab2xLjaCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDgQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=liberty bell october 9 2003& f=false). New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press. pp. 39–53. ISBN 0300100914. . Retrieved 2010–08–09. [75] "The Liberty Bell" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ inde/ planyourvisit/ upload/ english. pdf) (pdf). National Park Service. . Retrieved 2010–08–11. [76] The Franklin Institute, p. 21 [77] Nash, pp. 114–117 [78] "Replicas of the Liberty Bell owned by U.S. state governments" (http:/ / www. libertybellmuseum. com/ exhibits/ statebells/ index. htm). Liberty Bell Museum. . Retrieved 2010–08–11. [79] Hudgeons, p. 493 [80] Hudgeons, p. 389 [81] Hudgeons, p. 413 [82] Nash, p. 126 [83] Annual Report of the Postmaster General. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1926. p. 6. [84] "Save forever on postage price increases with Forever Stamps" (http:/ / www. usps. com/ communications/ newsroom/ localnews/ co/ co_wy_mt_2008_0507. htm). United States Postal Service. 2008–05–08. . Retrieved 2010–08–11. [85] Nash, p. 184 [86] Nash, p. 183 [87] Ahuja, Jay (2001). Fields of Dreams: A Guide to Visiting and Enjoying All 30 Major League Ballparks (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=qQjs_j59H4sC& pg=PA62& dq=bell+ veterans+ stadium& hl=en& ei=FAFiTPGhLcOB8gb9_rWACg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=bell veterans stadium& f=false). Citadel Press. p. 62. ISBN 0806521937. .


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Retrieved 2010–08–11. [88] Nash, pp. 141–143 [89] Paige, p. 9 [90] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=vH5qsRYJxgcC& dq=sesquicentennial+ half+ dollar+ bell& source=gbs_navlinks_s [91] http:/ / www. nps. gov/ history/ NR/ twhp/ wwwlps/ lessons/ 36liberty/ 36liberty. htm [92] http:/ / www. bcj. com/ public/ projects/ project/ 44. html


Parallax is an apparent displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.[1] [2] The term is derived from the Greek παράλλαξις (parallaxis), meaning "alteration". Nearby objects have a larger parallax than more distant objects when observed from different positions, so parallax can be used to determine distances. Astronomers use the principle of parallax to measure distances to objects (typically stars) beyond the Solar System. The Hipparcos satellite has taken these measurements for over 100,000 nearby stars. This provides the basis for all other distance measurements in astronomy, the cosmic distance ladder. Here, the term "parallax" is the angle or semi-angle of inclination between two sightlines to the star. Parallax also affects optical instruments such as binoculars, microscopes, and twin-lens reflex cameras that view objects from slightly different angles. Many animals, including humans, have two eyes with overlapping visual fields to use parallax to gain depth perception; this process is known as stereopsis.

A simplified illustration of the parallax of an object against a distant background due to a perspective shift. When viewed from "Viewpoint A", the object appears to be in front of the blue square. When the viewpoint is changed to "Viewpoint B", the object appears to have moved in front of the red square.

A simple everyday example of parallax can be seen in the dashboard of motor vehicles that use a "needle" type speedometer gauge (when the needle is mounted in front of its dial scale in a way that leaves a noticeable spacing between them). When viewed from directly in front, the speed may show 60 (i.e. the needle appears against the '60' mark on the dial behind); but when viewed from the passenger seat (i.e. from an oblique angle) the needle can appear against a slightly lower or higher mark (depending on whether it is viewed from the left or from the right), because of the combined effect of the spacing and the angle of view.

This animation is an example of parallax. As the viewpoint moves side to side, the objects in the distance appear to move more slowly than the objects close to the camera.



Distance measurement in astronomy
Stellar parallax
On an interstellar scale, parallax created by the different orbital positions of the Earth causes nearby stars to appear to move relative to more distant stars. By observing parallax, measuring angles and using geometry, one can determine the distance to various objects. When the object in question is a star, the effect is known as stellar parallax. Stellar parallax is most often measured using annual parallax, defined as the difference in position of a star as seen from the Earth and Sun, i. e. the angle subtended at a star by the mean radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The parsec (3.26 light-years) is defined as the distance for which the annual parallax is 1 arcsecond. Annual parallax is normally measured by observing the position of a star at different times of the year as the Earth moves through its orbit. Measurement of annual parallax was the first reliable way to determine the distances to the closest stars. The first successful measurements of stellar parallax were made by Friedrich Bessel in 1838 for the star 61 Cygni using a heliometer.[3] Stellar parallax remains the standard for calibrating other measurement methods. Accurate calculations of distance based on stellar parallax require a measurement of the distance from the Earth to the Sun, now based on radar reflection off the surfaces of planets.[4] The angles involved in these calculations are very small and thus difficult to measure. The nearest star to the Sun (and thus the star with the largest parallax), Proxima Centauri, has a parallax of 0.7687 ± 0.0003 arcsec.[5] This angle is approximately that subtended by an object 2 centimeters in diameter located 5.3 kilometers away. The fact that stellar parallax was so small that it was unobservable at the time was used as the main scientific argument against heliocentrism during the early modern age. It is clear from Euclid's geometry that the effect would be undetectable if the stars were far enough away, but for various reasons such gigantic distances involved seemed entirely implausible: it was one of Tycho's principal objections to Copernican heliocentrism that in order for it to be compatible with the lack of observable stellar parallax, there would have to be an enormous and unlikely void between the orbit of Saturn and the eighth sphere (the fixed stars).[6]

In 1989, the satellite Hipparcos was launched primarily for obtaining parallaxes and proper motions of nearby stars, increasing the reach of the method tenfold. Even so, Hipparcos is only able to measure parallax angles for stars up to about 1,600 light-years away, a little more than one percent of the diameter of the Milky Way Galaxy. The European Space Agency's Gaia mission, due to launch in 2012 and come online in 2013, will be able to measure parallax angles to an accuracy of 10 microarcseconds, thus mapping nearby stars (and potentially planets) up to a distance of tens of thousands of light-years from earth.[7]

This image demonstrates parallax. The Sun is visible above the streetlight. The reflection in the water shows a virtual image of the Sun and the streetlight. The location of the virtual image is below the surface of the water and thus simultaneously offers a different vantage point of the streetlight, which appears to be shifted relative to the stationary, background Sun.



Distance measurement by parallax is a special case of the principle of triangulation, which states that one can solve for all the sides and angles in a network of triangles if, in addition to all the angles in the network, the length of at least one side has been measured. Thus, the careful measurement of the length of one baseline can fix the scale of an entire triangulation network. In parallax, the triangle is extremely long and narrow, and by measuring both its shortest side (the motion of the observer) and the small top angle (always less than 1 arcsecond,[3] leaving the other two close to 90 degrees), the length of the long sides (in practice considered to be equal) can be determined.

Stellar parallax motion

Assuming the angle is small (see derivation below), the distance to an object (measured in parsecs) is the reciprocal of the parallax (measured in arcseconds): For example, the distance to Proxima Centauri is 1/0.7687=1.3009 parsecs (4.243 ly).[5]

Diurnal parallax
Diurnal parallax is a parallax that varies with rotation of the Earth or with difference of location on the Earth. The Moon and to a smaller extent the terrestrial planets or asteroids seen from different viewing positions on the Earth (at one given moment) can appear differently placed against the background of fixed stars.[8] [9]

Lunar parallax
Lunar parallax (often short for lunar horizontal parallax or lunar equatorial horizontal parallax), is a special case of (diurnal) parallax: the Moon, being the nearest celestial body, has by far the largest maximum parallax of any celestial body, it can exceed 1 degree.[10] The diagram (above) for stellar parallax can illustrate lunar parallax as well, if the diagram is taken to be scaled right down and slightly modified. Instead of 'near star', read 'Moon', and instead of taking the circle at the bottom of the diagram to represent the size of the Earth's orbit around the Sun, take it to be the size of the Earth's globe, and of a circle around the Earth's surface. Then, the lunar (horizontal) parallax amounts to the difference in angular position, relative to the background of distant stars, of the Moon as seen from two different viewing positions on the Earth:one of the viewing positions is the place from which the Moon can be seen directly overhead at a given moment (that is, viewed along the vertical line in the diagram); and the other viewing position is a place from which the Moon can be seen on the horizon at the same moment (that is, viewed along one of the diagonal lines, from an Earth-surface

Parallax position corresponding roughly to one of the blue dots on the modified diagram). The lunar (horizontal) parallax can alternatively be defined as the angle subtended at the distance of the Moon by the radius of the Earth[11] -- equal to angle p in the diagram when scaled-down and modified as mentioned above. The lunar horizontal parallax at any time depends on the linear distance of the Moon from the Earth. The Earth-Moon linear distance varies continuously as the Moon follows its perturbed and approximately elliptical orbit around the Earth. The range of the variation in linear distance is from about 56 to 63.7 earth-radii, corresponding to horizontal parallax of about a degree of arc, but ranging from about 61.4' to about 54'.[10] The Astronomical Almanac and similar publications tabulate the lunar horizontal parallax and/or the linear distance of the Moon from the Earth on a periodical e.g. daily basis for the convenience of astronomers (and formerly, of navigators), and the study of the way in which this coordinate varies with time forms part of lunar theory. Parallax can also be used to determine the distance to the Moon. One way to determine the lunar parallax from one location is by using a lunar eclipse. A full shadow of the Earth on the Moon has an apparent radius of curvature equal to the difference between the apparent radii of the Earth and the Sun as seen from the Moon. This radius can be seen to be equal to 0.75 degree, from which (with the solar apparent radius 0.25 degree) we get an Earth apparent radius of 1 degree. This yields for the Earth-Moon distance 60 Earth radii or 384,000 km. This procedure was first used by Aristarchus of Samos[12] and Hipparchus, and later found its way into the work of Ptolemy. The diagram at right shows how daily lunar parallax arises on the geocentric and geostatic planetary model in which the Earth is at the centre of the planetary system and does not rotate. It also illustrates the important point that parallax Diagram of daily lunar parallax need not be caused by any motion of the observer, contrary to some definitions of parallax that say it is, but may arise purely from motion of the observed. Another method is to take two pictures of the Moon at exactly the same time from two locations on Earth and compare the positions of the Moon relative to the stars. Using the orientation of the Earth, those two position measurements, and the distance between the two locations on the Earth, the distance to the Moon can be triangulated:




This is the method referred to by Jules Verne in From the Earth to the Moon: Until then, many people had no idea how one could calculate the distance separating the Moon from the Earth. The circumstance was exploited to teach them that this distance was obtained by measuring the parallax of the Moon. If the word parallax appeared to amaze them, they were told that it was the angle subtended by two straight lines running from both ends of the Earth's radius to the Moon. If they had doubts on the perfection of this method, they were immediately shown that not only did this mean Example of lunar parallax: Occultation of Pleiades by the Moon distance amount to a whole two hundred thirty-four thousand three hundred and forty-seven miles (94,330 leagues), but also that the astronomers were not in error by more than seventy miles (≈ 30 leagues).

Solar parallax
After Copernicus proposed his heliocentric system, with the Earth in revolution around the Sun, it was possible to build a model of the whole solar system without scale. To ascertain the scale, it is necessary only to measure one distance within the solar system, e.g., the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun (now called an astronomical unit, or AU). When found by triangulation, this is referred to as the solar parallax, the difference in position of the Sun as seen from the Earth's centre and a point one Earth radius away, i. e., the angle subtended at the Sun by the Earth's mean radius. Knowing the solar parallax and the mean Earth radius allows one to calculate the AU, the first, small step on the long road of establishing the size and expansion age[13] of the visible Universe. A primitive way to determine the distance to the Sun in terms of the distance to the Moon was already proposed by Aristarchus of Samos in his book On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon. He noted that the Sun, Moon, and Earth form a right triangle (right angle at the Moon) at the moment of first or last quarter moon. He then estimated that the Moon, Earth, Sun angle was 87°. Using correct geometry but inaccurate observational data, Aristarchus concluded that the Sun was slightly less than 20 times farther away than the Moon. The true value of this angle is close to 89° 50', and the Sun is actually about 390 times farther away.[12] He pointed out that the Moon and Sun have nearly equal apparent angular sizes and therefore their diameters must be in proportion to their distances from Earth. He thus concluded that the Sun was around 20 times larger than the Moon; this conclusion, although incorrect, follows logically from his incorrect data. It does suggest that the Sun is clearly larger than the Earth, which could be taken to support the heliocentric model. Although Aristarchus' results were incorrect due to observational errors, they were based on correct geometric principles of parallax, and became the basis for estimates of the size of the solar system for almost 2000 years, until the transit of Venus was correctly observed in 1761 and 1769.[12] This method was proposed by Edmond Halley in 1716, although he did not live to see the results. The use of Venus transits was less successful than had been hoped due to the black drop effect, but the resulting estimate, 153 million kilometers, is just 2% above the currently accepted value, 149.6 million kilometers.

Measuring Venus transit times to determine solar parallax

Much later, the Solar System was 'scaled' using the parallax of asteroids, some of which, like Eros, pass much closer to Earth than Venus. In a favourable opposition, Eros can approach the Earth to within 22 million kilometres.[14] Both the opposition of 1901 and that of 1930/1931 were used for this purpose, the calculations of the latter

Parallax determination being completed by Astronomer Royal Sir Harold Spencer Jones.[15] Also radar reflections, both off Venus (1958) and off asteroids, like Icarus, have been used for solar parallax determination. Today, use of spacecraft telemetry links has solved this old problem. The currently accepted value of solar parallax is 8".794 143.[16]


Dynamic or moving-cluster parallax
The open stellar cluster Hyades in Taurus extends over such a large part of the sky, 20 degrees, that the proper motions as derived from astrometry appear to converge with some precision to a perspective point north of Orion. Combining the observed apparent (angular) proper motion in seconds of arc with the also observed true (absolute) receding motion as witnessed by the Doppler redshift of the stellar spectral lines, allows estimation of the distance to the cluster (151 light-years) and its member stars in much the same way as using annual parallax.[17] Dynamic parallax has sometimes also been used to determine the distance to a supernova, when the optical wave front of the outburst is seen to propagate through the surrounding dust clouds at an apparent angular velocity, while its true propagation velocity is known to be the speed of light.[18]

For a right triangle,


is the parallax, 1 AU (149600000 km) is approximately the average distance from the Sun to Earth, and

is the distance to the star. Using small-angle approximations (valid when the angle is small compared to 1 radian),

so the parallax, measured in arcseconds, is

If the parallax is 1", then the distance is

This defines the parsec, a convenient unit for measuring distance using parallax. Therefore, the distance, measured in parsecs, is simply , when the parallax is given in arcseconds.[19]

Parallax error
Precise parallax measurements of distance have an associated error. However this error in the measured parallax angle does not translate directly into an error for the distance, except for relatively small errors. The reason for this is that an error toward a smaller angle results in a greater error in distance than an error toward a larger angle. However, an approximation of the distance error can be computed by

where d is the distance and p is the parallax. The approximation is far more accurate for parallax errors that are small relative to the parallax than for relatively large errors.



Visual perception
As the eyes of humans and other animals are in different positions on the head, they present different views simultaneously. This is the basis of stereopsis, the process by which the brain exploits the parallax due to the different views from the eye to gain depth perception and estimate distances to objects.[20] Animals also use motion parallax, in which the animal (or just the head) moves to gain different viewpoints. For example, pigeons (whose eyes do not have overlapping fields of view and thus cannot use stereopsis) bob their heads up and down to see depth.[21]

Parallax and measurement instruments
If an optical instrument — e.g., a telescope, microscope, or theodolite — is imprecisely focused, its cross-hairs will appear to move with respect to the object focused on if one moves one's head horizontally in front of the eyepiece. This is why it is important, especially when performing measurements, to focus carefully in order to eliminate the parallax, and to check by moving one's head. Also, in non-optical measurements the thickness of a ruler can create parallax in fine measurements. To avoid parallax error, one should take measurements with one's eye on a line directly perpendicular to the ruler so that the thickness of the ruler does not create error in positioning for fine measurements. A similar error can occur when reading the position of a pointer against a scale in an instrument such as a galvanometer (for example, in an analog-display multimeter.) To help the user avoid this problem, the scale is sometimes printed above a narrow strip of mirror, and the user positions his eye so that the pointer obscures its own reflection. This guarantees that the user's line of sight is perpendicular to the mirror and therefore to the scale. Parallax can cause a speedometer reading to appear different to a car's passenger than to the driver.

Photogrammetric parallax
Aerial picture pairs, when viewed through a stereo viewer, offer a pronounced stereo effect of landscape and buildings. High buildings appear to 'keel over' in the direction away from the centre of the photograph. Measurements of this parallax are used to deduce the height of the buildings, provided that flying height and baseline distances are known. This is a key component to the process of photogrammetry.

Parallax error in photography
Parallax error can be seen when taking photos with many types of cameras, such as twin-lens reflex cameras and those including viewfinders (such as rangefinder cameras). In such cameras, the eye sees the subject through different optics (the viewfinder, or a second lens) than the one through which the photo is taken. As the viewfinder is often found above the lens of the camera, photos with parallax error are often slightly lower than intended, the classic example being the image of person with his or her head cropped off. This problem is addressed in single-lens reflex cameras, in which the viewfinder sees through the same lens through which the photo is taken (with the aid of a movable mirror), thus avoiding parallax error. Parallax is also an issue in image stitching, such as for panoramas.

In computer graphics
In many early graphical applications, such as video games, the scene was constructed of independent layers that were scrolled at different speeds when the player/cursor moved. Some hardware had explicit support for such layers, such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. This gave some layers the appearance of being farther away than others and was useful for creating an illusion of depth, but only worked when the player was moving. Now, most games are based on much more comprehensive three-dimensional graphic models, although portable game systems

Parallax (such as Nintendo DS) still often use parallax. Parallax-based graphics continue to be used for many online applications where the bandwidth required by three-dimensional graphics is excessive.


In gunfire
Owing to the positioning of gun turrets on a warship or in the field, each one has a slightly different perspective of the target relative to the location of the fire control system itself. Therefore, when aiming its guns at the target, the fire control system must compensate for parallax in order to assure that fire from each turret converges on the target. This is also true of small arms, as the distance between the sighting mechanism and the weapon's bore can introduce significant errors when firing at close range, particularly when firing at small targets. This also applies to archery where the shooter frequently relies on a single pin at close range.

As a metaphor
In a philosophic/geometric sense: An apparent change in the direction of an object, caused by a change in observational position that provides a new line of sight. The apparent displacement, or difference of position, of an object, as seen from two different stations, or points of view. In contemporary writing parallax can also be the same story, or a similar story from approximately the same time line, from one book told from a different perspective in another book. The word and concept feature prominently in James Joyce's 1922 novel, Ulysses. Orson Scott Card also used the term when referring to Ender's Shadow as compared to Ender's Game. The metaphor is invoked by Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek in his work The Parallax View. Žižek borrowed the concept of "parallax view" from the Japanese philosopher and literary critic Kojin Karatani. "The philosophical twist to be added (to parallax), of course, is that the observed distance is not simply subjective, since the same object that exists 'out there' is seen from two different stances, or points of view. It is rather that, as Hegel would have put it, subject and object are inherently mediated so that an 'epistemological' shift in the subject's point of view always reflects an ontological shift in the object itself. Or—to put it in Lacanese—the subject's gaze is always-already inscribed into the perceived object itself, in the guise of its 'blind spot,' that which is 'in the object more than object itself', the point from which the object itself returns the gaze. Sure the picture is in my eye, but I am also in the picture."[22]

• Hirshfeld, Alan w. (2001). Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0716737116 • Whipple, Fred L. (2007). Earth Moon and Planets. Read Books. ISBN 1406764132. • Zeilik, Michael A.; Gregory, Stephan A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0030062284.



See also
• • • • • • Triangulation, wherein a point is calculated given its angles from other known points Trilateration, wherein a point is calculated given its distances from other known points Disparity Spectroscopic parallax Trigonometry Xallarap

External links
• • • • • Instructions for having background images on a web page use parallax effects [23] Actual parallax project measuring the distance to the moon within 2.3% [24] BBC's Sky at Night [25] programme: Patrick Moore demonstrates Parallax using Cricket. (Requires RealPlayer) Berkely Center for Cosmological Physics Parallax [26] Parallax [27] on an educational website, including a quick estimate of distance based on parallax using eyes and a thumb only

[1] Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1968. "Mutual inclination of two lines meeting in an angle". [2] "Parallax" (http:/ / dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50171114?single=1& query_type=word& queryword=parallax& first=1& max_to_show=10). Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition ed.). 1989. . "Astron. Apparent displacement, or difference in the apparent position, of an object, caused by actual change (or difference) of position of the point of observation; spec. the angular amount of such displacement or difference of position, being the angle contained between the two straight lines drawn to the object from the two different points of view, and constituting a measure of the distance of the object.". [3] Zeilik & Gregory 1998, p. 44. [4] Zeilik & Gregory 1998, § 22-3. [5] Benedict, G. Fritz et al. (1999). "Interferometric Astrometry of Proxima Centauri and Barnard's Star Using HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Fine Guidance Sensor 3: Detection Limits for Substellar Companions" (http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ abs/ 1999astro. ph. . 5318B). The Astronomical Journal 118 (2): 1086–1100. doi:10.1086/300975. . Retrieved 2010-02-17. [6] See p.51 in The reception of Copernicus' heliocentric theory: proceedings of a symposium organized by the Nicolas Copernicus Committee of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science, Torun, Poland, 1973, ed. Jerzy Dobrzycki, International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Nicolas Copernicus Committee; ISBN 9027703116, ISBN 9789027703118 [7] Henney, Paul J.. "ESA's Gaia Mission to study stars" (http:/ / www. astronomytoday. com/ exploration/ gaia. html). Astronomy Today. . Retrieved 2008-03-08. [8] Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. University Science Books. pp. 123–125. ISBN 1891389459. [9] Barbieri, Cesare (2007). Fundamentals of astronomy. CRC Press. pp. 132–135. ISBN 0750308869. [10] Astronomical Almanac e.g. for 1981, section D [11] Astronomical Almanac, e.g. for 1981: see Glossary; for formulae see Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, 1992, p.400 [12] Gutzwiller, Martin C. (1998). "Moon-Earth-Sun: The oldest three-body problem". Reviews of Modern Physics 70: 589. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.70.589. [13] Freedman, W.L. (2000). "The Hubble constant and the expansion age of the Universe" (http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ abs/ 2000PhR. . . 333. . . 13F). Physics Reports 333: 13. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(00)00013-2. arXiv:astro-ph/9909076. . [14] Whipple 2007, p. 47. [15] Whipple 2007, p. 117. [16] US Naval Observatory, Astronomical Constants (http:/ / asa. usno. navy. mil/ SecK/ 2010/ Astronomical_Constants_2010. pdf) [17] Vijay K. Narayanan; Andrew Gould (1999). "A Precision Test of Hipparcos Systematics toward the Hyades". The Astrophysical Journal 515: 256. doi:10.1086/307021. arXiv:astro-ph/9808284. [18] Panagia, N.; Gilmozzi, R.; MacChetto, F.; Adorf, H.-M.; Kirshner, R. P. (1991). "Properties of the SN 1987A circumstellar ring and the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud". The Astrophysical Journal 380: L23. doi:10.1086/186164. [19] Similar derivations are in most astronomy textbooks. See, e. g., Zeilik & Gregory 1998, § 11-1. [20] Steinman, Scott B.; Garzia, Ralph Philip (2000). Foundations of Binocular Vision: A Clinical perspective. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 2–5. ISBN 0-8385-2670-5 [21] Steinman & Garzia 2000, p. 180.

[22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] Žižek, Slavoj (2006). The Parallax View. The MIT Press. pp. 17. ISBN 0262240513. http:/ / inner. geek. nz/ javascript/ parallax/ http:/ / www. perseus. gr/ Astro-Lunar-Parallax. htm http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ science/ space/ realmedia/ skymedia_justnotcricket. ram http:/ / bccp. lbl. gov/ Academy/ pdfs/ Parallax. pdf http:/ / www. phy6. org/ stargaze/ Sparalax. htm




Gold Appearance metallic yellow

General properties Name, symbol, number Pronunciation Element category Group, period, block Standard atomic weight Electron configuration Electrons per shell gold, Au, 79 English pronunciation: /ˈɡoʊld/ transition metal 11, 6, d 196.966569(4) g·mol [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
14 10 1 −1

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 (Image) Physical properties

Phase Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p. Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Specific heat capacity

solid 19.30 g·cm 17.31 g·cm
−3 −3

1337.33 K,1064.18 °C,1947.52 °F 3129 K,2856 °C,5173 °F 12.55 kJ·mol−1 324 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1 Vapor pressure

P/Pa at T/K

1 1646

10 1814

100 2021

1k 2281

10 k 2620

100 k 3078

Atomic properties Oxidation states Electronegativity -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (amphoteric oxide) 2.54 (Pauling scale)


Ionization energies

1st: 890.1 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1980 kJ·mol−1

Atomic radius Covalent radius Van der Waals radius

144 pm 136±6 pm 166 pm Miscellanea

Crystal structure Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion

Lattice face centered cubic diamagnetic (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m (300 K) 318 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m ·K
−1 −1

Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1 Tensile strength Young's modulus Shear modulus Bulk modulus Poisson ratio Mohs hardness Vickers hardness Brinell hardness CAS registry number 120 MPa 79 GPa 27 GPa 180 GPa 0.44 2.5 216 MPa 25 HB MPa 7440-57-5

Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of gold iso NA syn syn half-life 186.10 d 6.183 d DM ε ε β−
197 198 199

DE (MeV) 0.227 1.506 0.686


195 196

Au Au

195 196 196

Pt Pt


Au 100% Au Au syn syn


Au is stable with 118 neutron β− β− 1.372 0.453
198 199

2.69517 d 3.169 d

Hg Hg

Gold (pronounced /ˈɡoʊld/) is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum, "shining dawn", hence adjective, aureate) and an atomic number of 79. It has been a highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since the beginning of recorded history. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile pure metal known. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.

Gold Gold is one of the coinage metals and has served as a symbol of wealth and a store of value throughout history. Gold standards have provided a basis for monetary policies. It also has been linked to a variety of symbolisms and ideologies. A total of 165,000 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, as of 2009.[1] This is roughly equivalent to 5.3 billion troy ounces or, in terms of volume, about 8,500 cubic meters, or a 20.4m cube. Although primarily used as a store of value, gold has many modern industrial uses including dentistry and electronics. Gold has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion and excellent quality as a conductor of electricity. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and can form trivalent and univalent cations in solutions. Compared with other metals, pure gold is chemically least reactive, but it is attacked by aqua regia (a mixture of acids), forming chloroauric acid, but not by the individual acids, and by alkaline solutions of cyanide. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but does not react with it. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals. This property is exploited in the gold refining technique known as "inquartation and parting". Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, and this is the origin of the colloquial term "acid test", referring to a gold standard test for genuine value.


Gold is the most malleable and ductile of all metals; a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, or an ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become translucent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red.[2] Such semi-transparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (radiant heat) shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, and in sun-visors for spacesuits.[3] Gold readily creates alloys with many other metals. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors (see below).[4] Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity and reflects infrared radiation strongly. Chemically, it is unaffected by air, moisture and most corrosive reagents, and is therefore well suited for use in coins and jewelry and as a protective coating on other, more reactive, metals. However, it is not chemically inert. Common oxidation states of gold include +1 (gold(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 (gold(III) or auric compounds). Gold ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated out as gold metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent. The added metal is oxidized and dissolves allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate. High quality pure metallic gold is tasteless and scentless; in keeping with its resistance to corrosion (it is metal ions which confer taste to metals).[5] In addition, gold is very dense, a cubic meter weighing 19,300 kg. By comparison, the density of lead is 11,340 kg/m3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22,610 kg/m3.

Native gold nuggets

Gold nuggets found in Arizona



Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery white, gold is yellow. This color is determined by the density of loosely bound (valence) electrons; those electrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" medium described in terms of a quasiparticle called plasmon. The frequency of these oscillations lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, but it falls into the visible range for gold due to subtle relativistic effects that affect the orbitals around gold atoms.[6] [7] Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic cesium (see relativistic quantum chemistry). Common colored gold alloys such as rose gold can be created by the addition of various amounts of copper and silver, as Different colors of Ag-Au-Cu alloys indicated in the triangular diagram to the left. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Less commonly, addition of manganese, aluminium, iron, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.[4]

Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope. Thirty six radioisotopes have been synthesized ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. 195Au is also the only gold isotope to decay by electron capture. The least stable is 171Au, which decays by proton emission with a half-life of 30 µs. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β+ decay. The exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196Au, which has a minor β- decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β- decay.[8] At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, and 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198 m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177 m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184 m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.[8]



Use and applications
Monetary exchange
Gold has been widely used throughout the world as a vehicle for monetary exchange, either by issuance and recognition of gold coins or other bare metal quantities, or through gold-convertible paper instruments by establishing gold standards in which the total value of issued money is represented in a store of gold reserves. However, the amount of gold in the world is finite and production has not grown in relation to the world's economies. Today, gold mining output is declining.[9] With the sharp growth of economies in the 20th century, and increasing foreign exchange, the world's gold reserves and their trading market have become a small fraction of all markets and fixed exchange rates of currencies to gold were no longer sustained. At the beginning of World War I the warring nations moved to a fractional gold standard, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. After World War II gold was replaced by a system of convertible currency following the Bretton Woods system. Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, being replaced by fiat currency in their stead. Switzerland was the last country to tie its currency to gold; it backed 40% of its value until the Swiss joined the International Monetary Fund in 1999.[10] Pure gold is too soft for day-to-day monetary use and is typically hardened by alloying with copper, silver or other base metals. The gold content of alloys is measured in carats (k). Pure gold is designated as 24k. Gold coins intended for circulation from 1526 into the 1930s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold, for hardness.

Many holders of gold store it in form of bullion coins or bars as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions. However, some economists do not believe gold serves as a hedge against inflation or currency depreciation.[11] The ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU. Modern bullion coins for investment or collector purposes do not require good mechanical wear properties; they are typically fine gold at 24k, although the American Gold Eagle, the British gold sovereign, and the South African Krugerrand continue to be minted in 22k metal in historical tradition. The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin, at 99.999% or 0.99999, while the popular issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin has a purity of 99.99%. Several other 99.99% pure gold coins are available. In 2006, the United States Mint began production of the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of 99.99%. The Australian Gold Kangaroos were first coined in 1986 as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the reverse design in 1989. Other popular modern coins include the Austrian Vienna Philharmonic bullion coin and the Chinese Gold Panda.



Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower caratage, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper, or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. Copper is the most commonly used base metal, yielding a redder color. Eighteen-carat gold containing 25% copper is found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. Fourteen-carat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads. Larco Museum Collection. Lima-Peru in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police, as well as other, badges. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium, although rarely done except in specialized jewelry. Blue gold is more brittle and therefore more difficult to work with when making jewelry. Fourteen and eighteen carat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. White 18-carat gold containing 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper is silvery in appearance. Nickel is toxic, however, and its release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe. Alternative white gold alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals,[12] but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel. High-carat white gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver. The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects.

In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something that rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power.[13] Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions.[14] However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body. In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis.[14] [15] Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges. The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others. Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions. Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces. Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells.[16] In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immunogold labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen.[17] Colloidal gold is also the form of gold used as gold paint on ceramics prior to firing. Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high

Gold electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.[18] The isotope gold-198, (half-life 2.7 days) is used in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.[19]


Food and drink
• Gold can be used in food and has the E number 175.[20] • Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.[21] Gold flake was used by the nobility in Medieval Europe as a decoration in food and drinks, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health. Gold foil along with silver is sometimes used in South Asian sweets such as barfi.[22] • Danziger Goldwasser (German: Gold water of Danzig) or Goldwasser (English: Goldwater) is a traditional German herbal liqueur[23] produced in what is today Gdańsk, Poland, and Schwabach, Germany, and contains flakes of gold leaf. There are also some expensive (~$1000) cocktails which contain flakes of gold leaf.[24] However, since metallic gold is inert to all body chemistry, it adds no taste nor has it any other nutritional effect and leaves the body unaltered.[25]

• Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, gold solder must match the carat weight of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured in most industry-standard carat weights to color match yellow and white gold. Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints. • Gold can be made into thread and used in embroidery. • Gold is ductile and malleable, meaning it can be drawn into very thin wire and can be beaten into very thin sheets known as gold leaf. • Gold produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in cranberry glass. • In photography, gold toners are used to shift the color of silver bromide black and white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability. Used on sepia-toned prints, gold toners produce red tones. Kodak published formulas for several types of gold toners, which use gold as the chloride.[26] • As gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light as well as radio waves, it is used for the protective coatings on many artificial satellites, in infrared protective faceplates in thermal protection suits and astronauts' helmets and in electronic warfare planes like the EA-6B Prowler.

The 220 kg gold brick displayed in Chinkuashi Gold Museum, Taiwan, Republic of China

Gold • Gold is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs. • Automobiles may use gold for heat dissipation. McLaren uses gold foil in the engine compartment of its F1 model.[27] • Gold can be manufactured so thin that it appears transparent. It is used in some aircraft cockpit windows for de-icing or anti-icing by passing electricity through it. The heat produced by the resistance of the gold is enough to deter ice from forming.[28]


The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.90×1022 cm−3. Gold is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high-energy applications (only silver and copper are more conductive per volume, but gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance). For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project's atomic experiments, but large high current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project. Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin layer coating electrical connectors of all kinds, thereby ensuring good connection. For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables. The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications is highly debated. Gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost (certain computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines) remains very common.[29]
A gold nugget of 5 mm in diameter (bottom) can be expanded through hammering into a gold foil Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical of about 0.5 square meter. Toi museum, Japan. contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity.[30] Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts. Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding.

The world's largest gold bar weighs 250 kg. Toi museum, Japan.

Gold is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, and gold cyanide is the electrolyte used in commercial electroplating of gold onto base metals and electroforming. Gold chloride (chloroauric acid) solutions are used to make colloidal gold by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions. Gold chloride and gold oxide are used to make highly valued cranberry or red-colored glass, which, like colloidal gold suspensions, contains evenly sized spherical gold nanoparticles.[31]



Gold has been known and used by artisans since the Chalcolithic. Gold artifacts in the Balkans appear from the 4th millennium BC, such as that found in the Varna Necropolis. Gold artifacts such as the golden hats and the Nebra disk appeared in Central Europe from the 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age. Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which king Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.[32] Egypt and especially Nubia had the resources to make them major gold-producing areas for much of history. The earliest known map is known as the Turin Papyrus Map and shows the plan of a gold mine in Nubia together with indications of the local geology. The primitive working methods are described by both Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, and included fire-setting. Large mines were also present across the Red Sea in what is now Saudi Arabia. The legend of the golden fleece may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient world. Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah) and is included with the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of Matthew New Testament. The Book of Revelation 21:21 describes the city of New Jerusalem as having streets "made of pure gold, clear as crystal". The south-east corner of the Black Sea was famed for its gold. Exploitation is said to date from the time of Midas, and this gold was important in the establishment of what is probably the world's earliest coinage in Lydia around 610 BC.[33] From the 6th or 5th century BC, the Chu (state) circulated the Ying Yuan, one kind of square gold coin. In Roman metallurgy, new methods for extracting gold on a large scale were developed by introducing hydraulic mining methods, especially in Hispania from 25 BC onwards and in Dacia from 150 AD onwards. One of their largest mines was at Las Medulas in León (Spain), where seven long aqueducts enabled them to sluice most of a large alluvial deposit. The mines at Roşia Montană in Transylvania were also very large, and until very recently, still mined by opencast methods. They also exploited smaller deposits in Britain, such as placer and hard-rock deposits at Dolaucothi. The various methods they used are well described by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia written towards the end of the first century AD.
The Turin Papyrus Map

Funerary mask of Tutankhamun

Jason returns with the golden fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. 340–330 BC.

The Mali Empire in Africa was famed throughout the old world for its large amounts of gold. Mansa Musa, ruler of the empire (1312–1337) became famous throughout the old world for his great hajj to Mecca in 1324. When he passed through Cairo in July 1324, he was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels. He gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade.[34] A contemporary Arab historian remarked:


Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there [...]

[35] —Chihab Al-Umari

The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. The Aztecs regarded gold as literally the product of the gods, calling it "god excrement" (teocuitlatl in Nahuatl).[36] Although the price of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies (known as the gold standard) in history. Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was made fun of by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware and lavatory-seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party. There is an age-old tradition of biting gold to test its authenticity. Although this is certainly not a professional way of examining gold, the bite test should score the gold because gold is a soft metal, as indicated by its score on the Mohs' scale of mineral hardness. The purer the gold the easier it should be to mark it. Painted lead can cheat this test because lead is softer than gold (and may invite a small risk of lead poisoning if sufficient lead is absorbed by the biting). Gold in antiquity was relatively easy to obtain geologically; however, 75% of all gold ever produced has been extracted since 1910.[37] It has been estimated that all gold ever refined would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) on a side (equivalent to 8000 m3).[37] One main goal of the alchemists was to produce gold from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone. Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists promoted an interest in what can be done with substances, and this laid a foundation for today's chemistry. Their symbol for gold was the circle with a point at its center (☉), which was also the astrological symbol and the ancient Chinese character for the Sun. For modern creation of artificial gold by neutron capture, see gold synthesis. During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered. The first documented discovery of gold in the United States was at the Reed Gold Mine near Georgeville, North Carolina in 1803.[38] The first major gold strike in the United States occurred in a small north Georgia town called Dahlonega.[39] Further gold rushes occurred in California, Colorado, the Black Hills, Otago, Australia, Witwatersrand, and the Klondike. Because of its historically high value, much of the gold mined throughout history is still in circulation in one form or another.



Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements which occur naturally. Like all elements with atomic numbers larger than iron, gold is thought to have been formed from a supernova nucleosynthesis process. Their explosions scattered metal-containing dusts (including heavy elements like gold) into the region of space in which they later condensed into our solar system and the Earth.[40] On Earth, whenever elemental gold occurs, it appears most often as a metal solid solution of gold with silver, i.e. a gold silver alloy. Such alloys usually have a silver content of 8–10%. Electrum is elemental gold with more than 20% silver. Electrum's color runs from golden-silvery to silvery, dependent upon the silver content. The more silver, the lower the specific gravity.

This 156-ounce (4.85 kg) nugget was found by an individual prospector in the Southern California Desert using a metal detector.

Gold is found in ores made up of rock with very small or microscopic particles of gold. This gold ore is often found together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as Fool's Gold, which is a pyrite.[41] These are called lode deposits. Native gold is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets that have been eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial deposits (called placer deposits). Such free gold is always richer at the surface of gold-bearing veins owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering, and washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets. Gold sometimes occurs combined with tellurium as the minerals calaverite, krennerite, nagyagite, petzite and sylvanite, and as the rare bismuthide maldonite (Au2Bi) and antimonide aurostibite (AuSb2). Gold also occurs in rare alloys with copper, lead, and mercury: the minerals auricupride (Cu3Au), novodneprite (AuPb3) and weishanite ((Au, Ag)3Hg2). Recent research suggests that microbes can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.[42]

Relative sizes of an 860 kg block of gold ore, and the 30 g of gold that can be extracted from it. Toi gold mine, Japan.

The world's oceans contain gold. Measured concentrations of gold in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific are 50–150 fmol/L or 10-30 parts Gold left behind after a pyrite cube was oxidized per quadrillion. In general, Au concentrations for Atlantic and Pacific to hematite. Note cubic shape of cavity. samples are the same (~50 fmol/L) but less certain. Mediterranean deep waters contain higher concentrations of Au (100–150 fmol/L) attributed to wind-blown dust and/or rivers. At 10 parts per quadrillion the Earth's oceans would hold 15,000 tons of gold[43] . These figures are three orders of magnitude less than reported in the literature prior to 1988, indicating contamination problems with the earlier data. A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover gold from sea water, but so far they have all been either mistaken or crooks. A so-called reverend, Prescott Jernegan ran a gold-from-seawater swindle in the United States in the 1890s. A British fraudster ran the same scam in England in the early 1900s.[44] Fritz Haber (the

Gold German inventor of the Haber process) did research on the extraction of gold from sea water in an effort to help pay Germany's reparations following World War I.[45] Based on the published values of 2 to 64 ppb of gold in seawater a commercially successful extraction seemed possible. After analysis of 4000 water samples yielding an average of 0.004 ppb it became clear that the extraction would not be possible and he stopped the project.[46] No commercially viable mechanism for performing gold extraction from sea water has yet been identified. Gold synthesis is not economically viable and is unlikely to become so in the foreseeable future


Gallery of specimens of crystalline native gold

"Rope gold" from Lena River, Sakha Republic, Russia. Size: 2.5×1.2×0.7 cm.

Crystalline gold from Mina Zapata, Santa Elena de Uairen, Venezuela. Size: 3.7×1.1×0.4 cm.

Gold leaf from Harvard Mine, Jamestown, California, USA. Size 9.3×3.2× >0.1 cm.

Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits. Ore grades as little as 0.5 mg/kg (0.5 parts per million, ppm) can be economical. Typical ore grades in open-pit mines are 1–5 mg/kg (1–5 ppm); ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 mg/kg (3 ppm). Because ore grades of 30 mg/kg (30 ppm) are usually needed before gold is visible to the naked eye, in most gold mines the gold is invisible. Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source for a large proportion of the world's gold supply, with about World gold production trend 50% of all gold ever produced having come from South Africa. Production in 1970 accounted for 79% of the world supply, producing about 1,480 tonnes. 2008 production was 2,260 tonnes. In 2007 China (with 276 tonnes) overtook South Africa as the world's largest gold producer, the first time since 1905 that South Africa has not been the largest.[47]


130 The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest gold deposits the world has ever seen. Gold fields located within the basin in the Free State and Gauteng provinces are extensive in strike and dip requiring some of the world's deepest mines, with the Savuka and TauTona mines being currently the world's deepest gold mine at 3,777 m. The Second Boer War of 1899–1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa. Other major producers are the United States, Australia, Russia and Peru. Mines in South Dakota and Nevada supply two-thirds of gold used in the United States. In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina. Today about one-quarter of the world gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining.[48] After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller process, that is chlorination in the melt. The Wohlwill process results in higher purity, but is more complex and is only applied in small-scale installations.[49] [50] Other methods of assaying and purifying smaller amounts of gold include parting and inquartation as well as cupellation, or refining methods based on the dissolution of gold in aqua regia.[51] At the end of 2009, it was estimated that all the gold ever mined totaled 165,000 tonnes[52] This can be represented by a cube with an edge length of about 20.28 meters. The value of this is very limited; at $1200 per ounce, 165,000 tons of gold would have a value of only 6.6 trillion dollars.

Gold output in 2005

The entrance to an underground gold mine in Victoria, Australia

Pure gold precipitate produced by the aqua regia refining process

The average gold mining and extraction costs were about US$317/oz in 2007, but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality; global mine production amounted to 2,471.1 tonnes.[53] Gold is so stable and so valuable that it is always recovered and recycled. There is no true consumption of gold in the economic sense; the stock of gold remains essentially constant while ownership shifts from one party to another.[54]



India is the world's largest consumer of gold, as Indians buy about 25% of the world's gold,[55] purchasing approximately 800 tonnes of gold every year. India is also the largest importer of the yellow metal; in 2008, India imported around 400 tonnes of gold.[56]

Although gold is a noble metal, it forms many and diverse compounds. The oxidation state of gold in its compounds ranges from −1 to +5, but Au(I) and Au(III) dominate its chemistry. Au(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. Au(I) compounds are typically linear. A good example is Au(CN)2−, which is the soluble form of gold encountered in mining. Curiously, aurous complexes of water are rare. The binary gold halides, such as AuCl, form zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. Most drugs based on gold are Au(I) derivatives.[57] Au(III) (auric) is a common oxidation state and is illustrated by gold(III) chloride, AuCl3. Au(III) complexes, like other d8 compounds, are typically square planar. Aqua regia, a 1:3 mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, dissolves gold. Nitric acid oxidizes the metal to +3 ions, but only in minute amounts, typically undetectable in the pure acid because of the chemical equilibrium of the reaction. However, the ions are removed from the equilibrium by hydrochloric acid, forming AuCl4− ions, or chloroauric acid, thereby enabling further oxidation. Some free halogens react with gold.[58] Gold also reacts in alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide. With mercury, it forms an amalgam.

