ROTATION PROGRAMME

Under this the students are introduced to the company by putting them under a rotation program to various departments. The several departments where I had gone under my rotational program is as follows:

1) TEST EQUIPMENT & AUTOMATION 2) P.C.B FABRICATION 3) QUALITY CONTROL (WORKS) 4) WORKS ASSEMBLY 5) MAGNETICS 6) MICROWAVE LAB 7) ENVIRONMENTAL LAB 8) P&S ELECTRICAL 9) MANAGEMENT SERVICES

During the rotation period of three weeks I had to go to various departments, listed above to get some introduction about the work that is being done in that particular department. The co-operative staff at various department made the learning process very interesting, who allowed me to know more about the company in a very short time. The various departments are now given in detail.

TEST EQUIPMENT & AUTOMATION
This department deals with the various instruments used at BEL. There are three hundred equipments and they are of sixteen types. Examples of some test equipment are: • • • • • • Oscilloscope (C.R.O) Multimeter Signal Analyzer Logical Pulsar Counters Function Generator etc.

Mainly the calibration of instruments is carried out here; they are compared with the standard of National Physical Laboratory (NPL). So it is said to be one set up down to NPL. As every instrument has a calibration period after which the accuracy of the instrument falls from the required standards. So if any of the instruments is not working properly, it is being sent here for its correct calibration. To calibrate instrument software techniques are used which includes the program written in any suitable programming language. So it’s not the calibration but the programming takes that time. For an industry to gets it’s instrument calibrated by NPL is very costly, so it is the basic need for every industry to have it’s own calibration unit if it can afford it. Moreover those who have this unit can make memory by providing their standards to others. Test equipment and automation laboratory mainly deals with the equipment that is used for testing and calibration. Examples of some test equipment are: • • • • • Oscilloscope Multimeter Signal Analyzer Logical Pulsar Counters etc.

WS = Workmanship & PS = Process Standard After the inspection of cables.K. which are followed by BEL are: • • • • • • WS 102 WS 104 PS 520 PS 809 PS 811 PS 369 Where. model and type. The national physical laboratory (NPL) New Delhi provides the standard values yearly.Alignment Problem . Perfect --.Cannot be used.Wrong Component / Polarity D --. • • • • • • • A --. After testing. It is done with the help of standard equipment should be of some make. A Calibration is basically testing of equipment with a standard one.Bad Workmanship/ Finish F --.Satisfactory but some trouble is present --. BEL follows International Standard Organization (ISO) standard.Wrong Component / Mounting E --.Physical and Mechanical defects. • RED The standard for QC. The test equipment is calibrated either half yearly or yearly. should be disposed off. • • GREEN YELLOW ---O. B --. different tags are labeled on the equipment according to the observations.Bad Soldering G --.Wrong Writing C --.This section calibrates and maintains the measuring instrument mainly used for Defense purpose. PCB’s and other things the defect found are given in following codes.

Design & Development After finding the defect. .• • • H --.Stenciling I J --. the equipment is sent to responsible department which is rectified there.Others (Specify) --.

B.B.C.C. Board having circuit pattern on both sides. DOUBLE SIDED P. They have revolutionized the field of electronics as the electronic goods are getting reduced in size and also their life and reliability are increasing.B’s can be categorized in three forms viz. which were connected to each other by means of wire. Generally the P.) INTRODUCTION As the name suggests.C. Earlier the designed circuit was made with the components.C. Here the surface or the board is a glass epoxy sheet with copper coating on either both sides or on one side only.C. This made the circuit neat. It was very difficult to track any connection by simply looking at it and doing a repairing job was a hard and tedious process.C. In some cases we use Teflon sheets also. printed circuit board refers to a board on which a circuit is imprinted.: SINGLE SIDED P.B. simpler and free from zigzag network of wires.B’s large circuits can be realized on a small piece of board. it can be any hard surface (non conducting) with copper coating. This was made easy by the arrival of P. This created a lot of confusion and difficulty in case there were any repairs or rework to be done.C. Board having many layers of circuits. The board material is not restricted to glass epoxy only.B.’s as they had the entire circuit printed on them. The circuit appears as copper tracks on non-conducting surface. easily understandable. . With the use of P.PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (P. MULTI LAYERED P.B. Board having circuit pattern on one side.

