Earth: Our Home 3

Full Geography

Chapter 3 Plate Tectonics

1

You Will Learn«

‡ to describe the distribution of plates ‡ to explain the movement of plates ‡ to describe the different plate movements encountered at the various plate boundaries

2

Let¶s think«

3

How Was the Earth Created?

The BIG Bang?

4

How Old is the Earth?
Certainly not 2006 years old! 2 million?

3 billion? Approximately 4.6 billion years old!
5

What Pieces of Evidence Can Help Us Determine the Age of the Earth?
Fossils Glaciers Rocks
6

The Isua Rocks
± Oldest volcanic rock formed from metasomatism ± Found in Quebec, Canada ± Between 3.7 to 3.8 billion years

7

How Was Such Beauty Created?

8

How Do We Explain Such Forces?

9

Structure of the Earth
‡ Core ‡ Mantle ‡ Crust

10

Spot the Similarities!

11

Layer

Thickness

Temperature

Composition

Inner Core

1 370 km 3 000±5 000ºC

Mostly iron and nickel in SOLID form Mostly iron and nickel in MOLTEN form

Outer Core

2 100 km

Core
12

Mantle
Layer Thickness Temperature Composition

Upper Mantle 2 900 km Lower Mantle

Magma in SOLID and 1 400±3 000ºC MOLTEN form SOLID ROCK
13

Crust
Layer Thickness Temperature Composition

Continental 10±70 km Crust Oceanic Crust 5±10 km

-14±1 200ºC

Less dense minerals e.g. aluminium Denser minerals e.g. magnesium

14

Crust

Oceanic crust

Continental crust

15

Tectonic Plates

16

Wegner¶s Theory on Pangea

Hmm«Why do the continents seem to fit together like a jigsaw puzzle??!
17

Continental Drift Theory

Source : Wikipedia
18

Plate Tectonic Theory

19

TECTONIC PLATES Continental Plates ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ North American South American African Eurasian Indo-Australian Plate Antarctic ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Oceanic Plates Nazca Pacific Philippine Cocos Caribbean Scotia

20

How Else Can the Plates be Categorised?

21

TECTONIC PLATES Major Plates ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ North American South American African Eurasian Indo-Australian Plate Antarctic ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Minor Plates Nazca Pacific Philippine Cocos Caribbean Scotia

22

Any Guess of How and Why They Are Constantly Moving?

23

Convection Currents

Water cools

Cooled water sinks

Hot water rises

Cooled water sinks

24

Types of Plate Boundaries
‡ Divergent ‡ Convergent ‡ Transform

25

Divergent Oceanic-oceanic
plate divergence

Convergent Oceanic-oceanic
convergence

Transform Transform fault

Continentalcontinental
plate divergence

Continentalcontinental
convergence

Oceaniccontinental
convergence

26

Divergent Boundaries

Pulling apart of two plates
27

Divergent Boundaries

Existing opening is widened
28

Divergent Boundaries

A ridge is formed as a result
29

Oceanic-oceanic Plate Divergence

30

Oceanic-oceanic Plate Divergence
Younger rocks

Older rocks Mid-oceanic ridge Oceanic crust Fracture

Rising magma

Oceanic crust

Mid-Oceanic Ridge
31

Continental-continental Plate Divergence
East African Rift Valley

Continental crust

Continental crust

32

Continental-continental Plate Divergence

33

Convergent Boundaries

Two plates moving towards each other
34

Convergent Boundaries

Gradual movement in the same direction«
35

Convergent Boundaries

«eventually leads to potential collision over time
36

Convergent Boundaries

Often leads to subduction of denser plate
37

Convergent Boundaries

Often leads to subduction of denser plate, and the uplifting of the lighter plate
38

Convergent Boundaries ² Oceanic-continental convergence
Oceanic trench Fold mountains and volcanoes Oceanic crust Subduction zone

Continental crust

Part of the plate melts

Magma

39

Convergent Boundaries ² Oceanic-oceanic convergence
Volcanic islands Oceanic trench

Undersea volcano Less dense oceanic crust Denser oceanic crust Subduction zone Mantle

40

Convergent Boundaries ² Continental-continental convergence
Fold mountains Bending and folding of crust

Less dense continental crust

Denser continental crust Mantle

41

Transform Boundaries

Two plates in sliding movement
42

Transform Boundaries

Two plates in sliding movement
43

Transform Boundaries

Two plates in sliding movement will lead to fault lines

44

Transform Boundaries
Transform fault

Crust

Mantle

45

Summary of Plate Movements
Oceanic crust Sea Sea Continental crust May be oceanic or continental crusts Fold mountain

Oceanic crusts

Continental crusts Sea Continental crusts Oceanic crusts

Volcanic island

Transform Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Convergent Boundaries 46

Quick Quiz
With an understanding of the Continental Drift Theory, imagine what the Earth will look like in one million years¶ from now. Explain your answer using a diagram.