Less common oxidation states
Less common oxidation states of gold include −1, +2, and +5. The −1 oxidation state occurs in compounds containing the Au− anion, called aurides. Caesium auride (CsAu), for example, crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif.[59] Other aurides include those of Rb+, K+, and tetramethylammonium (CH3)4N+.[60] Gold(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au–Au bonds such as [Au(CH2)2P(C6H5)2]2Cl2. The evaporation of a solution of Au(OH)3 in concentrated H2SO4 produces red crystals of gold(II) sulfate, AuSO4. Originally thought to be a mixed-valence compound, it has been shown to contain Au4+2 cations.[61] [62] A noteworthy, legitimate gold(II) complex is the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, which contains xenon as a ligand, found in [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2.[63] Gold pentafluoride and its derivative anion, AuF−6, is the sole example of gold(V), the highest verified oxidation state.[64] Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au–Au bond but shorter that van der Waals bonding. The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond.



Mixed valence compounds
Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous.[60] In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state. A representative example is the octahedral species {Au(P(C6H5)3)}62+. Gold chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III).

Pure metallic (elemental) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested[65] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf. Metallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser. Metallic gold is approved as a food additive in the EU (E175 in the Codex Alimentarius). Although gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body. Soluble compounds (gold salts) such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating, are toxic both by virtue of their cyanide and gold content. There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide.[66] [67] Gold toxicity can be ameliorated with chelation therapy with an agent such as Dimercaprol. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in 2001 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Gold contact allergies affect mostly women.[68] Despite this, gold is a relatively non-potent contact allergen, in comparison with metals like nickel.[69]

Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. When it is alloyed with other metals the term carat or karat is used to indicate the amount of gold present, with 24 carats being pure gold and lower ratings proportionally less. The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness, such as 0.995 being very pure. The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark price to the industry. The afternoon fixing was introduced in 1968 to provide a price when US markets are open.

Gold price per troy ounce in USD since 1960, in nominal US$ and inflation adjusted in 2009 US$.

Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion. In an economic system known as the gold standard, a certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. For a long period, the United States government set the value of the US dollar so that one troy ounce was equal to $20.67 ($664.56/kg), but in 1934 the dollar was devalued to $35.00 per troy ounce ($1125.27/kg). By 1961, it was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand.


133 On March 17, 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a two-tiered pricing scheme was established whereby gold was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00 per troy ounce ($1.13/g) but the price of gold on the private market was allowed to fluctuate; this two-tiered pricing system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of gold was left to find its free-market level. Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining. The largest gold depository in the world is that of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank in New York, which holds about 3% of the gold ever mined, as does the similarly laden U.S. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox.

Swiss-cast 1 kg gold bar

In 2005 the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3,859 tonnes and demand to be 3,754 tonnes, giving a surplus of 105 tonnes.[70] Since 1968 the price of gold has ranged widely, from a high of $850/oz ($27,300/kg) on January 21, 1980, to a low of $252.90/oz ($8,131/kg) on June 21, 1999 (London Gold Fixing).[71] The period from 1999 to 2001 marked the "Brown Bottom" after a 20-year bear market.[72] Prices increased rapidly from 1991, but the 1980 high was not exceeded until January 3, 2008 when a new maximum of $865.35 per troy ounce was set (a.m. London Gold Fixing).[73] Another record price was set on March 17, 2008 at $1023.50/oz ($32,900/kg)(am. London Gold Fixing).[73] In the fall of 2009, gold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar. On December 2, 2009, Gold passed the important barrier of US$1200 per ounce to close at $1215.[74] Gold further rallied hitting new highs in May of 2010 after the European Union debt crisis prompted further purchase of gold as a safe asset.[75] [76] Since April 2001 the gold price has more than tripled in value against the US dollar,[77] prompting speculation that this long secular bear market has ended and a bull market has returned.[78]

Gold has been highly valued in many societies throughout the ages. In keeping with this it has often had a strongly positive symbolic meaning closely connected to the values held in the highest esteem in the society in question. Gold may symbolize power, strength, wealth, warmth, happiness, love, hope, optimism, intelligence, justice, balance, perfection, summer, harvest and the sun. Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, golden trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a Gold bars at the Emperor Casino in Macau gold medal (e.g., the Olympic Games). Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards). Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now commonly known as the "golden mean". Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of Phi, which is sometimes called the "golden ratio". Gold represents great value. Respected people are treated with the most valued rule, the "golden rule". A company may give its most valued customers "gold cards" or make them "gold members". We value moments of peace and therefore we say: "silence is golden". In Greek mythology there was the "golden fleece".

Gold Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Our precious latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a "golden age". In Christianity gold has sometimes been associated with the extremities of utmost evil and the greatest sanctity. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry. In the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Christian art the halos of Christ, Mary and the Christian saints are golden. Medieval kings were inaugurated under the signs of sacred oil and a golden crown, the latter symbolizing the eternal shining light of heaven and thus a Christian king's divinely inspired authority. Wedding rings have long been made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and/or the sun and moon and the perfection the marriage signifies. In Orthodox Christianity, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites. In popular culture gold holds many connotations but is most generally connected to terms such as good or great, such as in the phrases: "has a heart of gold", "that's golden!", "golden moment", "then you're golden!" and "golden boy". Gold also still holds its place as a symbol of wealth and through that, in many societies, success.


State emblem
In 1965, the California Legislature designated gold "the State Mineral and mineralogical emblem."[79] In 1968, the Alaska Legislature named gold "the official state mineral."[80]

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • Altai Mountains ChipGold Commodity fetishism (Marxist economic theory) Digital gold currency Gold Anti-Trust Action Committee Gold bubble Gold fingerprinting Gold Prospectors Association of America Mining in Roman Britain Prospecting Roman engineering Tumbaga

External links
• • • • • Getting Gold 1898 book [81], Technical Document on Extraction and Mining of Gold [82], Picture in the Element collection from Heinrich Pniok [83], — Gold [84] n Chemistry in its element podcast [85] (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Gold [86]



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[67] Wu, Ming-Ling; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Tsay, Shyh-Haw; Yang, Mo-Hsiung. (2001). "Cholestatic Hepatitis Caused by Acute Gold Potassium Cyanide Poisoning". Clinical toxicology 39 (7): 739–743. doi:10.1081/CLT-100108516. PMID 11778673. [68] Henna tattoo ingredient is Allergen of the Year.(Clinical Rounds) (http:/ / www. entrepreneur. com/ tradejournals/ article/ 149265914. html). Retrieved Sept 17, 2009. [69] Brunk, Doug (February 15, 2008). "Ubiquitous nickel wins skin contact allergy award for 2008" (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1G1-176478357. html). . [70] "World Gold Council > value > research & statistics > statistics > supply and demand statistics" (http:/ / www. gold. org/ value/ stats/ statistics/ gold_demand/ index. html). . Retrieved 2006-07-22. [71] (http:/ / kitco. com/ LFgif/ au75-pres. gif), Gold - London PM Fix 1975 - present (GIF), Retrieved 2006-07-22. [72] "Goldfinger Brown's £2 billion blunder in the bullion market" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ politics/ article1655001. ece). The Times (London), 15 April 2007. [73] "LBMA statistics" (http:/ / www. lbma. org. uk/ 2008dailygold. htm). 2008-12-31. . Retrieved 2009-04-05. [74] "Gold hits yet another record high" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 8390779. stm). BBC News. 2009-12-02. . Retrieved 2009-12-06. [75] "PRECIOUS METALS: Comex Gold Hits All-Time High" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ BT-CO-20100511-717954. html). The Wall Street Journal. May 11, 2010. . Retrieved August 4, 2010. [76] Gibson, Kate; Chang, Sue (May 11, 2010). "Gold futures hit closing record as investors fret rescue deal" (http:/ / www. marketwatch. com/ story/ gold-prices-resume-rise-as-eu-plan-pondered-2010-05-11). MarketWatch. . Retrieved August 4, 2010. [77] 10 Year Gold (http:/ / kitco. com/ LFgif/ au3650nyb. gif) (GIF). [78] "Gold starts 2006 well, but this is not a 25-year high!" (http:/ / www. ameinfo. com/ 75511. html). . Retrieved 2009-04-05. [79] California Government Code selection 420-429.8 (http:/ / www. leginfo. ca. gov/ cgi-bin/ displaycode?section=gov& group=00001-01000& file=420-429. 8) (see § 425.1) [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] Alaska Statutes (http:/ / www. legis. state. ak. us/ cgi-bin/ folioisa. dll/ stattx08/ query=*/ doc/ {@17998}?) (see§ 44.09.110) http:/ / www. lateralscience. co. uk/ gold/ auriferous. html http:/ / www. epa. gov/ epaoswer/ other/ mining/ techdocs/ gold. pdf http:/ / www. pniok. de/ au. htm http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Au/ index. html http:/ / www. rsc. org/ chemistryworld/ podcast/ element. asp http:/ / www. rsc. org/ images/ CIIE_Gold_48k_tcm18-118269. mp3





Minotaur bust, (National Archaeological Museum of Athens) Mythology Grouping Parents Region Greek Legendary creature Cretan Bull and Pasiphaë Crete

Topics in Greek mythology Gods • • • • • Primordial gods and Titans Zeus and the Olympians Pan and the nymphs Apollo and Dionysus Sea-gods and Earth-gods

Heroes • • • • • • • • Heracles and his Labors Achilles and the Trojan War Odysseus and the Odyssey Jason and the Argonauts Perseus and Medusa/Gorgon Oedipus and Thebes Theseus and the Minotaur Triptolemus and the Eleusinian Mysteries

Related • • Satyrs, centaurs and dragons Religion in Ancient Greece

In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μῑνώταυρος, Latin: Minotaurus, Etruscan Θevrumineś), as the Greeks imagined him, was a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man[1] or, as described by Ovid, "part man and part bull".[2] He dwelt at the center of the Cretan Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction[3] built for King Minos of Crete and designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus who were ordered to build it to hold the Minotaur. The Minotaur was eventually killed by the Athenian founder-hero Theseus. Theseus was the son of Aethra, and fathered by both Poseidon and Aegeus. The term Minotaur derives from the Greek Μῑνώταυρος, etymologically compounding the name Μίνως (Minos) and the noun ταύρος "bull", translating as "(the) Bull of Minos". In Crete, the Minotaur was known by its proper name, Asterion,[4] a name shared with Minos' foster-father.[5]

Minotaur Minotaur was originally a proper noun in reference to this mythical figure. The use of minotaur as a common noun to refer to members of a generic race of bull-headed creatures developed much later, in 20th-century fantasy genre fiction.


Birth and appearance
After he ascended the throne of Crete, Minos struggled with his brothers for the right to rule. Minos prayed to Poseidon to send him a snow-white bull, as a sign of approval. He was to sacrifice the bull in honor of Poseidon but decided to keep it instead because of its beauty. To punish Minos, Aphrodite made Pasiphaë, Minos' wife, fall madly in love with the bull from the sea, the Cretan Bull.[6] She had Daedalus, the famous architect, make a wooden cow for her. Pasiphaë climbed into the bait in order to copulate with the white bull. The offspring of their coupling was a monster called the Minotaur. Pasiphaë nursed him in his infancy, but he grew and became ferocious; being the unnatural offspring of man and beast, he had no natural source of nourishment Pasiphaë and the Minotaur, Attic red-figure kylix, Cabinet des Médailles (Paris) and thus devoured man for sustenance. Minos, after getting advice from the Oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur. Its location was near Minos' palace in Knossos. Nowhere has the essence of the myth been expressed more succinctly than in the Heroides attributed to Ovid, where Pasiphaë's daughter complains of the curse of her unrequited love: "the bull's form disguised the god, Pasiphaë, my mother, a victim of the deluded bull, brought forth in travail her reproach and burden."[7] Literalist and prurient readings that emphasize the machinery of actual copulation may, perhaps intentionally, obscure the mystic marriage of the god in bull form, a Minoan mythos alien to the Greeks.[8] The Minotaur is commonly represented in Classical art with the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull. One of the figurations assumed by the river god Achelous in wooing Deianira is as a man with the head of a bull, according to Sophocles' Trachiniai. From Classical times through the Renaissance, the Minotaur appears at the center of many depictions of the Labyrinth.[9] Ovid's Latin account of the Minotaur, which did not elaborate on which half was bull and which half man, was the most widely available during the Middle Ages, and several later versions show the reverse of the Classical configuration: a man's head and torso on a bull's body, reminiscent of a centaur.[10] This alternative tradition survived into the Renaissance, and still figures in some modern depictions, such as Steele Savage's illustrations for Edith Hamilton's Mythology (1942).



Tribute price that brought Theseus to Crete
Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. Others say he was killed at Marathon by the Cretan bull, his mother's former taurine lover, which Aegeus, king of Athens, had commanded him to slay. The common tradition is that Minos waged war to avenge the death of his son, and won. Catullus, in his account of the Minotaur's birth,[11] refers to another version in which Athens was "compelled by the cruel plague to pay penalties for the killing of Androgeos." Aegeus must avert the plague caused by his crime by sending "young men at the same time as the best of unwed girls as a feast" to the Minotaur. Minos required that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens, drawn by lots, be sent every ninth year (some accounts say every year[12] ) to be devoured by the Minotaur. When the third sacrifice approached, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He promised to his father, Aegeus, that he would put up a Rhyton in the shape of a bull's head at the Greek white sail on his journey back home if he was successful and would pavilion at Expo '88 have the crew put up black sails if he was killed. In Crete, Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, fell in love with Theseus and helped him navigate the labyrinth, which had a single path to the center. In most accounts she gave him a ball of thread, allowing him to retrace his path. Theseus killed the Minotaur with the sword of Aegeus and led the other Athenians back out of the labyrinth. But he forgot to put up the white sail, so when his father saw the ship he presumed Theseus was dead and threw himself into the sea, thus committing suicide.[13]

Etruscan view
This essentially Athenian view of the Minotaur as the antagonist of Theseus reflects the literary sources, which are biased in favour of Athenian perspectives. The Etruscans, who paired Ariadne with Dionysus, never with Theseus, offered an alternative Etruscan view of the Minotaur, never seen in Greek arts: on an Etruscan red-figure wine-cup of the early-to-mid fourth century Pasiphaë tenderly dandles an infant Minotaur on her knee.[14]

The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was frequently represented in Greek art. A Knossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur surrounded by a semicircle of small balls, probably intended for stars; one of the monster's names was Asterion ("star"). The ruins of Minos' palace at Knossos have been found, but the labyrinth has not. The enormous number of rooms, staircases and corridors in the palace has led some archaeologists to suggest that the palace itself was the source of the labyrinth myth, an idea generally discredited today.[16] Homer, describing the shield of Achilles, remarked that the labyrinth was Ariadne's ceremonial dancing ground.

The Minotaur in the Labyrinth, engraving of a 16th-century gem in the Medici Collection in the [15] Palazzo Strozzi, Florence



Some modern mythologists regard the Minotaur as a solar personification and a Minoan adaptation of the Baal-Moloch of the Phoenicians. The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the breaking of Athenian tributary relations with Minoan Crete. According to A. B. Cook, Minos and Minotaur are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god of the Cretans, who depicted the sun as a bull. He and J. G. Frazer both explain Pasiphae's union with the bull as a sacred ceremony, at which the queen of Knossos was wedded to a bull-formed god, just as the wife of the Tyrant in Athens was wedded to Dionysus. E. Pottier, who does not dispute the historical personality of Minos, in view of the story of Phalaris, considers it probable that in Crete (where a bull-cult may have existed by the side of that of the labrys) victims were tortured by being shut up in the belly of a red-hot brazen bull. The story of Talos, the Cretan man of brass, who heated himself red-hot and clasped strangers in his embrace as soon as they landed on the island, is probably of similar origin. A historical explanation of the myth refers to the time when Crete was the main political and cultural potency in the Aegean Sea. As the fledgling Athens (and probably other continental Greek cities) was under tribute to Crete, it can be assumed that such tribute included young men and women for sacrifice. This ceremony was performed by a priest disguised with a bull head or mask, thus explaining the imagery of the Minotaur. It may also be that this priest was son to Minos. Once continental Greece was free from Crete's dominance, the myth of the Minotaur worked to distance the forming religious consciousness of the Hellene poleis from Minoan beliefs.

Theseus fighting the Minotaur by Jean-Etienne Ramey, marble, 1826, Tuileries Gardens, Paris.

The Minotaur in Dante's Inferno
The Minotaur, the infamia di Creti, appears briefly in Dante's Inferno, The bronze "Horned God" from Enkomi, Cyprus Canto 12,11-15, where, picking their way among boulders dislodged on the slope and preparing to enter into the Seventh Circle,[17] Dante and Virgil, his guide, encounter the beast first among those damned for their violent natures, the "men of blood", though the creature is not actually named until line 25.[18] At Virgil's taunting reminder of the "king of Athens", the Minotaur rises enraged and distracted, and Virgil and Dante pass quickly by to the centaurs, who guard the Flegetonte, "river of blood". This unusual association of the Minotaur with centaurs, not made in any Classical source, is shown visually in William Blake's rendering of the Minotaur (illustration) as a kind of taurine centaur himself.

See also
• Apis, the Egyptian god is often depicted as a bull, or bull-headed man. • Michael Ayrton 20th century British artist whose work included many interpretations of the Minotaur, Daedalus, mazes and the Labyrinth.

Minotaur • • • • • William Blake Mesopotamian mythology: Shedu had a bull body and a human head. Molech or Ba'al worshipped in the Middle East, and depicted as a man with the head of a bull. Sarangay, a creature resembling a bull with a huge muscular body and a jewel attached to its ears Ushi-oni Another bull-headed monster; from Japanese folklore.


• Minotaur in Greek Myth [19] source Greek texts and art.

[1] "Minotaur" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ Minotaur) at [2] semibovemque virum semivirumque bovem, according to Ovid, Ars Amatoria 2.24, one of the three lines that his friends would have deleted from his work, and one of the three that he, selecting independently, would preserve at all cost, in the apocryphal anecdote told by Albinovanus Pedo. (noted by J. S. Rusten, "Ovid, Empedocles and the Minotaur" The American Journal of Philology 103.3 (Autumn 1982, pp. 332-333) p. 332. [3] Labyrinth patterns as painted or inscribed do not have dead ends like a maze; instead, a single path winds to the center, where, with a single turn, the alternate path leads out again. See Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, Chapter 1, and Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, Cornell University Press, 1990, Chapter 2. [4] Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 31. 1 [5] The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, says of Zeus' establishment of Europa in Crete: "...he made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans. There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys." [6] In Greek mythology, the Cretan Bull was equally the bull that carried away Europa. [7] Walter Burkert notes the fragment of Euripides' The Cretans (C. Austin's frs. 78-82) as the "authoritative version" for the Hellenes. [8] See R.F. Willetts, Cretan Cults and Festivals (London, 1962); Pasiphaë's union with the bull has been recognized as a mystical union for over a century: F. B. Jevons, )"Report on Greek Mythology" Folklore 2.2 (June 1891:220-241) p. 226) notes of Europa and Pasiphaë, "The kernel of both myths is the union of the moon-spirit (in human shape) with a bull; both myths, then, have to do with a sacred marriage." [9] Several examples are shown in Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000. [10] Examples include illustrations 204, 237, 238, and 371 in Kern. op. cit. [11] Carmen 64 (http:/ / rudy. negenborn. net/ catullus/ text2/ e64. htm). [12] The annual period is given by J. E. Zimmerman, Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Harper & Row, 1964, article "Androgeus"; and H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology, Dutton, 1959, p. 265. Zimmerman cites Virgil, Apollodorus, and Pausanias. The nine-year period appears in Plutarch and Ovid. [13] Plutarch, Theseus, 15—19; Diodorus Siculus i. I6, iv. 61; Bibliotheke iii. 1,15 [14] The wine cup is illustrated in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling, Etruscan Mythology (Series The Legendary Past, British Museum / University of Texas) 2006, fig.29 p. 44 ("early fourth century") ( on-line illustration (http:/ / bama. ua. edu/ ~ksummers/ cl222/ LECT14/ sld029. htm)). [15] Paolo Alessandro Maffei, Gemmae Antiche, 1709, Pt. IV, pl. 31; Hermann Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, fig. 371, p. 202): Maffei "erroneously deemed the piece to be from Classical antiquity". [16] Sir Arthur Evans, the first of many archaeologists who have worked at Knossos, is often given credit for this idea, but he did not himself believe it; see David McCullough, The Unending Mystery, Pantheon, 2004, p. 34-36. Modern scholarship generally discounts the idea; see Kern, Through the Labyrinth, Prestel, 2000, p. 42-43, and Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, Cornell University Press, p. 1990, p. 25. [17] The traverse of this circle is a long one, filling Cantos 12 to 17. [18] Jeremy Tambling, "Monstrous Tyranny, Men of Blood: Dante and "Inferno" XII" The Modern Language Review 98.4 (October 2003:881-897). [19] http:/ / www. theoi. com/ Ther/ Minotauros. html



In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, a creature that was half man and half bull and was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. Daedalus had made the Labyrinth so cunningly that he himself could barely escape it after he built it.[1] Theseus was aided by Ariadne, who provided him with a skein of thread, literally the "clew", or "clue", so he could find his way out again. In colloquial English labyrinth is generally synonymous with maze, but many contemporary scholars observe a distinction between the two: maze refers to a complex branching (multicursal) puzzle with choices of path and direction; while a single-path (unicursal) labyrinth has only a single, non-branching path, which leads to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and is not designed to be difficult to navigate.[2] Although early Cretan coins occasionally exhibit multicursal patterns,[3] the unicursal seven-course "Classical" design became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as 430 BC,[4] and became widely used to represent the Labyrinth – even though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze.[5] Even as the designs became more elaborate, visual depictions of the Labyrinth from Roman times until the Renaissance are almost invariably unicursal. Branching mazes were reintroduced only when garden mazes became popular in the Renaissance. Labyrinths appeared as designs on pottery or basketry, as body art, and etched on walls of caves or churches. The Romans built many primarily decorative labyrinth designs on walls and floors in tile or mosaic. Many labyrinths set in floors or on the ground are large enough that the path to the center and back can be walked. They have historically been used both in group ritual and for private meditation.
Classical labyrinth.

Atlantic Bronze Age labyrinth. Meis, Galicia.

Ancient labyrinths
Pliny's Natural History mentions four ancient labyrinths: the Cretan labyrinth, an Egyptian labyrinth, a Lemnian labyrinth and an Italian labyrinth.
Roman mosaic picturing Theseus and the Minotaur. Rhaetia, Switzerland.

Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek (Minoan) origin absorbed by Classical Greek and is perhaps related to the Lydian labrys ("double-edged axe", a symbol of royal power, which fits with the theory that the labyrinth was originally the royal Minoan palace on Crete and meant "palace of the double-axe"), with -inthos meaning "place" (as in Corinth). A lot of these symbols were found in the Minoan palace and they usually accompanied female goddesses. It was probably the symbol of the arche (Mater-arche:matriarchy). This theory is confirmed by the worship of Zeus Labraundos (Ζεύς Λαβρυάνδις) in Caria of Anatolia, where



also existed a sacred site named Labraunda. Zeus is depicted holding a double-edged axe.[6] In classical Greece the priests at Delphi were called Labryades (Λαβρυάδες) - the men of the double axe.[7] The complex palace of Knossos in Crete is usually implicated, though the actual dancing-ground, depicted in frescoed patterns at Knossos, has not been found. Something was being shown to visitors as a labyrinth at Knossos in the 1st century AD (Philostratos, De vita Apollonii Tyanei iv.34).[8] A palace of similar complicated structure was discovered at Beycesultan in Anatolia, on the headwaters of Meander river.[9] The word labyrinthos (Mycenaean daburinthos[10] ) may possibly show the same equivocation between initial d- and l- as is found in the variation of the early Hittite royal name Tabarna / Labarna (where written t- may represent phonetic d-). If so, the equivocation would be similar to the Vedic sandhi representation of intervocalic retroflex -ḍ- as -ḷ-. It is possible that daburinthos may be cognate with the name of Mt. Tābôr,but this is not generally accepted. Greek mythology did not recall, however, that in Crete there was a Lady or mistress who presided over the Labyrinth, although the goddess of mysteries of Arcadian cults was called Despoine (miss)[11] . A tablet inscribed in Linear B found at Knossos records a gift "to all the gods honey; to the mistress of the labyrinth honey." All the gods together receive as much honey as the Mistress of the Labyrinth alone. The Mycenean Greek word is potnia. "She must have been a Great Goddess," Kerényi observes.[12] It is possible that the Cretan labyrinth and the Lady were connected with a cult which was transmitted later to the Eleusinian mysteries.[13] [14] The labyrinth is the referent in the familiar Greek patterns of the endlessly running meander, to give the "Greek key" its common modern name. In the 3rd century BC, coins from Knossos were still struck with the labyrinth symbol. The predominant labyrinth form during this period is the simple seven-circuit style known as the classical labyrinth. The term labyrinth came to be applied to any unicursal maze, whether of a particular circular shape (illustration) or rendered as square. At the center, a decisive turn brought one out again. In the Socratic dialogue that Plato produced as Euthydemus, Socrates describes the labyrinthine line of a logical argument: "Then it seemed like falling into a labyrinth: we thought we were at the finish, but our way bent round and we found ourselves as it were back at the beginning, and just as far from that which we were seeking at first." ... Thus the present-day notion of a labyrinth as a place where one can lose [his] way must be set aside. It is a confusing path, hard to follow without a thread, but, provided [the traverser] is not devoured at the midpoint, it leads surely, despite twists and turns, back to the beginning.[15]
Medieval labyrinth.

Walking the famous labyrinth on floor of Chartres Cathedral.

Chakravyuha, a threefold seed pattern with a spiral at the centre, one of the troop formations employed at the battle of Kurukshetra, as recounted in the Mahabharata.

I'itoi, the "Man in the Maze", a popular design in Native American basketry.



Cretan labyrinth at Knossos
Wrapped in legend, but also clearly manifested in the archaeological record, is the huge Bronze Age labyrinth at Knossos. The Cretan labyrinth had been a dancing-ground and was made for Ariadne rather than for Minos. This was mentioned by Homer in the Iliad xviii.590–593, where, in the pattern that Hephaestus inscribed on Achilles' shield, one incident pictured was a Labyrinth among rock drawings in dancing-ground "like the one that Daedalus designed in the spacious town of Valcamonica, Italy Knossos for Ariadne of the lovely locks." Even the labyrinth dance was depicted on the shield, where "youths and marriageable maidens were dancing on it with their hands on one another's wrists... circling as smoothly on their accomplished feet as the wheel of a potter...and there they ran in lines to meet each other."

Herodotus' Egyptian labyrinth
Even more generally, labyrinth might be applied to any extremely complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids in its astonishing ambition: It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles. The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men; the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards. The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade.[16] During the 19th century, the remains of the Labyrinth were discovered "11½ miles from the pyramid of Hawara, in the province of Faioum."[17] The Labyrinth was likely modified and added upon "at various times. The names of more than one king have been found there, the oldest" name being that of Amenemhat III.[17] "It is unnecessary to imagine more than that it was monumental, and a monument of more than one king of Egypt."[17] In 1898, the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities described the structure as "the largest of all the temples of Egypt, the so-called Labyrinth, of which, however, only the foundation stones have been preserved."[18] Herodotus' description of the Egyptian Labyrinth, in Book II of The Histories, inspired some central scenes in Bolesław Prus' 1895 historical novel, Pharaoh.



Pliny's Lemnian labyrinth
Pliny the Elder's Natural History (36.90) lists the legendary Smilis, reputed to be a contemporary of Daedalus, together with the historical mid-sixth-century BC architects and sculptors Rhoikos and Theodoros as two of the makers of the Lemnian labyrinth, which Andrew Stewart[19] regards as "evidently a misunderstanding of the Samian temple's location en limnais ['in the marsh']."

Pliny's Italian labyrinth
According to Pliny, the tomb of the great Etruscan general Lars Porsena contained an underground maze. Pliny's description of the exposed portion of the tomb is intractable; Pliny, it seems clear, had not observed this structure himself, but is quoting the historian and Roman antiquarian Varro.

Ancient labyrinths outside Europe
At about the same time as the appearance of the Greek labyrinth, a topologically identical pattern appeared in Native American culture, the Tohono O'odham labyrinth which features I'itoi, the "Man in the Maze". The Tonoho O'odham pattern has two distinct differences from the Greek: it is radial in design, and the entrance is at the top, where traditional Greek labyrinths have the entrance at the bottom (see below). A prehistoric petroglyph on a riverbank in Goa shows the same pattern and has been dated to circa 2500 BC. Other examples have been found among cave art in northern India and on a dolmen shrine in the Nilgiri Mountains, but are difficult to date accurately. Early labyrinths in India all follow the Classical pattern; some have been described as plans of forts or cities.[20]

Carving showing the warrior Abhimanyu entering the chakravyuha – Hoysaleswara temple, Halebidu, India

Labyrinths appear in Indian manuscripts and Tantric texts from the 17th century onward. They are often called "Chakravyuha" in reference to an impregnable battle formation described in the ancient Mahabharata epic. Lanka, the capital city of mythic Rāvana, is described as a labyrinth in the 1910 translation of Al-Beruni's India (c.1030CE) p. 306 (with a diagram on the following page).[21] By the White Sea, notably on the Solovetsky Islands, there have been preserved more than 30 stone labyrinths. The most remarkable monument is the Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island - a group of 13–14 stone labyrinths on 0.4 km2 area of one small island. It is considered that these labyrinths are 2,000–3,000 years old.[22]

Labyrinth as pattern
In antiquity, the less complicated labyrinth pattern familiar from medieval examples was already developed. In Roman floor mosaics, the simple classical labyrinth is framed in the meander border pattern, squared off as the medium requires, but still recognisable. Often an image of the Minotaur appears in the centre of these mosaic labyrinths. Roman meander patterns gradually developed in complexity towards the fourfold shape that is now familiarly known as the medieval form. The labyrinth retains its connection with death and a triumphant return: at Hadrumentum in North Africa (now Sousse), a Roman family tomb has a fourfold labyrinth mosaic floor with a dying minotaur in the center and a mosaic inscription: HICINCLUSUS.VITAMPERDIT "Enclosed here, he loses life" (Kerenyi, fig.31).



Earliest recovered labyrinth, incised on a clay tablet from Pylos.

Minotaur in Labyrinth—a Roman mosaic at Conímbriga, Portugal.

Sketch by Villard de Honnecourt (c.1230)

Wall maze in Lucca Cathedral, Italy (probably medieval).

Illustration of Jericho in a Farhi Bible (14th century)

Basilica of St-Quentin, Aisne, France

Cathedral of Amiens, France

Stone labyrinth on Blå Jungfrun (Blue Virgin) island, Sweden

Seven-ring classical labyrinth of unknown age in Rocky Valley near Tintagel, Cornwall, UK.

Small turf maze near Dalby, North Yorkshire, UK.

Turf maze at Wing in Rutland, UK.

Portrait of a man, by Bartolomeo Veneto, Italy, early 16th century

Minotaur at center of labyrinth, on a 16th-century gem.

Edinburgh labyrinth, George Square Gardens, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

9/11 memorial labyrinth, Boston College, USA.



Medieval labyrinths and turf mazes
The full flowering of the medieval labyrinth design came about during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries with the grand pavement labyrinths of the gothic cathedrals, notably Chartres, Reims and Amiens in northern France and the Duomo di Siena in Tuscany. These labyrinths may have originated as symbolic allusion to the Holy City; and some modern thinkers have theorized that prayers and devotions may have accompanied the perambulation of their intricate paths.[23] However, no contemporary evidence supports the idea that labyrinths had such a purpose for early Christians.[24] It is this version of the design that is thought to be the inspiration for the many turf mazes in the UK, such as survive at Wing, Hilton, Alkborough, and Saffron Walden.

Labyrinth in the Trappist Abbey of Our Lady of Saint-Remy, Wallonia, Belgium.

Over the same period, some 500 or more non-ecclesiastical labyrinths were constructed in Scandinavia. These labyrinths, generally in coastal areas, are marked out with stones, most often in the simple classical form. They often have names which translate as "Troy Town". They are thought to have been constructed by fishing communities: trapping malevolent trolls or winds in the labyrinth's coils might ensure a safe fishing expedition. There are also stone labyrinths on the Isles of Scilly, although none is known to date back as far as the earliest Scandinavian ones. There are examples of labyrinths in many disparate cultures. The symbol has appeared in various forms and media (petroglyphs, classic-form, medieval-form, pavement, turf, and basketry) at some time throughout most parts of the world, from Native North and South America to Australia, Java, India, and Nepal.

Modern labyrinths
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the labyrinth symbol, which has inspired a revival in labyrinth building. Countless computer games depict mazes and labyrinths. On bobsled, luge, and skeleton tracks, a labyrinth is where there are three to four curves in succession without a straight line in between any of the turns. In modern imagery, the labyrinth of Daedalus is often represented by a multicursal maze, in which one may become lost. The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges was entranced with the idea of the labyrinth, and used it extensively in his short stories (such as "The House of Asterion" in The Aleph). His use of it has inspired other authors' works (e.g. Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose, Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves). Additionally, Roger Zelazny's fantasy series, The Chronicles of Amber, features a labyrinth, called "the Pattern", which grants those who walk it the power to move between parallel worlds. The avant-garde multi-screen film, In the Labyrinth, presents a search for meaning in a symbolic modern labyrinth. In Rick Riordan's series Percy Jackson & the Olympians, the events of the fourth novel The Battle of the Labyrinth predominantly take place
Labyrinth at St. Lambertus, Mingolsheim, Germany.

Labyrinth on floor of Grace Cathedral, San Francisco.

Labyrinth within the labyrinth of Daedalus, which has followed the heart of the West to settle beneath the United States. Australian author Sara Douglass incorporated some labyrinthine ideas in her series The Troy Game, in which the Labyrinth on Crete is one of several in the ancient world, created with the cities as a source of magical power. The labyrinth is also treated in contemporary fine arts. Examples include Piet Mondrian's Dam and Ocean (1915), Joan Miró's Labyrinth (1923), Pablo Picasso's Minotauromachia (1935), M. C. Escher's Relativity (1953), Friedensreich Hundertwasser's Labyrinth (1957), Jean Dubuffet's Logological Cabinet (1970), Richard Long's Connemara sculpture (1971), Joe Tilson's Earth Maze (1975), Richard Fleischner's Chain Link Maze (1978), István Orosz's Atlantis Anamorphosis (2000), Dmitry Rakov's Labyrinth (2003), and Labyrinthine projection by contemporary American artist Mo Morales (2000).


Cultural meanings
Prehistoric labyrinths are believed to have served as traps for malevolent spirits or as defined paths for ritual dances. In medieval times, the labyrinth symbolized a hard path to God with a clearly defined center (God) and one entrance (birth). Labyrinths can be thought of as symbolic forms of pilgrimage; people can walk the path, ascending toward salvation or enlightenment. Many people could not afford to travel to holy sites and lands, so labyrinths and prayer substituted for such travel. Later, the religious significance of labyrinths faded, and they served primarily for entertainment, though recently their spiritual aspect has seen a resurgence. Many newly made labyrinths exist today, in churches and parks. Labyrinths are used by modern mystics to help achieve a contemplative state. Walking among the turnings, one loses track of direction and of the outside world, and thus quiets the mind. The Labyrinth Society[25] provides a locator for modern labyrinths all over the world.

See also
• • • • • • • • • Caerdroia Celtic maze Julian's Bower Maze Mizmaze Prayer Labyrinth Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island Troy Town Turf maze

• Hermann Kern, Through the Labyrinth, ed. Robert Ferré and Jeff Saward, Prestel, 2000, ISBN 3-7913-2144-7. (This is an English translation of Kern's original German monograph Labyrinthe published by Prestel in 1982.) • Penelope Reed Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth: from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages, Cornell University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-80142-393-7. • Herodotus, The Histories, Newly translated and with an introduction by Aubrey de Sélincourt, Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1965. • Karl Kereny, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, Princeton University Press, 1976. • Helmut Jaskolski, The Labyrinth: Symbol of Fear, Rebirth and Liberation, Shambala, 1997. • Adrian Fisher & Georg Gerster, The Art of the Maze, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990. ISBN 0-297-83027-9. • Jeff Saward, Labyrinths and Mazes, Gaia Books Ltd, 2003, ISBN 1-85675-183-X. • Jeff Saward, Magical Paths, Mitchell Beazley, 2002, ISBN 1-84000-573-4.

Labyrinth • W.H. Matthews, Mazes and Labyrinths: Their History and Development [26], Longmans, Green & Co., 1922. Includes bibliography [66]. Dover Publications reprint, 1970, ISBN 0-486-22614-X. • Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works. • Henning Eichberg, 2005: "Racing in the labyrinth? About some inner contradictions of running." [27] In: Athletics, Society & Identity. Imeros, Journal for Culture and Technology, 5:1. Athen: Foundation of the Hellenic World, 169-192. • Edward Hays, The Lenten Labyrinth: Daily Reflections for the Journey of Lent, Forest of Peace Publishing, 1994.


External links
• • • • • • [28] maintained by Jeff Saward The Labyrinth Society [71] [29], Through Mazes to Mathematics, Exposition by Tony Phillips [75], Maze classification, Extensive classification of labyrinths and algorithms to solve them. [30], Lars O. Heintel's collection of handdrawn labyrinths and mazes [31] Website (German) with diagrams and photos of virtually all the public labyrinths in Germany.

• [32], German website (German) and [33] (English) with descriptions, animations, links, and especially photos of (mostly European) labyrinths. • [34], British turf labyrinths by Marilyn Clark. Photos and descriptions of the surviving historical turf mazes in Britain. • [35], Jo Edkins's Maze Page, an early website providing a clear overview of the territory and suggestions for further study. • [36], "Die Kretische Labyrinth-Höhle" by Thomas M. Waldmann, rev. 2009 (German) (English) (French) (Greek). Description of a labyrinthine artificial cave system near Gortyn, Crete, widely considered the original labyrinth on Crete. (Presentation somewhat amateurish – including <blink> tags – but many detailed photos.) • [37] an educational website about the science of pattern formation, spirals in nature, and spirals in the mythic imagination & labyrinths. • [38], "The Geometry of History", Tessa Morrison, University of Newcastle, Australia. An attempt to extend Phillips's topological classification to more general unicursal labyrinths.

[1] Penelope Reed Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, p 36. [2] Kern, Through the Labyrinth, p. 23. The usage restricting maze to patterns that involve choices of path is mentioned by Matthews (p. 2-3) as early as 1922, though he argues against it. [3] Kern, Through the Labyrinth, 2000, item 43, p. 53. [4] Kern, Through the Labyrinth, 2000, item 50, p. 54. [5] Penelope Reed Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth, pp. 40–41. [6] Schachermeyer."Die Minoische Kultur des alten Kreta". [7] R.Wunderlich."The secret of Creta".Efstathiadis group.Athens 1987.p 233 [8] Kerenyi, Dionysos, p. 101, n. 171. [9] F.Schachermeyer."Die Minoische Kultur of Ancient Kreta" [10] da-pu2-ri-to-yo po-ti-ni-ja (KN Gg 702), daburinthoyo potnia meaning "mistress or lady of the Labyrinth". [11] Pausanias:Description of Greece VII Arcadia chapter 25.7 [12] Kerenyi, Dionysos, p. 91. [13] R. Wunderlich."The secret of Creta." Efstathiadis group. Athens 1987 p.143 [14] Karl Kerenyi [15] Kerenyi, Dionysos, p. 92f. [16] Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt, Book II, pp. 160–61.

[17] Leonhard Schmitz, George Eden Marindin, Labyrinthus entry, in William Smith et al. (editors), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, published 1890. [18] Peck, Harry Thurston (chief editor). "Hieratic Papyrus. (Twentieth Dynasty.)" in the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, published 1898, page 29. [19] Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works, "Smilis." [20] (http:/ / www. labyrinthos. net/ indialabs. html) [21] [[Abu Rayhan Biruni|Al-Beruni (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ cu/ lweb/ digital/ collections/ cul/ texts/ ldpd_5949073_001/ pages/ ldpd_5949073_001_00000362. html)], India, (c.1030 CE), Edward C. Sachau (translator), Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co, London, 1910] Online version from Columbia University Libraries (accessed 5 December 2009) [22] Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island (http:/ / www. wondermondo. com/ Countries/ E/ RUS/ Arkhangelsk/ Bolshoi_Zayatsky. htm) (accessed 5 December 2009) [23] Labyrinth in Catholic Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 08728b. htm) [24] Russell, W. M. S.; Claire Russell (1991). "English Turf Mazes, Troy, and the Labyrinth" (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1260358?seq=2). Folklore (Taylor and Francis) 102 (1): 77–88. . Retrieved 2009-03-26. [25] (http:/ / wwll. veriditas. labyrinthsociety. org/ ) [26] http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ etc/ ml/ index. htm [27] http:/ / www. cisc. sdu. dk/ Publikationer/ qHE2004_13. pdf [28] http:/ / www. labyrinthos. net [29] http:/ / www. math. sunysb. edu/ ~tony/ mazes/ [30] http:/ / www. irrgartenwelt. de [31] http:/ / www. begehbare-labyrinthe. de/ [32] http:/ / www. mymaze. de/ [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] http:/ / www. mymaze. de/ home_e. htm http:/ / www. indigogroup. co. uk/ edge/ Mazes. htm http:/ / gwydir. demon. co. uk/ jo/ maze/ index. htm http:/ / www. gottesformel. ch/ Labyrinth/ Labyrinth-Hoehle. html http:/ / SpiralZoom. com http:/ / www. mi. sanu. ac. rs/ vismath/ morrison


Morse code


Morse code
Morse code is a method of transmitting textual information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. The International Morse Code encodes the Roman alphabet, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short and long "dots" and "dashes", or "dits" and "dahs". Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages. Morse code speed is specified in words per minute (WPM) and associated with an "element time" equal to 1.2 seconds divided by the speed in WPM. A dot consists of an "on" element followed by an "off" element, and a dash is three "on" elements and one "off" element. Each character is a sequence of dots and dashes, with the shorter sequences assigned to the more frequently used letters in English – Chart of the Morse code letters and numerals the letter 'E' represented by a single dot, and the letter 'T' by a single dash. A speed of 12 WPM is therefore associated with an element time of 100 milliseconds, so each dot is 100 ms long and each dash is 300 ms long, each followed by 100 ms of silence. A related but different code was originally created for Samuel F. B. Morse's electric telegraph in the early 1840s. In the 1890s it began to be extensively used for early radio communication before it was possible to transmit voice. In the early part of the twentieth century, most high-speed international communication used Morse code on telegraph lines, undersea cables and radio circuits. However, on-off keying, variable character lengths, the limited character set and the lack of forward error correction are inefficient and poorly suited to computer reception, so machine-to-machine communication generally uses frequency shift keying (FSK) or phase shift keying (PSK) and encodes text in the Baudot, ASCII and Unicode character sets. Morse code is most popular among amateur radio operators although it is no longer required for licensing in most countries, including the US. Pilots and air traffic controllers are usually familiar with Morse code and require a basic understanding. Aeronautical navigational aids, such as VORs and NDBs, constantly identify in Morse code. Because it can be read by humans without a decoding device, Morse is sometimes a useful alternative to synthesized speech for sending automated digital data to skilled listeners on voice channels. Many amateur radio repeaters, for example, identify with Morse even though they are used for voice communications. For emergency signals, Morse code can be sent by way of improvised sources that can be easily "keyed" on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication.