After a mistake is detected. Inspection mistakes The process card is attached to each PCB under inspection. The fabrication department checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made according to the part drawing. department.QUALITY CONTROL (WORKS ASSEMBLY) According to some laid down standards. Similarly Q. following action are taken: 1) Observation is made 2) Object code is given 3) Division code is given 4) Change code is prepared 5) Recommended action is taken. work department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. . D & E mistakes 2. The raw materials and components etc. The assembly inspection department inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB.C. racks and shelters as per latest documents and bel standards. cable form. plating and stenciling etc are done as per BEL standards. The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as1.G. purchased are inspected according to the specifications by I. Shop mistakes 3. painting. cable assembling. Any error in the PC is entered in the process card by certain code specified for each error or defect. the quality control department ensures the quality of product. modules.

Preparation of general assembly. 2.g. Writing list of all components.g. Schematic diagram to depict all connect to be made and brief idea about all components. equipments and instruments in a particular procedure. MFC o o o EMCCA: EQUIPMENT MODULAR FOR COMMAND APPLICATION MSSR: MONOPLSE SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR MFC: MULTIFUNCTIONAL CONSOLE CONTROL The stepwise process followed by work assembly department is: 1. 4. MSSR. Preparation of part list that is to be assembled. REPORTER WORK ASSEMBLY COMMUNICATION e. It has been broadly classified as: • • WORK ASSEMBLY RADAR e. The documents issued to the assembly are: KS: PL: CL: WL: WD: GA: SD: Key Sheet Parts List Connection List for cable form Wiring List for modules Wiring Diagram General Assembly Diagram Schematic Diagram . 3.WORKS ASSEMBLY This department plays an important role in the production. Its main function is to assemble various components.:INDRA-2.: EMCCA. In work assembly following things are done. 5.

Bending Preparation is done by getting the entire documents. Wave Soldering These are done in a machine and solder sticks on the entire path. 2. part list drawing and bringing all the components before doing the work. Conveyor Fluxer Heater Flux Cleaner . The wire coming out from the component is of copper and it is tinned nicely by applying flux on it is so that it does not tarnished and seventh soldering becomes easy. one of the wires of the components is soldered so that they don’t move from their respective places on the PCB plate. which are tinned. Mounting It means soldering the components of the PCB plate with the help of soldering tools. 3. Tinning The resistors. capacitors and other components are tinned with the help of tinned lead solution. 4.Material receive Preparation This is done before mounting and undertakes two procedures. The soldering irons are generally of 25 W and are of variable temperature. On the other hand of the component is also adjusted so that the PCB does not burn. Wave soldering machine consists of following parts 1.

which are not variable. Lacquering Lacquering is only done on the components. Inspection This comes under quality work. Heat ageing This is done in environment lab at temperature of 40 degree Celsius for 4 hrs and three cycles.Touch up This is done by hand after the finishing is done. .

types of winding.1 to 0. Oil cooling types transformer 3. Torroidal-winding . Moldings section 4. ac/dc impedance. dielectric strength. Moulding type transformer 4. This department basically consists of four sections: 1. numbers of turns /layers. The various types of transformer being made are: 1. Planning section 2. LC control machine 3. Heavier one – DNR for 0. gapes in core. Hand-winding 2. 2. Inspection The D & E department gives the following description – numbers of layers. Mechanical assembly section 3. Torroidal machines having 32 operations from winding to mechanical assembly.MAGNETICS This department is making all types of transformers and coils that are used in various equipments. The various types of windings used are: 1. Winding machines are of three types: 1. PCB moulding type transformer The transformer is mechanically assembled. insulation between layers. Open type transformer 2. electrical parameters and earthing. leads are taken out and checking of specification is done.4 mm diameter.

A RDB compound is used for leakage production. than cooled. Painting 9. Formers of glass – expoxy 2. E-type for 3-phase 2. the following characteristics are checked: • Turn ratio DC resistance ofor each coil Inductance No load voltage Leakage • • • • . After this the cols are dipped in varnish and core is attached. Moulding is done at 120 degrees centigrade for twelve hours. Moulding-araldite mixed with black dye is used to increase mechanical as well as electrical strength. Wave winding Two types of cores used are: 1. Variable winding 6. Varnishing 5.3. Pitch-winding 5. During inspection. Then air is blown to remove the humidity. Impregnation. C-type for signal phase Various procedures involved in the manufacture of transformers are. reheated and put into vacuum.Testing: dielectric testing is done at 50 kv voltage applied for a minimum of one minute. 7.various varnished coils are heated. Core winding 4. Mechanical assembly 10. Oil is boiled at 70 to 80 degrees under vacuum conditions to remove air bubbles. Sector-winding 4.Termination 11. Winding 3. 6. 1. 8.