Morse code


Development and history
Beginning in 1836, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred Vail developed an electric telegraph, which sent pulses of electrical current to control an electromagnet that was located at the receiving end of the telegraph wire. The technology available at the time made it impossible to print characters in a readable form, so the inventors had to devise an alternate means of communication. In 1837, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone began operating electric telegraphs in England that also had electromagnets in the receivers; however, their systems used needle pointers that rotated to indicate the alphabetic characters being sent.
A typical "straight key." This U.S. model, known as the J-38, was

In contrast, Morse's and Vail's initial telegraph, which manufactured in huge quantities during World War II, and remains in widespread use today. In a straight key, the signal is "on" when the first went into operation in 1844, made indentations on knob is pressed, and "off" when it is released. Length and timing of a paper tape when an electrical current was transmitted. the dots and dashes are entirely controlled by the operator. Morse's original telegraph receiver used a mechanical clockwork to move a paper tape. When an electrical current was received, an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the moving paper tape, making an indentation on the tape. When the current was interrupted, the electromagnet retracted the stylus, and that portion of the moving tape remained unmarked. The Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the indentations marked on the paper tape into text messages. In his earliest code, Morse had planned to only transmit numerals, and use a dictionary to look up each word according to the number which had been sent. However, the code was soon expanded by Alfred Vail to include letters and special characters, so it could be used more generally. The shorter marks were called "dots", and the longer ones "dashes", and the letters most commonly used in the English language were assigned the shortest sequences. In the original Morse telegraphs, the receiver's armature made a clicking noise as it moved into and out of position to mark the tape. Operators soon learned to translate the clicks directly into dots and dashes, making it unnecessary to use the paper tape. When Morse code was adapted to radio, the dots and dashes were sent as short and long pulses. It was later found that people become more proficient at receiving Morse code when it is taught as a language that is heard, instead of one read from a page.[1] To reflect the sound of Morse code, practitioners began to vocalise a dot as "dit", and a dash as "dah". Dots which are not the final element of a character became vocalised as "di"; the letter "C" for instance is vocalised as "dah-di-dah-dit".[2] [3] Morse code was an integral part of international aviation. Commercial and military pilots were required to be familiar with it, both for use with early communications systems and identification of navigational beacons which transmitted continuous two- or three-letter identifiers in Morse code. Aeronautical charts show the identifier of each navaid next to its location on the map. Morse code was also used as an international standard for maritime communication until 1999, when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress Safety System. When the French navy ceased using Morse code in 1997, the final message transmitted was "Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence." See also: 500 kHz

Morse code


Modern International Morse Code
Morse code has been in use for more than 160 years — longer than any other electronic encoding system. What is called Morse code today is actually somewhat different from what was originally developed by Vail and Morse. The Modern International Morse code, or continental code, was created by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in 1848 and initially used for telegraphy between Hamburg and Cuxhaven in Germany. Gerke changed nearly half of the alphabet and all of the figures resulting in substantially the modern form of the code. After some minor changes, in 1865 it was standardised at the International Telegraphy congress in Paris (1865), and later made the norm by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as International Morse code. Morse's original code specification, largely limited to use in the United States, became known as American Morse code or "railroad code." American Morse is now very rarely used except in historical re-enactments.

In aviation, instrument pilots use radio navigation aids. To ensure the stations they are using are serviceable they all emit a short set of identification letters (usually a two- to five-letter version of the station name) in Morse code. Station identification letters are shown on air navigation charts. For example the Manchester VOR based at Manchester Airport is cut down to MCT, and Morse code MCT is broadcast on the radio frequency. If a station is unserviceable then it broadcasts TST (for TEST) and tells pilots that the station is unreliable. Like many morse code abbreviations, TST has a particularly noticeable sound—dah di-di-dit dah.

Amateur radio
International Morse code today is most popular among amateur radio operators, where it is used as the pattern to key a transmitter on and off in the radio communications mode commonly referred to as "continuous wave" or "CW". The original amateur radio operators used Morse code exclusively, as voice-capable radio transmitters did not become commonly available until around 1920. Until 2003 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio licensing procedure worldwide. However, the World Radiocommunication Conference of 2003 (WRC-03) made the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing optional.[4] Many countries subsequently removed the Morse requirement from their licence requirements.[5]

Vibroplex semiautomatic key (also called a "bug"). The paddle, when pressed to the right by the thumb, generates a series of dits, the length and timing of which are controlled by a sliding weight toward the rear of the unit. When pressed to the left by the knuckle of the index finger, the paddle generates a dah, the length of which is controlled by the operator. Multiple dahs require multiple presses. Left-handed operators use a key built as a mirror image of this one.

Until 1991, a demonstration of the ability to send and receive Morse code at 5 words per minute (WPM) was required to receive an amateur radio license for use in the United States from the Federal Communications Commission. Demonstration of this ability was still required for the privilege to use the HF bands. Until 2000, proficiency at the 20 WPM level was required to receive the highest level of amateur license (Extra Class); effective April 15, 2000, the FCC reduced the Extra Class requirement to 5 WPM.[6] Finally, effective February 23, 2007, the FCC eliminated the Morse code proficiency requirements for all amateur licenses. While voice and data transmissions are limited to specific amateur radio bands under U.S. rules, CW is permitted on all amateur bands—LF, MF, HF, UHF, and VHF, with one notable exception being the 60 meter band in the US. In

Morse code some countries, certain portions of the amateur radio bands are reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only. Because Morse transmissions employ an on-off keyed radio signal, it requires less complex transmission equipment than other forms of radio communication. Morse code also requires less signal bandwidth than voice communication, typically 100–150 Hz, compared to the roughly 2400 Hz used by single-sideband voice, although at a lower data rate. Morse code is received as a high-pitched audio tone, so transmissions are easier to copy than voice through the noise on congested frequencies, and it can be used in very high noise / low signal environments. The fact that the transmitted energy is concentrated into a very limited bandwidth makes it possible to use narrow receiver filters, which suppress or eliminate interference on nearby frequencies. The narrow signal bandwidth also takes advantage of the natural aural selectivity of the human brain, further enhancing weak signal readability. This efficiency makes CW extremely useful for DX (distance) transmissions, as well as for low-power transmissions (commonly called "QRP operation", from the Q-code for "reduce power"). There are several amateur clubs that require solid high speed copy, the highest of these has a standard of 60 WPM. The American Radio Relay League offers a code proficiency certification program that starts at 10 WPM. The relatively limited speed at which Morse code can be sent led to the development of an extensive number of abbreviations to speed communication. These include prosigns and Q codes, plus a restricted standardized format for typical messages. For example, CQ is broadcast to be interpreted as "seek you" (I'd like to converse with anyone who can hear my signal). OM (old man), YL (young lady) and XYL ("ex YL" - wife) are common pronouns. YL or OM is used by an operator when referring to the other operator, XYL or OM is used by an operator when referring to his or her spouse. This use of abbreviations for common terms permits conversation even when the operators speak different languages. Although the traditional telegraph key (straight key) is still used by many amateurs, the use of mechanical semi-automatic keyers (known as "bugs") and of fully-automatic electronic keyers is prevalent today. Computer software is also frequently employed to produce and decode Morse code radio signals.


Speed records
Operators skilled in Morse code can often understand ("copy") code in their heads at rates in excess of 40 WPM. International contests in code copying are still occasionally held. In July 1939 at a contest in Asheville, NC in the United States Ted R. McElroy set a still-standing record for Morse copying, 75.2 WPM.[7] In his online book on high speed sending, William Pierpont N0HFF notes some operators may have passed 100 WPM. By this time they are "hearing" phrases and sentences rather than words. The fastest speed ever sent by a straight key was achieved in 1942 by Harry Turner W9YZE (d. 1992) who reached 35 WPM in a demonstration at a U.S. Army base.

A commercially manufactured iambic paddle used in conjunction with an electronic keyer to generate high-speed Morse code, the timing of which is controlled by the electronic keyer. Manipulation of dual-lever paddles is similar to the Vibroplex, but pressing the right paddle generates a series of dahs, and squeezing the paddles produces dit-dah-dit-dah sequence. The actions are reversed for left-handed operators.

Morse code


Other uses
As of 2009 commercial radiotelegraph licenses are still being issued in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. Designed for shipboard and coast station operators, they are awarded to applicants who pass written examinations on advanced radio theory and show 20 WPM code proficiency [this requirement is waived for "old" (20 WPM) Amateur Extra Class licensees]. However, since 1999 the use of satellite and very high frequency maritime communications systems (GMDSS) have essentially made them obsolete. Radio navigation aids such as VORs and NDBs for aeronautical use broadcast identifying information in the form of Morse Code, though many VOR stations now also provide voice identification.[8] Military ships, including those of the U.S. Navy, have long used signal lamps to exchange messages in Morse code. Modern use continues, in part, as a way to communicate while maintaining radio silence.
A U.S. Navy seaman sends Morse code signals in 2005.

Applications for the general public
An important application is signalling for help through SOS, "· · · — — — · · ·". This can be sent many ways: keying a radio on and off, flashing a mirror, toggling a flashlight and similar methods.

Representation of SOS-Morse code.

Morse code as an assistive technology
Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology, helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate. Morse can be sent by persons with severe motion disabilities, as long as they have some minimal motor control. In some cases this means alternately blowing into and sucking on a plastic tube ("puff and sip" interface). People with severe motion disabilities in addition to sensory disabilities (e.g. people who are also deaf or blind) can receive Morse through a skin buzzer. In one case reported in the radio amateur magazine QST, an old shipboard radio operator who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak or write was able to communicate with his physician (a radio amateur) by blinking his eyes in Morse. Another example occurred in 1966 when prisoner of war Jeremiah Denton, brought on television by his North Vietnamese captors, Morse-blinked the word TORTURE.

Morse code


Representation and timing
International Morse code is composed of five elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. short mark, dot or 'dit' (·) — one unit long longer mark, dash or 'dah' (–) — three units long inter-element gap between the dots and dashes within a character — one unit long short gap (between letters) — three units long medium gap (between words) — seven units long[9]

Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, a radio signal with short and long tones, or as a mechanical or visual signal (e.g. a flashing light) using devices like an Aldis lamp or a heliograph. Morse code is transmitted using just two states (on and off) so it was an early form of a digital code. Strictly speaking it is not binary, as there are five fundamental elements (see quinary). However, this does not mean Morse code cannot be represented as a binary code. In an abstract sense, this is the function that telegraph operators perform when transmitting messages. Working from the above definitions and further defining a 'unit' as a bit, we can visualize any Morse code sequence as a combination of the following five elements: 1. short mark, dot or 'dit' (·) — 1 2. 3. 4. 5. longer mark, dash or 'dah' (–) — 111 intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character) — 0 short gap (between letters) — 000 medium gap (between words) — 0000000

Note that this method works only under the assumption that dits and dahs are always separated by gaps, and that gaps are always separated by dits and dahs. Morse messages are generally transmitted by a hand-operated device such as a telegraph key, so there are variations introduced by the skill of the sender and receiver — more experienced operators can send and receive at faster speeds. In addition, individual operators differ slightly, for example using slightly longer or shorter dashes or gaps, perhaps only for particular characters. This is called their "fist", and receivers can recognize specific individuals by it alone. The speed of Morse code is measured in wpm or cpm, according to the Paris standard which defines the speed of Morse transmission as the timing needed to send the word "Paris" a given number of times per minute. The word Paris is used because it is representative for a typical text in the English language, and the choice was influenced by the fact that the decision was taken at the International Telegraph Conference in Paris 1865. Today the length of the reference word is 50 units (including 7 units of word spacing). At the Paris Conference the standard word spacing was specified to be only 5 units, making the total length of the reference word only 48 units, which may be seen in older literature. The 40 % difference of the two word spacing lengths does have an impact on the evaluation of the results of receiving speed competitions performed at various occasions. X WPM at 5 units word spacing is more difficult to copy than the same text sent at the same nominal speed with 7 units word spacing. Incidentally the word "Morse" is also 50 units. The time for one unit can be computed by the formula: T = 1200 / W or T = 6000 / C Where: T is the unit time in milliseconds, W is the speed in wpm, and C is the speed in cpm.

Morse code Below is an illustration of timing conventions. The phrase "MORSE CODE", in Morse code format, would normally be written something like this, where - represents dahs and · represents dits: -- --- ·-· ··· ·       -·-· --- -·· · M   O   R   S  E        C    O   D  E Next is the exact conventional timing for this phrase, with = representing "signal on", and . representing "signal off", each for the time length of exactly one dit:
1   M-----^ | symbol space O---------^ dah R-----^ dit ^ | letter space S---E ^ | word space C---------O---------D-----2 3 4 5 6 7 8


12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 E


Morse code is often spoken or written with "dah" for dashes, "dit" for dots located at the end of a character, and "di" for dots located at the beginning or internally within the character. Thus, the following Morse code sequence: M   O   R   S  E         C    O   D  E -- --- ·-· ··· · (space) -·-· --- -·· · is verbally: Dah-dah dah-dah-dah di-dah-dit di-di-dit dit, Dah-di-dah-dit dah-dah-dah dah-di-dit dit. Note that there is little point in learning to read written Morse as above; rather, the sounds of all of the letters and symbols need to be learnt, for both sending and receiving.

Learning Morse Code
People learning Morse code using the Farnsworth method, named for Donald R. "Russ" Farnsworth, also known by his call sign, W6TTB, are taught to send and receive letters and other symbols at their full target speed, that is with normal relative timing of the dots, dashes and spaces within each symbol for that speed. However, initially exaggerated spaces between symbols and words are used, to give "thinking time" to make the sound "shape" of the letters and symbols easier to learn. The spacing can then be reduced with practice and familiarity. Another popular teaching method is the Koch method, named after German psychologist Ludwig Koch, which uses the full target speed from the outset, but begins with just two characters. Once strings containing those two characters can be copied with 90% accuracy, an additional character is added, and so on until the full character set is mastered. In North America, many thousands of individuals have increased their code recognition speed (after initial memorization of the characters) by listening to the regularly scheduled code practice transmissions broadcast by W1AW, the American Radio Relay League's headquarters station. In the United Kingdom many people learnt the morse code by means of a series of words or phrases that have the same rhythm a Morse character. For instance "Q" in Morse is dah - dah - di - dah, which can be memorized by the phrase "God save the Queen"; and the Morse for "F" is di - di - dah - dit, which can be memorized as "Did she like it."

Morse code


Letters, numbers, punctuation
Character A B Code · — — · · · Character J K Code Character · · · — Code Character 1 2 Code Character Code · — · — · — Character Colon [:] Code — — — · · ·

· — — — S — · — T

· — — — — Period [.] · · — — — Comma [,]

— — · · — — Semicolon — · — · — · [;] · · — — · · Double dash [=] — · · · —


— · — · L

· — · ·


· · —


· · · — —

Question mark [?]


— · ·


— —


· · · —


· · · · —

Apostrophe · — — — — · Plus [+] ['] Exclamation — · — · — — Hyphen, mark [!] Minus [-] Slash [/], Fraction bar — · · — ·

· — · — ·




— ·


· — —


· · · · ·

— · · · · —


· · — ·


— — —


— · · —


— · · · ·

Underscore · · — — · — [_]


— — ·


· — — ·


— · — —


— — · · ·

Parenthesis — · — — · open [(]

Quotation mark ["]

· — · · — ·


· · · ·


— — · — Z

— — · ·


— — — · ·

Parenthesis — · — — · — Dollar closed [)] sign [$] At sign [@]

· · · — · · —


· ·


· — ·


— — — — — 9

— — — — · Ampersand · — · · · [&], Wait

· — — · — ·

There is no standard representation for the exclamation mark (!), although the KW digraph (— · — · — —) was proposed in the 1980s by the Heathkit Company (a vendor of assembly kits for amateur radio equipment). While Morse code translation software prefers this version, on-air use is not yet universal as some amateur radio operators in Canada and the USA continue to prefer the older MN digraph (— — — ·) carried over from American landline telegraphy code. The &, $ and the _ signs are not defined inside the ITU recommendation on Morse code. The $ sign code was represented in the Phillips Code, a huge collection of abbreviations used on land line telegraphy, as SX. The representation of the &-sign given above is also the Morse prosign for wait. On May 24, 2004—the 160th anniversary of the first public Morse telegraph transmission—the Radiocommunication Bureau of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) formally added the @ ("commercial at" or "commat") character to the official Morse character set, using the sequence denoted by the AC digraph (· — — · — ·). This sequence was reportedly chosen to represent "A[T] C[OMMERCIAL]" or a letter "a" inside a swirl represented by a "C".[10] The new character facilitates sending electronic mail addresses by Morse code and is notable since it is the first official addition to the Morse set of characters since World War I.


Morse code


Character(s) Wait

Code Character(s) · - · · ·  Error End of work



Code · · · - ·  - · - · -

· · · · · · · ·  Understood · · · - · Starting Signal

Invitation to transmit - · -

Defined in the ITU recommendation.

Non-English extensions to the Morse code
Char. Code Char. è (also ł) Code · — · · – Char. ñ (also ń) ö (also ø and ó) ŝ Code — — · — — — — — ·

ä (also æ and ą) · — · — à (also å) · — — · —

é (also đ and ę) · · — · ·

ç (also ĉ and ć) — · — · · ch (also š)


— — · — ·

· · · — · · — — · ·

— — — — ĥ

— · — — · (Obsolete) þ ("Thorn") — — — —   (New) · — — — · — — · · — · ü (also ŭ) ż

ð ("Eth") ś

· · — — · · · · — · · ·

ĵ ź

· · — — — — · · —

Non-Latin extensions to Morse code
For Chinese, Chinese telegraph code is used to map Chinese characters to four-digit codes and send these digits out using standard Morse code. Korean Morse code [11] uses the SKATS mapping, originally developed to allow Korean to be typed on western typewriters. SKATS maps hangul characters to arbitrary letters of the Roman alphabet and has no relationship to pronunciation in Korean.

Alternative display of more common characters for the international code
Some methods of teaching or learning morse code use the dichotomic search table below.

A graphical representation of the dichotomic search table: the user branches left at every dot and right at every dash until the character is finished.

Morse code


See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Russian Morse code ACP-131 Chinese telegraph code Guglielmo Marconi High Speed Telegraphy Instructograph List of international common standards Morse code abbreviations Morse code mnemonics NATO phonetic alphabet Wabun Code

External links
• Morse code [12] at the Open Directory Project • Morse Code Trainer

[1] ARRLWeb: ARRLWeb: Learning Morse Code (CW)! (http:/ / www. arrl. org/ learning-morse-code) [2] L. Peter Carron, "Morse code-the essential language", Radio amateur's library, issue 69, American Radio Relay League, 1986 ISBN 0872590356. [3] R. J. Eckersley, Amateur radio operating manual, Radio Society of Great Britain, 1985 ISBN 090061269X. [4] IARUWeb: The International Amateur Radio Union (http:/ / www. iaru. org/ rel030703att2. html) [5] ARRLWeb: Italy Joins No-Code Ranks as FCC Revives Morse Debate in the US (http:/ / www. arrl. org/ news/ stories/ 2005/ 08/ 10/ 1/ ?nc=1) [6] "1998 Biennial Regulatory Review — Amendment of Part 97 of the Commission's Amateur Service Rules." (http:/ / www. arrl. org/ announce/ regulatory/ wt98-143ro. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved December 4, 2005. [7] "The Art & Skill of Radio Telegraphy" (http:/ / www. qsl. net/ n9bor/ n0hff. htm). April 20, 2002. . Retrieved 2006-04-21. [8] "Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)" (http:/ / www. faa. gov/ air_traffic/ publications/ ATpubs/ AIM/ Chap1/ aim0101. html). . Retrieved 2007-12-10. [9] International Morse Code (http:/ / www. godfreydykes. info/ international morse code. pdf). ITU-R M. 1677. 2004. . Retrieved 2008-01-02 [10] "International Morse Code Gets a New ITU Home, New Character" (http:/ / www. arrl. org/ news/ stories/ 2003/ 12/ 10/ 2/ ?nc=1). . Retrieved February 27, 2007. [11] http:/ / homepages. cwi. nl/ ~dik/ english/ codes/ morse. html#korean [12] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Recreation/ Radio/ Amateur/ Morse_Code/ /



SOS is the commonly used description for the international Morse code distress signal (· · · — — — · · ·). This distress signal was first adopted by the German government in radio regulations effective April 1, 1905, and became the worldwide standard under the second International Radiotelegraphic Convention, which was signed on November 3, 1906 and became effective on July 1, 1908. SOS remained the maritime radio distress signal until 1999, when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress Safety System.[1] SOS is still recognized as a visual distress signal.[2] From the beginning, the SOS distress signal has actually consisted of a continuous sequence of three-dits/three-dahs/three-dits, all run together without letter spacing. In International Morse Code, three dits form the letter S, and three dahs make the letter O, so "SOS" became an easy way to remember the correct order of the dits and dahs. In modern terminology, SOS is a Morse "procedural signal" or "prosign", and the formal way to write it is with a bar above the letters, i.e. SOS. In popular usage, SOS became associated with phrases such as "save our ship" or "save our souls". These were a later development, most likely used to help remember the correct letters (a backronym). As the SOS signal is a prosign, its respective letters have no inherent meaning per se, it was simply chosen due to it being easy to remember.

The use of the SOS signal was first introduced in Germany as part of a set of national radio regulations, effective April 1, 1905. These regulations introduced three new Morse code sequences, including the SOS distress signal. In 1906, at the second International Radiotelegraphic Convention in Berlin, an extensive collection of Service Regulations was developed to supplement the main agreement, which was signed on November 3, 1906, becoming effective on July 1, 1908. Article XVI of the regulations adopted Germany's Notzeichen distress signal as the international standard, reading: "Ships in distress shall use the following signal: · · · — — — · · ·  repeated at brief intervals". The first ship to transmit an SOS distress call appears to have been the Cunard liner Slavonia on June 10, 1909, according to "Notable Achievements of Wireless" in the September, 1910 Modern Electrics. However, there was some resistance among the Marconi operators to the adoption of the new signal, and, as late as the April, 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, the ship's Marconi operators intermixed CQD and SOS distress calls. However, in the interests of consistency and water safety, the use of CQD appears to have died out after this point. In both the April 1, 1905 German law, and the 1906 International regulations, the distress signal was specified as a continuous Morse code sequence of three-dits/three-dahs/three-dits, with no mention of any alphabetic equivalents. However, in International Morse, three dits comprise the letter S, and three dahs the letter O. It therefore soon became common to refer to the distress signal as "SOS." An early report on "The International Radio-Telegraphic Convention" in the January 12, 1907 Electrical World stated that "Vessels in distress use the special signal, SOS, repeated at short intervals." (In American Morse code, which was used by many coastal ships in the United States through the first part of the twentieth century, three dahs stood for the numeral "5", so in a few cases the distress signal was informally referred to as "S5S"). In contrast to CQD, which was sent as three separate letters with spaces between each letter, the SOS distress call has always been transmitted as a continuous sequence of dits-and-dahs, and not as individual letters. There was no problem as long as operators were aware that "SOS" was technically just a convenient way for remembering the proper sequence of the distress signal's total of nine dits and dahs. In later years, the number of special Morse symbols increased. In order to designate the proper sequence of dits-and-dahs for a long special symbol, the standard practice is to list alphabetic characters which contain the same dits-and-dahs in the same order, with a bar atop the character sequence to indicate that there should not be any internal spaces in the transmission. Thus, under the

SOS modern notation, the distress signal becomes SOS. (In International Morse, VTB, IJS and SMB, among others, would also correctly translate into the · · · — — — · · ·  distress call sequence, but traditionally only SOS is used). It has also sometimes been used as a visual distress signal, consisting of three short, three long, three short light flashes such as from a survival mirror, or with "SOS" spelled out in individual letters, for example, stamped in a snowbank or formed out of logs on a beach. The fact that SOS can be read right side up as well as upside down became important for visual recognition if viewed from above.


Later developments
Additional warning and distress signals followed the introduction of SOS. On January 20, 1914, the London International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea adopted the Morse code signal TTT ( —  —  —), three letter T's (—) spaced correctly as three letters so as not to be confused with the letter O (- - -), as the "Safety Signal," used for messages to ships "involving safety of navigation and being of an urgent character." With the development of audio radio transmitters, there was a need for a spoken distress phrase, and "Mayday" was adopted by the 1927 International Radio Convention as the equivalent of SOS. For TTT the equivalent audio signal is "Securité" for navigational safety. During the Second World War, additional codes were employed to include immediate details about attacks by enemy vessels, especially in the Battle of the Atlantic. The signal SSS signalled attacked by submarines, whilst RRR warned of an attack by a surface raider, QQQ warned of an unknown raider (usually an auxiliary cruiser), and AAA indicated an attack by aircraft. They were usually sent in conjunction with the SOS distress code. All of these codes later switched from three repeats of the letter to four repeats ("RRRR", etc.). None of these signals were used on their own. Sending SOS as well as other warning signals (TTT, XXX etc.) used similar procedures for effectiveness. These were always followed correctly. Here is an example of an SOS signal; the portions in brackets are an explanation only. SOS SOS SOS de (this is) GBTT GBTT GBTT (call sign of the QE2 repeated 3 times) Queen Elizabeth 2 (name of ship) psn (position) 49.06.30 North, 04.30.20 West. Ship on fire, crew abandoning ship (nature of distress) AR (end of transmission) K (invitation to reply). Ships and coastal stations would normally have required quiet times twice an hour to listen for priority signals. However, many merchant vessels carried only one or two radio operators in which case the SOS may not be heard by operators off duty. Eventually equipment was invented to summon off-duty operators by ringing an alarm in the operators berth. This was triggered by the operator of the ship in distress transmitting twelve long dashes of four seconds duration each. These were sent prior to the SOS hopefully ringing the automatic alarm in ships so equipped. If possible a short delay was given before transmission of the SOS proper. This was to give those off watch operators time to get to their radio office.

Cultural references
• S.O.S. is the title of a 1975 song by the Swedish pop group ABBA. • The Delorean time machine, in the 1985 sci-fi/comedy film Back to the Future, flashed its headlights to this-during the climax; as the engine stalled, low on fuel. • The same-named brand of kitchen scouring pads had a popular television commercial in 1994. Kitchen and tablewares alike all clinged and tapped the original jingle in unison, to signal being in need of the product. • 2007 saw the famous Kool-Aid beverage mix air its "Singles" flavours. The commercial began with an aerial view of an island, advertising, "S.U.S.: Stirring Up Singles", on the sand below. Inviting those from a helicopter to try the individual packs.



Famous SOS calls
• • • • HMHS Britannic RMS Lusitania RMS Titanic (used CQD as well) SS Andrea Doria

See also
• • • • • • • • • 500 kHz 2182 kHz Call for help Distress signal GMDSS Mayday Pan-pan Securite Vessel emergency codes


Further reading
• "The Wireless Telegraph Conference". The Electrician: 157–160, 214. 27 November 1903. • Final Protocol, First International Radio Telegraphic Conference [3], Berlin, 1903. • "Regelung der Funkentelegraphie im Deutschen Reich" [4]. Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift: 413–414. 27 April 1905. • "German Regulations for the Control of Spark Telegraphy" [5]. The electrician: 94–95. 5 May 1905. • Robison, Samuel (1906). Manual of Wireless Telegraphy for the Use of Naval Electricians (1st ed.). • 1906 International Wireless Telegraph Convention [6], U.S. Government Printing Office. • "The International Radio-Telegraphic Convention". Electrical World: 83–84. 12 January 1907. • "S 5 S" Rivals "C Q D" for Wireless Honors [7], Popular Mechanics, February, 1910, page 156. • Notable Achievements of Wireless [8], Modern Electrics, September, 1910, page 315. • Collins, Francis A., Some Stirring Wireless Rescues [9], from "The Wireless Man", 1912, pages 104–141. • Turnball, G. E., "Distress Signalling" [10], The Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1913, pages 318–322 (includes text of "Circular 57"). • Dilks, John H. III, "Why SOS?" in OSS, June, 2007, pages 88–89.

[1] "GMDSS Resolution COM/Circ.115 "Discontinuation of morse code services in the MF radiotelegraphy band" 10.02.93" (http:/ / www. imo. org/ includes/ blastData. asp/ doc_id=1196/ GMDSS (13 April 2005). doc). GMDSS. . Retrieved 2008-07-02. [2] US Coast Guard Visual Distress Signals (http:/ / www. uscg. mil/ hq/ cg5/ cg5214/ vds. asp) [3] http:/ / earlyradiohistory. us/ 1903conv. htm [4] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1905funk. htm [5] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1905germ. htm [6] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1906conv. htm [7] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1910S5S. htm [8] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1910note. htm [9] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1912wm2. htm [10] http:/ / www. earlyradiohistory. us/ 1913dist. htm



Time–Life is a creator and direct marketer of books, music, video/DVD, and multimedia products. Its products are sold throughout North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia through television, print, retail, the Internet, telemarketing, and direct sales. Time-Life was founded in 1961 as the book division of Time Inc. It took its name from Time Inc.'s cornerstone magazines, Time and Life, but remained independent of both. During 1966, Time Life combined its book offerings with music collections (two to five records) and packaged them as a sturdy box set. Throughout the '70s and '80s, the selection of books, music and videos grew and was diversified into more genres. When record labels stopped producing vinyl albums in 1990, Time Life switched to CD only. In the mid-90s, Time–Life acquired Heartland Music, with the Heartland Music label now appearing as a brand. At the end of 2003 Time Life was acquired by Ripplewood Holdings L.L.C. and ZelnickMedia Corporation to become part of Direct Holdings Worldwide L.L.C. Direct Holdings Americas Inc. operates as a leader in the sale of music and video products under the Time Life brand. Since 2003, Direct Holdings US Corp is the legal name of Time Life, and is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner (formerly Time Inc.). In March 2007, Ripplewood led a group that took The Reader's Digest Association private and has since put Time Life as a division of RDA. By 2003 onward, a disclaimer on the copyright stated that it is "not affiliated with Time Warner Inc. or Time Inc.", who owns the Time and Life magazines which this company name came from. The British television company, Time Life Television was a producer of BBC programs, which was renamed Lionheart Television in 1982.

Time-Life building in Rockefeller Center in New York City

Book series
The Time Life company was founded by Time, Incorporated in 1961, as a book marketing division. It takes its name from Time and Life magazines, two of the most popular weeklies of the era. It was based in the Time Life building in Rockefeller Center.

Time-Life statue in New York City, in front of

Time Life gained fame as a seller of book series that would be mailed the Time-Life building to households in monthly installments. Several of these book series garnered substantial critical acclaim unusual for a mass-market mail order house. For example, the series Library of Photography of the early-1970s featured very high-quality duo-tone printing for its black-and-white reproductions in its original edition, and was of course able to draw on Life Magazine's vast archive of journalistic and art photographs from virtually every major photographer; Foods Of The World featured contributions by M.F.K. Fisher, James Beard, Julia Child, Craig Claiborne and many others; and The Good Cook series, edited by Richard Olney, featured contributions from Jeremiah Tower, Jane Grigson, Michel Lemonnier and many others. Other series of high

Time-Life regard covered nature and the sciences, as well as the history of world civilizations. The science books are interesting as ephemera of their time. The content of these series was more or less encyclopedic, providing the basics of the subjects in the way it might be done in a lecture aimed at the general public. There was also a series on contemporary life in various countries of the world. Some other series are much less highly regarded, especially the later output as the publisher moved away from soberly presented science and history towards sensationalism, pop-history, and DIY-themed books. The books, whatever their quality, are easy to find at low prices on the used-book market, due to their being published in the millions of copies. (Some of the items in this list may also be single books not in a series, but followed the same types of themes as the book series.) • • • • • • • • • The American Wilderness[1] The Art of Sewing[1] A Child's First Library Of Learning, a series of educational books by Time–Life Classics of the Old West[1] (not the same as "The Old West") Collector's Library of the Civil War[1] The Emergence of Man[1] Enchanted World Series, a best-selling Time–Life series, 21 volumes The Encyclopedia of Collectibles[1] The Epic of Flight[1]


• Family Library ("How Things Work in your Home", "The Time-Life Book of the Family Car", "The Time-Life Family Legal Guide", and "The Time-Life Book of Family Finance")[1] • Foods of the World[1] • The Good Cook[1] • Great Ages of Man—history of each of the major civilizations of human history[1] • The Great Cities[1] • Home Repair and Improvement[1] • Human Behavior[1] • Library of Health[1] • Library of Nations • The LIFE History of the United States[1] • LIFE Library of Photography[1] • LIFE Nature Library, 25 volumes[1] • LIFE Science Library, 26 volumes[1] • LIFE World Library[1] • Mysteries of the Unknown, a best-selling Time–Life series, 33 volumes • The Old West[1] • Planet Earth Series[1] • The New Face of War, A 9-volume survey of the major fields of modern warfare • The Seafarers Series[1] • The Third Reich, 21 volumes • This Fabulous Century[1] • Time Frame—A survey of history by time periods instead of by civilization • Time–Life Library of America[1] • Time–Life Library of Art[1] • The Time–Life Library of Boating[1] • The Time–Life Library of Gardening[1] • Time Life Library of Curious and Unusual Facts • Time Reading Program[1] • Understanding Computers

Time-Life • • • • • Voyage Through the Universe—series on Astronomy Wild, Wild World of Animals The World's Wild Places[1] Wings of War, 26 Volumes World War II, 31 volumes


Time Life no longer publishes books as its book division was closed in 2003. A possible cause is that production and printing costs reached the point where people were unwilling to purchase them, even directly from the publisher. Time Inc./Time Warner, however, continues to publish similar material through Time Inc. Home Entertainment.

Time Life added music in 1962, selling box sets and collections through Time Life Records, eventually advertising these collections through infomercials (including Country Music Explosion and Ultimate Rock Ballads), which often air in the early morning (3 am to 6 am). A few of these collections were not just music, but included books with the records as well, and some were not music at all, but informational, educational, or "audio documentaries", which tended to follow the themes of the Time–Life Books series. When Time merged with Warner Communications in 1989, the label became a Time Warner division. Warner Music Group, which grouped all of Time-Warner's music companies (save for New Line Records, which was merely distributed by WMG), was sold to a group of investors led by Edgar Bronfman, Jr. in late 2003. A key selling point of these collections is that each track was digitally transferred to CD using the original master recordings, as opposed to being "re-records" whereby only an old phonograph record, or an old radio copy is used for the transfer. The following list shows many of the collections the company has released, but is by no means exhaustive. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AM Gold (discontinued) Billboard #1 Hits of the 70's Body and Soul Classic Bluegrass (discontinued) Classic Country Classic Love Songs of the 60's Classic Rock (discontinued) Classic Rhythm and Blues Classic Soft Rock Classic Soul Ballads Classic Love Songs of Rock N' Roll (discontinued) Contemporary Country Country Music Explosion Country USA (discontinued) Disco Fever 80's Music Explosion The Fabulous Fifties Flower Power Folk Years (discontinued) Giants of Jazz (discontinued) Great American Songbook

• Golden Age of Country • Golden Age of Pop • Hard & Heavy

Time-Life • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • It All Started with Doo Wop Lifetime of Country Romance Lifetime of Romance (discontinued) Legends: The Ultimate Rock (discontinued) Living the Blues ( Magic of Love Malt Shop Memories Midnight Soul The Motown Collection Opry Video Classics Oldies But Goodies Pop Memories of the 60's Prom Night Rock N' Roll Era (discontinued) Pure Rhythm and Blues Rock N' Roll: Legendary Years (discontinued) Romancing the 70's Classic Soul Ballads 70's Music Explosion Singers & Songwriters 60's Gold (discontinued) Songs 4 Ever (discontinued) Soul Story Sounds of the Seventies (discontinued) Sounds of the Eighties (discontinued) Sounds of the Nineties (discontinued) Superstars of Country Superstars of the 80's Sweet Soul of the 70's The Rock Collection (discontinued) To The Moon, a 6-record set: a documentary with accompanying book about the early space program, the space race, the missions to the moon and the first moon landing, published soon after Apollo 11 completed its mission to the moon. (discontinued) Ultimate Seventies (discontinued) Ultimate Love Songs Ultimate Rock Ballads Uptown Saturday Night Your Hit Parade (discontinued)


• • • • •

In recent years, the company has been subject to bad press due to questionable billing practices. Some customers claim that they have been tricked into purchasing multiple CDs from Time Life. Buyers, wishing to purchase single CDs, do not fully understand that they are entering into "Continuity Programs," despite the promotional advertisements stating they will be introduced into a series of CDs shipped "every few weeks," automatically billing the credit card. Critics contend that the company's disclosure about automatic follow-up orders is intentionally and deceptively placed in areas where it is unlikely to be read. Time Life does, however, back every product with a 30 day money-back guarantee and the customer's account will be refunded upon receipt of the returned item. As a

Time-Life benefit, customers can call customer service to cancel at any time, whereas services such as BMG Music Service and Columbia House (which have since merged) require the customer to buy a certain number of CDs before they can cancel.


See also
• FreeRice, a program sponsored by Time Life. • List of record labels

External links
• • • • • Official site [2] Time Life Australia website [3] Time Life Canada website [4] List of Time Life book series and volumes [5] Time-Life Music discography [6]

[1] From a list of "Other Publications" on the copyright page of "The Commandos", the final volume of the Time-Life Books Series, "World War II" [2] http:/ / www. timelife. com [3] http:/ / www. timelife. com. au [4] http:/ / www. timelife. ca/ [5] http:/ / www. volumelists. com/ [6] http:/ / www. bsnpubs. com/ warner/ time-life/ time-lifestory. html

String Quartet No. 16 (Beethoven)
The String Quartet No. 16 in F major, op. 135, by Ludwig van Beethoven was written in October 1826[1] and was the last substantial work he finished. Only the last movement of the Quartet op. 130, written as a replacement for the Große Fuge, was written later. It was premiered by the Schuppanzigh Quartet in March 1828. The work is on a smaller scale than his other late quartets. For the third movement, Beethoven used variation techniques; he also did this in the second movement of his Quartet op. 127.[2] Under the introductory slow chords in the last movement Beethoven wrote in the manuscript "Muß es sein?" (Must it be?) to which he responds, with the faster main theme of the movement, "Es muß sein!" (It must be!). The whole movement is headed "Der schwer gefaßte Entschluß" (The Difficult Resolution). It is in four movements: 1. 2. 3. 4. Allegretto Vivace Lento assai, cantante e tranquillo “Der schwer gefaßte Entschluß:” Grave — Allegro — Grave ma non troppo tratto — Allegro

String Quartet No. 16 (Beethoven)


External links
• Project Gutenberg E-Book of the Quartet [3] • String Quartet No. 16: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.

[1] Steinberg, Michael (1994). Robert Winter, Robert Martin. ed. The Beethoven Quartet Companion. University of California Press. p. 274. ISBN 0-520-08211-7. [2] Bernard Jacobson. "Beethoven: The Complete String Quartets." EMI 5736062. CD liner notes, 24. [3] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 12237


Chroma key compositing (or chroma keying) is a technique for compositing two images or frames together in which a color (or a small color range) from one image is removed (or made transparent), revealing another image behind it. This technique is also referred to as color keying, colour-separation overlay (CSO; primarily by the BBC[1] ), greenscreen, and bluescreen. It is commonly used for weather forecast broadcasts, wherein the presenter appears to be standing in front of a large map, but in the studio it is actually a large blue or green background. The meteorologist stands in front of a bluescreen, and then different weather maps are added on those parts in Example of a basic blue screen set. the image where the color is blue. If the meteorologist wears blue clothes, their clothes will become replaced with the background video. This also works for greenscreens, since blue and green are considered the colors least like skin tone.[2] This technique is also used in the entertainment industry, the iconic theatre shots in Mystery Science Theater 3000, for example.

For motion-pictures the process was a complex and time consuming one known as "travelling matte" prior to the introduction of digital compositing. The blue screen and traveling matte method were developed in the 1930s at RKO Radio Pictures and other studios, and were used to create special effects for The Thief of Bagdad (1940). At RKO, Linwood Dunn used travelling matte to create "wipes" – where there were transitions like a windshield wiper in films such as Flying Down to Rio (1933). The credit for development of the bluescreen is given to Larry Butler, who won the Academy Award for special effects for The Thief of Bagdad. He had invented the blue screen and traveling matte technique in order to achieve the visual effects which were unprecedented in 1940. He was also the first special effects man to have created these effects in Technicolor, which was in its infancy at the time. In 1950, Warner Brothers employee and ex-Kodak researcher Arthur Widmer began working on an ultra violet traveling matte process. He also began developing bluescreen techniques: one of the first films to use them was the 1958 adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novella, The Old Man and the Sea, starring Spencer Tracy.[3] The background footage is shot first and the actor or model is filmed against a bluescreen carrying out their actions. To simply place the foreground shot over the background shot would create a ghostly image over a blue-tinged background. The actor or model must be separated from the background and placed into a specially-made "hole" in the background footage. The bluescreen shot was first rephotographed through a blue filter so that only the background is exposed. A special film is used that creates a black and white negative image — a black background with a subject-shaped hole in the middle. This is called a 'female matte'. The bluescreen shot was then rephotographed again, this time through a red and green filter so that only the foreground image was cast on film, creating a black silhouette on an unexposed (clear) background. This is called a 'male matte'. The background image is then rephotographed through the male matte, and the shot rephotographed through the female matte. An optical printer with two projectors, a film camera and a 'beam splitter' combines the images

Bluescreen together one frame at a time. This part of the process must be very carefully controlled to ensure the absence of 'black lines'. During the 1980s, minicomputers were used to control the optical printer. For The Empire Strikes Back, Richard Edlund created a 'quad optical printer' that accelerated the process considerably and saved money. He received a special Academy Award for his innovation. One drawback to the traditional traveling matte is that the cameras shooting the images to be composited can't be easily synchronized. For decades, such matte shots had to be done "locked-down" so that neither the matted subject nor the background could shift their camera perspective at all. Later, computer-timed motion control cameras alleviated this problem, as both the foreground and background could be filmed with the same camera moves. Petro Vlahos was awarded an Academy Award for his development of these techniques. His technique exploits the fact that most objects in real-world scenes have a color whose blue color component is similar in intensity to their green color component. Zbigniew Rybczyński also contributed to bluescreen technology. For Star Trek: The Next Generation, an ultraviolet light matting process was proposed by Don Lee of CIS and developed by Gary Hutzel and the staff of Image G. This involved a fluorescent orange backdrop which made it easier to generate a holdout matte, thus allowing the effects team to produce effects in a quarter of the time needed for other methods.[4] Some films make heavy use of chroma key to add backgrounds that are constructed entirely using computer-generated imagery (CGI). Performances from different takes can even be composited together, which allows actors to be filmed separately and then placed together in the same scene. Chroma key allows performers to appear to be in any location without even leaving the studio. Computer development also made it easier to incorporate motion into composited shots, even when using handheld cameras. Reference-points can now be placed onto the colored background (usually as a painted grid, X's marked with tape, or equally spaced tennis balls attached to the wall). In post-production, a computer can use the references to adjust the position of the background, making it match the movement of the foreground perfectly. Modern advances in software and computational power have even eliminated the need to use grids or tracking marks – the software analyzes the relative motion of colored pixels against other colored pixels and solves the 'motion' to create a camera motion algorithm which can be used in compositing software to match the motion of composited elements to a moving background plate. Weathermen often use a field monitor to the side of the screen to see where they are putting their hands. A newer technique is to project a faint image onto the screen.


The process
The principal subject is filmed or photographed against a background consisting of a single color or a relatively narrow range of colors, usually blue or green because these colors are considered to be the furthest away from skin tone.[2] The portions of the video which match the preselected color are replaced by the alternate background video. This process is commonly known as "keying", "keying out" or simply a "key".
Film set for The Spiderwick Chronicles, where a

Green is currently used as a backdrop more than any other color special effects scene using bluescreen chroma key is in preparation. because image sensors in digital video cameras are most sensitive to green, due to the Bayer pattern allocating more pixels to the green channel, this mimicks the human increased sensitivity to green light.[5] Therefore the green camera channel contains the least "noise" and can produce the cleanest key/matte/mask. Additionally, less light is needed to illuminate green, again because of the higher sensitivity to green in image sensors.[6] Bright green has also become favored as a blue background may match a subject's eye color or common items of clothing, such as jeans, or a dark-navy suit.

Bluescreen Blue was used before digital keying became commonplace because it was necessary for the optical process, but it needed more illumination than green. However, it is also further in the visual spectrum from red, the predominant color in human skin. The most important factor for a key is the color separation of the foreground (the subject) and background (the screen) – a bluescreen will be used if the subject is predominately green (for example plants), despite the camera being more sensitive to green light. In analog color TV, color is represented by the phase of the chroma subcarrier relative to a reference oscillator. Chroma key is achieved by comparing the phase of the video to the phase corresponding to the preselected color. In-phase portions of the video are replaced by the alternate background video. In digital color TV, color is represented by three numbers (red, green, blue). Chroma key is achieved by a simple numerical comparison between the video and the preselected color. If the color at a particular point on the screen matches (either exactly, or in a range), then the video at that point is replaced by the alternate background video.


A chroma key subject must not wear clothing similar in color to the chroma key color(s) (unless intentional), because the clothing may be replaced with the background video. An example of intentional use of this is when an actor wears a blue covering over a part of his body to make it invisible in the final shot. This technique can be used to achieve an effect similar to that used in the Harry Potter films to create the effect of an invisibility cloak. The actor can also be filmed against a chroma key background and inserted into the background shot with a distortion effect in order to create a cloak that is marginally detectable.[7] Difficulties emerge with bluescreen when a costume in an effects shot must be blue, such as Superman's traditional blue outfit. In the 2002 film Spider-Man, in scenes where both Spider-Man and the Green Goblin are in the air, Spider-Man had to be shot in front of the greenscreen and the Green Goblin had to be shot in front of a bluescreen, because Spider-Man wears a costume which is red and blue in color and the goblin wears a costume which is entirely green in color. If both were shot in front of same screen, one character would have been partially erased from the shot.

Blue is generally used for both weather maps and special effects because it is complementary to human skin tone. The use of blue is also tied to the fact that the blue emulsion layer of film has the finest crystals and thus good detail and minimal grain (in comparison to the red and green layers of the emulsion.) In the digital world, however green has become the favored color because digital cameras retain more detail in the green channel and it requires less light than blue. Green not only has a higher luminance value than blue but also in early digital formats the green channel was sampled twice as often as the blue, making it easier to work with. The choice of color is up to the effects artists and the needs of the specific shot. In the past decade, the Demonstration of the creation of special effects use of green has become dominant in film special effects. Also, the techniques utilising chroma key. green background is favored over blue for outdoors filming where the blue sky might appear in the frame and could accidentally be replaced in the process. Although green and blue are the most common, any color can be used. Red is usually avoided due to its prevalence in normal human skin pigments, but can be often used for objects and scenes which do not involve people.

Bluescreen Occasionally, a magenta background is used, as in some software applications where the magenta or fuchsia key value #FF00FF is sometimes referred to as "magic pink".[8] With better imaging and hardware, many companies are avoiding the confusion often experienced by weather presenters, who must otherwise watch themselves on a monitor to see the image shown behind them, by lightly projecting a copy of the background image onto the blue/green screen. This allows the presenter to accurately point and look at the map without referring to monitors. A newer technique is to use a retroreflective curtain in the background, along with a ring of bright LEDs around the camera lens. This requires no light to shine on the background other than the LEDs, which use an extremely small amount of power and space unlike big stage lights, and require no rigging. This advance was made possible by the invention of practical blue LEDs in the 1990s, which also allow for emerald green LEDs. There is also a form of color keying that uses light spectrum invisible to human eye. Called Thermo-Key, it uses infrared as the key color, which would not be replaced by background image during postprocessing.[9] [10]


Even lighting
The biggest challenge when setting up a bluescreen or greenscreen is even lighting and the avoidance of shadow, because it is best to have as narrow a color range as possible being replaced. A shadow would present itself as a darker color to the camera and might not register for replacement. This can sometimes be seen in low-budget or live broadcasts where the errors cannot be manually repaired. The material being used affects the quality and ease of having it evenly lit. Materials which are shiny will be far less successful than those that are not. A shiny surface will have areas that reflect the lights making them appear pale, while other areas may be darkened. A matte surface will diffuse the reflected light and have a more even color range. In order to get the cleanest key from shooting greenscreen it is necessary to create a value difference between the subject and the greenscreen. In order to differentiate the subject and screen a two-stop difference can be used, either by making the greenscreen two stops higher than the subject or vice versa. Sometimes a shadow can be used to create a special effect. Areas of the bluescreen or greenscreen with a shadow on them can be replaced with a darker version of the desired background video image, making it look like the person casting the shadow is actually casting a shadow on the background image instead.

Use in virtual set technology
Chroma key compositing is integral in the use of virtual set technology; the real-time combination of people and computer generated environments.

There are several different quality- and speed-optimized techniques for implementing color keying in software.[11] In most versions, a function f(r, g, b) → α is applied to every pixel in the image. α (alpha) has a meaning similar to that in alpha compositing techniques. α ≤ 0 means the pixel is the green screen, α ≥ 1 means the pixel is in the foreground object. Values between 0 and 1 indicate a pixel that is partially covered by the foreground object. A usable green screen example, which matches how chroma key was done on an optical printer, is f(r, g, b) = K0 * b − K1 * g + K2 (K0..2 are user-adjustable constants, 1 is a good initial guess for all of them).

A short demo of a chroma key effect, superimposing a cat onto a log.

Bluescreen Often the software does screen spill removal from the colors as well as figure out the alpha. This may be a separate function g(r, g, b) → (r, g, b), a very simple green screen example is g(r, g, b) → (r, min(g, b), b). Or f is changed to return (r, g, b, a) all at once, this is useful if part of the calculation is shared. Most keyers use far more complicated functions. A popular approach is to describe a closed 3D surface in RGB space and determine the signed distance the point (r, g, b) is from this surface, or to find the distance the point (r, g, b) is between two closed nested surfaces. It is also very common for f() to depend on more than just the current pixel's color, it may also use the (x, y) position, the values of nearby pixels, the value from reference images, and values from user-drawn masks. A different class of algorithm tries to figure out a 2D path that separates the foreground from the background. This path can be the output, or the image can be drawn by filling the path with α = 1 as a final step. An example of such an algorithm is the use of active contour. Most research in recent years has been into these algorithms.


See also
• Compositing • Federal Standard 1037C • Filmmaking • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Drew Carey's Green Screen Show Film production Front projection effect Matte (filmmaking) Muslin Optical printer Primatte chromakey technology Rear projection effect Reverse bluescreen Schüfftan process Signal processing Sodium vapor process Special effects Video Virtual set

External links
• • • • How to build a mobile green/blue screen [12] Building a Chroma Key on a low budget (Google Knol) [13] How Blue Screens Work [14] Stargate Studios Virtual Backlot Reel 2009 -- A demonstration of green screen scenes [15]

[1] "Glossary: Post Production" (http:/ / www. theproductionguide. co. uk/ glos_post_prod. aspx). The Production Guide. . Retrieved 2009-01-21. [2] "The Chroma Effect" (http:/ / www. borisfx. com/ tutorials/ chroma_key. php). Chroma Key Tutorial. BorisFX. . Retrieved 11 January 2010. "If the foreground is a person then blue or green backing color is recommended as these colors are not present in human flesh pigments. In fact, human skin color is 70% red for all people regardless of race." [3] "Illusions Take Home First Oscars" (http:/ / en. chinabroadcast. cn/ 2246/ 2005-2-14/ 90@206385. htm). CRI English. 2005-02-14. . Retrieved 2009-01-21. [4] Sternbach, Rick; Okuda, Michael (1991). Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual. Pocket Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-671-70427-3. [5] http:/ / www. sjsu. edu/ faculty/ watkins/ eye. htm

[6] http:/ / www. destudiodublin. com/ Facilities/ Greenscreen-deStudio. htm [7] Creating an invisible cape in After Effects (http:/ / library. creativecow. net/ articles/ stern_eran/ Invisible_Cape. php) [8] "So you wanna make a theme?" (http:/ / www. skinyourscreen. com/ site/ Articles/ so-you-wanna-make-a-theme). articles. . Retrieved 2008-08-23. [9] "What is Thermo-Key?" (http:/ / www. hc. t. u-tokyo. ac. jp/ project/ thermo-key/ ). University of Tokyo. . Retrieved 2009-01-21. [10] Yasuda, K.; Naemura, T.; Harashima, H.. "Thermo-key: human region segmentation from video" (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. jsp?arnumber=1255805). IEEE. . Retrieved 2009-01-21. [11] Ashihkmin, Michael. "High Quality Chroma Key" (http:/ / www. cs. utah. edu/ ~michael/ chroma/ ). . [12] http:/ / www. stormforcepictures. com/ howto-buildamobilegreenscreen. php [13] http:/ / knol. google. com/ k/ richard-brooks/ making-a-chroma-key-on-a-low-budget/ g6bxq3348xjd/ 3#view [14] http:/ / entertainment. howstuffworks. com/ blue-screen. htm [15] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=clnozSXyF4k


True north
True north is the direction along the earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole. True north usually differs from magnetic north (the direction of the magnetic north pole) and grid north (the direction northwards along the grid lines of a map projection). The direction of true north is marked in the skies by the north celestial pole. For most practical purposes, this is the position of Polaris. However, due to the precession of the Earth's axis, true north rotates in an arc that takes approximately 25,000 years to complete. In 2102[1] Polaris will make its closest approach to the celestial north pole. 5,000 years ago, the closest star to the celestial north pole was Thuban. On maps published by the United States Geological Survey, and the U.S. military, true north is marked with a line terminating in a five-pointed star. The east and west edges of the USGS topographic quadrangle maps of the United States are meridians of longitude, thus indicating true north (so they're not exactly parallel). Maps issued by the United Kingdom Ordnance Survey contain a diagram showing the difference between true north, grid north and magnetic north at a point on the sheet; the edges of the map are likely to follow grid directions rather than true, and the map will thus be truly rectangular/square.

Change of magnetic declination in Israel map (Statement for 2001)

• Meeus, Jean (1997). Mathematical Astronomy Morsels. Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell. ISBN 0-943396-51-4.

[1] Meeus (1997), p.305.



Numeral systems by culture Hindu-Arabic numerals Burmese Eastern Arabic Indian family Khmer Mongolian Thai Western Arabic

East Asian numerals Chinese Japanese Suzhou Korean Vietnamese Counting rods

Alphabetic numerals Abjad Armenian Āryabhaṭa Cyrillic Ge'ez Greek (Ionian) Hebrew

Other systems Aegean Attic Babylonian Brahmi Egyptian Etruscan Inuit Mayan Quipu Roman Sumerian Urnfield

List of numeral system topics Positional systems by base Decimal (10) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 16, 20, 60 more…

In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively a through f) to represent values ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AF3 is equal, in decimal, to (2 × 163) + (10 × 162) + (15 × 161) + (3 × 160) , or 10,995. Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits) (also called a "nibble"), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is as a human-friendly representation of binary coded values in computing and digital electronics. For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal) but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 through FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent computer memory addresses.



Representing hexadecimal
0hex = 1hex = 2hex = 3hex = 4hex = 5hex = 6hex = 7hex = 8hex = 9hex = 0dec 1dec 2dec 3dec 4dec 5dec 6dec 7dec 8dec 9dec = = = = = = = = 0oct 1oct 2oct 3oct 4oct 5oct 6oct 7oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

= 10oct 1 0 0 0 = 11oct 1 0 0 1

Ahex = 10dec = 12oct 1 0 1 0 Bhex = 11dec = 13oct 1 0 1 1 Chex = 12dec = 14oct 1 1 0 0 Dhex = 13dec = 15oct 1 1 0 1 Ehex = 14dec = 16oct 1 1 1 0 Fhex = 15dec = 17oct 1 1 1 1

In situations where there is no context, a hexadecimal number might be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript (itself written in decimal) can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; 15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Other authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen: • In URLs, character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %: where %20 is the space (blank) character (code value 20 in hex, 32 in decimal). • In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation &#xcode;, where code is the 1- to 6-digit hex number assigned to the character in the Unicode standard. Thus &#x2019; represents the curled right single quote (Unicode value 2019 in hex, 8217 in decimal). • Color references in HTML and CSS can be expressed with six hexdigits (two each for the red, green, and blue components, in that order) prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF .[1] CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33 (a golden orange). • *nix (Unix and related) shells, and likewise the C programming language, which was designed for Unix (and the syntactic descendants of C[2] ) use the prefix 0x for numeric constants represented in hex: 0x5A3. Character and string constants may express character codes in hexadecimal with the prefix \x followed by two hex digits: '\x1B' represents the Esc control character; "\x1B[0m\x1B[25;1H" is a string containing 11 characters (plus a trailing NUL to mark the end of the string) with two embedded Esc characters.[3] To output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. • In the Unicode standard, a character value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value: U+20AC is the Euro sign (€).

Hexadecimal • In MIME (e-mail extensions) quoted-printable encoding, characters that cannot be represented as literal ASCII characters are represented by their codes as two hexadecimal digits (in ASCII) prefixed by an equal to sign =, as in Espa=F1a to send "España" (Spain). (Hexadecimal F1, equal to decimal 241, is the code number for the lower case n with tilde in the ISO/IEC 8859-1 character set.) • In Intel-derived assembly languages, hexadecimal is indicated with a suffixed H or h: FFh or 05A3H. Some implementations require a leading zero when the first hexadecimal digit character is not a decimal digit: 0FFh • Other assembly languages (6502, AT&T, Motorola), Pascal, Delphi, some versions of BASIC (Commodore) and Forth use $ as a prefix: $5A3. • Some assembly languages (Microchip) use the notation H'ABCD' (for ABCD16). • Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based "numeric quotes": 16#5A3#. VHDL also supports x"5A3". • Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8'hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value and FF is the hexadecimal constant. • Modula-2 and some other languages use # as a prefix: #05A3 • The Smalltalk programming language uses the prefix 16r: 16r5A3 • Postscript indicates hex with prefix 16#: 16#5A3. Binary data (such as image pixels) can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs: AA213FD51B3801043FBC... • In early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. • Common Lisp use the prefixes #x and #16r. • QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H: &H5A3 • BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex.[4] • TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix: 0h5A3 • Notations such as X'5A3' are sometimes seen, such as in PL/I. This is the most common format for hexadecimal on IBM mainframes (zSeries) and midrange computers (iSeries) running traditional OS's (zOS, zVSE, zVM, TPF, OS/400), and is used in Assembler, PL/1, Cobol, JCL, scripts, commands and other places. This format was common on other (and now obsolete) IBM systems as well. • Donald Knuth introduced the use of a particular typeface to represent a particular radix in his book The TeXbook.[5] Hexadecimal representations are written there in a typewriter typeface: 5A3 • Any IPv6 address can be written as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, where each group is separated by a colon (:). This, for example, is a valid IPv6 address: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334 There is no universal convention to use lowercase or uppercase for the letter digits, and each is prevalent or preferred in particular environments by community standards or convention. The choice of the letters A through F to represent the digits above nine was not universal in the early history of computers. During the 1950s, some installations favored using the digits 0 through 5 with a macron character ("¯") to indicate the values 10–15. Users of Bendix G-15 computers used the letters U through Z. Bruce A. Martin of Bruce A. Martin's hexadecimal notation proposal Brookhaven National Laboratory considered the choice of A–F "ridiculous" and in a 1968 letter to the editor of the CACM proposed an entirely new set of symbols based on the bit locations, which did not gain much acceptance.[6]




Verbal and digital representations
There are no traditional numerals to represent the quantities from ten to fifteen—letters are used as a substitute—and most Western European languages lack non-decimal names for the numerals above ten. Even though English has names for several non-decimal powers (pair for the first binary power, score for the first vigesimal power, dozen, gross, and great gross for the first three duodecimal powers), no English name describes the hexadecimal powers (decimal 16, 256, 4096, 65536, ... ). Some people read hexadecimal numbers digit by digit like a phone number: 4DA is "four-dee-ay". However, the letter A sounds like "eight", C sounds like "three", and D can easily be mistaken for the "-ty" suffix: Is it 4D or forty? Other people avoid confusion by using the NATO phonetic alphabet: 4DA is "four-delta-alfa"; or the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet ("four-dog-able"); or a similar ad hoc system. Systems of counting on digits have been devised for both binary and hexadecimal. Arthur C. Clarke suggested using each finger as an on/off bit, allowing finger counting from zero to 1023 on ten fingers. Another system for counting up to FF (255) is illustrated on the right; it seems to be an extension of an existing system for counting in twelves (dozens and grosses), that is common in South Asia and elsewhere.

The hexadecimal system can express negative numbers the same way as in decimal: –2A to represent –42 and so on.
Hexadecimal finger-counting scheme.

However, some prefer instead to express the exact bit patterns used in the processor and consider hexadecimal values best handled as signed values. This way, the negative number –42 can be written as FFFF FFD6 in a 32-bit CPU register, as C228 0000 in a 32-bit FPU register or C045 0000 0000 0000 in a 64-bit FPU register (assuming certain representation schemes, two's-complement in the 32-bit non-FPU instance and sign-magnitude in the FPU instances.)

Binary conversion
Most computers manipulate binary data, but it is difficult for humans to work with the large number of digits for even a relatively small binary number. Although most humans are familiar with the base 10 system, it is much easier to map binary to hexadecimal than to decimal because each hexadecimal digit maps to a whole number of bits (410). This example converts 11112 to base ten. Since each position in a binary numeral can contain either a 1 or 0, its value may be easily determined by its position from the right: • • • • 00012 = 110 00102 = 210 01002 = 410 10002 = 810

11112 = 810 + 410 + 210 + 110 = 1510

With surprisingly little practice, mapping 11112 to F16 in one step becomes easy: see table in Representing hexadecimal. The advantage of using hexadecimal rather than decimal increases rapidly with the size of the number. When the number becomes large, conversion to decimal is very tedious. However, when mapping to hexadecimal, it is trivial to regard the binary string as 4-digit groups and map each to a single hexadecimal digit.

Hexadecimal This example shows the conversion of a binary number to decimal, mapping each digit to the decimal value, and adding the results.
010111101011010100102 = 26214410 + 6553610 + 3276810 + 1638410 + 819210 + 204810 + 51210 + 25610 + 6410 + 1610 + 210 = 38792210


Compare this to the conversion to hexadecimal, where each group of four digits can be considered independently, and converted directly:
010111101011010100102 = 0101 1110 1011 0101 00102 = 5 E B 5 216

= 5EB5216

The conversion from hexadecimal to binary is equally direct. The octal system can also be useful as a tool for people who need to deal directly with binary computer data. Octal represents data as three bits per character, rather than four.

Converting from other bases
Division-remainder in source base
As with all bases there is a simple algorithm for converting a representation of a number to hexadecimal by doing integer division and remainder operations in the source base. Theoretically this is possible from any base but for most humans only decimal and for most computers only binary (which can be converted by far more efficient methods) can be easily handled with this method. Let d be the number to represent in hexadecimal, and the series hihi-1...h2h1 be the hexadecimal digits representing the number. 1. 2. 3. 4. i := 1 hi := d mod 16 d := (d-hi) / 16 If d = 0 (return series hi) else increment i and go to step 2

"16" may be replaced with any other base that may be desired. The following is a JavaScript implementation of the above algorithm for converting any number to a hexadecimal in String representation. Its purpose is to illustrate the above algorithm. To work with data seriously however, it is much more advisable to work with bitwise operators. function toHex(d) { var r = d % 16; var result; if (d-r == 0) result = toChar(r); else result = toHex( (d-r)/16 ) + toChar(r); return result; } function toChar(n) { const alpha = "0123456789ABCDEF";

Hexadecimal return alpha.charAt(n); }


Addition and multiplication
It is also possible to make the conversion by assigning each place in the source base the hexadecimal representation of its place value and then performing multiplication and addition to get the final representation. I.e. to convert the number B3AD to decimal one can split the conversion into D (1310), A (1010), 3 (310) and B (1110) then get the final result by multiplying each decimal representation by 16p, where 'p' is the corresponding position from right to left, beginning with 0. In this case we have 13*(160) + 10*(161) + 3*(162) + 11*(163), which is equal 45997 in the decimal system.

Tools for conversion
Most modern computer systems with graphical user interfaces provide a built-in calculator utility, capable of performing conversions between various radixes, generally including hexadecimal.
A hexadecimal multiplication table

In Microsoft Windows, the Calculator utility can be set to Scientific mode (called Programmer mode in some versions), which allows conversions between radix 16 (hexadecimal), 10 (decimal), 8 (octal) and 2 (binary); the bases most commonly used by programmers. In Scientific Mode, the on-screen numeric keypad includes the hexadecimal digits A through F which are active when "Hex" is selected. In hex mode, however, the Windows Calculator only supports integers.

Real numbers
As with other numeral systems, the hexadecimal system can be used to represent rational numbers, although recurring digits are common since sixteen (10h) has only a single prime factor (two):
½ = 0.8 ⅙ = 0.2A 1⁄A = 0.19 1⁄E = 0.1249 1⁄F = 0.1 1⁄10 = 0.1 1⁄11 = 0.0F

⅓ = 0.5 1⁄7 = 0.249 1⁄B = 0.1745D ¼ = 0.4 ⅛ = 0.2 1⁄C = 0.15

⅕ = 0.3 1⁄9 = 0.1C7 1⁄D = 0.13B

where an overline indicates a recurring pattern. For any base, 0.1 (or "1/10") is always equivalent to one divided by the representation of that base value in its own number system: Counting in base 3 is 0, 1, 2, 10 (three). Thus, whether dividing one by two for binary or dividing one by sixteen for hexadecimal, both of these fractions are written as 0.1. Because the radix 16 is a perfect square (4²), fractions expressed in hexadecimal have an odd period much more often than decimal ones, and there are no cyclic numbers (other than trivial single digits). Recurring digits are exhibited when the denominator in lowest terms has a prime factor not found in the radix; thus, when using hexadecimal notation, all fractions with denominators that are not a power of two result in an infinite string of recurring digits (such as thirds and fifths). This makes hexadecimal (and binary) less convenient than decimal for representing rational numbers since a larger proportion lie outside its range of finite representation. All rational numbers finitely representable in hexadecimal are also finitely representable in decimal, duodecimal and sexagesimal: that is, any hexadecimal number with a finite number of digits has a finite number of digits when

Hexadecimal expressed in those other bases. Conversely, only a fraction of those finitely representable in the latter bases are finitely representable in hexadecimal. For example, decimal 0.1 corresponds to the infinite recurring representation 0.199999999999... in hexadecimal. However, hexadecimal is more efficient than bases 12 and 60 for representing fractions with powers of two in the denominator (e.g., decimal one sixteenth is 0.1 in hexadecimal, 0.09 in duodecimal, 0;3,45 in sexagesimal and 0.0625 in decimal).
In decimal Prime factors of the base: 2, 5 Fraction Prime factors of the denominator 2 3 2 5 2, 3 7 2 3 2, 5 11 2, 3 13 2, 7 3, 5 2 17 2, 3 19 2, 5 3, 7 2, 11 23 2, 3 5 2, 13 3 2, 7 29 2, 3, 5 31 2 0.5 0.3333... = 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.16 0.142857 0.125 0.1 0.1 0.09 0.083 0.076923 0.0714285 0.06 0.0625 0.0588235294117647 0.05 0.052631578947368421 0.05 0.047619 0.045 0.0434782608695652173913 0.0416 0.04 0.0384615 0.037 0.03571428 Positional representation In hexadecimal Prime factors of the base: 2 Positional representation Prime factors Fraction of the denominator 2 3 2 5 2, 3 7 2 3 2, 5 B 2, 3 D 2, 7 3, 5 2 11 2, 3 13 2, 5 3, 7 2, B 17 2, 3 5 2, B 3 2, 7 1D 2, 3, 5 1F 2 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/A 1/B 1/C 1/D 1/E 1/F 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 1/18 1/19 1/1A 1/1B 1/1C 1/1D 1/1E 1/1F 1/20


1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 1/18 1/19 1/20 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/24 1/25 1/26 1/27 1/28 1/29 1/30 1/31 1/32

0.8 0.5555... = 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2A 0.249 0.2 0.1C7 0.19 0.1745D 0.15 0.13B 0.1249 0.1 0.1 0.0F 0.0E38 0.0D79435E50 0.0C 0.0C3 0.0BA2E8 0.0B21642C8590 0.0A 0.0A3D70 0.09D8 0.097B425ED 0.0924

0.0344827586206896551724137931 0.08D3DCB 0.03 0.032258064516129 0.03125 0.08 0.08421 0.08


1/33 1/34 1/35 1/36 3, 11 2, 17 5, 7 2, 3 0.03 0.02941176470588235 0.0285714 0.027 0.07C1F 0.078 0.075 0.071C 3, B 2, 11 5, 7 2, 3 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/24

Algebraic irrational number √2 (the length of the diagonal of a unit square) √3 (the length of the diagonal of a unit cube) √5 (the length of the diagonal of a 1×2 rectangle) φ (phi, the golden ratio = (1+√5)⁄2) Transcendental irrational number π (pi, the ratio of circumference to diameter)

In decimal 1.41421356237309... 1.73205080756887... 2.2360679774997... 1.6180339887498...

In hexadecimal 1.6A09E667F3BCD... 1.BB67AE8584CAA... 2.3C6EF372FE95... 1.9E3779B97F4A...

3.1415926535897932384626433 3.243F6A8885A308D313198A2E0 8327950288419716939937510... 3707344A4093822299F31D008... 2.7182818284590452... 0.412454033640... 2.B7E151628AED2A6B... 0.6996 9669 9669 6996 ...

e (the base of the natural logarithm) τ (the Thue–Morse constant) Number γ (the limiting difference between the harmonic series and the natural logarithm)



Possibly the most widely used powers, powers of two, are easier to show using base 16. The first sixteen powers of two are shown below.
2x 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A ( 2B ( 2C ( 2D ( ) ) ) ) 1 2 4 8 10hex 20hex 40hex 80hex 100hex 200hex 400hex 800hex 1000hex 2000hex value


4000hex 8000hex ) 10000hex

2E ( 2F ( 210 (

) )

Since four squared is sixteen, powers of four have an even easier relation:
4x 40 1 41 4 42 10hex 43 40hex 44 100hex 45 400hex 46 1000hex 47 4000hex 48 10000hex value

This also makes tetration easier when using two and four since: 3 2 = 24 = 10hex, 4 2 = 216 = 10000hex and 5 2 = 265536 = (1 followed by 16384 zeros)hex.

The word hexadecimal is composed of hexa-, derived from the Greek έξ (hex) for "six", and -decimal, derived from the Latin for "tenth". Webster's Third New International online derives "hexadecimal" as an alteration of the all-Latin "sexadecimal" (which appears in the earlier Bendix documentation). The earliest date attested for "hexadecimal" in Merriam-Webster Collegiate online is 1954, placing it safely in the category of international scientific vocabulary (ISV). It is common in ISV to mix Greek and Latin combining forms freely. The word "sexagesimal" (for base 60) retains the Latin prefix. Donald Knuth has pointed out that the etymologically correct term is "senidenary", from the Latin term for "grouped by 16". (The terms "binary", "ternary" and "quaternary" are from the same Latin construction, and the etymologically correct term for "decimal" arithmetic is "denary".)[7] Schwartzman notes that the expected form from usual Latin phrasing would be "sexadecimal", but computer hackers would be tempted to shorten that word to "sex".[8] The etymologically proper Greek term would be hexadecadic (although in Modern Greek deca-hexadic (δεκαεξαδικός) is more commonly used).



Common patterns and humor
Hexadecimal is sometimes used in programmer jokes because certain words can be formed using only hexadecimal digits. Some of these words are "dead", "beef", "babe", and with appropriate substitutions "c0ffee". Since these are quickly recognizable by programmers, debugging setups sometimes initialize memory to them to help programmers see when something has not been initialized. Some people add an H after a number if they want to show that it is written in hexadecimal. In older Intel assembly syntax, this is sometimes the case. An example is the magic number in Universal Mach-O files and java class file structure, which is "CAFEBABE". Single-architecture 32-bit big-endian Mach-O files have the magic number "FEEDFACE" at their beginning. "DEADBEEF" is sometimes put into uninitialized memory. Microsoft Windows XP clears its locked index.dat files with the hex codes: "0BADF00D". The Visual C++ remote debugger uses "BADCAB1E" to denote a broken link to the target system. Two common bit patterns often employed to test hardware are 01010101 and 10101010 (their corresponding hex values are 55h and AAh, respectively). The reason for their use is to alternate between off ('0') to on ('1') or vice versa when switching between these two patterns. These two values are often used together as signatures in critical PC system sectors (e.g., the hex word, 0xAA55 which on little-endian systems is 55h followed by AAh, must be at the end of a valid Master Boot Record). The following table shows a joke in hexadecimal: 3x12=36 2x12=24 1x12=12 0x12=18 The first three are interpreted as multiplication, but in the last, "0x" signals Hexadecimal interpretation of 12, which is 18. Another joke based on the use of a word containing only letters from the first six in the alphabet (and thus those used in hexadecimal) is... If only dead people understand hexadecimal, how many people understand hexadecimal? In this case, "dead" refers to a hexadecimal number DEAD (57005 base 10), as opposed to the state of not being alive. A Knuth reward check is one hexadecimal dollar, or $2.56.

Primary numeral system
Similar to dozenal advocacy, there have been occasional attempts to promote hexadecimal as the preferred numeral system. These attempts usually propose pronunciation and/or symbology.[9] Sometimes the proposal unifies standard measures so that they are multiples of 16.[10] [11] [12] An example of unifying standard measures is Hexadecimal time which subdivides a day by 16 so that there are 16 "hexhours" in a day.[12]



Key to number base notation
Simple key for notations used in article:
Full Text Notation binary octal decimal hexadecimal Abbreviation bin oct dec hex Number Base 2 8 10 16

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Base32 (content encoding scheme) Base64 (content encoding scheme) Binary numeral system Hex editor Hexdump Hexadecimal time Hexspeak HTML Nibble — one hexadecimal digit can exactly represent one "nibble" Numeral system — a list of other base systems Web colours

[1] "Hexadecimal web colors explained" (http:/ / www. web-colors-explained. com/ hex. php). . [2] Some of C's syntactic descendants are C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, and Windows PowerShell [3] The string "\x1B[0m\x1B[25;1H" specifies the character sequence Esc [ 0 m Esc [ 2 5 ; 1 H Nul. These are the escape sequences used on an ANSI terminal that reset the character set and color, and then move the cursor to line 25. [4] BBC BASIC programs are not fully portable to Microsoft BASIC (without modification) since the latter takes & to prefix octal values. (Microsoft BASIC primarily uses &O to prefix octal, and it uses &H to prefix hexadecimal, but the ampersand alone yields a default interpretation as an octal prefix. [5] Donald E. Knuth. The TeXbook (Computers and Typesetting, Volume A). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1984. ISBN 0-201-13448-9. The source code of the book in TeX (http:/ / www. ctan. org/ tex-archive/ systems/ knuth/ tex/ texbook. tex) (and a required set of macros (ftp:/ / tug. ctan. org/ pub/ tex-archive/ systems/ knuth/ lib/ manmac. tex)) is available online on CTAN. [6] Letters to the editor: On binary notation, Bruce A. Martin, Associated Universities Inc., Communications of the ACM, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 1968) Page: 658 doi:10.1145/364096.364107 [7] Knuth, Donald. (1969). Donald Knuth, in The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 2. ISBN 0-201-03802-1. (Chapter 17.) [8] Schwartzman, S. (1994). The Words of Mathematics: an etymological dictionary of mathematical terms used in English. ISBN 0-88385-511-9. [9] "Base 4^2 Hexadecimal Symbol Proposal" (http:/ / www. hauptmech. com/ base42). . [10] "Intuitor Hex Headquarters" (http:/ / www. intuitor. com/ hex/ ). . [11] "A proposal for addition of the six Hexadecimal digits (A-F) to Unicode" (http:/ / std. dkuug. dk/ jtc1/ sc2/ wg2/ docs/ n2677). . [12] Nystrom, John William (1862). Project of a New System of Arithmetic, Weight, Measure and Coins: Proposed to be called the Tonal System, with Sixteen to the Base (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=aNYGAAAAYAAJ). Philadelphia. .

Hex editor


Hex editor
A hex editor (or binary file editor or byte editor) is a type of computer program that allows a user to manipulate the fundamental binary (0 / 1, zero / one) data that makes up computer files. Note that computer files can be very small (just a name, with no content) to very large (content spanning multiple hard disks). A typical computer file occupies multiple areas on the platter(s) of a disk drive, whose contents are put together to form the file. Hex editors that were designed to read ("parse") and edit sector data from the physical segments of floppy or hard disks were sometimes called sector editors or disk editors.

By using a hex editor, a user can see or edit the raw and exact contents of a file, as opposed to the interpretation of the same content that other, higher level application software may associate with the file format. For example, this could be raw image data, in contrast to the way image editing software would interpret and show the same file. In most hex editor applications, the data of the computer file is represented as hexadecimal values [1] grouped in 4 groups of 4 bytes, followed by one group Screenshot of a common hex editor (hexedit by Pascal Rigaux (Pixel)) of 16 ASCII characters which are derived from each pair of hex values (each byte). Non-printable ASCII characters (e.g. Bell) and characters that would take more than one character space (e.g. tab) are typically represented by a dot (".") in the following ASCII field.

See also
• Comparison of hex editors • Hex dump • Disk editor

External links
• The Linux Information Project. "Hex Editor Definition" [2]. Retrieved 2010-05-30.

[1] http:/ / rigaux. org/ hexedit. html [2] http:/ / www. linfo. org/ hex_editor. html



Filename extension .aiff .aif .aifc audio/x-aiff audio/aiff AIFF, AIFC

Internet media type Type code

Uniform Type Identifier public.aiff-audio public.aifc-audio Developed by Initial release Latest release Apple Inc. 21 January 1988

1.3 / 4 January 1989 [2] AIFF-C / July 1991 audio file format, container format IFF (File format)

Type of format Extended from

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was co-developed by Apple Computer in 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. The audio data in a standard AIFF file is uncompressed pulse-code modulation (PCM). There is also a compressed variant of AIFF known as AIFF-C or AIFC, with various defined compression codecs. Standard AIFF is a leading format (along with SDII and WAV) used by professional-level audio and video applications, and unlike the better-known lossy MP3 format, it is non-compressed (which aids rapid streaming of multiple audio files from disk to the application), and lossless. Like any non-compressed, lossless format, it uses much more disk space than MP3—about 10MB for one minute of stereo audio at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a sample size of 16 bits. In addition to audio data, AIFF can include loop point data and the musical note of a sample, for use by hardware samplers and musical applications. The file extension for the standard AIFF format is .aiff or .aif. For the compressed variants it is supposed to be .aifc, but .aiff or .aif are accepted as well by audio applications supporting the format.

AIFF on Mac OS X
With the development of the Mac OS X operating system, Apple created a new type of AIFF which is, in effect, an alternative little-endian byte order format.[3] [4] Because the AIFF architecture has no provision for alternative byte order, Apple used the existing AIFF-C compression architecture, and created a "pseudo-compressed" codec called sowt (twos spelled backwards). The only difference between a standard AIFF file and an AIFF-C/sowt file is the byte order; there is no compression involved at all.[5] Apple uses this new little-endian AIFF type as its standard on Mac OS X. When a file is imported to or exported from iTunes in "AIFF" format, it is actually AIFF-C/sowt that is being used. When audio from an audio CD disc is imported by dragging to the Mac OS X Desktop, the resulting file is also an AIFF-C/sowt. In all cases, Apple refers to the files simply as "AIFF", and uses the ".aiff" extension.

AIFF For the vast majority of users this technical situation is completely unnoticeable and irrelevant. The sound quality of standard AIFF and AIFF-C/sowt are identical, and the data can be converted back and forth without loss. Users of older audio applications, however, may find that an AIFF-C/sowt file will not play, or will prompt the user to convert the format on opening, or will play as static. All traditional AIFF and AIFF-C files continue to work normally on Mac OS X (including on the new Intel-based hardware), and many third-party audio applications as well as hardware continue to use the standard AIFF big-endian byte order. Note: As of Mac OS X version 10.4.9, the system will sometimes incorrectly display the AIFC icon for files with the .aif extension, whether or not the actual file format is AIFF or AIFF-C. This can be verified by opening the files in a hex editor and checking the FORM chunk's form type. This can sometimes happen when exporting files from QuickTime, and frequently happens when sending and receiving files between Windows and Mac computers or extracting files from an archive.


AIFF Apple Loops
Apple has also created another recent extension to the AIFF format in the form of Apple Loops[6] used by GarageBand and Logic Audio, which allows the inclusion of data for pitch and tempo shifting by an application in the more common variety, and MIDI-sequence data and references to GarageBand playback instruments in another variety. AppleLoops use the .aiff (or .aif) extension regardless of type.

Data format
An AIFF file is divided into a number of chunks. Each chunk is identified by a chunk ID more broadly referred to as FourCC. Types of chunks found in AIFF files: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Common Chunk (required) Sound Data Chunk (required) Marker Chunk Instrument Chunk Comment Chunk Name Chunk Author Chunk Copyright Chunk Annotation Chunk Audio Recording Chunk MIDI Data Chunk Application Chunk ID3 Chunk



AIFF-C common compression types
AIFF supports only uncompressed PCM data. AIFF-C also supports compression audio formats, that can be specified in the "COMM" chunk. The compression type is "NONE" for PCM audio data. The compression type is accompanied by a printable name. Common compression types and names include, but are not limited to:

AIFF-C common compression types[1] [7] [8]
Compression Type NONE fl32 fl64 alaw ulaw ALAW ULAW FL32 ADP4 ima4 ACE2 ACE8 DWVW MAC3 MAC6 Qclp QDMC rt24 rt29 Compression Name Data Source

not compressed 32-bit floating point 64-bit floating point ALaw 2:1 µLaw 2:1 CCITT G.711 A-law CCITT G.711 u-law Float 32 4:1 Intel/DVI ADPCM IMA 4:1 ACE 2-to-1 ACE 8-to-3 Delta With Variable Word Width MACE 3-to-1 MACE 6-to-1 Qualcomm PureVoice QDesign Music RT24 50:1 RT29 50:1

PCM IEEE 32-bit float IEEE 64-bit float 8-bit ITU-T G.711 A-law 8-bit ITU-T G.711 µ-law

Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Computer, Inc.

8-bit ITU-T G.711 A-law (64 kb/s) SGI 8-bit ITU-T G.711 µ-law (64 kb/s) SGI IEEE 32-bit float SoundHack & Csound SoundHack

Apple IIGS ACE (Audio Compression/Expansion)

TX16W Typhoon Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. Qualcomm QDesign Voxware Voxware

See also
• • • • • • Apple Lossless FLAC WAV RIFF OSType FourCC



External links
• • • • • AIFF file format details [9] AIFF file format - Byte order: Big-endian [10] Audio Interchange File Format AIFF-C - Draft 08/26/91 - Apple Computer, Inc. [11] - ( backup) Creating AIFF Audio Formatted Files [12] - by Paul Bourke - (September 1996) Audio Interchange File Format: "AIFF" - A Standard for Sampled Sound Files, Version 1.2 [13]

[1] Apple Computer, Inc. (1989-01-04) (PDF), Audio Interchange File Format, A Standard for Sampled Sound Files, Version 1.3 (http:/ / www-mmsp. ece. mcgill. ca/ Documents/ AudioFormats/ AIFF/ Docs/ AIFF-1. 3. pdf), , retrieved 2010-03-21 [2] P. Kabal (2005-03-15). "Audio File Format Specifications - AIFF / AIFF-C Specifications" (http:/ / www-mmsp. ece. mcgill. ca/ Documents/ AudioFormats/ AIFF/ AIFF. html). McGill University. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [3] Mac OSX Reference Library (http:/ / developer. apple. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Darwin/ Reference/ ManPages/ man1/ say. 1. html) [4] Supported Audio File and Data Formats in Mac OS X (http:/ / developer. apple. com/ iphone/ library/ documentation/ musicaudio/ Conceptual/ CoreAudioOverview/ SupportedAudioFormatsMacOSX/ SupportedAudioFormatsMacOSX. html) [5] "Technical Q&A QTMRF04: QuickTime Sound" (http:/ / developer. apple. com/ mac/ library/ qa/ qtmrf/ qtmrf04. html). Apple. 1995-05-01. . Retrieved 2009-11-09. [6] "Logic Studio - Plug-ins & Sounds" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ logicstudio/ soundlibrary/ #loops). Apple. . Retrieved 2010-04-30. [7] Tom Erbe (1999). "AIFF-C Compression Types and Names" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060620002145/ shoko. calarts. edu/ ~tre/ AIFFC/ comptype. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [8] "JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment - AIFF-hul Module" (http:/ / hul. harvard. edu/ jhove/ aiff-hul. html). 2005-05-09. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [9] http:/ / muratnkonar. com/ aiff/ index. html [10] http:/ / www. onicos. com/ staff/ iz/ formats/ aiff. html [11] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071219035740/ http:/ / www. cnpbagwell. com/ aiff-c. txt [12] http:/ / local. wasp. uwa. edu. au/ ~pbourke/ dataformats/ audio/ [13] http:/ / multimedia. cx/ mirror/ AudioIFF1_2_1. htm



Calculus (Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting) is a branch in mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Calculus is the study of change[1] , in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis. Calculus has widespread applications in science, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Historically, calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals", or "infinitesimal calculus". More generally, calculus (plural calculi) may refer to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus, variational calculus, lambda calculus, pi calculus, and join calculus.

The ancient period introduced some of the ideas of integral calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. Calculating volumes and areas, the basic function of integral calculus, can be traced back to the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. 1820 BC), in which an Egyptian successfully calculated the volume of a pyramidal frustum.[2] [3] From the school of Greek mathematics, Eudoxus (c. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion, which prefigures the concept of the limit, to calculate areas and volumes while Archimedes (c. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further, inventing heuristics which resemble integral calculus.[4] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. In the 5th century AD, Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere.[3]


Around AD 1000, the Islamic mathematician Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) was the first to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers of an arithmetic progression, using a method that is readily generalizable to finding the formula for the sum of any higher integral powers, which he used to perform an integration.[5] In the 11th century, the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo developed 'packing' equations that dealt with integration. In the 12th century, the Indian mathematician, Bhāskara II, developed an early derivative representing infinitesimal change, and he described an early form of Rolle's theorem.[6] Also in the 12th century, the Persian mathematician Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī discovered the derivative of cubic polynomials, an important result in differential calculus.[7] In the 14th century, Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama, along with other mathematician-astronomers of the Kerala school of

Isaac Newton is one of the most famous contributors to the development of calculus, with, among other things, the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.

Calculus astronomy and mathematics, described special cases of Taylor series,[8] which are treated in the text Yuktibhasa.[9]
[10] [11]


In Europe, the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri, who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimal thin cross-sections. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method, but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods can lead to erroneous results, and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. The combination was achieved by John Wallis, Isaac Barrow, and James Gregory, the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. The product rule and chain rule, the notion of higher derivatives, Taylor series, and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. In his publications, Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time, replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion, the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid, the oblateness of the earth, the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid, and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica. In other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries, and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities, allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives, and providing the product rule and chain rule, in their differential and integral forms. Unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism—he often spent days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration, second and higher derivatives, and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. By Newton's time, the fundamental theorem of calculus was known.

When Newton and Leibniz first published their results, there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. Newton derived his results first, but Leibniz published first. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes, which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal Society. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years, to the

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was originally accused of plagiarizing Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished work (only in Britain, not in continental Europe), but is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus.

Calculus detriment of English mathematics. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently, with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. Today, both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. It is Leibniz, however, who gave the new discipline its name. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". Since the time of Leibniz and Newton, many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. In the 19th century, calculus was put on a much more rigorous footing by mathematicians such as Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass (see (ε, δ)-definition of limit). It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Lebesgue generalized the notion of the integral so that virtually any function has an integral, while Laurent Schwartz extended differentiation in much the same way. Calculus is a ubiquitous topic in most modern high schools and universities around the world.[12]


While some of the ideas of calculus were developed earlier in Egypt, Greece, China, India, Iraq, Persia, and Japan, the modern use of calculus began in Europe, during the 17th century, when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration, the slope of a curve, and optimization. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area, volume, arc length, center of mass, work, and pressure. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. Calculus can be used to compute the trajectory of a shuttle docking at a space station or the amount of snow in a driveway. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space, time, and motion. For centuries, mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. Calculus provides tools, especially the limit and the infinite series, which resolve the paradoxes.

In mathematics, foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. There is more than one rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. The usual one today is via the concept of limits defined on the continuum of real numbers. An alternative is nonstandard analysis, in which the real number system is augmented with infinitesimal and infinite numbers, as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. The foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis, which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus as well as generalizations such as measure theory and distribution theory.

Limits and infinitesimals
Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. Historically, the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are, in some sense, "infinitely small". An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0, but less than any number in the sequence 1, 1/2, 1/3, ... and less than any positive real number. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small, i.e., infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. From this point of view, calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make

Calculus the notion of an infinitesimal precise. However, the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis, which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. In the 19th century, infinitesimals were replaced by limits. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. They capture small-scale behavior, just like infinitesimals, but use the ordinary real number system. In this treatment, calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers, and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus, and for this reason they are the standard approach.