bending loss. A good waveguide should have fewer losses and its walls should be perfect conductors. bonding and testing. . These waveguides can be used to transmit TE mode or TM mode.MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Frequencies greater than 1 GHz are termed as Microwaves. analyses are used. phase shifters. Various losses such as return loss. Manufacturing of films and microwave components to meet internal requirements. In rectangular waveguides the distortion is minimum. 2 crore. Phase and magnitude measurements are done in this section. When in full operation this facility will be the main center for the MIC requirements of all the units of the company. assembly of miniaturized components on substrates. Insertion loss are measured and testing is done in a way to minimize these losses. synthesis etc. For this state of the network. circular waveguides. The testing of microwave components is done with the help of various radio and communication devices. involve scalar as well as vector measurements. MICROWAVE LAB This section undertakes: 1. Waveguides. BEL is currently setting up a modern MIC manufacturing facility at a planned expenditure of Rs. Power measurements are done for microwave components because current and voltage are very high at such frequencies. Different type of waveguides is tested in this department like rectangular waveguides. low noise amplifiers. This depends on the user’s requirements. Owing to the crucial and building block nature of the technology involved. Directional couplers. Testing of these microwave components viz. Circular waveguides are used where the antenna is rotating. Microwave Integrated Circuit used extensively in production of subsystems for Radar and Communication equipment constitutes a very important part of technology for these systems are generally imported. The manufacturing facility of hybrid microwave components available at BEL Ghaziabad includes facility for preparation of substrates.

g. waveguides etc. Testing of low power antenna for which test-site is about 100 Km from the factory at sohna The main component testing in this department is: • • • • • • Oscillators Amplifiers Mixers Radiation elements (e. circulators. LPF. 3. Uniplexers. Filters Isolators Reflectors Network Analyzers Spectrum Analyzers Amplifiers and Accessories • • • • • Adaptor Attenuator Coupler Mixer Detector Parameters of component that are being checked are listed below: • • • • • Frequency response Noise figure VSWR Directivity and coupling Power measurements . Feeders) Microwave components (e. 5. Isolators.) The instruments used for this purpose are as follows: 1. 6. and Multiplexers etc.g. 4. 2.g.2.) Filters (e. BPF.

e. The standards available here are: • • • JSS55555. There are three types of tests: - Class A Test: All types of regular production go through these tests i. 100% production goes through class A test. ACCEPTANCE TEST PROCEDURE (ATP) This sets on the extent to which a test is to be conducted and also decides what tests should be conducted. In a given reliability is given as R= R1 * R2 * R3……….ENVIRONMENTAL LAB Various tests are conducted in the environmental lab in BEL in order to ensure reliability. If these tests are successful then the mass production is taken up. .Joint services specifications (Military Standard of India) MII Standards – U.S Military standers QM333 – Civil Aviation and police FIRST ARTICELS TEST (FAT) The tests are performed on the prototype. Reliability is defined as the probability of a device performing its purpose adequately for the period intended under the given operating condition.

Rain Test 9. They include quality control. Only 10%of the equipment goes through these tests. Salt Spray Test 7. it depends upon the customer that which test is to be performed from the following tests under the above categories: 1. Bump / Vibrations Test 6. if any failure is seen . Tropical Exposure Test 8. Class C Test: These tests are carried out on only 1%of the components. Humidity Test 10. Thermal Shock 2. This test comes in picture only for the good bulk in production only. Low Temperature Operate and Storage 4. These tests are carried out according to the customers requirements i. Shock Test 13. Transportation Test 12. High Temperature Operate and Storage 3.the component must be re designed .also the customer must be supplied with modified goods. All the environmental tests are carried.e. electrical tests and some environmental tests. Burn in Test .Class B Test: These are quality assurance and reliability tests. Altitude Test 5. Dust Test 11.