Differential calculus
Differential calculus is the study of the definition, properties, and applications of the derivative of a function. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. Given a function and a point in the domain, the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain, it is possible to produce a new function, called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. In mathematical jargon, the derivative is a Tangent line at (x, f(x)). The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. outputs a second function. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra, where functions usually input a number and output another number. For example, if the doubling function is given the input three, then it outputs six, and if the squaring function is given the input three, then it outputs nine. The derivative, however, can take the squaring function as an input. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four, three is sent to nine, four is sent to sixteen, and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. Thus, the derivative of the function of f is f′, pronounced "f prime." For instance, if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function, then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative, the doubling function. If the input of the function represents time, then the derivative represents change with respect to time. For example, if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output, then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time, that is, it is the velocity of the ball. If a function is linear (that is, if the graph of the function is a straight line), then the function can be written y = mx + b, where:

This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. If the graph of the function is not a straight line, however, then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in

Calculus output with respect to change in input. To be concrete, let f be a function, and fix a point a in the domain of f. (a, f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. If h is a number close to zero, then a + h is a number close to a. Therefore (a + h, f(a + h)) is close to (a, f(a)). The slope between these two points is


This expression is called a difference quotient. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line, so m is the slope of the secant line between (a, f(a)) and (a + h, f(a + h)). The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero, which is impossible. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero, meaning that it considers the behavior of f for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero:

Geometrically, the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. For this reason, the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. Here is a particular example, the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function.

The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2, −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different.



The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3,9) is 6, that is to say, it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function, or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function.

Leibniz notation
A common notation, introduced by Leibniz, for the derivative in the example above is

In an approach based on limits, the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. Leibniz, however, did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers, dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator, which takes a function as an input and gives another function, the derivative, as the output. For example:

In this usage, the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals, it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers; although it is possible to avoid such manipulations, they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.

Integral calculus
Integral calculus is the study of the definitions, properties, and applications of two related concepts, the indefinite integral and the definite integral. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. In technical language, integral calculus studies two related linear operators. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative, the inverse operation to the derivative. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. (This use of upper- and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number, which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles, called a Riemann sum. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time.

If the speed is constant, only multiplication is needed, but if the speed changes, then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into

Calculus many short intervals of time, then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval, and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses, then the speed will stay more or less the same. However, a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time, the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. To approximate that area, an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments, the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. For each small segment, we can choose one value of the function f(x). Call that value h. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it, f(x)=h. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve, defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x), between two points (here a and b). the area between the axis and the curve, which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation, but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. The symbol of integration is , an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). The definite integral is written as:


and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles, so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits, the notation

is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number, the area, as an output; dx is not a number, and is not being multiplied by f(x). The indefinite integral, or antiderivative, is written:

Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative, and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C, where C is any constant, is y′ = 2x, the antiderivative of the latter is given by:

An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration.



Fundamental theorem
The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. More precisely, it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a, b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a, b), then

Furthermore, for every x in the interval (a, b),

This realization, made by both Newton and Leibniz, who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow, was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives, and are ubiquitous in the sciences.

Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences, actuarial science, computer science, statistics, engineering, economics, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa, and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density, the moment of inertia of objects, classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration, it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating, we use calculus to derive its path. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. In biology, population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. For example, it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. In analytic geometry, the study of graphs of functions, calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima), slope, concavity and inflection points.

Calculus Green's Theorem, which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C, is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. For example, it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. In the realm of medicine, calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body, it's used to derive dosing laws. In nuclear medicine, it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. In economics, calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations; in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. Examples are methods such as Newton's method, fixed point iteration, and linear approximation. For instance, spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments.


See also
• • • • List of differentiation identities List of calculus topics Publications in calculus Table of integrals

Related topics
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Calculus of finite differences Calculus with polynomials Complex analysis Differential equation Differential geometry Elementary calculus Fourier series Integral equation Mathematical analysis Mathematics Multivariable calculus Non-classical analysis Non-standard analysis Non-standard calculus Precalculus (mathematical education) Product Integrals Stochastic calculus Taylor series Time-scale calculus



• Larson, Ron, Bruce H. Edwards (2010). "Calculus", 9th ed., Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie, Donald A. (2003). Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, University Science Books. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart, James (2008). Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 6th ed., Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas, George B., Maurice D. Weir, Joel Hass, Frank R. Giordano (2008), "Calculus", 11th ed., Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-48987-X

Other resources
Further reading
• Courant, Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. • Edmund Landau. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus, American Mathematical Society. • Robert A. Adams. (1999). ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. • Albers, Donald J.; Richard D. Anderson and Don O. Loftsgaarden, ed. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey, Mathematical Association of America No. 7. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. • Florian Cajori, "The History of Notations of the Calculus." Annals of Mathematics, 2nd Ser., Vol. 25, No. 1 (Sep., 1923), pp. 1–46. • Leonid P. Lebedev and Michael J. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics, Ch. 1: The Tools of Calculus", Princeton Univ. Press, 2004. • Cliff Pickover. (2003). ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. • Michael Spivak. (September 1994). ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. Publish or Perish publishing. • Tom M. Apostol. (1967). ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus, Volume 1, One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. Wiley. • Tom M. Apostol. (1969). ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus, Volume 2, Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. Wiley. • Silvanus P. Thompson and Martin Gardner. (1998). ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. • Mathematical Association of America. (1988). Calculus for a New Century; A Pump, Not a Filter, The Association, Stony Brook, NY. ED 300 252. • Thomas/Finney. (1996). ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th, Addison Wesley. • Weisstein, Eric W. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus." [13] From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource.



Online books
• Crowell, B. (2003). "Calculus" Light and Matter, Fullerton. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. [14] • Garrett, P. (2006). "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from [15] • Faraz, H. (2006). "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus, URL http:// [16] (HTML only) • Keisler, H. J. (2000). "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from [17] • Mauch, S. (2004). "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from [18] • Sloughter, Dan (2000). "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus". Retrieved 17 March 2009 from [19] • Stroyan, K.D. (2004). "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from [20] (HTML only) • Strang, G. (1991). "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw. [21] • Smith, William V. (2001). "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 [22] (HTML only).

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein, Eric W., "Calculus [23]" from MathWorld. Topics on Calculus [24] at PlanetMath. Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. Thompson [25] Full text in PDF The Calculus page [26] at University of California, Davis – contains resources and links to other sites COW: Calculus on the Web [27] at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis [28] Online Integrator (WebMathematica) [29] from Wolfram Research The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics [30] from OpenCourseWare Calculus [31] from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Infinitesimal Calculus [32] – an article on its historical development, in Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Michiel Hazewinkel ed. . Elements of Calculus I [33] and Calculus II for Business [34], OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame with activities, exams and interactive applets. Calculus for Beginners and Artists [35] by Daniel Kleitman, MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions [36] by D. A. Kouba Solved problems in calculus [37]



[1] Latorre, Donald R.; Kenelly, John W.; Reed, Iris B.; Biggers, Sherry (2007), Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C), Cengage Learning, p. 2, ISBN 0-618-78981-2, , Chapter 1, p 2 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] There is no exact evidence on how it was done; some, including Morris Kline (Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times Vol. I) suggest trial and error. [3] Helmer Aslaksen. Why Calculus? (http:/ / www. math. nus. edu. sg/ aslaksen/ teaching/ calculus. html) National University of Singapore. [4] Archimedes, Method, in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [5] Victor J. Katz (1995). "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India", Mathematics Magazine 68 (3), pp. 163-174. [6] Ian G. Pearce. Bhaskaracharya II. (http:/ / turnbull. mcs. st-and. ac. uk/ ~history/ Projects/ Pearce/ Chapters/ Ch8_5. html) [7] J. L. Berggren (1990). "Innovation and Tradition in Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi's Muadalat", Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (2), pp. 304-309. [8] "Madhava" (http:/ / www-gap. dcs. st-and. ac. uk/ ~history/ Biographies/ Madhava. html). Biography of Madhava. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. . Retrieved 2006-09-13. [9] "An overview of Indian mathematics" (http:/ / www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. html). Indian Maths. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. . Retrieved 2006-07-07. [10] "Science and technology in free India" (http:/ / www. kerala. gov. in/ keralcallsep04/ p22-24. pdf) (PDF). Government of Kerala — Kerala Call, September 2004. Prof.C.G.Ramachandran Nair. . Retrieved 2006-07-09. [11] Charles Whish (1834), "On the Hindu Quadrature of the circle and the infinite series of the proportion of the circumference to the diameter exhibited in the four Sastras, the Tantra Sahgraham, Yucti Bhasha, Carana Padhati and Sadratnamala", Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) 3 (3): 509–523, doi:10.1017/S0950473700001221, JSTOR 25581775 [12] UNESCO-World Data on Education (http:/ / nt5. scbbs. com/ cgi-bin/ om_isapi. dll?clientID=137079235& infobase=iwde. nfo& softpage=PL_frame) [13] http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. html [14] http:/ / www. lightandmatter. com/ calc/ calc. pdf [15] http:/ / www. math. umn. edu/ ~garrett/ calculus/ first_year/ notes. pdf [16] http:/ / www. understandingcalculus. com/ [17] http:/ / www. math. wisc. edu/ ~keisler/ calc. html [18] http:/ / www. cacr. caltech. edu/ ~sean/ applied_math. pdf [19] http:/ / synechism. org/ drupal/ de2de/ [20] http:/ / www. math. uiowa. edu/ ~stroyan/ InfsmlCalculus/ InfsmlCalc. htm [21] http:/ / ocw. mit. edu/ ans7870/ resources/ Strang/ strangtext. htm [22] http:/ / www. math. byu. edu/ ~smithw/ Calculus/ [23] http:/ / mathworld. wolfram. com/ Calculus. html [24] http:/ / planetmath. org/ encyclopedia/ TopicsOnCalculus. html [25] http:/ / djm. cc/ library/ Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson. pdf [26] http:/ / www. calculus. org [27] http:/ / cow. math. temple. edu/ [28] http:/ / www. economics. soton. ac. uk/ staff/ aldrich/ Calculus%20and%20Analysis%20Earliest%20Uses. htm [29] http:/ / integrals. wolfram. com/ [30] http:/ / www. ericdigests. org/ pre-9217/ calculus. htm [31] http:/ / ocw. mit. edu/ OcwWeb/ Mathematics/ index. htm [32] http:/ / eom. springer. de/ I/ i050950. htm [33] http:/ / ocw. nd. edu/ mathematics/ elements-of-calculus-i [34] http:/ / ocw. nd. edu/ mathematics/ calculus-ii-for-business [35] http:/ / math. mit. edu/ ~djk/ calculus_beginners/ [36] http:/ / www. math. ucdavis. edu/ ~kouba/ ProblemsList. html [37] http:/ / calculus. solved-problems. com/


Republic of India भारत गणराज्य* Bhārat Gaṇarājya

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) सत्यमेव जयते  (Devanāgarī) [3] "Truth Alone Triumphs" Anthem: Jana Gana Mana [4] Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people National Song Vande Mataram [6] I bow to thee, Mother

Area controlled by India in dark green; Claimed but uncontrolled territories in light green. Capital Largest Official language(s) New Delhi 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E Mumbai


Recognised regional languages National languages Demonym Government None defined by the [7] constitution. Indian Federal constitutional [2] parliamentary democracy Pratibha Patil

 -   -   - 


Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (INC) Chief Justice Legislature S. H. Kapadia Sansad Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha from the United Kingdom 15 August 1947  26 January 1950  Area

 -   - 

Upper House Lower House Independence

 -   - 

Declared Republic


3,287,240 km   (7th) 1,269,210 sq mi Water (%) 9.56



Population  -   -   -  2010 estimate 2001 census Density 1185610000




360.7/km  (31st) 934.1/sq mi 2009 estimate

GDP (PPP)  -   -  GDP (nominal)  -   -  Gini (2004) HDI (2007) Currency Time zone  -  Total Per capita Total Per capita

$3.526 trillion $2,941




2009 estimate $1.235 trillion $1,031 36.8
[10] [10]



[11] [12]


 (medium) (134th) ) (INR)

Indian rupee (

IST (UTC+5:30)

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India ( /ˈɪndiə/), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also Official names of India), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.18 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world.[13] [14] Mainland India is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east; and it is bordered by Pakistan to the west;[note] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, its Andaman and Nicobar Islands are also in the vicinity of the Indonesian island of Sumatra in the Andaman Sea, and in the Andaman Sea India also shares a maritime border with Thailand.[15] India has a coastline of 7517 kilometres (4700 mi).[16] Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.[17] Four major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread non-violent resistance.[18] India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual and multiethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The Indian economy is the world's eleventh largest economy by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity. Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies in the world;[19] however, it still suffers from poverty,[20] illiteracy,[21] corruption,[22] disease,[23] and malnutrition.[24] India is classified as a newly industrialised country[25] [26] and is one of the four BRIC nations. It is a nuclear weapons state and has the third-largest standing armed force in the world.[27] while its military expenditure ranks tenth in the world. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the East Asia Summit, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and the G-20 major economies.

The name India is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.[28] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), the people of the Indus.[29] The Constitution of India and common usage in various Indian languages also recognise Bharat (pronounced Hindustani pronunciation: [ˈbʱɑːrʌt̪]  ( listen)) as an official name of equal status.[30] The name Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures. Hindustan (Hindustani pronunciation: [hɪnd̪ʊˈstɑːn]  ( listen)), originally a Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” referring to northern India, is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.[31]

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared about 8,500 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[32] dating back to 3400 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country.[33]


208 In the third century BCE, most of South Asia was united into the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great.[34] From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient "India's Golden Age".[35] [36] Empires in Southern India included those of the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Vijayanagara Empire. Science, technology, engineering, art, logic, language, literature, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings.

Following invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 12th centuries, much of North India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. Under the rule of Akbar the Great, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as well as Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, religious harmony.[37] [38] Mughal emperors gradually expanded their Maharashtra, sixth century empires to cover large parts of the subcontinent. However, in North-Eastern India, the dominant power was the Ahom kingdom of Assam, among the few kingdoms to have resisted Mughal subjugation. The first major threat to Mughal imperial power came from a Hindu Rajput king Maha Rana Pratap of Mewar in the 16th century and later from a Hindu state known as the Maratha confederacy, that ruled much of India in the mid-18th century.[39] From the 16th century, European powers such as Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain established trading posts and later took advantage of internal conflicts to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of India was under the control of the British East India Company.[40] A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, known as India's First War of Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny, seriously challenged the Company's control but eventually failed. As a result of the instability, India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown. In the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and other political organisations.[41] Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in several national campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience.[18] On 15 August 1947, India gained independence from British rule, but at the same time the Muslim-majority areas were partitioned to form a separate state of Pakistan.[42] On 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect.[43]

Since independence, India has faced challenges from religious violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies, especially in Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast India. Since the 1990s terrorist attacks have affected many Indian cities. India has unresolved territorial disputes with the People's Republic of China, which, in 1962, escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India is a founding member of the United Nations (as British India) and the Non-Aligned Movement. India is a state armed with nuclear weapons; having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974,[44] followed by another five tests in 1998.[44] Beginning 1991, significant economic reforms[45] have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, increasing its global clout.[19]

Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become India's first prime minister in 1947.



National Symbols of India Flag Emblem Tricolour Sarnath Lion Capital Jana Gana Mana Vande Mataram Royal Bengal Tiger Indian Peacock Dolphin Lotus Banyan Mango Field hockey Saka Ganges
[46] [47]

Anthem Song Animal Bird Aquatic animal Flower Tree Fruit Sport Calendar River

India is federation with a parliamentary form of government, governed under the Constitution of India.[48] It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law." Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the centre and the states. The government is regulated by a checks and balances defined by Indian Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.

The Constitution of India, the longest and the most exhaustive among constitutions of independent nations in the world, came into force on 26 January 1950.[49] The preamble of the constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.[50] India has a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Its form of government was traditionally described as being 'quasi-federal' with a strong centre and weaker states,[51] but it has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic and social changes.[52]

President and Prime Minister
The President of India is the head of state[53] elected indirectly by an electoral college[54] for a five-year term.[55] [56] The Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises most executive power.[53] Appointed by the President,[57] the Prime Minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of Parliament.[53] The executive branch consists of the President, Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the Prime Minister and his Council being directly responsible to the lower house of the Parliament.[58]



The Legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People).[59] The Rajya Sabha, a permanent body, has 245 members serving staggered six year terms.[60] Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population.[60] 543 of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms.[60] The other two members are nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community if the President is of the opinion that the community is not adequately represented.[60]

India has a unitary three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 21 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts.[61] The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts.[62] It is judicially independent,[61] and has the power to declare the law and to strike down Union or State laws which contravene the Constitution.[63] The role as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution is one of the most important functions of the Supreme Court.[64]

Administrative divisions
India consists of 28 states and seven Union Territories.[65] All states, and the two union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments patterned on the Westminster model. The other five union territories are directly ruled by the Centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were formed on a linguistic basis.[66] Since then, this structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.[67] The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and eventually into villages. States:

The 28 states and 7 union territories of India



• • • • • • •

Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat

• • • • • • •

Haryana Himachal Pradesh

• •

Maharashtra • Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab • • • • • •

Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

Jammu and Kashmir • Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh • • • •

Union Territories:
• • • • • • • Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep National Capital Territory of Delhi Puducherry

India is the most populous democracy in the world.[13] [14] It has operated under a multi-party system for most of its history. For most of the years since independence, the federal government has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC).[65] Politics in the states have been dominated by national parties like the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. Within Indian political culture, the Indian National Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" and the Bharatiya Janata Party is considered centre-right or "conservative". The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the state of emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years.[68] As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority, the INC formed a minority government under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term.[69]
The Secretariat Building, in New Delhi, houses key government offices.

The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term.[70] In the 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by various Left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP. The UPA again came into power in the 2009 general election; however, the representation of the Left leaning parties within the coalition has significantly reduced.[71] Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.[72]



Foreign relations and military
Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a leading role in the 1950s by advocating the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia.[74] India is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement.[75] India was involved in two brief military interventions in neighbouring countries – Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka and Operation Cactus in Maldives. After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani Jointly developed by Sukhoi and Hindustan War of 1965, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed and Aeronautics, the Su-30 MKI "Flanker-H" is the continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. India has fought Indian Air Force's prime air superiority [73] two wars with Pakistan over the Kashmir dispute. A third war between fighter. India and Pakistan in 1971 resulted in the creation of Bangladesh (then East Pakistan).[76] Additional skirmishes have taken place between the two nations over the Siachen Glacier. In 1999, India and Pakistan fought an undeclared war over Kargil. In recent years, India has played an influential role in the SAARC and the WTO.[77] India has provided as many as 55,000 Indian military and police personnel to serve in thirty-five UN peacekeeping operations across four continents.[12] India is also an active participant in various mutlilateral forums, particularly the East Asia Summit[78] and the G8+5.[79] Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened relations with the United States and China. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia and Africa. India maintains the third-largest military force in the world, which consists of the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force[43] and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command. The official Indian defence budget for 2010 stood at US$31.9 billion (or 2.12% of GDP).[81] According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of PPP stood at US$72.7 billion.[82] The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. India maintains close defence cooperation India and Russia share an extensive economic, with Russia, Israel and France, who are the chief suppliers of arms. [80] defence and technological relationship. Defence contractors, such as the Defence Research and Development Shown here is PM Manmohan Singh with Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL), oversee President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8 Summit. indigenous development of sophisticated arms and military equipment, including ballistic missiles, fighter aircraft and main battle tanks, to reduce India's dependence on foreign imports. India became a nuclear power in 1974 after conducting an initial nuclear test, known as the Operation Smiling Buddha, and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy[83] and is developing nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine.[83] On 10 October 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement between India and the United States was signed, prior to which India received waivers from the IAEA and the NSG which ended restrictions on nuclear technology commerce and recognised India as the world's de facto sixth nuclear weapons state.[84] On 12 March 2010, Russia signed with India a nuclear reactor deal which will build 16 nuclear reactors in India as part of defence and energy deals .[85] On 28 June 2010, Canada signs with India a nuclear co-operation deal to promote and develop co-operation in civilian nuclear energy .[86]



India, the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, sits atop the Indian tectonic plate, a minor plate within the Indo-Australian Plate.[87] India's defining geological processes commenced seventy-five million years ago, when the Indian subcontinent, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a northeastwards drift—lasting fifty million years—across the then unformed Indian Ocean.[87] The subcontinent's subsequent collision with the Eurasian Plate and subduction under it, gave rise to the Himalayas, the planet's highest mountains, which now abut India in the north and the north-east.[87] In the former seabed immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough, which, having gradually been filled with river-borne sediment,[88] now forms the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[89] To the west of this plain, and cut off from it by the Aravalli Range, lies the Thar Desert.[90]

Topographic map of India.

The original Indian plate now survives as peninsular India, the oldest and most geologically stable part of India, and extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel ranges run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.[91] To their south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the left and right by the coastal ranges, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively;[92] the plateau contains the oldest rock formations in India, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6°44' and 35°30' north latitude[93] and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.[94] India's coast is 7517 kilometres (4700 mi) long; of this distance, 5423 kilometres (3400 mi) belong to peninsular India, and 2094 kilometres (1300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands.[16] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coast consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches, 11% rocky coast including cliffs, and 46% mudflats or marshy coast.[16] Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges (Ganga) and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[95] Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi, whose extremely low gradient causes disastrous floods every year. Major peninsular rivers whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;[96] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the The Himalayas form the mountainous landscape Arabian Sea.[97] Among notable coastal features of India are the of Northern India. Seen here is Ladakh in Jammu marshy Rann of Kutch in western India, and the alluvial Sundarbans & Kashmir. delta, which India shares with Bangladesh.[98] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[99] India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the monsoons.[100] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian Katabatic wind from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[101] [102] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.[100] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[103]



Flora and fauna
India, which lies within the Indomalaya ecozone, displays significant biodiversity. One of eighteen megadiverse countries, it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[104] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[105] [106] India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and North-East India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; the teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[107] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. According to latest report, less than 12% of India's landmass is covered by dense forests.[108] Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[109] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[107] Consequently, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[104] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[110] These include the Asiatic Lion, the Bengal Tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[111] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; in addition, the Forest Conservation Act[112] was enacted in 1980. Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, India hosts thirteen biosphere reserves,[113] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[114]



In 2009, India's nominal GDP stood at US$1.243 trillion, which makes it the eleventh-largest economy in the world.[115] If PPP is taken into account, India's economy is the fourth largest in the world at US$3.561 trillion,[116] corresponding to a per capita income of US$3,100.[117] The country ranks 139th in nominal GDP per capita and 128th in GDP per capita at PPP.[115] With an average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% for the past two decades, India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world.[118] India has the world's second largest labour force, with 516.3 million people. In terms of output, the agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish.[65] Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, food processing, steel, transport The Bombay Stock Exchange, in Mumbai, is equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software.[65] India's Asia's oldest and India's largest stock exchange trade has reached a relatively moderate share of 24% of GDP in 2006, by market capitalisation. [119] up from 6% in 1985. In 2008, India's share of world trade was about 1.68%.[120] Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.[65] Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, chemicals.[65] From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist-inspired policies. The economy was shackled by extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow economic growth.[121] In 1991, the nation liberalised its economy and has since moved towards a free-market economy.[119] [122] The policy change in 1991 came after an acute balance of payments crisis, and the emphasis since then has been to use foreign trade and foreign investment as integral parts of India's economy.[123] Currently, India's economic system is portrayed as a capitalist model with the influx of private sector enterprise.[122] In the late 2000s, India's economic growth averaged 7.5% a year.[119] Over the past decade, hourly wage rates in India have more than doubled.[126] In 2009, the Global Competitiveness Report ranked India 16th in financial market sophistication, 24th in banking sector, 27th in business sophistication and 30th in innovation; ahead of several advanced economies.[127] Seven of the world's top 15 technology outsourcing companies are based in India and the country is viewed as the second most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States.[128] Despite India's impressive economic growth over recent decades, it still contains the largest concentration of poor people in the world.[129] The percentage of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of $1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms 21.6 a day in urban areas and 14.3 in rural areas in 2005) decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005.[130] Since 1991, inter-state economic inequality in India has consistently grown; the per capita net state domestic product of India's richest states is about 3.2 times that of the poorest states.[131] Even though India has avoided famines in recent decades, half of children are underweight[132] and about 46% of Indian children under the age of three suffer from
[124] The Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car. India's annual car exports have surged fivefold in [125] the past five years.

India malnutrition.[129] [133] A 2007 Goldman Sachs report projected that "from 2007 to 2020, India’s GDP per capita will quadruple," and that the Indian GDP will surpass that of the United States before 2050, but India "will remain a low-income country for several decades, with per capita incomes well below its other BRIC peers."[134] Although the Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades; its growth has been uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas.[129] The World Bank suggests that India must continue to focus on public sector reform, infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, improvement in transport, energy security, and health and nutrition.[135]


With an estimated population of 1.2 billion,[8] India is the world's second most populous country. The last 50 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity due to the "green revolution".[136] [137] India's urban population increased 11-fold during the twentieth century and is increasingly concentrated in large cities. By 2001 there were 35 million-plus cities in India, with the largest cities, with a population of over 10 million each, being Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. However, as of 2001, more than 70% of India's population continues to reside in rural areas.[138] [139] India is the world's most culturally, linguistically and genetically diverse geographical entity after the African continent.[65] India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about Population density map of India. 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language.[7] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers,[140] is the official language of the union.[141] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a 'subsidiary official language;'[142] it is also important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. In addition, every state and union territory has its own official languages, and the constitution also recognises in particular 21 "scheduled languages". As per the 2001 census, over 800 million Indians (80.5%) were Hindu. Other religious groups include Muslims (13.4%), Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Zoroastrians and Bahá'ís.[143] Tribals constitute 8.1% of the population.[144] India has the third-highest Muslim population in the world and has the highest population of Muslims for a non-Muslim majority country. India's literacy rate is 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% for males).[43] The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 91% while Bihar has the lowest at 47%.[145] [146] The national human sex ratio is 944 females per 1,000 males. India's median age is 24.9, and the population growth rate of 1.38% per annum; there are 22.01 births per 1,000 people per year.[43] Though India has one of the world's most diverse and modern healthcare systems, the country continues to face several public health-related challenges.[147] According to the World Health Organization, 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated water and breathing in polluted air.[148] There are about 60 physicians per 100,000 people in India.[149]



India's culture is marked by a high degree of syncretism[151] and cultural pluralism.[152] India's cultural tradition dates back to 8,000 BCE[153] and has a continuously recorded history for over 2,500 years.[154] With its roots based in the Indus Valley Tradition, the Indian culture took a distinctive shape during the 11th century BCE Vedic age which laid the foundation of Hindu philosophy, mythology, literary tradition and beliefs and practices, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga and mokṣa.[155] It has managed to preserve established traditions while absorbing new customs, traditions, and ideas from invaders and immigrants and spreading its cultural influence to other parts of Asia, mainly South East and East Asia.

Indian religions form one of the most defining aspects of Indian culture.[156] Major dhármic religions which were founded in India include Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Considered to be a successor to the ancient Vedic religion,[157] Hinduism has been shaped by several schools of thoughts such as the Advaita Vedanta,[158] the Yoga Sutras and the Bhakti movement.[156] Buddhism originated in India in 5th century BCE and prominent early Buddhist schools, such as Theravāda and Mahāyāna, gained dominance during the Maurya Empire.[156] Though Buddhism entered a period of gradual decline in India 5th century CE onwards,[159] it played an influential role in shaping Indian philosophy and thought.[156] Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis or castes.[160] Several influential social reform movements, such as the Bramho Shômaj, the Arya Samāja and the Ramakrishna Mission, have played a pivotal role in the emancipation of Dalits (or "untouchables") and other lower-caste communities in India.[161] However, the majority of Dalits continue to live in segregation and are often persecuted and discriminated against.[162] Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm, although nuclear family are becoming common in urban areas.[121] An overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages arranged by their parents and other respected family members, with the consent of the bride and groom.[163] Marriage is thought to be for life,[163] and the divorce rate is extremely low.[164] Child marriage is still a common practice, with half of women in India marrying before the legal age of 18.[165] [166] Indian cuisine is characterised by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use of herbs and spices. The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east) and wheat (predominantly in the north).[167] Spices, such as black pepper which are now consumed world wide, are originally native to the Indian subcontinent. Chili pepper, which was introduced by the Portuguese, is also widely used in Indian cuisine.[168] Traditional Indian dress varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. Many Indian festivals are religious in origin, although several are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. Some popular festivals are Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Onam, Vijayadashami, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, Buddha Jayanti, Moharram and Vaisakhi.[169] [169] India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories — Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanthi. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and are a very public affair.

The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as memorial to wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World and a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be [150] of "outstanding universal value".

India Indian architecture is one area that represents the diversity of Indian culture. Much of it, including notable monuments such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal architecture and South Indian architecture, comprises a blend of ancient and varied local traditions from several parts of the country and abroad. Vernacular architecture also displays notable regional variation. Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music largely encompasses the two genres – North Indian Hindustani, South Indian Carnatic traditions and their various offshoots in the form of regional folk music. Regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of West Bengal, Jharkhand , sambalpuri of Orissa , the ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam.[170] Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[171] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of Maharashtra, the burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[172] The Indian film industry is the largest in the world.[173] Bollywood, based in Mumbai, makes commercial Hindi films and is the most prolific film industry in the world.[174] Established traditions also exist in Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Tamil, and Telugu language cinemas.[175] The earliest works of Indian literature were transmitted orally and only later written down.[176] These included works of Sanskrit literature – such as the early Vedas, the epics Mahābhārata and Ramayana, the drama Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry such as the Mahākāvya[177]  – and the Tamil language Sangam literature.[178] Among Indian writers of the modern era active in Indian languages or English, Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize in 1913.


India's official national sport is field hockey, administered by Hockey India. The Indian field hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and 8 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games,the highest from any national team. However, cricket is the most popular sport; the India national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, and shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. India has also won the Asia Cup a record five times.Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); and domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy. In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League, a Twenty20 competition.

A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

Tennis has become increasingly popular, owing to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.[179] The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup several times. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India, is also gaining popularity with the rise in the number of Indian Grandmasters.[180] Vishwanathan Anand,an

India Indian Grandmaster,has won the World Chess Championship four times. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played nationwide. India is also home to the ancient martial arts, Kalarippayattu and Varma Kalai. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are India's highest awards for achievements in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching. The Jaypee Group Circuit in Greater Noida,will be the upcoming hosts of the Indian Grand Prix in 2011.India has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 2003 Afro-Asian Games and the 2007 Military World Games. India has also hosted or co-hosted the 1951 and the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup. It has also successfully hosted the 2010 Hockey World Cup and is scheduled to host the 2010 Commonwealth Games and later the 2011 Cricket World Cup.


The Government of India also considers Afghanistan to be a bordering country. This is because it considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of India including the portion bordering Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 froze the positions of Indian and Pakistani-held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

History • Brown, Judith M. (1994). Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy [181]. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. xiii, 474. ISBN 0198731132. • Guha, Ramchandra (2007). India after Gandhi — The History of the World's Largest Democracy. 1st edition. Picador. xxvii, 900. ISBN 978-0-330-39610-3. • Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India [182]. 4th edition. Routledge. xii, 448. ISBN 0415329205. • Metcalf, Barbara; Thomas R. Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories) [183] . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. xxxiii, 372. ISBN 0521682258. • Spear, Percival (1990). A History of India [184]. 2. New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. p. 298. ISBN 0140138366. • Stein, Burton (2001). A History of India [185]. New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. xiv, 432. ISBN 0195654463. • Thapar, Romila (1990). A History of India [186]. 1. New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. p. 384. ISBN 0140138358. • Wolpert, Stanley (2003). A New History of India [187]. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 544. ISBN 0195166787. Geography • Dikshit, K.R.; Joseph E. Schwartzberg (2007). "India: The Land" [188]. Encyclopædia Britannica. pp. 1–29. Retrieved 29 September 2007. • Government of India (2007). India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 81-230-1423-6. • Heitzman, J.; R.L. Worden (1996). India: A Country Study. Library of Congress (Area Handbook Series). ISBN 0-8444-0833-6. • Posey, C.A (1994). The Living Earth Book of Wind and Weather. Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 0-8957-7625-1. Flora and fauna

India • Ali, Salim; Ripley, S. Dillon (1995). A Pictorial Guide to the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. pp. 183, 106 colour plates by John Henry Dick. ISBN 0195637321. • Blatter, E.; Millard, Walter S. (1997). Some Beautiful Indian Trees. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. pp. xvii, 165, 30 colour plates. ISBN 019562162X. • Israel, Samuel; Sinclair (editors), Toby (2001). Indian Wildlife. Discovery Channel and APA Publications.. ISBN 9812345558. • Prater, S. H. (1971). The book of Indian Animals. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. pp. xxiii, 324, 28 colour plates by Paul Barruel.. ISBN 0195621697. • Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999). Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife: Volume 1, Hunting and Shooting. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xi, 439. ISBN 0195645928. • Rangarajan, Mahesh (editor) (1999). Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife: Volume 2, Watching and Conserving. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. xi, 303. ISBN 0195645936. • Tritsch, Mark F. (2001). Wildlife of India. London: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 192. ISBN 0007110626. Culture • Dissanayake, Wimal K.; Gokulsing, Moti (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change [189]. Trentham Books. p. 161. ISBN 1858563291. • Johnson, W. J. (translator and editor) (1998). The Sauptikaparvan of the Mahabharata: The Massacre at Night [190] . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford World's Classics). p. 192. ISBN 0192823618 • Kalidasa; Johnson (editor), W. J. (2001). The Recognition of Śakuntalā: A Play in Seven Acts [191]. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford World's Classics). p. 192. ISBN 0192839114 • Karanth, K. Shivarama (1997). Yakṣagāna. (Forward by H. Y. Sharada Prasad). Abhinav Publications. p. 252. ISBN 8170173574. • Kiple, Kenneth F.; Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521402166. • Lal, Ananda (1998). Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre [192]. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 600. ISBN 0195644468. • MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (2004). A History of Sanskrit Literature. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417906197. • Majumdar, Boria; Bandyopadhyay, Kausik (2006). A Social History Of Indian Football: Striving To Score. Routledge. ISBN 0415348358. • Massey, Reginald (2006). India's Dances. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 8170174341. • Ramanujan, A. K. (1985). Poems of Love and War: From the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil [193]. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0231051077. • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen (editors), Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, 2nd revised edition [194]. University of California Press and British Film Institute. p. 652. ISBN 0851706696. Archived from the original [195] on 6 August 2007. • Vilanilam, John V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. Sage Publications. ISBN 0761933727.




External links
• • • • • • Government of India [196] – Official government portal (in English) India [197] entry at The World Factbook India [198] at UCB Libraries GovPubs India [199] at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of India India travel guide from Wikitravel

Geographical coordinates: 21°N 78°E

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Sangeet Natak Academi (National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama, New Delhi, India). 2007. Dance Programmes (http:/ / www. sangeetnatak. org/ programmes_recognition& honours_dance. html). 3. Kothari, Sunil. 2007. Sattriya dance of the celibate monks of Assam, India (http:/ / www. rhul. ac. uk/ Drama/ News-and-Events/ Events_archive/ KothariLecture. html). Royal Holloway College, University of London. [171] Lal 1998. [172] (Karanth 1997, p. 26). Quote: "The Yakṣagāna folk-theatre is no isolated theatrical form in India. We have a number of such theatrical traditions all around Karnataka... In far off Assam we have similar plays going on by the name of Ankia Nat, in neighouring Bengal we have the very popular Jatra plays. Maharashtra has Tamasa. (p. 26.) [173] "Country profile: India" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ country_profiles/ 1154019. stm). BBC. 19 August 2009. . Retrieved 2007. [174] Dissanayake & Gokulsing 2004. 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[181] http:/ / www. oup. com/ uk/ catalogue/ ?ci=9780198731139 [182] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ History-India-Hermann-Kulke/ dp/ 0415329205/ [183] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-Histories/ dp/ 0521682258/ [184] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ History-India-Vol-2/ dp/ 0140138366/ ref=pd_ybh_a_6/ 104-7029728-9591925 [185] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ History-India-World/ dp/ 0631205462/ ref=pd_ybh_a_7/ 104-7029728-9591925 [186] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ History-India-Penguin/ dp/ 0140138358/ [187] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ New-History-India-Stanley-Wolpert/ dp/ 0195166787/ [188] http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 285248/ India [189] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=_plssuFIar8C& dq [190] http:/ / www. oup. com/ uk/ catalogue/ ?ci=9780192823618 [191] http:/ / www. oup. com/ uk/ catalogue/ ?ci=9780192839114 [192] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Oxford-Companion-Indian-Theatre/ dp/ 0195644468/ [193] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=nIybE0HRvdQC& dq


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Los Angeles


Los Angeles
Los Angeles
—  City  — City of Los Angeles

Downtown Los Angeles, Venice, Griffith Observatory, Hollywood Sign


Seal Nickname(s): L.A., the City of Angels, the Entertainment Capital of the World

Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California

Los Angeles


Los Angeles
Location in the United States Coordinates: 34°03′N 118°15′W Country State County Settled Incorporated Government - Type - Body - Mayor - City Attorney - City Controller Area - City - Land - Water - Urban Elevation Population (July 1, 2009) - City - Density - Urban - Metro - CSA - Demonym 3833995 8205/sq mi (3168/km2) 14775000 15250000 17786419 Angeleno (2nd U.S., 45th World) Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP code PST (UTC-8) PDT (UTC-7) 90001–90068, 90070–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91601–91609 213, 310/424, 323, 661, 747/818 498.3 sq mi (1290.6 km2) 469.1 sq mi (1214.9 km2) 29.2 sq mi (75.7 km2)  5.8% 1667.9 sq mi (4319.9 km2) 233 (city hall) ft (71 m) Mayor-Council Los Angeles City Council Antonio Villaraigosa Carmen Trutanich Wendy Greuel  United States  California Los Angeles County September 4, 1781 April 4, 1850

Area code(s)

Los Angeles



Los Angeles (pronounced /lɑs ˈændʒələs/ los-AN-jə-ləs; Spanish: [los ˈaŋxeles], Spanish for "The Angels") is the second most populous city in the United States,[2] the most populous city in the state of California and the western United States, with a population of 3.83 million[3] within its administrative limits on a land area of 498.3 square miles (1290.6 km2). The urban area of Los Angeles extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of over 14.8 million and it is the 14th largest urban area in the world, affording it megacity status. The Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is home to nearly 12.9 million residents[4] while the broader Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside combined statistical area (CSA) contains nearly 17.8 million people. Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated and one of the most multicultural counties[5] in the United States. The city's inhabitants are referred to as "Angelenos" (English [6] pronunciation: /ændʒɨˈliːnoʊz/). Los Angeles was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (The Village of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of the river of Porziuncola).[7] It became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its independence from Spain. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican-American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. Often known by its initials, L.A., and nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is a world center of business, international trade, entertainment, culture, media, fashion, science, technology, and education.[8] [9] It is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. In 2008, Los Angeles was named the world's eighth most economically powerful city by, third in the U.S. behind New York City and Chicago.[10] The Los Angeles combined statistical area (CSA) has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third largest economic center in the world, after the Greater Tokyo Area and the New York metropolitan area.[11] [12] [13] As the home base of Hollywood, it is known as the "Entertainment Capital of the World", leading the world in the creation of motion pictures, television production, video games, and recorded music. The importance of the entertainment business to the city has led many celebrities to call Los Angeles and its surrounding suburbs home. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics. Los Angeles enjoys a subtropical climate, with an average of 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.[14]

The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (or Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. The first Europeans arrived in 1542 in an expedition organized by the viceroy of New Spain and commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer who claimed the area of southern The old city plaza, 1869 California for the Spanish Empire. However, he continued with his voyage up the coast and did not establish a settlement.[15] The next contact would not come until 227 years later, when Gaspar de Portolà, along with Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. Crespí noted that the site had the potential to be developed into a large settlement.[16] In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra built the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel near Whittier Narrows, in what is now called San Gabriel Valley.[17] In 1777, the new governor of California, Felipe de Neve, recommended to Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, viceroy of New Spain, that the site noted by Juan Crespí be developed into a

Los Angeles pueblo. The town was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores". Tradition has it that on this day they were escorted by four Spanish colonial soldiers, two priests from the Mission and Governor de Neve. The town was named El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels on the Porciúncula River).[18] These pueblo settlers came from the common Hispanic culture that had emerged in northern Mexico among a racially mixed society. Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto, and therefore, had African, Amerindian, and European ancestry. More importantly, they were intermarrying.[19] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820 the population had increased to about 650 residents.[20] Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.[21] New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico, made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived when the Southern Pacific completed its line to Los Angeles in 1876.[22] Oil was discovered in 1892, and by 1923 Los Angeles was producing one-quarter of the world's petroleum.[23] By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000 people,[24] putting pressure on the city's water supply.[25] 1913's completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. In the 1920s, the motion picture and aviation industries flocked to Los Angeles, with continuing growth ensuring that the city suffered less during the Great Depression. In 1932, with population surpassing one million,[26] the city hosted the Summer Olympics. The post-war years saw an even greater boom, as urban sprawl expanded the city into the San Fernando Valley.[27] In 1960, non-Hispanic whites made up 82% of the population of Los Angeles County.[28] In 1969, Los Angeles became one of the birthplaces of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park.[29] In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became the most financially successful in history, and only the second Olympics to turn a profit – the other being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.


Los Angeles City Hall, shown here in 1931, was built in 1928 and was the tallest structure in the city until 1964, when height restrictions were removed.

During the remaining decades of the 20th century, the city was plagued by increasing gang warfare, drug trades, and police corruption. Racial tensions erupted again in 1992 with the Rodney King controversy and the large-scale riots that followed the acquittal of his police attackers. In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths.[30] Voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city in 2002.[31] Gentrification and urban redevelopment have occurred in many parts of the city, most notably Hollywood, Koreatown, Silver Lake, Echo Park and Downtown.[32]

Downtown Los Angeles saw heavy development from the 1980s to 1990s, including the construction of some of the city's tallest skyscrapers.

Los Angeles



Panorama of Los Angeles as viewed from Mulholland Drive. Left to right: Santa Ana Mountains, downtown, Hollywood (foreground), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, and Los Angeles International Airport. The city is divided into many neighborhoods, many of which were incorporated places or communities that were annexed by the city. There are also several independent cities around Los Angeles, but they are popularly grouped with the city of Los Angeles, either due to being completely engulfed as enclaves by Los Angeles, or lying within its immediate vicinity. Generally, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles, The Eastside and Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles (still often colloquially referred to as South Central by locals), the Harbor Area, Hollywood, Wilshire, the Westside and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys.

Hollywood, a well-known district of Los Angeles, is often mistaken as an independent city (as West Hollywood is).

Some well-known communities within Los Angeles include West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice Beach, the Downtown Financial District, Los Feliz, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood and the more affluent areas of Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, and Brentwood.

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include Chinatown, Koreatown, Little Tokyo, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Tower, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre

Griffith Observatory

Capitol Records Building

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum

Los Angeles


Los Angeles is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 498.3 square miles (1291 km2), comprising 469.1 square miles (1215 km2) of land and 29.2 square miles (76 km2) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). It is the only major city in the United States bisected by a mountain range. The highest point in Los Angeles is Mount Lukens, also called Sister Elsie Peak.[33] Located at the far reaches of the northeastern San The Los Angeles Basin Fernando Valley, it reaches a height of 5080 ft (1550 m). Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The hilliest parts of Los Angeles are the entire Santa Monica hills north of Downtown, areas immediately north of Downtown around Silver Lake, the entire eastern parts of L.A., the Crenshaw area, the San Pedro area, and areas around the San Fernando Valley. The major river is the Los Angeles River, which begins in the Canoga Park district of the city and is largely seasonal. The river is lined in concrete for almost its entire length as it flows through the city into nearby Vernon on its way to the Pacific Ocean.

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year.[34] One of the major faults is the San Andreas Fault. Located at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, it is predicted to be the source of Southern California's next big earthquake.[35] Major earthquakes to have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake near Sylmar, and the Mallards on the Los Angeles River 1933 Long Beach earthquake. Nevertheless, all but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt.[34] The most recent earthquake felt was the 4.4 2010 Pico Rivera earthquake on March 16, 2010. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to Pacific Ocean tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the Valdivia earthquake in 1960.[36] The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes.[37]

Los Angeles has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid Köppen's BSh (semi-arid climate) classification. Los Angeles enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.[14] The average annual temperature in downtown is 66.2 °F (19.0 °C): 75.6 °F (24.2 °C) during the day and 56.6 °F (13.7 °C) at night. In the
Echo Park as seen with palm trees

Los Angeles coldest month - January - the temperature typically ranges from 59 to 73 °F (15 to 23 °C) (sometimes above and below these temperatures) during the day and 45 to 55 °F (7 to 13 °C) at night. In the warmest month - August - the temperature typically ranges from 79 to 90 °F (26 to 32 °C) (sometimes above and below these temperatures) during the day and around 64 °F (18 °C) at night. Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on a dozen or so days in the year, from 1 day a month in April, May, June and November to 3 days a month in July, August, October and to 5 days in September.[14] Generally - the summer lasts nearly year round. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over 30°F (17°C).[38] Average annual temperature of sea is 63 °F (17 °C), from 58 °F (14 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in August.[39] Sunshine hours is above 3,000 per year, from average 7 hours of sunshine / day in December to average 12 hours of sunshine / day in July.[40] The Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18°F (10°C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California also has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Grey", which sometimes gives overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer. Los Angeles averages 15.14 inches (384.56 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the winter and spring (November through April) with generally moderate rain showers, but usually as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms during Winter storms. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the mountains get slightly more. However the San Fernando Valley Region of Los Angeles can get between 16 and 20 inches of rain per year. Years of average rainfall are rare; the usual pattern is bimodal, with a short string of dry years (perhaps 7–8 inches/180–200 millimetres) followed by one or two wet years that make up the average. Snowfall is extremely rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2 inches (5.08 cm) in 1932.[41] [42]
Climate data for Los Angeles (Downtown - USC campus) Month Average high °F (°C) Jan Feb Mar
69.8 (21)







83.3 (28.5)





68.1 69.6 (20.06) (20.89)

73.1 74.5 79.5 83.8 84.8 (22.83) (23.61) (26.39) (28.78) (29.33) 66.2 (19) 70.5 74.2 (21.39) (23.44) 75.2 (24)

79.0 73.2 68.7 75.6 (26.11) (22.89) (20.39) (24.22) 66.2 (19) 56.6 (13.67) 15.14 (384.6) 35.2

60.0 60.7 63.8 Daily mean °F 58.3 (14.61) (15.56) (15.94) (17.67) (°C)

74.0 69.5 62.9 58.5 (23.33) (20.83) (17.17) (14.72) 59.9 (15.5) 0.37 (9.4) 2.0 52.6 (11.44) 1.05 (26.7) 3.1 48.3 (9.06) 1.91 (48.5) 4.3

Average low °F (°C) Rainfall inches (mm) Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01

48.5 (9.17) 3.33 (84.6) 6.5

50.3 51.6 54.4 57.9 61.4 64.6 65.6 64.6 (10.17) (10.89) (12.44) (14.39) (16.33) (18.11) (18.67) (18.11) 3.68 (93.5) 6.0 3.14 (79.8) 6.4 0.83 (21.1) 3.0 0.31 (7.9) 1.3 0.06 (1.5) 0.6 0.01 (0.3) 0.3 0.13 (3.3) 0.5 0.32 (8.1) 1.2

Sunshine hours














Source: NOAA


for data of sunshine hours

Los Angeles


Climate data for Los Angeles (LAX, at the coast) Month Jan Feb Mar
65.3 (18.5)







74.3 (23.5)




65.8 Average high °F 65.6 (18.67) (18.78) (°C)

68.0 69.3 72.6 75.3 76.8 76.5 (20) (20.72) (22.56) (24.06) (24.89) (24.72) 70.7 (21.5)

70.4 66.7 70.6 (21.33) (19.28) (21.44)

Daily mean °F (°C) Average low °F (°C) Rainfall inches (mm) Avg. rainy days
(≥ 0.01 in)

57.1 58.0 58.3 60.8 63.1 66.4 69.3 (13.94) (14.44) (14.61) (16) (17.28) (19.11) (20.72) 48.6 (9.22) 2.98 (75.7) 6.4

70.1 66.9 61.6 57.6 63.3 (21.17) (19.39) (16.44) (14.22) (17.39) 52.7 (11.5) 1.13 (28.7) 3.1 48.5 (9.17) 1.79 (45.5) 4.7 56.1 (13.39) 13.15 (334) 35.5

50.1 51.3 53.6 56.9 60.1 63.3 64.5 63.6 59.4 (10.06) (10.72) (12) (13.83) (15.61) (17.39) (18.06) (17.56) (15.22) 3.11 (79) 6.3 2.40 (61) 6.5 0.63 (16) 2.6 0.24 (6.1) 1.3 0.08 (2) 0.5 0.03 (0.8) 0.4 0.14 (3.6) 0.5 0.26 (6.6) 1.2

0.36 (9.1) 2.0

Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Climate data for Los Angeles (Canoga Park, in the San Fernando Valley) Month Average high °F (°C) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul
95.0 (35)







67.9 69.9 72.0 77.7 81.3 88.8 (19.94) (21.06) (22.22) (25.39) (27.39) (31.56) 55.4 (13) 40.9 (4.94) 4.40 (111.8) 5.9 57.2 (14) 42.3 (5.72) 3.60 (91.4) 6.1

96.0 91.7 84.4 74.7 68.8 80.7 (35.56) (33.17) (29.11) (23.72) (20.44) (27.06) 53.6 (12) 38.3 (3.5) 2.38 (60.5) 4.4 64.1 (17.83) 47.4 (8.56) 17.79 (451.9) 34.6

Daily mean °F 53.7 (12.06) (°C) Average low °F (°C) Rainfall inches (mm) Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)
39.5 (4.17) 3.83 (97.3) 6.2

61.3 65.2 71.0 76.0 76.8 73.5 66.8 58.2 (16.28) (18.44) (21.67) (24.44) (24.89) (23.06) (19.33) (14.56) 44.8 (7.11) 0.88 (22.4) 3.0 49.1 (9.5) 0.32 (8.1) 1.3 53.2 56.9 57.6 55.2 (11.78) (13.83) (14.22) (12.89) 0.07 (1.8) 0.4 0.01 (0.3) 0.1

49.2 (9.56) 0.62 (15.7) 2.0

41.7 (5.39) 1.29 (32.8) 3.2

0.15 (3.8) 0.7

0.24 (6.1) 1.3

Source: NOAA

The Los Angeles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversity in habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent botanical environment is coastal sage scrub, which covers the hillsides in combustible chaparral. Native plants include: California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Coast Live Oak, and Giant Wildrye. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though they are not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra)[44] and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise

MacArthur Park

Los Angeles (Strelitzia reginae).[45] Mexican Fan Palms, California Fan Palms, and Canary Island Palms can be seen throughout the Los Angeles area, despite the latter being non-indeginous to Southern California.


Environmental issues
The name given by the Chumash tribe of Native Americans for the area now known as Los Angeles translates to "the valley of smoke"[46] because of the smog from native campfires. Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port A view of Los Angeles covered in smog complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.[47] Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (381.00 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emission vehicles. Smog levels are only high during summers because it is dry and warm. In the winter, storms help to clear the smog and it is not as much of a problem. Smog should continue to drop in the coming years due to aggressive steps to reduce it, electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other pollution reducing measures.[48] As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.[49] [50] In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution.[51] In addition, the groundwater is increasingly threatened by MTBE from gas stations and perchlorate from rocket fuel. With pollution still a significant problem, the city continues to take aggressive steps to improve air and water conditions.[52] [53]

Los Angeles


The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, recorded music), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Los Angeles is also the largest manufacturing center in the western United States.[54] The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the fifth busiest port in the world and the most significant port in the Western Hemisphere and is vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.[54] Other significant industries include media production, finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. The Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside combined statistical area (CSA) has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third largest economic center in the world, after the Greater Tokyo Area and the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA.[11] [12] [13] If counted as a country, the surrounding CSA has the 15th largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, placing it just below Australia and above the Netherlands, Turkey, Sweden, Belgium, and Indonesia.[55] Until the mid-1990s, Los Angeles was home to many major financial institutions in the western United States. Mergers meant reporting to headquarters in other cities. For instance, First Interstate Bancorp merged with Wells Fargo in 1996, Great Western Bank merged with Washington Mutual in 1998, and Security Pacific Bank merged with Bank of America in 1992. Los Angeles was also home to the Pacific Exchange, until it closed in 2001. The city is home to six Fortune 500 companies. They are aerospace contractor Northrop Grumman, energy company Occidental Petroleum, healthcare provider Health Net, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, engineering firm AECOM, and real estate group CB Richard Ellis.

Companies such as US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, City National Bank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Deloitte, KPMG and the Union Bank of California have offices in the Downtown Financial District

The Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles

Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include City National Bank, 20th Century Fox, Latham & Watkins, Univision, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, DeviantArt,[56] Guess?, O’Melveny & Myers; Paul, Hastings, Janofsky Cruise ship at the Port of Los Angeles & Walker, Tokyopop, The Jim Henson Company, Paramount Pictures, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Tutor Perini, Fox Sports Net, Capital Group, 21st Century Insurance, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Korean Air's US passenger and cargo operations headquarters are located in two separate offices in Los Angeles.[57] The metropolitan area contains the headquarters of companies who moved outside of the city to escape its taxes but keep the benefits of proximity.[58] For example, Los Angeles charges a gross receipts tax based on a percentage of business revenue, while many neighboring cities charge only small flat fees.[59] The companies below benefit from their proximity to Los Angeles, while at the same time avoiding the city's taxes (and other problems).

Los Angeles


Some of the major companies headquartered in the cities of Los Angeles county are Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Beverly Hills), National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (Santa Monica), Hilton Hotels (Beverly Hills), DIC Entertainment (Burbank), The Walt Disney Company (Fortune 500 – Burbank), Warner Bros. (Burbank), Countrywide Financial (Fortune 500 – Calabasas), THQ (Calabasas), Belkin (Compton), Sony Pictures Entertainment (parent of Columbia Pictures, located in Culver City), DirecTV (El Segundo), Mattel (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), Unocal Walt Disney Concert Hall Corporation (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), DreamWorks (Glendale), Sea Launch (Long Beach), ICANN (Marina del Rey), Cunard Line (Santa Clarita), Princess Cruises (Santa Clarita), Activision (Santa Monica), and RAND (Santa Monica). The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's largest private sector employer and contributes $4 billion annually to the local economy.[60] Los Angeles is classified as an "Alpha(-) world city" in a 2008 study by a research group at Loughborough University in England.[61] In January 2010 many of the aerospace firms with operations in Los Angeles County are relatively small compared to the larger corporations.[62]

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", due to the fact that one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry.[63] According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in the history of civilization."[64] Los Angeles is home to Hollywood, globally recognized as the epicenter of the motion picture industry. A testament to its preeminence in film, the city plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the oldest and one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. Furthermore, there are 54 film festivals every year, which translates into more than one every week.[65] Finally, Los Angeles is home to the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest and largest school of its kind in the United States.

Kodak Theatre

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles' cultural identity. There are over 1,000 musical, theater, dance, and performing groups.[65] According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week."[64] The Los Angeles Music Center is one of the three largest performing arts complexes in the nation.[66] The Walt Disney Concert Hall, the centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to Hollywood Sign the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group and the Los Angeles Master Chorale along with the rising Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.

Los Angeles There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County;[67] Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world.[68] The most notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest encyclopedic museum west of Chicago), the Getty Center (part of the larger J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant amount of art galleries are concentrated on Gallery Row and thousands are in attendance of the monthly Downtown Art Walk that takes place there.


The major daily newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times; La Opinión is the city's major Spanish-language paper. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa Del Rey. There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles magazine, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter and Variety (entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the English- and Spanish-language papers, numerous local The Fox Plaza in Century City, headquarters for periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, 20th Century Fox, is a major financial district for West Los Angeles including Armenian, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese and Japanese. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have all seven VHF allocations possible assigned to them.[69] The city's first television station (and the first in California) was KTLA, which began broadcasting on January 22, 1947. The major network-affiliated television stations in this city are KABC-TV 7 (ABC), KCBS 2 (CBS), KNBC 4 (NBC), KTTV 11 (Fox), KTLA 5 (The CW), and KCOP-TV 13 (MyNetworkTV), and KPXN 30 (Ion). There are also three PBS stations in the area: KCET 28, KOCE-TV 50, and KLCS 58. World TV operates on two channels, KNET-LP 25 and KSFV-LP 6. There are also several Spanish-language television Los Angeles Times Headquarters networks, including KMEX-TV 34 (Univision), KFTR 46 (TeleFutura), KVEA 52 (Telemundo), and KAZA 54 (Azteca América). KTBN 40 is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. Several independent television stations also operate in the area, including KCAL-TV 9 (owned by CBS Corporation), KSCI 18 (focuses primarily on Asian language programming), KWHY-TV 22 (Spanish-language), KNLA-LP 27 (Spanish-language), KSMV-LP 33 (variety)—a low power relay of Ventura-based KJLA 57—KPAL-LP 38, KXLA 44, KDOC-TV 56 (classic programming and local sports), KJLA 57 (variety), and KRCA 62 (Spanish-language).

Los Angeles


Los Angeles is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles D-Fenders, an NBA Development team owned by the Los Angeles Lakers, and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association. Los Angeles is also home to the USC Trojans and the UCLA Bruins in the NCAA, both of which are Division I teams in the Pacific-10 Conference. The Los Angeles Galaxy and Club Deportivo Chivas USA of Major League Soccer are based in Carson. The city is the largest in the U.S. without an NFL team.

Dodger Stadium is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers

There was a time when Los Angeles boasted two NFL teams, the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis and the Raiders heading back to Oakland. Los Angeles is the second-largest city and television market in the United States, but has no NFL team (see List of television stations in North America by media market). Prior to 1995, the Rams called Memorial Coliseum (1946–1979) and the Raiders played their home games at Memorial Coliseum from 1982 to 1994.[70] Since the franchise's departures the NFL as an organization, and individual NFL owners, have attempted to relocate a team to the city. Immediately following the 1995 NFL season, Seattle Seahawks owner Ken Behring went as far as packing up moving vans to start play in the Rose Bowl under a new team name and logo for the 1996 season. The State of Washington filed a law suit to successfully prevent the move.[71] In 2003, then NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue indicated L.A. would get a new expansion team, a thirty-third franchise, after the Staples Center, a premier venue for sports and choice of Houston over L.A. in the 2002 league expansion round.[72] entertainment, is home to five professional sports When the New Orleans Saints were displaced from the Superdome by teams, most notably the Los Angeles Lakers Hurricane Katrina media outlets reported the NFL was planning to move the team to Los Angeles permanently.[73] Despite these efforts, and the failure to build a new stadium for an NFL team, L.A. is still expected to return to the league through expansion or relocation. Los Angeles has twice played host to the summer Olympic Games, in 1932 and in 1984. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city as well as soccer's international World Cup in 1994. Los Angeles also boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles Coliseum, The Forum, Staples Center, a sports and entertainment complex that also hosts concerts and awards shows such as the Grammys. Staples Center also serves as the home arena for the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA, the Los Angeles Sparks of the WNBA, the Los Angeles Kings of the NHL and the Avengers of the AFL. The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim of Major League Baseball and the Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League are in the Los Angeles media market and are based in Anaheim in Orange County. The Angels began as an expansion franchise team in Los Angeles in 1961 and played at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field and then Dodger Stadium before moving to Anaheim in 1966.[74]

Los Angeles


The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country.[75] Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, completed in 2002 at the north end of downtown. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout the city. The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Mormon temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.[76] The grounds includes a visitors' center open to the public, the Los Angeles Regional Family History Center, also open to the public, and the headquarters for the Los Angeles mission.
Built in 1956, the Los Angeles California Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the second largest Mormon temple in the world

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States.[77] [78] Many synagogues of the Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist movements can be found throughout the city. Most are located in the San Fernando Valley and West Los Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Angeles. The area in West Los Angeles around Fairfax and Pico Boulevards contains a large number of Orthodox Jews. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades.[79] (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.)[80] The Kabbalah Centre, devoted to one line of Jewish mysticism, is also in the city. The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology. Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world.

Los Angeles


Colleges and universities
There are three public universities located within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Private colleges in the city include the American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – Los Angeles campus, Antioch University's Los Angeles campus, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Second branch of the California State Normal Merchandising's Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School in downtown Los Angeles opened its School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU is also the parent doors in 1882. university of Loyola Law School located in Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary's College, National University of California, Occidental College ("Oxy"), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, and University of Southern California (USC). The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College and West Los Angeles College.

Schools and libraries
Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population over 800,000.[81] After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools.[82] Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city.[83]

The Los Angeles Central Library in Downtown Los Angeles

Freeways and highways
The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area is served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, (each with 60 hours of delay).[84]

Los Angeles Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles' mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C..[85] Among the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and then north to the Canadian border through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts.


Public transportation
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined daily ridership of 1.7 million.[86] The majority of this (1.4 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 319,000 boardings per weekday.[87] In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation.[88] The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and Current Los Angeles Metro Rail map showing its light rail system is the country's third busiest.[89] The rail system existing and under-construction lines. includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold, Blue, and Green light rail lines. The Metro Rapid buses are a bus rapid transit program with stops and frequency similar those of a light rail. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs.

Air transportation
The main Los Angeles airport is Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). The sixth busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled over 61 million passengers and 2 million tons of cargo in 2006. The [[Theme Building is pictured here.[90] LAX is a hub for United Airlines[91] Other major nearby commercial airports include: • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) LA/Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Los Angeles; serves the Inland Empire.
LAX, the fifth busiest airport in the world

• (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bob Hope Airport, formerly known as Burbank Airport; serves the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) John Wayne Airport of Orange County. • (IATA: PMD, ICAO: KPMD) LA/Palmdale Regional Airport is owned by the city of Los Angeles and serves the northern outlying communities of the Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys. The world's third busiest general-aviation airport is also located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).[92]

Los Angeles


The Port of Los Angeles is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7500 acres (30 km2) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor.[93] [94] [95] Both ports is the 5th busiest container port in the World, with a trade volume A view of the Vincent Thomas Bridge reaching of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008.[96] Singly, the Port of Los Angeles Terminal Island is the busiest container port in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States - Port's World Cruise Center serves about 800,000 passengers in 2009.[97] There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along L.A.'s coastline. Safety is provided at the only beach controlled by Los Angeles City by the highly trained Los Angeles City Lifeguards.[98] The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.


A view of downtown Los Angeles from the air.

Historical populations
Year 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 Pop. 1610 4385 5728 11183 50395 102479 319198 576673 1238048 1504277 1970358 %± — 172.4% 30.6% 95.2% 350.6% 103.4% 211.5% 80.7% 114.7% 21.5% 31.0%

Los Angeles

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2009 (Est.) 2479015 2816061 2966850 3485398 3694820 3831868 25.8% 13.6% 5.4% 17.5% 6.0% 3.7%


[99] [100]

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of Los Angeles was as follows: • • • • • • • White: 49.5% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 29.4%) Black or African American: 9.9% Native American: 0.6% Asian: 10.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.2% Some other race: 26.5% Two or more races: 2.9%

• Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 48.4% African Americans make up 9.9% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 370,718 African Americans residing in Los Angeles. Native Americans make up 0.6% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 21,696 Native Americans residing in Los Angeles. Of 21,696 Native Americans, 1,686 were of the Cherokee tribal grouping. In addition, 913 individuals identified themselves as Navajo. Approximately 110 people identified themselves as Chippewa, and 97 people identified themselves as Sioux. Asian Americans make up 10.4% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 391,377 Asian Americans residing in Los Angeles. The seven largest Asian American groups were the following: • • • • • • • Filipino: 3.1% (115,729) Korean: 2.5% (93,856) Chinese: 1.7% (62,881) Other Asian (Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, Hmong, etc.): 1.0% (36,580) Japanese: 0.9% (32,555) Indian: 0.8% (29,131) Vietnamese: 0.6% (20,645)

Pacific Islander Americans make up 0.2% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 7,475 Pacific Islander Americans residing in Los Angeles. The four Pacific Islander American groups were the following: • • • • Native Hawaiian: 1,575 (<0.1%) Guamanian or Chamorro: 1,231 (<0.1%) Samoan: 2,263 (0.1%) Other Pacific Islander (Fijian, Tongan, etc.): 2,406 (0.1%)

Multiracial Americans make up 2.9% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 108,940 multiracial Americans residing in Los Angeles. The four main multiracial groups were the following: • • • • White & Black: 0.4% (13,307) White & Native American: 0.3% (11,327) White & Asian: 0.6% (20,640) Black & Native American: 0.1% (2,813)

Los Angeles Hispanics and Latinos make up 48.4% of Los Angeles' population. According to the survey, there were 1,815,005 Hispanics and Latinos residing in Los Angeles. The four main Hispanic/Latino groups were the following: • • • • Mexican: 33.4% (1,253,410) Puerto Rican: 0.4% (14,646) Cuban: 0.4% (13,390) Other Hispanic or Latino (Colombian, Panamanian, Uruguayan, etc.): 14.2% (533,539)


White Americans make up 49.5% of Los Angeles's population. According to the survey, there were 1,857,130 White Americans residing in Los Angeles. Much of the European American population is of German, Irish, English, Italian, Russian, Polish, and French descent. Source:[101] According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the top ten European ancestries were the following: • • • • • • • • • • German: 4.5% (170,483) Irish: 3.9% (146,658) English: 3.5% (129,684) Italian: 2.7% (100,124) Russian: 2.6% (98,737) Polish: 1.6% (59,774) French: 1.2% (45,127) Scottish: 0.8% (28,931) Swedish: 0.6% (23,227) Scotch-Irish: 0.6% (22,651)

Source:[102] Current estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau put the city's population at 3,833,995. The California Department of Finance estimates the population at 4,094,764 as of January 1, 2009.[103] The 2000 census[104] recorded 3,694,820 people, 1,275,412 households, and 798,719 families residing in the city, with a population density of 7,876.8 people per square mile (3,041.3/km2). There were 1,337,706 housing units at an average density of 2,851.8 per square mile (1,101.1/km2). Los Angeles has become a multiethnic andmulticultural city, with major new groups of Latino and Asian immigrants in recent decades. From a metropolitan area that in 1960 was over 80% non-Hispanic white, Los Angeles has been transformed into a city that now has a "majority-minority" population.[105] As of the 2000 US Census, the racial distribution in Los Angeles was 46.9% White American, 11.2% African American, 10.5% Asian American, 0.8% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 25.7% from other races, and 5.2% from two or more races. 46.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino (of any race).[106] The census indicated that 42.2% spoke English, 41.7% Spanish, 2.4% Korean, 2.3% Tagalog, 1.7% Armenian, 1.5% Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) and 1.3% Persian as their first language.[107] According to the census, 33.5% of households had children under 18, 41.9% were married couples, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% were non-families. 28.5% of households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size 3.56.[104] The age distribution was: 26.6% under 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 34.1% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32. For every 100 females there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 97.5 males.[104] The median income for a household was $36,687, and for a family was $39,942. Males had a median income of $31,880, females $30,197. The per capita income was $20,671. 22.1% of the population and 18.3% of families were below the poverty line. 30.3% of those under the age of 18 and 12.6% of those aged 65 or older were below the poverty line.[104] Los Angeles has had a high degree of income disparity as compared to the rest of the country.

Los Angeles Recently, however, income disparity has declined.[108] The median household income of the wealthiest neighborhood was $207,938, while in the poorest it was $15,003.[109] Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages.[110] Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.


The city is governed by a mayor-council system. The current mayor is Antonio Villaraigosa. There are 15 city council districts. Other elected city officials include the City Attorney Carmen Trutanich and the City Controller Wendy Greuel. The city attorney prosecutes misdemeanors within the city limits. The district attorney, elected by county voters, prosecutes misdemeanors in unincorporated areas and in 78 of the 88 cities in the county, as well as felonies throughout the county. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) polices the city of Los Angeles, but the city also maintains four specialized police agencies; The Office of Public Safety, within the General Services Department (which is responsible for security and law enforcement services at city facilities, including City Hall, city parks and libraries, the Los Angeles Zoo, and the Convention Center), the Port Police, within the Harbor Department (which is responsible for land, air and sea law enforcement services at the Port of Los Angeles), the Los Angeles City Schools Police department which handles law enforcement for all city schools, and the Airport Police, within the Los Angeles World Airports Department (which is responsible for law enforcement services at all four city-owned airports, including Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), LA/Ontario International Airport (ONT), LA/Palmdale Regional Airport (PMD), and Van Nuys Airport (VNY).

Neighborhood councils
Voters created Neighborhood Councils in the Charter Reform of 1999. First proposed by City Council member Joel Wachs in 1996, they were designed to promote public participation in government and make it more responsive to local needs. The councils cover districts that are not necessarily identical to the traditional neighborhoods of Los Angeles. Almost ninety neighborhood councils (NCs) are certified and all "stakeholders"—meaning anyone who lives, works or owns property in a neighborhood—may vote for members of the councils' governing bodies. Some council bylaws allow other people with a stake in the community to cast ballots as well.

Bunker Hill in L.A.

The councils are official government bodies and so their governing bodies and committees must abide by California's Brown Act, which governs the meetings of deliberative assemblies. The first notable concern of the neighborhood councils collectively was the opposition by some of them in March 2004 to an 18% increase in water rates by the city's Department of Water and Power. This led the City Council to approve only a limited increase pending independent review. More recently, some of the councils petitioned the City Council in summer 2006 to allow them to introduce ideas for legislative action, but the City Council put off a decision. The neighborhood councils have been allocated $45,000 each per year for administration, outreach and approved neighborhood projects.

Los Angeles


Crime and safety
Los Angeles has been experiencing significant decline in crime since the mid-1990s, and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides.[111] [112] Antonio Villaraigosa is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition.[113] In 2009, Los Angeles reported 314 homicides, which corresponds to a rate of 7.85 (per 100,000 population)—a major decrease from 1993, when the all time homicide rate of over 21.1 (per 100,000 population) was reported for the year.[114] This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history.[115]

The LAPD during May Day 2006 in front of the new Caltrans District 7 Headquarters

Organized crime
The Los Angeles crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era [116] and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s as part of the American Mafia but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs. According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 26,000 gang members, organized into 250 gangs.[117] Among them are the Crips, Bloods, Hoovers, Sureños, Maravilla, 18th Street, Mara Salvatrucha, and Asian street gangs. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".[118]

Federal representation
The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Los Angeles. The main Los Angeles Post Office is located at 7001 South Central Avenue.[119] [120]

Sister cities
Los Angeles has 25 sister cities,[121] listed chronologically by year joined: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Eilat, Israel (1959) Nagoya, Japan (1959) Salvador, Brazil (1962) Bordeaux, France (1964) Berlin, Germany (1967) Lusaka, Zambia (1968) Mexico City, Mexico (1969) Auckland City, New Zealand (1971) Busan, South Korea (1971) Mumbai, India (1972) Tehran, Iran (1972) Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1979) Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (1981) Athens, Greece (1984) Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984) Vancouver, Canada (1986) Giza, Egypt (1989) Jakarta, Indonesia (1990)
A sign near City Hall points to the sister cities of Los Angeles

Los Angeles • • • • • • • • • Kaunas, Lithuania (1991) Makati, Philippines (1992) Split, Croatia (1993) San Salvador, El Salvador (2005) Beirut, Lebanon (2006) Ischia, Italy (2006) Yerevan, Armenia (2007) London and Manchester, United Kingdom, and Łódź, Poland are "friendship cities".[122] [123] Los Angeles also has a cultural exchange partnership with Tel Aviv, Israel.[124]


See also
• • • • • • 1992 Los Angeles riots East Los Angeles (region) Largest cities in the Americas Largest cities in Southern California List of people from Los Angeles List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles

• Los Angeles in popular culture

Further reading
• Allen J. Scott and Edward W Soja (1996) "The City: Los Angeles and Urban Tjheory at the End of the Twentieth Century," Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press • Reyner Banham, Los Angeles: The Architecture of the Four Ecologies, University of California Press, 1971. • Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, Vintage Books, 1992 • Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles 1850–1930, University of California Press, 1967 • Lynell George, No Crystal Stair: African Americans in the City of Angels, Verso, 1992 • Paul Glover, "Los Angeles: A History of the Future" [125], Eco-Home Press, 1989 • Norman M. Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory, Verso, 1997 • Torin Monahan, Los Angeles Studies: The Emergence of a Specialty Field [126]PDF (221 KB), City & Society XIV (2): 155–184, 2002 • Leonard Pitt & Dale Pitt, Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County, University of California Press, 2000 • Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water, Penguin Books, 1986. • Peter Theroux, Translating LA: A Tour of the Rainbow City, Norton, 1994 • David L. Ulin (ed), Writing Los Angeles: A Literary Anthology, Library of America, 2002 • Richard White, It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A New History of the American West, University of Oklahoma Press, 1991

Los Angeles


External links
• • • • • • • • • City of Los Angeles Official Website [1] [127] Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce [128] Los Angeles Convention & Visitors Bureau [129] Los Angeles magazine [130] Los Angeles Neighborhood Councils [131] Los Angeles Online Magazine LA2day [132] Historic Bridges of Los Angeles County [133] Los Angeles travel guide from Wikitravel

[1] http:/ / www. lacity. org/ [2] "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2005 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ popest/ cities/ tables/ SUB-EST2008-01. csv) (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-06-20. . Retrieved 2007-01-26. [3] "Los Angeles (city) Quickfacts" (http:/ / quickfacts. census. gov/ qfd/ states/ 06/ 0644000. html). US Census Bureau. 25. . Retrieved 2008-10-14. [4] "Metropolitan statistical area| Population Estimates| July 1, 2007" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ popest/ metro/ tables/ 2007/ CBSA-EST2007-05. csv). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [5] By Les Christie, staff writer (2007-08-09). "The most ethnically diverse counties in the United States - August 9, 2007" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2007/ 08/ 08/ real_estate/ most_diverse_counties/ index. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [6] http:/ / www. thefreedictionary. com/ Angeleno [7] There is some question about the legitimacy of this name, which may have, through a series of misinterpretations and inflations, been corrupted from the actual name authorized in writing in 1781, "La Reina de Los Angeles." Cf. Theodore E. Treutlein, "Los Angeles, California: The Question of the City's Original Spanish Name", Southern California Quarterly 55, no. 1 (Spring 1973): 1–7. Historian Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., has traced the longer name to the histories written by the Franciscan missionaries, especially Francisco Palóu, who wished to play up the region's connections to their order. Pool, Bob, "City of Angels' First Name Still Bedevils Historians". Los Angeles Times (March 26, 2005), Sec. A-1. [8] "The World According to GaWC 2008" (http:/ / www. lboro. ac. uk/ gawc/ world2008t. html). Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. . Retrieved 3 March 2009. [9] "Inventory of World Cities" (http:/ / www. lboro. ac. uk/ gawc/ citylist. html). Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. . Retrieved 2007-12-01. [10] "In Pictures: World's Most Economically Powerful Cities" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 15/ economic-growth-gdp-biz-cx_jz_0715powercities_slide_9. html?thisSpeed=30000). 2008-07-15. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [11] The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005 (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ statistics/ richest-cities-2005. html), dated March 11, 2007. The list fails to include Taipei. Retrieved July 3, 2007. [12] The United States Conference of Mayors and The National Association of Counties, 2007; Standard & Poor's DRI (http:/ / www. usmayors. org/ metroeconomies/ 0608/ GMP_Report__June_2008. pdf), June, 2008. [13] Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2009; GDP by Metropolitan Area (http:/ / www. bea. gov/ regional/ gdpmetro/ default. cfm), September 24, 2009 . [14] "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America" (http:/ / www. weatherbase. com/ weather/ weather. php3?s=159227& refer=). . Retrieved 2010-06-23. [15] Willard, Charles Dwight, The Herald's History of Los Angeles (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=o0cOAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1) (Los Angeles: Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner, 1901): 21–24. [16] "Father Crespi in Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ libraries/ archives/ la/ historic/ crespi. html). Los Angeles: Past, Present and Future. . [17] After a 1776 flood, the mission was moved to its present site in San Gabriel [18] The History of Los Angeles County (http:/ / www. laavenue. com/ LAHistory. htm) at (http:/ / www. laavenue. com/ index. htm) [19] "Of the first forty-six pobladores (settlers), twenty-six were African or part-African. The remainder further demonstrates the city's multiracial beginnings: one was a Chinese from Manila, two were español, and the rest were Indian or part-Indian. [...] The families settling Los Angeles were racially mixed, revealing that intermarriage was already absorbing the African stock". Forbes, Jack D. "The Early African Heritage in California" in Lawrence Brooks de Graaf, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor, eds., Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California (Los Angeles: Autry Museum of Western Heritage, 2001), 79. ISBN 9780295980836

Los Angeles
[20] Los Angeles Historical Chronology (http:/ / www. socalhistory. org/ Socalhistory. org _mainfolder/ Chronology/ Chronology. htm) [21] Acuna, Rodolfo, Anything But Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles (New York: Version, 1996): 22. [22] Mulholland, Catherine, William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000): 15. [23] "The Story of Oil in California" (http:/ / www. priweb. org/ ed/ pgws/ history/ signal_hill/ signal_hill2. html). 1921-06-25. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [24] "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1900" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080206033006/ http:/ / www. census. gov/ population/ documentation/ twps0027/ tab13. txt). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [25] "The Los roches Aqueduct and the Owens and Mono Lakes (MONO Case)" (http:/ / www. american. edu/ TED/ mono. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [26] "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1930" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080205005417/ http:/ / www. census. gov/ population/ documentation/ twps0027/ tab16. txt). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [27] Bruegmann, Robert, Sprawl: A Compact History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005): 133. [28] " Mexico North? (http:/ / www. washingtontimes. com/ news/ 2006/ mar/ 30/ 20060330-085453-3805r/ )". Washington Times. March 30, 2006. [29] Was L.A. really Internet's ground zero? (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m5072/ is_n33_v20/ ai_21173953) [30] Reich, Kenneth, "Study Raises Northridge Quake Death Toll to 72", Los Angeles Times 20 December 1995: B1. [31] "City of Los Angeles Secession Votes – 2002" (http:/ / www. laalmanac. com/ election/ el22. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [32] Welcome to Gentrification City (http:/ / www. laweekly. com/ general/ features/ welcome-to-gentrification-city/ 14285/ ) [33] "Mount Lukens, or Sister Elsie Peak (mountain, Los Angeles, California, United States) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia" (http:/ / original. britannica. com/ eb/ topic-764513/ Mount-Lukens). . Retrieved 2008-10-13. [34] "Earthquake Facts" (http:/ / earthquake. usgs. gov/ learning/ facts. php). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [35] "San Andreas Fault Set for the Big One" (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news70114196. html). 2006-06-21. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [36] "May 22, 1960 South Central Chile Tsunami Damage along the Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California coasts" (http:/ / wcatwc. arh. noaa. gov/ web_tsus/ 19600522/ damage. htm). May 22, 1960 South Central Chile Tsunami Coverage. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . Retrieved 2008-11-02. [37] "Earthquake and Volcano Deformation and Stress Triggering Research Group home page" (http:/ / quake. usgs. gov/ research/ deformation/ modeling/ socal/ index_gerald. html). . Retrieved 2008-10-06. [38] "Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971–2000) - Canoga Park Pierce Collg, CA" (http:/ / cdo. ncdc. noaa. gov/ climatenormals/ clim20/ ca/ 041484. pdf) (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. . Retrieved 2010-06-19. [39] "Pacific Ocean Temperatures on California Coast" (http:/ / www. beachcalifornia. com/ beach/ california-ocean-temperature. html) [40] "Los Angeles Climate Guide" (http:/ / www. weather2travel. com/ climate-guides/ united-states/ california/ los-angeles-ca. php) [41] Rasmussen, Cecilia (2005-03-10). "We're Not in Kansas, but We Do Get Twisters – Los Angeles Times" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2005/ mar/ 10/ local/ me-surroundings10). . Retrieved 2009-01-08. [42] Burt, Christopher. Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book. New York: Norton, 2004: 100. [43] "Los Angeles Climate Guide" (http:/ / www. weather2travel. com/ climate-guides/ united-states/ california/ los-angeles-ca. php). . Retrieved 2010-07-25. [44] Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, National Research Council (1979). Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=MkArAAAAYAAJ). National Academy of Sciences. p. 258. . [45] "San Diego Zoo" (http:/ / www. sandiegozoo. org/ CF/ plants/ species_detail. cfm?ID=130). San Diego Zoo. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [46] According to Gordon J. MacDonald, geophysicist and professor formerly with the University of California, San Diego, quoted by Chris Bowman in "Smoke is Normal - for 1800" (http:/ / www. sacbee. com/ 101/ story/ 1066675. html) in the The Sacramento Bee (July 8, 2008) [47] Miles, Christopher. "How Smog Forms in Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. laweekly. com/ index. php?option=com_lawcontent& task=view& id=8115& Itemid=122). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [48] Driveclean from the California Government web site (http:/ / www. driveclean. ca. gov/ en/ gv/ driveclean/ bguides. asp) [49] People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution. (http:/ / lungaction. org/ reports/ sota06_table2. html) American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007. [50] People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution. (http:/ / lungaction. org/ reports/ sota06_table2a. html) American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007. [51] "Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities" (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ environment/ polluted_uscities. html). . [52] Lopez, Theresa Adams. " Air Quality Programs at the Port of Los Angeles saw Refinement in 2005 with Focus on Ramping up in 2006 (http:/ / www. portoflosangeles. org/ Press/ REL_Air_Quality_Update_2-16-06. pdf)PDF (109 KB)". Port of Los Angeles (News Release). February 17, 2006. [53] Staff Writer. " Air Quality Protections Take Off (http:/ / www. environmentaldefense. org/ article. cfm?ContentID=4180)". Environmental Defense (http:/ / www. environmentaldefense. org/ ). December 6, 2004. [54] "" (http:/ / www. city-data. com/ us-cities/ The-West/ Los-Angeles-Economy. html). . Retrieved 2010-04-13.


Los Angeles
[55] CIA World Factbook, 2009: GDP (Official Exchange Rate) (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2195. html), October, 2008. [56] " DeviantArt, Inc. (http:/ / investing. businessweek. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. asp?privcapId=22872779)" Businessweek Investing. Retrieved November 9, 2008. [57] " Contact Info (http:/ / www. koreanair. com/ local/ na/ ld/ eng/ au/ ci/ Contact_Info. htm)". Korean Air. Retrieved September 20, 2008. [58] (http:/ / www. muniservices. com/ consulting/ LA_Final Evaluation Report January 15. pdf); Evaluation of alternatives to the city's gross receipts business taxPDF (1.89 MB) UT Strategies, et al. Competitiveness of City Taxes and Fees. 1997. [59] Competitiveness 22. [60] Evan George, Trojan Dollars: Study Finds USC Worth $4 Billion Annually to L.A. County (http:/ / www. downtownnews. com/ articles/ 2006/ 12/ 11/ news/ news05. txt), Los Angeles Downtown News, December 11, 2006. [61] "The World According to GaWC 2008" (http:/ / www. lboro. ac. uk/ gawc/ world2008t. html). Globalization and World Cities Research Network. GaWC Loughborough University. . Retrieved 2009-04-29. [62] Hyland, Alexa. " SoCal’s Aerospace Sector Still Has Lots of Lift (http:/ / www. labusinessjournal. com/ article. asp?aID=07175868. 47501302. 1869270. 3457087. 7229868. 368& aID2=143781)." Los Angeles Business Journal. January 11, 2010. Retrieved on January 10, 2010. [63] "Is Los Angeles really the creative capital of the world? Report says yes" (http:/ / www. smartplanet. com/ business/ blog/ smart-takes/ is-los-angeles-really-the-creative-capital-of-the-world/ 2202/ ). SmartPlanet. 2009-11-19. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [64] "Only In LA" (http:/ / stevens. usc. edu/ news_only_in_la. php). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [65] "Microsoft PowerPoint - TTMA 2008 Short presentation [Compatibility Mode]" (http:/ / www. ttma. org/ presentations/ TTMAAugust2008Presentation. pdf) (PDF). . 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"NFL's interest in returning to L.A. long on desire, far from reality - Up Front" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m5072/ is_4_25/ ai_97616093). 27 January 2003. . Retrieved 3 September 2007. [73] Joyner, James. Outside the Beltway. "NFL May Move Saints to Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. outsidethebeltway. com/ archives/ 2005/ 10/ nfl_may_move_saints_to_los_angeles/ ). 27 October 2005. . Retrieved 3 September 2007. [74] Leonard Pitt, Dale Pitt (1997). Los Angeles A to Z. University of California Press. pp. 560–561. ISBN 0520205308. [75] Pomfret, John. Cardinal Puts Church in Fight for Immigration Rights (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 04/ 01/ AR2006040101206. html). Washington Post. April 2, 2006. Retrieved May 28, 2007 [76] "LDS - Los Angeles California Temple" (http:/ / www. ldschurchtemples. com/ losangeles/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [77] "The Largest Jewish Communities" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ largecom/ com_judaism. html). . 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[84] Texas Transportation Institute Urban Mobility Report 2007, Table 1 (http:/ / mobility. tamu. edu/ ums/ congestion_data/ national_congestion_tables. stm) [85] "American Community Survey 2006, Table S0802" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ DCGeoSelectServlet?ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_). U.S. Census Bureau. . [86] Apta transit ridership report (http:/ / www. apta. com/ research/ stats/ ridership/ riderep/ documents/ 06q2rep. pdf)PDF (158 KB) [87] "LACMTA ridership, June 2008" (http:/ / www. metro. net/ news_info/ ridership_avg. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [88] Les Christie (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2007/ 06/ 13/ real_estate/ public_transit_commutes/ index. htm). Cable News Network. . Retrieved August 20, 2008. [89] American Public Transportation Association, Heavy Rail Transit Ridership Report (http:/ / www. apta. com/ research/ stats/ ridership/ riderep/ documents/ 08q1hr. pdf), First Quarter 2008. 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[91] "United Airlines - Vacation Planning at Visit Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. united. com/ page/ article/ 0,6722,52124,00. html). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [92] "Los Angeles World Airports" (http:/ / www. lawa. org/ vny/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [93] Facilities (http:/ / www. portoflosangeles. org/ facilities/ pilot_station. asp) - The Port of Los Angeles site [94] Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Safety Committee (http:/ / www. mxsocal. org/ pdffiles/ 108th HSC Mtg Apr 5 2006. pdf) [95] Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Employers Association (http:/ / www. harboremployers. com/ web/ ) [96] AAPA World Port Rankings 2008 (http:/ / aapa. files. cms-plus. com/ Statistics/ WORLD PORT RANKINGS 20081. pdf) [97] About the Port (http:/ / www. portoflosangeles. org/ about/ faqs. asp#9) - The Port of Los Angeles site [98] "Los Angeles City Lifeguards" (http:/ / lacitylifeguards. pyroinnovations. com/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [99] Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 41. [100] "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ popest/ cities/ tables/ SUB-EST2009-01. csv) (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-07-01. . Retrieved 2010-06-28. [101] "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008: Los Angeles city, California" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y& -geo_id=16000US0644000& -qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5& -ds_name=& -_lang=en& -redoLog=false). 2006-2008 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. . Retrieved July 9, 2010. 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[106] "Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights for Los Angeles, California" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ SAFFFacts?_event=ChangeGeoContext& geo_id=16000US0644000& _geoContext=01000US|04000US06& _street=& _county=Los+ Angeles& _cityTown=Los+ Angeles& _state=04000US06& _zip=& _lang=en& _sse=on& ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect& _useEV=& pctxt=fph& pgsl=010& _submenuId=factsheet_1& ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF& _ci_nbr=null& qr_name=null& reg=null:null& _keyword=& _industry=). United States Census Bureau. 2000. . Retrieved 2008-08-07. [107] Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Los Angeles, California (http:/ / www. mla. org/ map_data_results& state_id=6& county_id=& mode=& zip=& place_id=44000& cty_id=& ll=& a=& ea=& order=r) Modern Language Association [108] "Richer and Poorer: Income Inequality in Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. unitedwayla. org/ getinformed/ rr/ newsletter/ Pages/ richerandpoorer. aspx). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [109] "Median household income neighborhood ranking - Mapping L.A. - Los Angeles Times" (http:/ / projects. latimes. com/ mapping-la/ neighborhoods/ income/ neighborhood/ list/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [110] "City basics" (http:/ / www. lacity. org/ mayor/ deliveringresults/ results_cibasic. htm). 2005-04-12. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [111] "Crime rate lowest in 50 years, LAPD says" (http:/ / www. wavenewspapers. com/ news/ local/ northeast-edition/ 80935317. html). Los Angeles Wave. Wire services. January 10, 2010. . Retrieved April 14, 2010. Northeast Edition. [112] "LAPD year-end crime statistics" (http:/ / www. lapdonline. org/ read_the_beat_magazine/ pdf_view/ 43819). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [113] "Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members" (http:/ / www. mayorsagainstillegalguns. org/ html/ about/ members. shtml). . [114] "LAPD Online Crime Rates" (http:/ / www. lapdonline. org/ assets/ pdf/ cityprof. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-13. 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Seattle, Washington