y. High Temperature Operate and Storage The instrument is kept at 50 degree C for 50 hours and is kept ON. The equipment is kept for 1 hr. Then instrument is kept at –40 degree C and 5000 ft. With a disp. This is repeated for 6 cycles and instrument suffers a temperature change of 110 degree C.VARIOUS TESTS IN DETAIL: Thermal Shock Test There are two chambers. Bump / Vibrations Test In bump test instrument is given 300 bumps of height 1 inch. It is then kept at 70 degree C in OFF state. in each direction. in cold chamber and is immediately transferred to hot chamber where it is kept for 1 hr. of air pressure for 16 hours (OFF). of + 6 mm and acceleration of 1. Vibration test includes vibrations in x. It is then kept at –40 degree C in OFF state for 16 hrs. which are at temperature of –40 degree C and +70 degree C. It is done for 2 hrs. . Low Temperature Operate and Storage The instrument is kept at 0 degree C for 15 hours in OFF state and operated for the next 1 hr. Altitude Test The instrument is kept at 0 degree C and 10000 ft. of air pressure for 15+1 hours (OFF + ON). z directions of frequency 5 to 500 Hz.5 – 2g.

14. Dust Test The instrument is placed in a dust chamber for 2 hrs. which is made to run 40 kms. Tropical Exposure Test The instrument is kept at 25 degree C and 95% humidity and then this condition is changed to 35 degree C and 95% humidity in 3 hrs. Rain Test The instrument is placed in artificial rain for 10 hours and its performance is checked. And performance is checked in last 1 hr.Salt Spray Test The instrument is placed in salt spray chamber for two days. and then again changed to 25 degree C and 95% humidity in 3 hours where it is kept for 6 hrs. The solution to be sprayed is 5% salt solution. 28. . at a speed of 15 km/hr. In some cases 20% salt solution is also made. 56 times. Humidity Test The instrument is kept in a chamber having 95% humidity for 15 + 1 hrs. This cycle can be repeated for 7. on rough road . on plane road with no fixed speed.Then vehicle is run for 400 kms. (OFF+ON). Transportation Test The instrument is kept in a vehicle. This condition is kept for 12 hrs.

Burn in Test The instrument is turned ON for 100 hours and tested for performance every 24 hours with everything turned ON. This test is rarely performed. .Shock Test The instrument dropped from a height of 3 ft.

P & S (ELECTRICAL) The main task of this department is to supply power to the all production units. The transformers being used at various sub stations are of rating 1600 KVA. These generators are airstarting type and consume 400 Liters/Hr. and some other important sections. which can supply the power to production divisions only. These are of capacity 860 kV and each generator generates 400 V at 50Hz. This department is arranged into one main station and five sub stations at different locations in the company. There are five sub stations at BEL. At the main station the power is stepped down to 11 kV using 33/11 KV step down transformer. which receive the power from main station at 11kV and stepped down to 433 V for the use of various machines in the factory. The main station is provided air circuit breakers (ACB). oil circuit breaker (OCB). it is operated in case when first transformer does not work properly. In case of power failure there are two generators. These sub stations provide power to different divisions of the factory. There are two transformers at the main station. This voltage is stepped up by a transformer to 11KV and supplied to the sub stations. .e. The power is received from the Uttar Pradesh Vidyut Board through 33 kV power line at the main station. Each generator is having 6 cylinders. administrative block and other parts of the factory. Like the main station these stations are also provided with OCB’s etc. of diesel each. These generators are imported from Czechoslovakia and are of Ascorda make. Out of these two only one is used at a time and second one is standby transformer i.

Management services include safety. Deptt. Deals with management service in BEL Kotdwar. planning etc.MANAGEMENT SERVICES Industrial Engg. • acilities and technology development • afety Department S F I P Activities of Planning and MIS • reparation of different plans. L S M W M P . Management Services in BEL KOTDWAR • lanning and MIS • ndustrial Engg. • IS reports / presentation • ork orders • anufacturing cost estimates • ub contract rate fixing • ayout planning.

• hop order accounting.Activities of Industrial Engg. • achine utilization reports. • apacity assignment / Load balance charts. • DLE time reports. • rganizational charts. • uggestion scheme S C M O P I S I M L W Activities of Facility and Technologies Development • reparation of capital budget. • TT / OTC booking. • ork-study. • ncentive scheme. • roductivity measurement and monitoring. • anpower records. P .

bulletin. competitions) Safety incentive scheme Development of safety stewards Plant safety inspection Safety committees Assessment / Procurements of personal safety equipments. Implanting safety training. • o hold machinery committee meeting • o keep record of existing facilities • o update and advise management for technological advances I T T T Activities of Safety Department • • • • • • • Safety propagation (Posters. .• mplementation of capital budget for current year. slogans.

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