Seattle, Washington
—  City  —

Downtown Seattle from the north, with the Space Needle and Mount Rainier

Flag Seal Nickname(s): The Emerald City, Seatown, Rain City, Jet City, Gateway to Alaska, Gateway to The Pacific, Queen City

Location of Seattle in King County and Washington

Location in the United States Coordinates: 47°36′35″N 122°19′59″W Country State County United States Washington King

Seattle, Washington

December 2, 1869

Incorporated Government - Type - Mayor Area - City - Land - Water - Metro Elevation Population (July 1, 2009) - City - Density - Urban - Metro - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP codes Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website [1] [2] [3] [4]

Mayor–council Michael McGinn

142.5 sq mi (369.2 km2) 83.87 sq mi (217.2 km2) 58.67 sq mi (152 km2) 8,186 sq mi (21,202 km2) 0–520 ft (0–158 m)

617,334 (US: 23rd) 7361/sq mi (2842.1/km2) 2,712,205 3,407,848 (US: 15th) Seattleite PST (UTC-8) PDT (UTC-7)

206 53-63000 1512650 [5]

[6] [7]

Seattle (pronounced /siːˈætəl/ ( listen) see-AT-əl) is the northernmost major city in the contiguous United States, and the largest city in the Pacific Northwest and in the state of Washington. A seaport situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an arm of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada – United States border, it is named after Chief Sealth "Seattle", of the Duwamish and Suquamish native tribes. Seattle is the center of the Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue metropolitan statistical area, the 15th largest in the United States, and the largest in the northwestern United States.[8] Seattle is the county seat of King County and is the major economic, cultural and educational center in the region. As of April 2009, the city's population was approximately 617,000 within a metropolitan area of 4,158,000. The Port of Seattle and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport are major gateways to Asia, Alaska, and the rest of the world. Seattle is the western terminus of I-90 and resides on the I-5 corridor, about 170 miles (270 km) north of Portland, Oregon/Vancouver, Washington and 140 miles (230 km) south of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada. The city of Victoria, British Columbia's capital, is about 110 miles (180 km) to the northwest (about 90 miles (140 km) by passenger ferry) while the eastern Washington hub city of Spokane lies 280 miles (450 km) to the east. The Seattle area has been inhabited for at least 4,000 years,[9] but white settlement began only in the mid-19th century. The first permanent European-descended settlers, Arthur A. Denny and those subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived November 13, 1851. Early settlements in the area were called "New York-Alki" ("Alki"

Seattle, Washington meaning "by and by" in Chinook Jargon) and "Duwamps". In 1853, Doc Maynard suggested that the main settlement be renamed "Seattle", an anglicized rendition of the name of Sealth, the chief of the two local tribes. From 1869 until 1982, Seattle was known as the "Queen City".[10] Seattle's current official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in 1981;[11] [12] the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska", "Rain City",[13] and "Jet City", the last from the local influence of Boeing. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites. Seattle is the birthplace of rock legend Jimi Hendrix and the rock music style known as "grunge,"[14] which was made famous by local groups Nirvana, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, and Pearl Jam. Seattle has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption;[15] coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks,[16] Seattle's Best Coffee,[17] and Tully's.[18] There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafes.[15] Researchers at Central Connecticut State University consistently rank Seattle and Minneapolis as the two most literate cities among America's largest cities[19] [20] Additionally, survey data from the United States Census Bureau indicate that Seattle has a higher percentage of college graduates than any other major American city, with approximately 53.8% of residents aged 25 and older holding a bachelor degree or higher.[21] In terms of per capita income, a study by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the Seattle metropolitan area 17th out of 363 metropolitan areas in 2006.[22] Seattle has particularly strong information technology, aviation, architecture and recreational industries. It is particularly known as a hotbed of "green" technologies[23] , stemming in part from the strong and relatively non-controversial stances its public leaders have taken on policies regarding urban design, building standards, clean energy and climate change (Seattle in February 2010 committed itself to becoming North America's first "climate neutral" city, with a goal of reaching zero net per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2030).[24] Seattle is ranked as one of the most car-congested cities in the United States, and efforts to promote compact development and transportation choices are perennial policy issues.[25] The railways and streetcars that once dominated its transportation system were largely replaced with an extensive network of bus routes for those living near the city center, and the city's outward growth caused automobiles to become the main mode of transportation for much of the population in the middle to late twentieth century. However, efforts to reverse this trend at the municipal and state levels have resulted in new commuter rail service that connects Seattle to Everett and Tacoma, a regional Link Light Rail system that extends south from the city core,[26] and an inner-city South Lake Union Streetcar network in the South Lake Union area.[27]


Seattle, Washington


Archaeological excavations confirm that the Seattle area has been inhabited by humans for at least 4,000 years.[9] By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, the people (now called the Duwamish Tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.[28] In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851.[29] Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, the group who would eventually found Seattle.[30] Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851.[31] The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, Oregon and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851.[31]

After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and founded the village of "Dewamps" or "Duwamps" on the site of present day Pioneer Square.[31] Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and established a village they initially called "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, by and by or someday.[32] New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance for the next few years, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.[33] David Swinson ("Doc") Maynard, one of Duwamps's founders, was the primary advocate to rename the village "Seattle" after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.[34] The term, "Seattle", appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city. Two years later, after a petition was filed by most of the leading citizens, the Legislature disincorporated the town. The town remained a precinct of King County until late 1869 when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated with a Mayor-council government.[31] [35]

Pioneer Square in 1917 featuring the Smith Tower, the Seattle Hotel and to the left the Pioneer Building

Timber town
Seattle has a history of boom and bust cycles, as is common to cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure.[37] The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, was fueled by the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way was nicknamed "Skid Road",[38] after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. This is considered a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American vocabulary as Skid The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition had just Row.)[37] Like much of the American West, Seattle saw numerous over 3.7 million visitors during its 138-day conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions [36] run [39] that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886. This violence was caused by unemployed whites who determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle (anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). Martial law was declared, and federal troops

Seattle, Washington were brought in to put down the disorder. Nevertheless, the economic success in the Seattle area was so great that when the Great Seattle fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city center rapidly emerged in its place.[40] Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire.[41] This boom was followed by the construction of a park system, designed by the Olmsted brothers' landscape architecture firm.[37] However, the Panic of 1893 hit Seattle hard.[42]


Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression
The second and most dramatic boom and bust resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893; in a short time, Seattle became a major transportation center. On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska and the Yukon. Those working men only found lasting wealth in a few cases, however; it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Along with Seattle, other cities like Everett, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Bremerton, and Olympia, all in the Puget Sound region, became competitors for exchange, rather than mother-lodes for extraction, of precious metals.[43] The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century and funded many new Seattle companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPS). Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrom and Eddie Bauer.[41] The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washington campus.[44]

Image showing 5th Avenue entrance of the Central Branch of the Seattle Public Library, designed by OMA; located on 4th and Madison street in Downtown Seattle. Columbia Center can also be seen in the background.

A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle somewhat of a company town; the subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country[45] A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue went largely unused. Seattle was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934 cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port of Los Angeles.[46] Seattle was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. The several theaters Scottish-born, Seattle-based architect B. Marcus Priteca built for Pantages in Seattle have all been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many of their theaters survive in other cities of the USA, often retaining the Pantages name.

Seattle, Washington


Post-war years: aircraft and software
The local economy dipped after World War II, which had seen the dispersion of the numerous Japanese-American businessmen. The local economy rose again with manufacturing company Boeing's growing dominance in the airliner market.[47] Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair.[48] The local economy went into another major downturn in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle – Turn out the lights."[49]

Downtown Seattle and a ferry at the Central Waterfront.

Still, Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities. Boeing finally chose to move its corporate headquarters to Chicago.[50] The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777, and 787); the company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington. As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre in 1983, when thirteen people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the International District, Seattle's Chinatown.[51] Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexico to nearby Bellevue, Washington,[52] Seattle and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including, RealNetworks, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile USA), and biomedical Westlake Center, a Downtown mall and southern corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart terminus of the Seattle Center Monorail. This is Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control the northwest corner of 5th and Pine. (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). This success brought an influx of new citizens with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000,[53] and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country.[54] Many of the Seattle area's tech companies remain relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.[55]

Seattle in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games[57] and the APEC leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene.[58] Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the manner its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself.[59] The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and was literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually Earthquake.[60] The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Seattle 50th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[61]

Seattle, Washington



Panoramic view of Seattle, as seen from the Space Needle.

Seattle is located between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) to the west, and Lake Washington to the east. The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is an inlet of Puget Sound. To the west, beyond Puget Sound, are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains on the Olympic Peninsula; to the east, beyond Lake Washington and the eastside suburbs, are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. Lake Washington's waters flow to Puget Sound through the Lake Washington Ship canal (a series of two man-made canals), Lake Union, and the Hiram C. Chittenden Locks at Salmon Bay, ending in Shilshole Bay. The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields surrounding Seattle were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. The surrounding area lends itself well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking year-round.[62] [63]

Downtown Seattle is bounded by Elliott Bay (lower left), lower Broadway (from upper left to lower right), Yesler Way (lower right), and Denny Way (obscured by clouds).

The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so.[64] Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills[65] ; the lists vary, but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. The Wallingford and Mount Baker neighborhoods are technically located on hills as well. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington.[66] The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center.[67] The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Island (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway. The highest point within city limits is at High Point [68] in West Seattle, roughly located near 35th Ave SW and SW Myrtle St. Other notable hills include Crown Hill, View Ridge/Wedgwood/Bryant, Maple Leaf, Phinney Ridge, Mt. Baker Ridge, Highlands/Carkeek/Bitterlake. North of the city center, Lake Washington Ship Canal connects Puget Sound to Lake Washington. It incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Union, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay. Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle is in a major earthquake zone. On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused no fatalities.[69] Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4),[69] April 13, 1949 (7.1),[70] and April 29, 1965 (6.5).[71] The 1949 quake caused eight known deaths, all in Seattle;[70] the 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly, and one more by heart failure.[71] Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of the city center, neither it[72] nor the Cascadia subduction zone has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.[73]

Seattle, Washington According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.5 square miles (369 km2),[74] 83.9 square miles (217 km2) of which is land and 58.7 square miles (152 km2) water (41.16 percent of the total area).


Seattle's temperate, rainy climate is usually described as temperate Oceanic or Marine west coast, with mild, damp winters and relatively dry and mild summers. Like much of the Pacific Northwest, according to the Köppen climate classification it falls within a cool, dry-summer subtropical zone (Csb), with cool-summer Mediterranean characteristics such as its usually dry summers.[76] Other climate classification systems, such as Trewartha, place it firmly in the Oceanic zone (Do).[77] Temperature extremes are moderated by adjacent Puget Sound, the Downtown Seattle averages 58 clear (sunny) days greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. The region is partially a year, with most of those days occurring [75] between May and September protected from Pacific storms by the Olympic Mountains and from Arctic air by the Cascade Range. Despite being on the margin of the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, the city has a reputation for frequent rain.[78] This reputation derives from this frequency of precipitation (150 days of precipitation > 0.01 in/0.3 mm) as well as the fact that it is cloudy an average of 201 days and 93 partly cloudy days per year.[75] At 37.1 inches (942 mm)[79] , the city receives less precipitation than New York, Atlanta, Houston, and most cities of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Seattle was also not listed in a study that revealed the 10 rainiest cities in the continental United States.[80] Most of the precipitation falls as drizzle or light rain. Thunderstorms occur only occasionally. Seattle reports thunder on just seven days per year (according to 'Cities Ranked and Rated' - Bert Sperling and Peter Sander.2007). For comparison Fort Myers, Florida reports thunder on 93 days per year. Kansas City reports 52 'thunder days' and New York City reports 25. There are occasional downpours. One of these downpours occurred in December 2007 when widespread rainfall hit the greater Puget Sound area. It became the second wettest event in Seattle history when a little over 5 inches of rain fell on Seattle in a 24 hour period. The rain also caused five deaths and widespread flooding and damage.[81] Spring, late fall, and winter are filled with days when it does not rain but looks as if it might because of cloudy, overcast skies. Winters are cool and wet with average lows around 35–40 °F (1.7–4.4 °C) on winter nights. Colder weather can occur, but seldom lasts more than a few days. Summers are dry and warm, with average daytime highs around 73–80 °F (22.8–26.7 °C). Hotter weather usually occurs only during a few summer days. Seattle's hottest official recorded temperature was 103 °F (39.4 °C) on July 29, 2009;[82] the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (–18 °C) on January 31, 1950.[79] Eighty miles (130 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forest in Olympic National Park on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains receives an annual average rainfall of 142 inches (3610 mm), and the state capital, Olympia—south of the rain shadow—receives an annual average rainfall of 52 inches (1320 mm). Snowfall is very infrequent, especially at lower elevations and near the coast, and is usually light and fleeting, lasting only a few days. Heavier snowfall happens infrequently; a recent example happened from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot of snow fell and stuck on much of the city's roads, causing widespread difficulties in a city so unaccustomed to heavy snow. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is

Between October and May, Seattle is mostly or [75] partly cloudy six out of every seven days

Seattle, Washington 13 inches (33 cm).[83] Seattle's daily record snowfall was 20 inches (51 cm) on January 13, 1950.[84] A sunnier and drier climate typically dominates from mid-July to mid-September. An average of 0.8 inches (20 mm) of rain falls in July and 1.0 inch (25 mm) in August. Although the summer climate is considerably drier and less humid than in areas with humid continental climates, a slight dampness can be occasionally felt, usually when temperatures reach above 80 °F (26.7 °C). This dampness is typically more noticeable during the evening when the temperatures have dropped. Because of this, Seattle experiences occasional summer thunderstorms.[85] The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited by the Cascade Mountains to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection.[86] Thunderstorms caused by this activity can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives worse weather than occasional thunder and ice-pellet showers. The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69 mph (111 km/h). Another exception to Seattle's dampness may occur in El Niño years, when the marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area.[87] Since the region's water comes from mountain snowpacks during the drier summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer.[88]
Climate data for Seattle (SeaTac Airport) Month Average high °F (°C) Average low °F (°C) Precipitation inches (mm) Snowfall inches (cm) Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) Sunshine hours Jan
45.8 (7.67) 35.9 (2.17)


49.5 (9.72) 37.2 (2.89)



64.4 (18)







45.5 (7.5) 35.9 (2.17)

59.8 (15.44) 44.8 (7.11)

53.2 58.2 (11.78) (14.56) 39.1 (3.94) 3.75 (95.3) 0.6 (1.5) 16.4 42.1 (5.61) 2.59 (65.8) 0 (0) 13.6

69.6 75.3 75.6 70.2 59.7 50.5 (20.89) (24.06) (24.22) (21.22) (15.39) (10.28) 45.7 (7.61) 3.19 (81) 0 (0) 11.7 39.9 (4.39)

47.2 51.7 55.3 55.7 51.9 (8.44) (10.94) (12.94) (13.17) (11.06) 1.78 (45.2) 0 (0) 11.6 1.49 (37.8) 0 (0) 8.5 0.79 (20.1) 0 (0) 5.3 1.02 (25.9) 0 (0) 5.5 1.63 (41.4) 0 (0) 8.3

5.13 4.18 (130.3) (106.2) 2.1 (5.3) 17.8 1.3 (3.3) 15.7

5.90 5.62 37.07 (149.9) (142.7) (941.6) 1.1 (2.8) 17.9 1.9 (4.8) 17.8 7.1 (18) 150.1



























Source #1: NOAA Source #2: HKO


Seattle, Washington


Seattle has grown through a series of annexations of smaller neighboring communities. On May 3, 1891, Magnolia, Wallingford, Green Lake, and the University District (then known as Brooklyn) were annexed.[91] The town of South Seattle was annexed on October 20, 1905.[92] Between January 7 and September 12, 1907, Seattle nearly doubled its land area by annexing six incorporated towns and areas of unincorporated King County, including Southeast Seattle, Ravenna, South Park, Columbia City, Ballard, and West Seattle.[93] Three years later, after having difficulties paying a $10,000 bill from the Downtown Seattle includes a tightly packed financial district along with county, the city of Georgetown merged with [94] residential areas and a panoramic waterfront. Seattle. Finally, on January 4, 1954, the area between N. 85th Street and N. 145th Street was annexed, including the neighborhoods of Pinehurst, Maple Leaf, Lake City, View Ridge and Northgate.[95] Former Seattle mayor Greg Nickels is among those who have called Seattle "a city of neighborhoods",[96] [97] although the boundaries (and even names) of those neighborhoods are often open to dispute. For example, a Department of Neighborhoods spokeswoman reported that her own neighborhood has gone from "the 'CD' (Central District) to 'Madrona' to 'Greater Madison Valley' and now 'Madrona Park'.[97] Over a dozen Seattle neighborhoods have Neighborhood Service Centers, originally known in 1972 as "Little City Halls"[98] and even more have their own street fair and/or parade during the summer months.[99] The largest of the city's street fairs feature hundreds of craft and food booths and multiple stages with live entertainment, and draw more than 100,000 people over the course of a weekend.[100] In addition, at least half a dozen neighborhoods have weekly farmers' markets, some with as many as fifty vendors.[101] Additionally, Puget Sound Regional Council designates several areas of Seattle as urban centers, defined as "designated planning districts intended to provide a mix of housing, employment and commercial and cultural amenities in a compact form that supports transit, walking and cycling."[102] These urban centers may have the same name as a neighborhood but slightly different borders; for example, the Capitol Hill Urban Center is much smaller that the entire neighborhood.


Seattle, Washington


The Space Needle, dating from the Century 21 Exposition (1962), is Seattle's most recognizable landmark, having been featured in the logo of the television show Frasier and the backgrounds of the television series Dark Angel, Grey's Anatomy and iCarly, and films such as It Happened at the World's Fair, Sleepless in Seattle, and The Twilight Saga: Eclipse. The fairgrounds surrounding the Needle have been converted into Seattle Center, which remains the site of many local civic and cultural events, such as Bumbershoot, Folklife, and the Bite of Seattle. Seattle Center plays multiple roles in the city, ranging from a public fair ground to a civic center, though recent economic losses have called its viability and future into question.[103] The Seattle Center Monorail was also constructed for Century 21 and still runs from Seattle Center to Westlake Center, a downtown shopping mall, a little over a mile to the southeast.

The Space Needle

The Smith Tower was the tallest building on the West Coast from its completion in 1914 until the Space Needle overtook it in 1962.[104] The late 1980s saw the construction of Seattle's two tallest skyscrapers: the 76 story Columbia Center (completed 1985) is the tallest building in the Pacific Northwest[105] and the fourth tallest building west of the Mississippi River;[106] the Washington Mutual Tower (completed 1988) is Seattle's second tallest building.[107] [108] Other notable Seattle landmarks include Pike Place Market, the Fremont Troll, the Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame (at Seattle Center), and the Seattle Central Library.

Pike Place Market

Starbucks has been at Pike Place Market since the coffee company was founded there in 1971. The first store is still operating a block south of its original location.[109] The National Register of Historic Places has over 150 Seattle listings.[110] The city also designates its own landmarks.[111]

Seattle, Washington


Performing arts
Seattle has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra is among the world's most recorded[112] and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall.[113] The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished,[114] [115] with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner[116] [117] and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States.[114] The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States.[118] The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle Chamber Music Society.[119] The 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows[120] featuring both local talent and international stars.[121] Seattle has "around 100" theatrical production companies[122] [123] and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre;[124] Seattle is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters[125] (28 Seattle theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity contract).[122] In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals.[126] Seattle is considered the home of grunge music[14] because it was home to artists such as Soundgarden, Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Mudhoney, all of whom reached vast audiences in the early 1990s.[127] The city is also home to such varied musicians as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, rapper Sir Mix-a-Lot, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, Heart, heavy metal bands Queensrÿche, Nevermore and Sunn O))), as well as such poppier rock bands as Harvey Danger, Goodness, and The Presidents of the United States of America. Such musicians as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, Nikki Sixx, and Quincy Jones spent their formative years in Seattle. Since the grunge era, the area has hosted a diverse and influential alternative music scene. The Seattle record label Sub Pop—the first to sign Nirvana and Soundgarden—has signed such non-grunge bands as Band of Horses, Modest Mouse, Murder City Devils, Sunny Day Real Estate, Death Cab for Cutie, The Postal Service, Flight of the Conchords, and Fleet Foxes.[127]

The Moore Theatre has been a performing arts venue in Downtown Seattle since its construction in 1907.

Earlier Seattle-based popular music acts include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four; The Wailers, a 1960s garage band; The Ventures, an instrumental rock band; pop Young Fresh Fellows and The Posies; pop-punk The Fastbacks; the well-traveled avant-rock of Sun City Girls; and the outright punk of The Fartz (later 10 Minute Warning), The Gits, and 7 Year Bitch.[128] Seattle annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home to such performance poets as Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ;[129] Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ;[130] and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ.[131] Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.[132] The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywood productions and works by independent filmmakers.[133] Among these, the Seattle Cinerama stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama films.[134] [135]

Seattle, Washington Additionally, the city is also home to the Seattle Polish Film Festival, ("SPFF") an annual film festival showcasing current and past films of Polish cinema.[136] [137] The festival is produced by the Seattle-Gdynia Sister City Association and awards the Seattle Spirit of Polish Cinema awards as well as the Viewers Choice of Best Film. The city is the fictional home to the Nickelodeon cable television show, iCarly.


As of 2010, Seattle has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009. There is also the Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce,[138] and the University of Washington publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers.[139] Real Change is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including the Northwest Asian Weekly, and numerous neighborhood newspapers, including the North Seattle Journal. Seattle is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations.[140] Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUT 2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia. Non-commercial radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KPLU-FM 88.5 (Tacoma). Other stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with EMP), KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and KNHC-FM 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic music format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle radio stations are also available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio.[141] Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations, including KING-FM, one of the last commercial classical music stations in the United States.[140] Seattle-based online magazines Worldchanging and were two of the "Top Green Websites" in 2007 according to Time.[142] Seattle also has many online newspapers. The two largest are The Seattle Times and Seattle Post-Intelligencer (the latter online only).

Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival,[144] Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day weekend, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to the Seafair Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. All are typically attended 210 cruise ship visits brought 886,039 passengers by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest and two [143] to Seattle in 2008. separate Independence Day celebrations.[145] [146] [147] In the past, the Gay Pride parade and festival have been centered on Capitol Hill, but since 2006, festivities have been held city-wide, and the parade has followed a route in Downtown from the retail core to Seattle Center.[148] Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle Center).[149]

Seattle, Washington

268 There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show;[150] an anime convention, Sakura-Con;[151] Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention;[152] specialized film festivals, such as the Maelstrom International Fantastic Film Festival, the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival;[153] and a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle to Portland Bicycle Classic.[154]

The Henry Art Gallery opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington.[155] The Seattle Art Museum (SAM) opened in 1933; SAM opened a museum downtown in 1991 (expanded and reopened The Seattle skyline viewed from Gas Works Park. 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle Asian Art [156] Museum (SAAM). SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park (opened 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. The Frye Art Museum is a free museum on First Hill. Regional history collections are at the Loghouse Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum, the Wing Luke Asian Museum and the Northwest African American Museum. Seattle has artist-run galleries,[157] including 10-year veteran Soil Art Gallery,[158] and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.[159] Woodland Park Zoo opened as a private menagerie in 1889, but was sold to the city in 1899.[160] The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006).[161] The Seattle Underground Tour is an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire.[162] There are also many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook.[163] Since the middle 1990s, Seattle has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska cruises.[164]


Safeco Field, home of the Seattle Mariners

Qwest Field, home of the Seattle Seahawks and Seattle Sounders FC




Venue Qwest Field Qwest Field Safeco Field

Established Championships 2007 1976 1977 0 0 0

Seattle Sounders FC Soccer Seattle Seahawks Seattle Mariners Football Baseball

Seattle, Washington

Seattle Thunderbirds Ice hockey WHL Seattle Storm Seattle Mist ShoWare Center 1977 2000 0 1 N/AQ

Basketball WNBA KeyArena Football LFL

ShoWare Center N/A

Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup.[165] Today Seattle has four major professional sports teams: The National Football League's Seattle Seahawks, Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners, Major League Soccer's Seattle Sounders FC, and the 2004 Women's National Basketball Association champions, Seattle Storm.[166] From 1967 to 2008 Seattle was also home to an NBA franchise, the Seattle SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions. The team relocated to Oklahoma City after the 2007–08 season.[167] The Seattle Thunderbirds are a major-junior hockey team that plays in one of the Canadian major-junior hockey leagues, the WHL (Western Hockey League). The Thunderbirds moved to nearby Kent, Washington during the 2008–2009 season.[168] The Seattle Sounders FC began play in Major League Soccer in 2009.[169] Seattle also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports, the University of Washington and Seattle University are NCAA Division I schools. The Major League Baseball All-Star game was held in Seattle twice, first at the Kingdome in 1979 and again at Safeco Field in 2001. That same year, the Seattle Mariners tied the all-time single regular season wins record with 116 wins. The NBA All-Star game was also held in Seattle twice, the first in 1974 at the Seattle Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome.[170] In 2006, Qwest Field hosted the 2005–06 NFL playoffs. In 2008, Qwest Field hosted the first game of the 2007–08 NFL playoffs, in which the Seahawks defeated the Washington Redskins, 35–14. Qwest also serves as the home field for the Seattle Sounders FC of Major League Soccer. Forbes magazine rated Seattle as the "Most Miserable Sports City" in 2010.

Outdoor activities
Seattle's mild, temperate marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming.[171] In town, many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535-acre (2.2 km2) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, or along Alki Beach in West Seattle. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States.[172]

Green Lake Park, popular among runners, contains a 2.7-mile (4.3 km) trail circling the lake.

Seattle, Washington


Seattle's economy is driven by a mix of older industrial companies, and "new economy" Internet and technology companies, service, design and clean technology companies. The Port of Seattle is a major economic engine. Though it has been affected by the recent recession, Seattle has retained a comparatively strong economy, and remains a hotbed for start-up businesses, especially in green building and clean technologies: it was ranked as America's #1 "smarter city" based on its government policies and green economy.[173] The Seattle housing market, especially in center-city neighborhoods, has not seen the sort of drop in value most housing markets around the nation have seen in recent years.[174] The Seattle region's economy is increasingly diverse and multi-sectoral.

Washington Mutual's last headquarters, the WaMu Center, (now the Chase Center and soon to be Russell Investments Center) (center left) and its headquarters prior, Washington Mutual Tower (center right).

Still, very large companies dominate the business landscape. Six companies on the 2008 Fortune 500 list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue are headquartered in Seattle: former financial services company Washington Mutual (the banking business of which is now part of JPMorgan Chase) (#97), Internet retailer (#171), coffee chain Starbucks (#277), department store Nordstrom (#299), insurance company Safeco (#388), and global logistics firm Expeditors International (#458).[175] However, in April 2008, the sale of Safeco to Liberty Mutual Group was announced and in September 2008, Washington Mutual was seized by the FDIC and was sold to JPMorgan Chase.[176] [177] Other Fortune 500 companies popularly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Warehouse club chain Costco (#29), the largest company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Microsoft (#44) and Nintendo of America are located in Redmond. Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#147), is based in Federal Way. Finally, Bellevue is home to truck manufacturer PACCAR (#169), and to international mobile telephony giant T-Mobile's U.S. subsidiary, T-Mobile USA.[175] Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#27) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division is still headquartered in nearby Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle metropolitan area.[178] Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway, in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense.[179] Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[180] In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels.[181] Alaska Airlines, operating a hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, maintains its headquarters in the city of SeaTac, next to the airport.[182]

Seattle, Washington


Historical populations
Census 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Pop. 188 1151 3533 42837 80671 237194 315312 365583 368302 467591 557087 530831 493846 516259 563374 %± — 512.2% 207.0% 1112.5% 88.3% 194.0% 32.9% 15.9% 0.7% 27.0% 19.1% −4.7% −7.0% 4.5% 9.1% 9.6%

Est. 2009 617334 [1]


[183] [184]

According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management, Seattle had a population of 602,000 as of April 1, 2009.[1] In the 2000 census interim measurements of 2006, there were 258,499 households and 113,400 families residing in the city.[5] According to the 2006-2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of Seattle was as follows: • • • • • • • • White: 71.3% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 68.4%) Black or African American: 8.0% Native American: 0.9% Asian: 13.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.4% Some other race: 2.2% Two or more races: 4.0% Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 5.6%

Source:[185] According to the 2006-2008 American Community Survey, English was by far the most commonly spoken language at home; approximately 78.9% of residents over the age of five spoke only English at home. Spanish was spoken by 4.5% of the population; people who spoke other Indo-European languages made up 3.9% of the population. People who spoke Asian languages at home made up 10.2% of the population. People who spoke other languages made up 2.5% of Seattle's population.[186] Seattle has seen a major increase in immigration in recent decades; the foreign-born population increased 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.[187] At nearly four percent, Greater Seattle has the highest concentration of

Seattle, Washington Multiracial Americans of any major metropolitan area in the United States. The Chinese population in the Seattle Area has origins in China, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. The earliest Chinese Americans that came in the late 19th and early 20th century were almost entirely from Guangdong province. The Seattle area is also home to a high Laotian and Cambodian population.[188] In addition, the city is home to over 30,000 Somali immigrants.[189] As of 1999, the median income of a city household was $45,736, and the median income for a family was $62,195. Males had a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,306[190] 11.8 percent of the population and 6.9 percent of families are below the poverty line. Of people living in poverty, 13.8 percent are under the age of 18 and 10.2 percent are 65 or older.[190] It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless people on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle.[191] In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.[192] In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per annum for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040.[193] However, Mayor Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60 percent, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and is working on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws.[193] The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim of increasing residential density in the city center.[194] A 2006 study by UCLA indicates that Seattle has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita. With 12.9 percent of citizens polled identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the city ranks second of all major US cities, behind San Francisco and slightly ahead of Atlanta and Minneapolis.[195] Greater Seattle also ranks second among major US metropolitan areas, with 6.5 percent being LGBT.[196] According to the 2000 U.S. census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8 percent.[197]


Government and politics
Seattle is a charter city, with a Mayor–Council form of government. Since 1911, Seattle's nine city councillors have been elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions.[198] The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All city, county, and state offices are technically non-partisan.[199] Like most parts of the United States, government and laws are also run by a series of ballot initiatives (where people can pass or reject laws), referendums (where people can approve or reject already passed legislation), and Propositions (where specific government agencies can propose new laws/tax increases directly to the people)

Seattle City Hall, 2007

Seattle's politics are strongly liberal/progressive, although there is a small libertarian movement within the metro area.[200] It is one of the most liberal cities in the United States, with approximately 80% voting for the Democratic Party; only two precincts in Seattle—one in the Broadmoor community, and one encompassing neighboring Madison Park—had a majority of votes for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election. In addition, all precincts in Seattle voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, including the two precincts who had previously voted Republican in 2004.[200] In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats. Seattle is one of the most politically progressive cities in North America, with an overwhelming majority of voters supporting Democratic politicians; support for liberal issues such as same-sex marriage, reproductive rights and gun control is largely taken for granted in local politics. Like much of the Pacific Northwest (which has the lowest rate of

Seattle, Washington church attendance in the United States and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism[201] [202] ), church attendance, religious belief and political influence of religious leaders is much lower than in other parts of America[203] . Seattle also has a thriving alternative press, with two well-established weekly newspapers, several online dailies (including the Seattle P.I., Publicola and Crosscut), and a number of issue-focused publications, including the nation's two largest online environmental magazines, Worldchanging and Federally, Seattle is part of Washington's 7th congressional district, representated by Democrat Jim McDermott, elected in 1988 and one of Congress' most liberal members.[204]


Of the city's population over the age of 25, 53.8 percent (vs. a national average of 27.4 percent) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.9 percent (vs. 84.5 percent nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent.[21] A United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city.[205] The city was listed as the most literate of the country's sixty-nine largest cities in 2005 and 2006, the second most literate in 2007, after Minneapolis, and tied with Minneapolis for most literate in 2008 in studies conducted by Central Connecticut State University.[19] Seattle Public Schools desegregated without a court order[206] but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north).[207] In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class).[208] The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: five of the private high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular.[209]

Inside Suzzallo Library, University of Washington campus

Seattle is home to one of the United States' most respected public research universities, the University of Washington, as well as its professional and continuing Education unit, University of Washington Educational Outreach. A study by Newsweek International in 2006 cited UW as the twenty-second best university in the world.[210] Seattle also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle University and Seattle Pacific University, both founded by religious groups; universities aimed at the working adult, like City University and Antioch University; colleges, such as North Seattle Community College, Seattle Central Community College, and South Seattle Community College; and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Arts and The Art Institute of Seattle. In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle Central Community College as community college of the year, stating the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".[211]

Seattle, Washington


Health systems
The University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research, earning special merits for programs in neurology and neurosurgery. Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970.[212] In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack".[213] Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital serving Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.[214] Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".[215] Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood and also shares facilities with the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and University of Washington Medical Center. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle is also served by a Veterans Affairs hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center near Northgate Mall.

The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma–Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett–Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the arrival of trolleybuses brought the end of streetcars in Seattle in 1941. This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region.[216]

Interstate 5 in Washington as it passes through downtown Seattle

King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county,as well as a streetcar line between the South Lake Union neighborhood and Westlake Center in downtown.[217] Seattle is one of the few cities in North America whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Sound Transit currently provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area; two Sounder commuter rail lines between the suburbs and downtown; and its Central Link light rail line, which opened in 2009, between downtown and Sea-Tac Airport gives the city its first rapid transit line that has Central Link light rail trains in the Downtown intermediate stops within the city limits. Washington State Ferries, Seattle Transit Tunnel under the International which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States and District/Chinatown. third largest in the world,[218] connects Seattle to Bainbridge and Vashon Islands in Puget Sound and to Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula.[218]

Seattle, Washington According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6 percent of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link line.[219] [220] Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTac, is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Closer to downtown, Boeing Field is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners. The main mode of transportation, however, relies on Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North.[221] Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways), run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. State Route 99 runs through downtown Seattle on the Alaskan Way Viaduct, which was built in 1953. However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquake the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel in 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion. From 2006 to 2008, transit ridership in Seattle went up by 23%,[222] and many bus routes in the central part of the city are routinely forced to leave passengers because they are full. Seattle now has the worst traffic congestion of all American cities.[223] The city has started moving away from the automobile and towards mass transit. In 2006, voters in King County passed proposition 2(Transit Now) which increased bus service hours on high ridership routes and paid for five Bus Rapid Transit lines called RapidRide.[224] After rejecting a roads and transit measure in 2007, Seattle-area voters passed a transit only measure in 2008 that increases ST Express bus service and extends the Link Light Rail system (currently 15.7 miles with 3 miles under construction) by over thirty miles and adds 4 more round trips daily.[225] An extension of the light rail south to the Seattle–Tacoma International Airport began service on December 19, 2009; an extension north to the University of Washington is under construction as of 2010; and further extensions are planned to reach Lynnwood to the north, Des Moines to the south, and Bellevue and Redmond to the east by 2023.[226] [227] [228] New Mayor Mike Mcginn hopes to put another transit measure on the 2011 ballot to build light rail from Downtown Seattle to Ballard, Fremont, and West Seattle [229] After seeing a surprisingly large amount of support for it from its campaign (and now city's) policy forum.[230]


Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light respectively. Other utility companies serving Seattle include Puget Sound Energy (natural gas); Seattle Steam Company (steam); Waste Management, Inc and Allied Waste (curbside recycling and solid waste removal); and Verizon Communications, Qwest and Comcast (telephone, Internet, and cable television).

See also
• List of people from Seattle • • • •

Seattle Steam Company, one of Seattle's privately owned utility companies

List of Seattle sister cities National Register of Historic Places listings in King County, Washington#Seattle Tillicum Village SafeCatch - Seattle Division of the FBI concept

Seattle, Washington


• Jones, Nard (1972). Seattle. New York City: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-01875-4. • Morgan, Murray (1982 (originally published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illustrated edition)). Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95846-4. • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. (1998 (originally published 1994)). Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295973668. • Sale, Roger (1976). Seattle: Past To Present. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95615-1. • Speidel, William C. (1978). Doc Maynard: the man who invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. • Speidel, William C. (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle story, 1851–1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X, ISBN 0-914890-06-9.

Further reading
• Klingle, Matthew (2007). Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300116411. • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Seattle, the city of destiny" [231] (DJVU). Leaves of knowledge. Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection. Shaw & Borden. OCLC 61326250. • Pierce, J. Kingston (2003). Eccentric Seattle: Pillars and Pariahs Who Made the City Not Such a Boring Place After All. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-269-2.

External links
• • • • • • Official website [7] [232], history of Seattle and Washington. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project [233] Pacific Northwest Labor History Projects [234] Seattle, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary [235] Seattle travel guide from Wikitravel

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Seattle, Washington
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Miller. "America's Most Literate Cities 2008" (http:/ / www. ccsu. edu/ amlc08/ ). Central Connecticut State University. . Retrieved December 30, 2008. [21] US Census Bureau (2008). "S1501. Education Attainment: Seattle City, Washington" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ STTable?_bm=y& -qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_S1501& -geo_id=16000US5363000& -context=st& -ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_& -tree_id=3308& -_lang=en& -format=& -CONTEXT=st). . [22] "Personal income per capita grows" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2003826358_bizbriefs08. html). The Seattle Times. August 8, 2007. . Retrieved October 6, 2007. [23] http:/ / school. eecs. wsu. edu/ node/ 848 [24] http:/ / www. publicola. net/ 2010/ 02/ 22/ council-wants-city-to-go-carbon-neutral-in-20-years/ [25] Pryne, Eric (June 21, 2002). "Seattle drops to fifth in traffic congestion" (http:/ / community. seattletimes. nwsource. com/ archive/ ?date=20020621& slug=tti21m). The Seattle Times. . 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[36] Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition's final day is on October 16, 1909." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=696). HistoryLink. . Retrieved November 6, 2007. [37] Emmett Shear (Spring 2002). Seattle: Booms and Busts. Yale University. Author has granted blanket permission for material from that paper to be reused in Wikipedia. Now at wikisource:Seattle: Booms and Busts. [38] Junius Rochester (October 7, 1998). "Yesler, Henry L." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=286). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 1, 2007. [39] George Kinnear (January 1, 1911). "Anti-Chinese Riots At Seattle, Wn.. February 8, 1876" (http:/ / en. wikisource. org/ w/ index. php?title=Anti-Chinese_Riots_At_Seattle). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. Kinnear's article originally appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and was later privately published in a small volume. [40] Walt Crowley (January 25, 2003). "Seattle burns down in the Great Fire on June 6, 1889." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=5115). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 1, 2007. [41] "Hard Drive to the Klondike: Promoting Seattle During the Gold Rush" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071103062325/ http:/ / www. nps. gov/ klse/ hrs/ hrs0. htm). National Park Service. February 18, 2003. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ klse/ hrs/ hrs0. htm) on November 3, 2007. . Retrieved October 1, 2007. [42] J. Kingston Pierce (November 24, 1999). "Panic of 1893: Seattle's First Great Depression." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ index. cfm?DisplayPage=output. cfm& File_Id=2030). HistoryLink. . Retrieved December 18, 2008. [43] Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Klondike Gold Rush" (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=687). . Retrieved October 1, 2007. [44] Greg Lange (May 5, 2003). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition opens for a 138-day run on June 1, 1909." 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Retrieved October 1, 2007. [48] Alan J. Stein (April 18, 2000). "Century 21 – The 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Part I" (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=2290). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 1, 2007. [49] Greg Lange (June 8, 1999). "Billboard appears on April 16, 1971, near Sea–Tac, reading: Will the Last Person Leaving Seattle—Turn Out the Lights." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=1287). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 1, 2007. The real estate agents were Bob McDonald and Jim Youngren, as cited at Don Duncan, Washington: the First One Hundred Years, 1889–1989 (Seattle: The Seattle Times, 1989), 108, 109–110; The Seattle Times, February 25, 1986, p. A3; Ronald R. Boyce, Seattle–Tacoma and the Southern Sound (Bozeman, Montana: Northwest Panorama Publishing, 1986), 99; Walt Crowley, Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), 297. [50] Kristi Heim (March 21, 2006). 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"Seattle area "sticker shock" is a matter of perception" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ realestate/ 2002446059_homeprices21. html?syndication=rss& source=realestate. xml& items=7). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved September 29, 2007. [55] Lee Gomes (November 8, 2006). "The Dot-Com Bubble Is Reconsidered – And Maybe Relived" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB116294042194116133-tQxnyU5mE6PaQdO9xT1_uaFusQs_20061208. html). Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. Gomes considers the bubble to have ended with the peak of the March 2000 peak of NASDAQ. [56] David M. Ewalt (January 27, 2005). "The Bubble Bowl" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2005/ 01/ 27/ cx_de_0127bubblebowl. html). Forbes. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. Ewalt refers to the advertising on Super Bowl XXXIV (January 2000) as "the dot-com bubble's Waterloo". [57] David Wilma (February 25, 2004). "Ted Turner's Goodwill Games open in Seattle on July 20, 1990." 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[74] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ geo/ www/ gazetteer/ gazette. html). United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. . Retrieved 2008-01-31. [75] National Climatic Data Center. "Cloudiness – Mean Number of Days" (http:/ / lwf. ncdc. noaa. gov/ oa/ climate/ online/ ccd/ cldy. html). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . Retrieved November 1, 2007. [76] Kottek, M.; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (http:/ / koeppen-geiger. vu-wien. ac. at/ pics/ kottek_et_al_2006. gif). Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. . Retrieved 2007-02-15. [77] http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 006/ ad652e/ ad652e07. htm [78] "What Is The Olympic Rain Shadow?" (http:/ / www. komotv. com/ weather/ faq/ rain_shadow. asp). . Retrieved September 28, 2007. [79] "Monthly Averages for Seattle, WA" (http:/ / www. weather. com/ weather/ wxclimatology/ monthly/ USWA0395). 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[91] Greg Lange (January 1, 1999). "Seattle doubles in size by annexing north-of-downtown communities on May 3, 1891." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=2214). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. [92] Greg Lange (January 17, 1999). "Seattle annexes South Seattle on October 20, 1905." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=731). . Retrieved October 4, 2007. [93] Greg Lange (January 1, 2000). "City of Seattle annexes six towns including Ballard and West Seattle in 1907." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=1954). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. [94] David Wilma (February 10, 2001). "Georgetown (later a Seattle neighborhood) incorporates as a city on January 8, 1904." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=2978). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. [95] David Wilma (October 12, 2005). "Seattle annexes the area north of N 85th Street to N 145th Street on January 4, 1954." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=7514). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 4, 2007. [96] Greg Nickels (July 2005). "Nickels Newsletter – July 2005" (http:/ / www. seattle. gov/ mayor/ about/ nicnewsJul05. htm). . Retrieved October 11, 2007. [97] Jack Broom (October 5, 2002). "New Seattle map: There goes the neighborhood" (http:/ / archives. seattletimes. nwsource. com/ cgi-bin/ texis. cgi/ web/ vortex/ display?slug=map051& date=20021005). Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 11, 2007. [98] Walt Crowley (May 9, 2001). "Seattle's Little City Halls" (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ index. cfm?DisplayPage=output. cfm& File_Id=3270). . Retrieved April 27, 2009. [99] "Community Events" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070625125907/ http:/ / www. seafair. com/ events/ community/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. seafair. com/ events/ community/ ) on June 25, 2007. . Retrieved October 20, 2007. [100] Walt Crowley (May 11, 1999). "University District (Seattle) Street Fair is first held May 23 and 24, 1970" (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=1126). . Retrieved October 11, 2007. [101] For an overview of Seattle's neighborhood farmers markets see: "Markets" (http:/ / www. seattlefarmersmarkets. org/ markets). Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. . Retrieved October 11, 2007. For the scale of one of the larger markets (in the University District, see: "University District Farmers Market" (http:/ / www. seattlefarmersmarkets. org/ markets/ u_district). Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. . Retrieved October 11, 2007. [102] "Regional Growth Centers" (http:/ / www. psrc. org/ growth/ centers). Puget Sound Regional Council. . Retrieved May 2, 2010. [103] Kathy Mulady; Debera Carlton Harrell (April 24, 2006). "City looking to breathe new life into Seattle Center" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ local/ 267794_seattlecenter24. asp). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 22, 2007. [104] Greg Lange (March 5, 2003). "Seattle's Smith Tower, tallest building west of Ohio, is dedicated on July 4, 1914." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=5370). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 3, 2007. [105] David Wilma (August 25, 2005). "Columbia Center, tallest building in Pacific Northwest, opens doors on March 2, 1985." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=2627). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 3, 2007. [106] Casey McNerthney (February 23, 2007). "Firefighters take 69 floors for leukemia" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ local/ 304900_climb23. html). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 22, 2007. [107] "Washington Mutual Tower opens in downtown Seattle in 1988." (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=3417). HistoryLink. June 30, 2001. . Retrieved October 31, 2007. [108] Barry Cullingworth; Roger W. Caves (1997). Planning in the USA: Policies, Issues, and Processes (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=5zYpZxUrUtAC& pg=RA1-PA95& lpg=RA1-PA95& dq="washington+ mutual+ tower"+ second+ tallest). New York, New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-24788-8. . [109] "Original Starbucks" (http:/ / www. ci. seattle. wa. us/ html/ visitor/ starbucks. htm). City of Seattle. . Retrieved October 3, 2007. [110] "Impromptu query for Seattle, Washington" (http:/ / www. nr. nps. gov/ iwisapi/ explorer. dll?IWS_SCHEMA=NRIS1& IWS_LOGIN=1& IWS_REPORT=100000039). National Register Information System. . Retrieved November 1, 2007. [111] "Nomination and Designation Processes" (https:/ / www. seattle. gov/ neighborhoods/ preservation/ designation_process. htm). Landmarks and Designation. Department of Neighborhoods, City of Seattle. . Retrieved January 9, 2009. [112] "Recordings and Broadcasts" (http:/ / www. seattlesymphony. org/ symphony/ meet/ recordings/ ). Seattle Symphony. . Retrieved October 19, 2007. [113] "History" (http:/ / www. seattlesymphony. org/ symphony/ meet/ history/ ). Seattle Symphony Orchestra. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. [114] "About the School" (http:/ / www. pnb. org/ pnbschool/ philosophy. html). Pacific Northwest Ballet. . Retrieved October 19, 2007. [115] "Met Opera and Seattle Opera to Co-Produce Gluck's Final Operatic Masterpiece "Iphigénie en Tauride"" (http:/ / www. metoperafamily. org/ metopera/ news/ press/ detail. aspx?id=274). Press release. Metropolitan Opera. December 18, 2006. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. This press release from New York's Metropolitan Opera describes the Seattle Opera as "one of the leading opera companies in the United States… recognized internationally…" [116] "Wagner" (http:/ / www. seattleopera. org/ discover/ wagner/ index. aspx). Seattle Opera. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. [117] Matthew Westphal (August 21, 2006). 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Seattle, Washington
[121] Examples of local talent are Billy Joe Huels (lead singer of the Dusty 45s starring in Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story and Sarah Rudinoff in Wonderful Town. National-level stars include Stephen Lynch in The Wedding Singer, which went on to Broadway and Cathy Rigby in Peter Pan (1) "Seattle World Premiere of Cry-Baby Delayed. Buddy: The Buddy Holly Story Added to Season" (http:/ / www. 5thavenue. org/ press/ buddy-announced. aspx). The 5th Avenue Theatre. October 11, 2006. . Retrieved February 19, 2007. (2) "Wonderful Town: A Madcap Manhattan Romp" (http:/ / www. 5thavenue. org/ press/ wt_cast. aspx). The 5th Avenue Theatre. 2006. . Retrieved October 25, 2007. (3) Misha Berson (February 11, 2006). "Eager-to-please new musical raids the '80s" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ theaterarts/ 2002797878_wedding11. html). Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 25, 2007. (4) "Show Archives" (http:/ / www. 5thavenue. org/ about/ showarchives. aspx). The 5th Avenue Theatre. . Retrieved October 25, 2007. [122] Brendan Kiley (January 31, 2008). "Old Timers, New Theater" (http:/ / www. thestranger. com/ seattle/ Content?oid=496361). The Stranger. p. 27. . Retrieved January 9, 2009. "around 100 theater companies ... Twenty-eight have some sort of Actors' Equity contract ..." [123] "Theatre Producers and Presenters" (http:/ / seattleperforms. com/ content/ view/ 7/ 17/ ). Seattle Performs. . Retrieved October 26, 2007. Lists 145 theatrical production companies in the Seattle metropolitan area, the majority of them in the city. The list is certainly not complete. [124] (1) "Theater Calendar". The Stranger. October 18, 2007. p. 45. This lists 23 distinct venues in Seattle hosting live theater (in the narrow sense) that week; it also lists 7 other venues hosting burlesque or cabaret, and three hosting improv. In any given week, some theaters are "dark". (2) Misha Berson (February 16, 2005). "A new wave of fringe theater groups hits Seattle" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ entertainment/ 2002557462_fringe16. html). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 26, 2007. This article mentions five fringe theater groups that were new at that time, each with a venue. [125] Daniel C. Schechter (2002). Pacific Northwest. Lonely Planet. p. 33. ISBN 1864503777. [126] Stuart Eskenazi (March 1, 2005). "Where culture goes to town" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ localnews/ 2002193046_townhall01m. html). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 19, 2007. [127] Clark Humphrey (May 4, 2000). "Rock Music – Seattle" (http:/ / www. historylink. org/ essays/ output. cfm?file_id=2374). HistoryLink. . Retrieved October 3, 2007. [128] Seattle_Music, the best nightclub Seattle ever had was named Pier 70 Chowder House with the best disk jocky named David Prince [129] Lori Patrick (August 2, 2007). "Skip your commute for a "Traffic Jam" with a twist, a Hip Hop & Spoken Word Mashup at City Hall, Aug. 16" (http:/ / www. seattle. gov/ arts/ news/ press_releases. asp?prID=7593& deptID=1). City of Seattle. . Retrieved October 6, 2007. [130] "Indie and Team Semis results" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060830062934/ http:/ / www. austinslam. com/ nps06/ ). National Poetry Slam 2006. August 12, 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. austinslam. com/ nps06/ ) on August 30, 2006. . Retrieved October 6, 2007. [131] "Home" (http:/ / www. seattlepoetryslam. org/ ). Seattle Poetry Slam. . Retrieved October 6, 2007. [132] John Marshall (August 19, 2007). "Eleventh Hour's volunteers deserve credit for a strong poetry fest revival" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ books/ 312352_poetry20. html). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 6, 2007. [133] Kristin Dizon (June 10, 2004). "Now showing in Seattle: an explosion of indie theaters" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ movies/ 177098_littletheaters10. html). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved January 9, 2009. [134] "The Theater" (http:/ / www. cinerama. com/ TemplateMain. aspx?contentId=9). Seattle Cinerama. . Retrieved January 9, 2009. [135] Moira Macdonald (February 23, 2003). "Looking back at Cinerama format" (http:/ / community. seattletimes. nwsource. com/ archive/ ?date=20030228& slug=cinerama28). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved January 9, 2009. [136] WILLIAM ARNOLD, "Film buff sinks teeth into second Polish film festival" (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ movies/ 337777_polishfilmfest02. html) Seattle Post-Intelligencer [137] WILLIAM ARNOLD, Polish film festival honors a living legend, in person and on-screen (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ movies/ 337717_polishfest02. html) November 1, 2007 [138] "Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce" (http:/ / www. djc. com/ ). . Retrieved November 3, 2007. [139] (1) John Marshall (February 7, 2002). "Rumble in the weekly-newspaper jungle" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ lifestyle/ 57274_newswar07. shtml). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 28, 2007. (2) Mike Lewis (August 17, 2006). "A new history at Seattle Weekly" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ local/ 281567_seaweekly17. html). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 28, 2007. [140] "Seattle-Area TV & Radio Stations and Their Formats" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ tv/ radiolistings. shtml). Seattle Post-Intelligencer. . Retrieved October 3, 2007. [141] Brier Dudley (April 30, 2007). "At KEXP, technology and music embrace" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2003686534_brier30. html). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. [142] "Top Green Websites" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ specials/ 2007/ article/ 0,28804,1730759_1731034,00. html). Time. April 17, 2008. . Retrieved December 11, 2008. [143] "Cruise Seattle" (http:/ / www. portseattle. org/ seaport/ cruise/ ). Port of Seattle. . Retrieved October 16, 2009. [144] Annie Wagner (May 25–31, 2006). "Everything SIFF" (http:/ / www. thestranger. com/ seattle/ Content?oid=34784). The Stranger. . Retrieved September 28, 2007. [145] Judy Chia Hui Hsu (July 23, 2007). "Rains wash records away" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ localnews/ 2003801605_rain23m. html). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved October 9, 2007.


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Commonwealth of Virginia



Nickname(s): Old Dominion; Mother of Presidents Motto(s): Sic Semper Tyrannis (Latin) [1]

Official language(s) Spoken language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total

English English 94.6%, Spanish 5.9% Virginian Richmond Virginia Beach Northern Virginia Ranked 35th in the US 42,774.2 sq mi (110,785.67 km2) 200 miles (320 km) 430 miles (690 km) 7.4 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W Ranked 12th in the US 7,882,590 (2009 est.) [2]

- Width - Length - % water - Latitude - Longitude Population - Total


- Density

193/sq mi  (75/km2) Ranked 14th in the US $61,044 [3] (8th)

- Median income Elevation - Highest point

[4] Mount Rogers 5,729 ft  (1,747 m) 950 ft  (290 m) Atlantic Ocean 0 ft  (0 m) [4]

- Mean - Lowest point

Admission to Union Governor Lieutenant Governor Legislature - Upper house - Lower house U.S. Senators

June 25, 1788 (10th) Bob McDonnell (R) Bill Bolling (R) General Assembly Senate House of Delegates Jim Webb (D) Mark Warner (D) 6 Democrats, 5 Republicans (list) Eastern: UTC−5/−4 VA US-VA http:/ / www. virginia. gov

U.S. House delegation

Time zone Abbreviations Website

The Commonwealth of Virginia (/en-us-Virginia.oggvərˈdʒɪnjə/) is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" because it is the birthplace of eight U.S. presidents. The geography and climate of the state are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city and Fairfax County the most populous political subdivision. The state population is nearly eight million.[5] The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Land from displaced Native American tribes and slave labor each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the Thirteen Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was the Confederate capital and the state of West Virginia separated. Although traditionally conservative and historically part of the South, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.[6] The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest legislature in the Americas. The state government has been repeatedly ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States.[7] It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in places like the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the Department of Defense and CIA; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport. The growth of the media and technology sectors has made computer chips the state's leading export, with the industry based on the strength of Virginia's public schools and universities.[8] Virginia does not have a major professional sports franchise.



Virginia has a total area of 42774.2 square miles (110784.67 km2), including 3180.13 square miles (8236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.[9] Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Due to a peculiarity of Virginia's original charter, its boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. does not extend past the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River (unlike many boundaries that split a river down the middle).[10] The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.[11]

Geology and terrain
The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed following a meteoroid impact crater during the Eocene.[12] Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, James, and York, which create three peninsulas in the bay.[13] [14] Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau, also called the Appalachian Plateau.[15]

Virginia is divided into five geographic regions.

The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries which enter the Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic.[16] The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains.[17] The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the chain of Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5729 feet (1746 m).[18] The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains, and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based, and includes Massanutten Mountain.[19] The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the south-west corner of Virginia, below the Allegheny Plateau. In this region rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.[20] Because of the areas of carbonate rock, more than 4,000 caves exist in Virginia, with ten open for tourism.[22] The Virginia seismic zone has not had a history of regular activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 on the Richter magnitude scale because Virginia is located centrally on the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg.[23] Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 40 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins.[24] Besides coal, resources such as slate, kyanite, sand, and gravel are mined, with an annual value over $2 billion as of 2006.[25]

The climate of Virginia varies according to location, and becomes increasingly warmer and humid farther south and east.[26] Virginia experiences seasonal extremes, from average lows of 26 °F (−3 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by the Gulf Stream has a strong effect on the southeastern coastal areas

Deciduous and evergreen trees emit hydrocarbons which give the Blue Ridge Mountains their distinct [21] color.

Virginia of the state. It also creates the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.[27] Although Hurricane Camille devastated Nelson County in 1969, and Fran and Isabel caused flash flooding in the mountains in 1996 and 2003, hurricanes rarely threaten communities far inland.[26] [28] Thunderstorms are a regular occurrence, particularly in the western part of the state. Virginia has an annual average of 35−45 days of thunderstorm activity, and an average annual precipitation of 42.7 inches (1085 mm).[27] [29] Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter, can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996 and winter storms of 2009–2010. The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains.[30] Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, though most are F2 or lower on the Fujita scale.[31] In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.[32] In the American Lung Association's 2009 report, 15 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution.[33] [34] Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.[35]


Flora and fauna
Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees.[36] Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge.[26] However since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests.[37] Other common trees and plants include chestnut, maple, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found.[26] [38] Mammals include White-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia Opossum, gray fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit.[39] Birds include cardinals, barred owls, Carolina chickadees, Red-tailed Hawks, and Wild Turkeys. The Peregrine Falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park in the mid-1990s.[40] Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish.[41] Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by a plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders.[26] The Chesapeake Bay is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).[42]

White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, graze at Tanner Ridge in Shenandoah National Park

Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, the Shenandoah National Park.[43] Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park's area (79,579 acres/322 km2) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.[44] Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.[36] [45] The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina.[46]



Jamestown 2007 marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The far-reaching social changes of the mid- to late-20th century were expressed by broad-based celebrations marking contributions of three cultures to the state: Native American, European, and African.[47] [48] These three groups have each had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. Warfare has also had an important role, and Virginia has been a focus several conflicts from the American Revolution and the Civil War to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism.[49] Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.[50]


A 19th-century depiction of Pocahontas, of the Powhatan tribe, an ancestor of many of the First Families of Virginia

The first peoples are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago.[51] By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 CE. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.[52] Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 to 14,000.[53] In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to explore and plant a colony north of Spanish Florida.[54] In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America.[55] The name "Virginia" may have been suggested by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen", and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina".[56] Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda.[57] The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The Company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport.[58] In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as a British crown colony.[59] Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the "starving time" in 1609 and the Indian massacre of 1622, led by Opchanacanough.[60] By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived.[61] However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants.[62] African workers were first imported in 1619, and their slavery was codified after 1660. The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing Williamsburg was the capital from 1699 to 1780. colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to [63] Virginia. Tensions between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by when current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population.[64] Colonists appropriated land from Virginia Indians by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. Williamsburg became the colonial capital in 1699, following the founding of The College of William & Mary in

Virginia 1693.[65]


The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War (1754–1763) were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.[66] Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year.[67] After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.[68] Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.[69]

When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington, who had commanded Virginia's forces in the French and Indian War, was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's location would make it vulnerable to British attack.[70] In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781, led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.[71] Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.[69] Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though in 1846 the Virginian area was retroceded.[72] Virginia is sometimes called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into several mid-western states.[73]

1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765

Civil War and aftermath
In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries.[74] After the Revolutionary War, the free black population rose, creating thriving communities in Petersburg and Richmond. Numerous individual manumissions were inspired by Quaker abolitionists and the revolution's principles.[75] Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 showed deep social discontent about slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.[76] This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.

Richmond, the capital of the Confederate States of America, was burned prior to its capture by the Union.

Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose

Virginia Richmond as its capital.[73] After the 1863 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House.[77] After the capture of Richmond in 1865, the capital was briefly moved to Danville.[78] Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.[79] During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.[80] The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.[81] It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites.[82] Despite underfunding for segregated schools and services and a lack of political representation, African Americans still created vibrant communities and made progress.[83]


Modern times
Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". However in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" spearheaded by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the state prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving funding.[84]
The Virginia Civil Rights Memorial was erected

The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s and in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation. achieved the moral force to gain national legislation for protection of suffrage and civil rights for African Americans. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools.[85] In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.[86] New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.; their work led to the development of Colonial Williamsburg, the state's most popular tourism site.[87] World War II and the Cold War led to massive expansion of national government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth.[88] Among the federal developments was the Pentagon, which was later targeted in the September 11 attacks, during which 189 people died.[89]



Cities and towns
Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 39 independent cities, which both operate the same way since independent cities are considered to be county-equivalent.[90] This method of treating cities and counties equally is unique to Virginia, with only three other independent cities in the United States outside Virginia.[91] While incorporation as a city constitutes independence (since 1871), there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments but are part of a county, too. Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.

The population of the Hampton Roads area is over 1.6 million.

Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million.[92] As of 2008, Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.[93] Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk.[92] [94] Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1111 km2).[95] Fairfax County is the most populous division in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities.[96] Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market.[97] Neighboring Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in the United States and has the highest median household income ($107,207) as of 2007.[98] [99] Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.[100] The Roanoke area, with a population of 292,983, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.[101]

Historical populations
Census 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 Pop. 691737 807557 877683 938261 1044054 1025227 1119348 1219630 1225163 1512565 1655980 1854184 %± — 16.7% 8.7% 6.9% 11.3% −1.8% 9.2% 9.0% 0.5% 23.5% 9.5% 12.0%


1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2061612 2309187 2421851 2677773 3318680 3966949 4648494 5346818 6187358 7078515 11.2% 12.0% 4.9% 10.6% 23.9% 19.5% 17.2% 15.0% 15.7% 14.4% 11.4%

Est. 2009 7882590

As of 2008, Virginia had an estimated population of 7,769,089 which is an increase of 56,998, or about 1%, from the prior year and an increase of 690,574, or 9.8%, since the year 2000.[5] This includes an increase from net migration of 314,832 people into the Commonwealth. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people.[102] The center of population is located in Goochland County outside of Richmond.[103]

Virginia has metropolitan areas located throughout the state.

English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[104] English is the only language spoken by 6,245,517 (86.7%) Virginians, though it is spoken "very well" by an additional 570,638 (7.9%) for a total of 94.6% of the Commonwealth. Among speakers of other languages Spanish is the most common with 424,381 (5.9%). 226,911 (3.2%) speak Asian and Pacific Islander languages, including Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino.[105]

As of 2000, the five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.4%), English (11.1%), and Irish (9.8%).[106] Most Virginians who self-identify as having "American" ancestry are actually of predominantly English descent, but have ancestry that has been in North America for so long, in many cases since the early seventeenth century, that they choose to identify simply as "American".[107] [108]
[109] [110] [111]

Because of more recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century, there are growing populations of Hispanics, particularly Central Americans, and Asians. As of 2007, 6.6% of Virginians are Hispanic, 5.4% are Asian, and 0.9% are American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.[5] The Hispanic population of the state tripled from 1990 to 2006, with two-thirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia. Hispanics in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general United States or Virginia population.[112] Most African American Virginians are descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. These men, women and children were brought from west-central Africa, primarily from Angola and the Bight of Biafra. The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia.[113] [114] Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south.[115] The western mountains have many settlements founded by English and Scotch-Irish immigrants before the Revolution.[116] There are also sizable numbers of people of German

Virginia descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.[117] People of English heritage settled throughout the state during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated to the state for work.[118] Northern Virginia has some of the largest populations nationwide of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War, and Korean Americans, whose migration has been more recent and was induced in part by the quality school system.[119] [120] The Filipino American community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy and armed forces.[121] Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state, though all lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.[122]
Ethnicity (2008) White 72.4% Largest Ancestries by County Ancestry (2000) African American German American English [123] Irish 19.9%


Black or African American 20.5% Hispanic or Latino Asian American Indian and Alaska Native 6.6% 5.4% 0.8%

11.7% 11.4% 11.1% 9.8%

U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation. American Factfinder provides census data and maps.

Religion (2008) Christian Baptist Roman Catholic Methodist Lutheran Other Christian Buddhism Hinduism Judaism Islam Unaffiliated [124] 76% 27% 11%

8% 2% 28% 1% 1% 1% 0.5% 18%

Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008.[124] Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[125] [126] Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group, and the group which grew the most in the 1990s.[127] [128] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest.


295 The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church and the Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. Presbyterians, Pentecostals, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians each composed 1–3% of the population as of 2001.[129] The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches.

In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion George Washington and Robert E. Lee. through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claims the secessionist churches' properties. The resulting property law case is a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.[130] Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1.1% of the population, with 188 congregations in Virginia as of 2008.[131] Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[132] Muslims are a growing religious group throughout the state through immigration.[133] Megachurches in the state include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.[134] Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College.

Virginia's economy is balanced, with diverse sources of income, including government and military, farming, and business. Virginia has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector.[135] [136] The unemployment rate is 7.2% as of February 2010.[137] In 2009, Forbes Magazine named Virginia the best state in the nation for business for the fourth year in a row.[138] The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was $397 billion in 2008.[139] As of 2000, Virginia had the highest number of counties in the top 100 wealthiest jurisdictions in the United States based upon median income.[140] Virginia has 18 Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state tenth nationwide.[141]

Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach's economy.

Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state.[142] Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined.[8] Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, and consulting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor. Northern Virginia's data centers currently carry more than 50% of the nation's internet traffic, and by 2012 Dominion Power expects that 10% of all its electricity in Northern Virginia will be used by data centers.[143] Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Northern Virginia have the highest and second highest median household income, respectively, of all counties in the United States as of 2006.[144] Agriculture occupies 24% of the land in Virginia. As of 2007, about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres (0.27 sq mi; 0.69 km2), in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia.[145] Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable

Virginia crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.[146] Though its no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.[147] Eastern oyster harvests are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay economy, but declining oyster populations from disease, pollution, and overfishing have diminished catches.[148] Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attract tourists.[149] 10% of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia.[151] Virginia has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the state with around 900,000 jobs.[151] [152] Virginia has over 800,000 veterans, more than any other state, and is second to California in total Department of Defense employees.[153] [152] Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of The Department of Defense is headquartered at Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States The Pentagon in Arlington, the world's largest [150] Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. office building. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.[154] The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military bases and facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of the bases is Naval Station Norfolk.[94] Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 2.5% on most food.[155] Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.[156]


Virginia's historic culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South. Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States.[157] [158] The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.[159] The Piedmont region is one of the most famous for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.[160] [161]

Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style is reenacted in Williamsburg.

Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive, and sometimes troubled, past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture.[162] Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.[163] William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice.[164] Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons.[165] Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate, currently Claudia Emerson of Fredericksburg who will serve until 2010.[166]

Virginia Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state.[149] Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.[167] Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state.[117]


Fine and performing arts
Though rich in cultural heritage, Virginia ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average.[168] The state does fund institutions including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia. Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art.[169] Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the state, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields.[170] The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.[171]

The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts.

Theaters and venues in the state are found both in the cities and suburbs. Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.[172] The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is the official Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates around Hampton Roads.[173] Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton.[174] The Barter Theatre in Abingdon won the first ever Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There's also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.[175] Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors.[1] Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live.[176]

Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.[177] Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.[178] The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[179] Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer.[172]

The annual Chincoteague Pony Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague.

On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts. The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and

Virginia Richmond, respectively.[177]


The Hampton Roads area is the 42nd-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 60th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 68th.[180] There are 21 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers.[181] More than 800 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with over 300 such AM stations.[182] [183] The nationally USA Today, the nation's most circulated available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean. Arlington. The locally focused Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation, which produces MHz Networks, is a non-profit corporation which owns public TV and radio stations and has offices around the state.[184] The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are the Richmond Times-Dispatch, Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot, The Roanoke Times, and Newport News' Daily Press. As of 2008, the Pilot has a daily subscription of 174,573, slightly more than the Times-Dispatch at 160,886, 54th and 59th in the nation respectively, while the Roanoke Times has about 90,557 daily subscribers.[185] [186] Several Washington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and The Politico. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, is headquartered in McLean.[187] Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Sprint Nextel and XO Communications.

Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[189] The 2010 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country.[190] All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.[191] In 2008, 81% of high school students graduated on-time after four years.[192] Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%.[193]

The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas [188] Jefferson.

Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of April 2010, a total of 1,259,623 students were enrolled in 1,881 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including three charter schools, and an additional 109 alternative and special education centers across 132 school divisions.[194] [195] Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[196] The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 294 state accredited and 141 non-accredited private schools.[197] An additional 7,020 students receive homeschooling.[198] As of 2010, there are 167 colleges and universities in Virginia.[199] In the U.S. News and World Report ranking of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second and The College of William & Mary is sixth.[200] [201] Virginia

Virginia Commonwealth University is ranked the top public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University has been recognized as the top public master's program in The South since 1993.[202] [203] The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college and a top ranked public liberal arts college.[204] [205] George Mason University is the largest university in Virginia with over 32,000 students.[206] Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities. Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students.[207] There are 120 private institutions, including Washington and Lee University, Hampden–Sydney College, Roanoke College, and the University of Richmond.[199]


Virginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 21st overall healthiest state according to the 2009 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.[208] Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 7,104 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 6.7 deaths per 1,000.[209] There are however racial and social health disparities, with African Americans experiencing 27.9% more premature deaths than whites, while 13.6% of Virginians lack any health insurance.[208] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2007 survey, 25.3% of Virginians are obese and another 36.6% are overweight, and only 78.4% of residents exercise regularly.[210] [211] About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese.[212]

The A.D. Williams Clinic and West Hospital at VCU Medical Center in Richmond

There are 85 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.[213] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S.News & World Report.[214] Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.[215] [216] Virginia has a ratio of 124 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 13th highest nationally.[208] Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.[217] In 2010, Virginia enacted stringent limitations on the use of state funds to provide abortions or to support abortion clinics, except in cases of rape, incest, or in situations where the mother's health is in danger.[218] Although the General Assembly has failed to adopt bills that would require hospital-like regulation of clinics that perform first trimester abortions, Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli has issued an opinion letter empowering the Virginia Board of Health to conduct such regulation.[219]



Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local city or county authority as is usual in other states.[220] As of 2007, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57867 miles (93128 km) of the total 68428 miles (110124 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.[221] Virginia's road system is ranked as the 16th best in the nation.[222] While the Washington Metropolitan Area has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[223] [224] Virginia has both low disbursements for roads and bridges, and a low road fatality rate.[222]

The Virginia Railway Express runs commuter lines in Northern Virginia.

Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. The Washington Metro rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia as far west as Fairfax County, although expansion plans call for Metro to reach Loudoun County by 2016.[225] Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.[226] Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International, Reagan Washington National, Norfolk International, Richmond International, and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.[227] The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17726251 short tons (16080984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.[228] The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.[229] [230] Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.[231]

Law and government
In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.[232] The modern government is ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure. This is the second time Virginia received the highest grade in the nation, which it shares with two others.[7]
The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas

Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Jefferson and begun by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785, is home to the Virginia General Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a Assembly. unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. Incumbent

Virginia governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms.[233] The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the lower general district and circuit courts.[234] The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police are the oldest police department in the United States.[235] The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard.[236] Since the 1982 resumption of capital punishment in Virginia, 106 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation.[237] The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average.[238]


In the last century Virginia has shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided single-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization.[239] African Americans were effectively disfranchised until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[240] Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting.[241] Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics.[242] Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base.[243] [244] Democratic support also persists in union-influenced parts of Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.[245] Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats.[246] Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Robert McDonnell as governor by a 17 point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates.[247] State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.[248]

Jim Webb speaks at a Richmond rally with former Governors Mark Warner, Tim Kaine, and Douglas Wilder, future President Barack Obama, and others.

In federal elections since 2006, Democrats have seen more success. In the 2006 Senate election, Democrat Jim Webb won on a populist platform over the Republican incumbent following a very close race.[249] The party took both U.S. Senate seats after 2008, when former Governor Mark Warner replaced retiring Republican John Warner.[250] Of the state's 11 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, Democrats hold six and Republicans hold five. Virginia, which has 13 electoral votes, was won by Democrat Barack Obama in 2008, after being won by Republican candidates in the previous ten presidential elections.[251] Virginia may be considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections.[6]



Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.[253] The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state and the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C.[254] Virginia has several minor league clubs, especially in baseball and soccer. Additionally, the Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters and training facility, in Ashburn and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston.[255] Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Michelob ULTRA Open. NASCAR currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Current Virginia drivers in the series include Jeff Burton, Denny Hamlin, and Elliot Sadler.[256]

The Virginia Tech Hokies football team has the [252] third longest bowl game streak in the nation.

The Washington Nationals and Baltimore Orioles also have followings due to their proximity, and both are broadcast in the state on MASN.[257] When the New York Mets ended their long affiliation with the Norfolk Tides in 2007, the Orioles adopted the minor league club as their top level (AAA) minor league affiliate.[258] The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008.[259] Additionally, the Nationals, Orioles, Pittsburgh Pirates, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Chicago White Sox, and Atlanta Braves also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.[260] Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[261] Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Several other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.[262]

State symbols
The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.[1] The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always To Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first
The Virginia welcome sign at the Virginia welcome center on I-95 employs the state bird, the cardinal, and the state tree and flower, the dogwood.

Virginia used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[263] The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance.[15] Virginia currently has no state song. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.[264] Various alternatives, including a version of "Oh Shenandoah", have met with resistance in the Virginia House of Delegates.[265]
• • • • • Mammal: Virginia Big-Eared Bat Beverage: Milk Boat: Chesapeake Bay deadrise Bird: Cardinal Dance: Square dancing • • • • • Dog: American Foxhound Fish: Brook trout Flower/Tree: Dogwood Fossil: Chesapecten jeffersonius Insect: Tiger swallowtail • • • • • Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Nickname: The Old Dominion Shell: Eastern oyster Slogan: Virginia is for Lovers Tartan: Virginia Quadricentennial Tartan


See also
• Outline of Virginia • Index of Virginia-related articles

• Abrams, Ann Uhry (1999). The pilgrims and Pocahontas: rival myths of American origin [266]. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3497-7. • Accordino, John J. (2000). Captives of the Cold War Economy [267]. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-2759-6561-9. • Burnham, Bill; Burnham, Mary (2004). Hiking Virginia: A Guide to Virginia's Greatest Hiking Adventures [268]. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2747-0. • Carroll, Steven; Miller, Mark (2002). Wild Virginia: A Guide to Thirty Roadless Recreation Areas Including Shenandoah National Park [269]. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2315-7. • Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia [270]. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-5780-6706-5. • Conlin, Joseph R. (2009). The American Past: A Survey of American History [271]. Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-4955-6609-8. • Cooper, Jean L. (2007). A Guide to Historic Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia [272]. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 1-596-29173-7. • Dailey, Jane Elizabeth; Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth; Simon, Bryant (2000). Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights [273]. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-6910-0193-6. • Davis, David Brion (2006). Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1951-4073-7. • The Encyclopedia of Virginia. 1 (4 ed.). St. Clair Shores, MI: Somerset Publishers. 1999. ISBN 0-4030-9753-3. • Fischer, David Hackett; Kelly, James C. (2000). Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-1774-3. • Goodwin, Bill (2008). Frommer's Virginia [274]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-4701-7591-5. • Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power [275]. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-0600-9362-5. • Gray, Richard J.; Robinson, Owen (2004). A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South [276] . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-6312-2404-1. • Gutzman, Kevin R. C. (2007). Virginia's American Revolution: From Dominion to Republic, 1776–1840. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-2131-6. • Hashaw, Tim (2007). The Birth of Black America. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1718-1.

Virginia • Heinemann, Ronald L.; Kolp, John G.; Parent, Jr., Anthony S.; Shade, William G. (2007). Old Dominion, New Commonwealth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-2609-2. • Hoffer, Peter Charles (2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early America. Baltimore: JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-8483-7. • Howard, Blair; Burnham, Mary; Burnham, Bill (2006). The Virginia Handbook [277] (3 ed.). Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 1-5884-3512-1. • Hubbard, Jr., Bill (2009). American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey [278]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-2263-5591-8. • Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics [279]. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-2453-8. • McGraw, Eliza (June 24, 2005). Two Covenants: Representations of Southern Jewishness [280]. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-3043-5. • Miller, Kerby A.; Schrier, Arnold; Boling, Bruce D.; Doyle, David N. (2003). Irish immigrants in the land of Canaan [281]. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1950-4513-0. • Moran, Michael G. (2007). Inventing Virginia: Sir Walter Raleigh and the Rhetoric of Colonization, 1584–1590. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-8694-9. • Morgan, Lynda (1992). Emancipation in Virginia's Tobacco Belt, 1850–1870. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1415-3. • Morgan, Philip D. (1998). Slave Counterpoint. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4717-8. • Palmer, Tim (1998). America by Rivers [282]. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 1-5596-3264-X. • Pazzaglia, Frank James (2006). Excursions in Geology and History: Field Trips in the Middle Atlantic States [283] . Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. ISBN 0-8137-0008-6. • Olitzky, Kerry (1996). The American Synagogue: A Historical Dictionary and Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-3132-8856-9. • Scott, David L.; Scott, Kay W. (2004). Guide to the National Park Areas [284]. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2988-0. • Smith, Julian (2008). Moon Virginia: Including Washington, D.C. [285] (4 ed.). Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel. ISBN 1-5988-0011-6. • Robertson, James I. (1993). Civil War Virginia: Battleground for a Nation [286]. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-1457-4. • Stewart, George (2008). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-5901-7273-6. • Vollmann, William T. (2002). Argall: The True Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith [287]. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-1420-0150-3. • Wallenstein, Peter (2007). Cradle of America: Four Centuries of Virginia History [288]. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1507-0. • Williamson, CiCi (2008). The Best of Virginia Farms Cookbook and Tour Book [289]. Birmingham, AL: Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 0-8973-2657-1.




External links
General • Virginia [290] at the Open Directory Project • Encyclopedia Virginia [291] Government • • • • State Government website [292] Virginia General Assembly [293] Virginia's Judicial system [294] Constitution of Virginia [295] Virginia Tourism Website [296] Virginia State Parks [297] Virginia Main Street Communities Travel [298] WikiTravel guide [299]

Tourism and recreation • • • •

Culture and history • Virginia Historical Society [300] • Virginia's First People [301] • WPA Guide to the Old Dominion [302] Maps and Demographics • USGS geographic resources of Virginia [303] • Virginia State Climatology Office [304] • Virginia State Fact Sheet [305]

[1] "Factpack" (http:/ / legis. state. va. us/ 1_cap_class/ class_media/ 4_5_pdfs/ factpack-1. pdf) (PDF). Virginia General Assembly. January 11, 2007. . Retrieved October 14, 2008. [2] "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ popest/ states/ tables/ NST-EST2009-01. csv). United States Census Bureau. . Retrieved January 4, 2010. [3] "Median household income in the past 12 months (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars)" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ STTable?_bm=y& -geo_id=04000US51& -qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_S1901& -ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_). American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2007. . Retrieved September 2, 2008. [4] "Elevations and Distances in the United States" (http:/ / egsc. usgs. gov/ isb/ pubs/ booklets/ elvadist/ elvadist. html#Highest). U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. . Retrieved November 9, 2006. [5] "Virginia ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y& -geo_id=04000US51& -qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5& -ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_& -_lang=en). United States Census Bureau. 2008. . Retrieved October 31, 2009. [6] Balz, Dan (October 12, 2007). "Painting America Purple" (http:/ / blog. washingtonpost. com/ 44/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ the_purpling_of_america. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved November 24, 2007. [7] Somashekhar, Sandhya (March 4, 2008). "Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ story/ 2008/ 03/ 03/ ST2008030303550. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved March 11, 2008. [8] Richards, Gregory (February 24, 2007). "Computer chips now lead Virginia exports" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070310155937/ http:/ / content. hamptonroads. com/ story. cfm?story=120082& ran=25886). The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original (http:/ / content. hamptonroads. com/ story. cfm?story=120082& ran=25886) on 2007-03-10. . Retrieved September 29, 2008. [9] "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (http:/ / www. census. gov/ prod/ cen2000/ phc3-us-pt1. pdf) (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2004. p. 71. . Retrieved November 3, 2009. [10] "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in Potomac Conflict" (http:/ / nsglc. olemiss. edu/ SandBar/ SandBar2/ 2. 4supreme. htm). The Sea Grant Law Center. University of Mississippi. 2003. . Retrieved November 24, 2007. [11] Hubbard, Jr. 2009, p. 140 [12] "Fact Sheet 102-98 - The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level" (http:/ / pubs. usgs. gov/ fs/ fs102-98/ ). United States Geological Survey. November 18, 1998. . Retrieved August 24, 2009.

[13] Burnham & Burnham 2004, pp. 7, 56−57 [14] "Rivers and Watersheds" (http:/ / web. wm. edu/ geology/ virginia/ rivers/ rivers. html). The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 23, 2007. . Retrieved April 11, 2008. [15] The Encyclopedia of Virginia 1999, pp. 2–15 [16] Pazzaglia 2006, pp. 135−138 [17] "Virginia's Agricultural Resources" (http:/ / www. deq. state. va. us/ vanaturally/ guide/ agriculture. html). Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. . Retrieved February 8, 2008. [18] Burnham & Burnham 2004, p. 277 [19] "Physiographic Regions of Virginia" (http:/ / web. wm. edu/ geology/ virginia/ provinces/ phys_regions. html). The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 16, 2007. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. [20] Palmer 1998, pp. 49−51 [21] Heinemann et al. 2007, p. 3 [22] "Caves" (http:/ / www. dmme. virginia. gov/ DMR3/ dmrpdfs/ CAVES. pdf) (PDF). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. July 2008. . Retrieved August 24, 2009. [23] "Largest Earthquake in Virginia" (http:/ / earthquake. usgs. gov/ regional/ states/ events/ 1897_05_31. php). United States Geological Survey. January 25, 2008. . Retrieved April 12, 2008. [24] "Coal" (http:/ / www. dmme. virginia. gov/ DMR3/ coal. shtml). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy. 2006. . Retrieved August 24, 2009. [25] "About DMME" (http:/ / www. dmme. virginia. gov/ aboutus. shtml). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. 2006. . Retrieved September 11, 2009. [26] Burnham & Burnham 2004, pp. 1−3 [27] Hayden, Bruce P.; Michaels, Patrick J. (January 20, 2000). "Virginia's Climate" (http:/ / climate. virginia. edu/ description. htm). Department of Environmental Sciences. University of Virginia. . Retrieved October 20, 2008. [28] "Crews Fight to Restore Power After Isabel" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,97848,00. html). Associated Press. Fox News. September 21, 2003. . Retrieved January 23, 2009. [29] "Natural Hazards : Thunderstorms" (http:/ / www. vdem. state. va. us/ business/ hazthreats/ natural/ thunderstorms/ index. cfm). Virginia Business Emergency Survival Toolkit. 2007. . Retrieved November 29, 2007. [30] "The Natural Communities of Virginia" (http:/ / www. dcr. virginia. gov/ natural_heritage/ ncoverview. shtml). Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2006. . Retrieved April 12, 2008. [31] Ricketts, Lauryn (February 7, 2008). "Tornadoes DO happen in Virginia!" (http:/ / www. tv3winchester. com/ blogs/ laurynrickettsblog/ 15421801. html). TV3 Winchester. . Retrieved February 13, 2009. [32] "Advisory 01/07: The Hot Get Hotter? Urban Warming and Air Quality" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20020922182906/ http:/ / climate. virginia. edu/ advisory/ 2001/ ad01-07. htm). University of Virginia Climatology Office. Archived from the original (http:/ / climate. virginia. edu/ advisory/ 2001/ ad01-07. htm) on 2002-09-22. . Retrieved July 30, 2007. [33] "Virginia" (http:/ / www. stateoftheair. org/ 2009/ states/ virginia/ ). State of the Air: 2009. American Lung Association. April 29, 2009. . Retrieved April 29, 2009. [34] "Fairfax County Residents Can Play Their Part to Reduce Air Pollution" (http:/ / www. fairfaxcounty. gov/ news/ 2004/ 04145. htm). Fairfax County, Virginia. May 26, 2004. . Retrieved September 29, 2008. [35] Fahrenthold, David A. (June 25, 2008). "Debating Coal's Cost in Rural Va." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ story/ 2008/ 06/ 25/ ST2008062500042. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved November 15, 2008. [36] "Virginia's Forest Resources" (http:/ / www. deq. virginia. gov/ vanaturally/ guide/ forests. html). Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. . Retrieved February 8, 2008. [37] "Shenandoah National Park — Forests" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ shen/ naturescience/ forests. htm). National Park Service. July 25, 2006. . Retrieved September 10, 2007. [38] Carroll & Miller 2002, pp. xi−xii [39] "Species Information: Mammals" (http:/ / www. dgif. virginia. gov/ wildlife/ information/ ?t=2). Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. . Retrieved November 15, 2008. [40] "Shenandoah National Park — Birds" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ shen/ naturescience/ birds. htm). National Park Service. July 25, 2006. . Retrieved September 1, 2007. [41] "Virginia Fishes" (http:/ / www. dgif. virginia. gov/ wildlife/ fish/ ). Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. . Retrieved November 15, 2008. [42] "Bay Biology" (http:/ / www. chesapeakebay. net/ info/ baybio1. cfm). Chesapeake Bay Program. January 5, 2006. . Retrieved February 4, 2008. [43] "Virginia" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ state/ VA/ ). National Park Service. 2008. . Retrieved November 29, 2008. 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Literary Topics
Academic writing
In academia, writing and publishing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres. This is a list of genres of academic writing. It is a short summary of the full spectrum of critical & academic writing. It does not cover the variety of critical approaches that can be applied when writing about a subject. Writing in these forms or styles is usually serious, intended for a critical and informed audience, based on closely-investigated knowledge, and posits ideas or arguments. It usually circulates within the academic world ('the academy'), but the academic writer may also find an audience outside via journalism, speeches, pamphlets, etc. Typically scholarly writing has an objective stance, clearly states the significance of the topic, and is organized with adequate detail so that other scholars could try to reproduce the results. Strong papers are not overly general and correctly utilize formal academic rhetoric.

Standard forms
• • • • • • • • • • • • Abstract. Book, in many types and varieties. Book chapter. Book report. Conference paper. Dissertation; usually between 6,000 and 20,000 words in length. Essay; usually short, between 1,500 and 6,000 words in length. Explication; usually a short factual note explaining some obscure part of a particular work; e.g. its terminology, dialect, allusions or coded references. Research Article. Research Paper; longer essay involving library research, 3000 to 6000 words in length. Thesis; completed over a number of years, often in excess of 20,000 words in length. Translation.

For students
• Exam questions & Essay titles; the formulating of these. • Instructional pamphlet, or hand-out, or reading list; usually meant for students. • Presentations; usually short, often illustrated.

Summaries of knowledge
• Annotated bibliography. • Annotated catalogue, often of an individual or group's papers and/or library. • Creating a simplified graphical representation of knowledge; e.g. a map, or refining a display generated from a database. There will often be a 'key' or written work incorporated with the final work. • Creating a timeline or chronological plan. There will often be a 'key' or written work incorporated with the final work. • Devising a classification scheme; e.g. for animals, or newly arisen sub-cultures, or a radically new style of design.

Academic writing • • • • Encyclopedia entry. Journal article (e.g. History Today); usually presenting a digest of recent research. Literature review; a summary and careful comparison of previous academic work published on a specific topic. Site description and plan (e.g. in archeology).


Collating the work of others
• Anthology; collection, collation, ordering and editing of the work of others. • Catalogue raisonné; the definitive collection of the work of a single artist, in book form. • Collected works; often referred to as the 'critical edition'. The definitive collection of the work of a single writer or poet, in book form, carefully purged of publishers errors and later forgeries, etc. • Monograph or exhibition catalog; usually containing exemplary works, and a scholarly essay. Sometime contains new work by a creative writer, responding to the work. • Transcribing, selecting and ordering oral testimony (e.g. oral history recordings).

Research & planning
• Experiment plan. • • • • Raw data collection plan. Research plan (sometimes called desk-based research). Structured notes. should never be cited as support or authority in any academic or scholarly writing. There is always a more appropriate source that can be found and utilized.

Disseminating knowledge outside the academy
• • • • • • • • call for papers. Documentary film script or TV script or radio script. Obituary. Opinion; an academic may sometimes be asked to give an expert written opinion, for use in a legal case before a court of law. Polemical newspaper opinion article. Public speech or lecture. Review of a book, film, exhibition, event, etc. Think-tank pamphlet, position paper, or briefing paper.

Technical or administrative forms
• • • • • Brief; short summary, often instructions for a commissioned work. Peer review report. Proofreading and correction. Proposal. White paper; detailed technical specifications and/or performance report.

Academic writing


Personal forms
These are acceptable to some academic disciplines, e.g. Cultural studies, Fine art, Feminist studies, Queer theory, Literary studies. • • • • • • • Artist's book or Chapbook. Autobiography. Belles-lettres; stylish or aesthetic writing on serious subjects, often with reference to one's personal experience. Commonplace book. Diary or Weblog. Memoire; usually a short work, giving one's own memories of a famous person or event. Notebooks.

Newer forms
• Collaborative writing, especia