UFC 3-320-01A 1 March 2005

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

WELDING – DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

UFC 3-320-01A 1 March 2005

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) WELDING – DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright holder.

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity) NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/) Change No. Date Location

This UFC supersedes TI 809-26, dated 1 March 2000. The format of this UFC does not conform to UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision. The body of this UFC is the previous TI 809-26, dated 1 March 2000.

1

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

Technical Instructions

Welding Design Procedures And Inspections

Headquarters US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs Washington, DC 20314-1000

CEMP-E

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS

WELDING - DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS

Any copyrighted material included in this document is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this document must have the permission of the copyright holder.

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Record of Changes (changes indicated \1\.../1/) No. Date Location

This Technical Instruction supersedes TM 5-805-7, Welding Design, Procedures and Inspection dated 20 May 1985

CEMP-E
WELDING - DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Table of Contents

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

Page CHAPTER 1. GENERAL Paragraph 1. 2. 3. 2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1

CHAPTER 2. APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Paragraph 1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. Specification Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. Specification Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. New Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 d. Preferred Design Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 e. Standards Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 d. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings . . . . . . . . 2-2 e. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 f. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 g. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other than Buildings 2-2 3. AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 a. Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 b. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 c. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings - Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 d. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 e. Code of Standard Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 f. Manual of Steel Construction, LRFD, Metric Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 g. Manual of Steel Construction, LRFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 h. Manual of Steel Construction, ASD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 4. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 a. D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 b. D1.3 Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 c. D1.4 Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 d. A2.4 Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and Nondestructive Testing 2-4 e. A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 5. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxyfuel Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 2-5 . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 CHAPTER 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-8 . . . a. . . . FEMA 267 & 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . d. . d. General . . . . . . . Plasma Arc Cutting . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 267 Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Prequalified Applications . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications . . . Cambering Procedure . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Composition . . Matching Filler Metals for Non-qualified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Quality . . . . . . . . .Weld Heat-Affected Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURAL STEELS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Finishing . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . .Interim Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unlisted Steels . . . 5. . . . . . . Cooling Rate Control . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . .Heating and Thermal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES . . . . a. . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 CHAPTER 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle . . . . 2-5 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . a. . . . . b. . . AWS Prequalified Steels . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . e. . . Project Specifications . . . . . . . . Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures . . . . . AWS Approved Steels . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . a. . . c. . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . THERMAL CUTTING . . . . . . . . . . .Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . Interpass Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . Postheat (PWHT) . . .

. . . . Availability of Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine Grain Practice . . . Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 4. . . . . . . . . . 4-12 d. . . . . . . . . . Killed Steel . . 5-6 f. . . . . . 5-6 i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . 5-13 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 g. . . Latest Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS . . . Backing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved Through-thickness Properties . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 f. . . . . . . . . 4-13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 c. . . . . High-seismic Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Design Aids . . . . . . . . Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Applications . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths . . . . . . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Fillet Weld Size . . . . 5-3 3. . . . . . . 5-1 b. . . 5-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Tabs . . . . 5-2 d. . . . . . Welding Sequence and Distortion Control . Toughness . . . . . . 4-10 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . . . . Materials Concerns and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Access Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brittle Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 f. . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . 5-7 j. . 5-6 h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lamellar Tearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Life Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Weather Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prequalified Joint Details . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility . . . . . . . 5-11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 c. . . . . . . . . . Distortion . . . 5-6 g. . . . . . . . . . . GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE . . . . . . Heavy Section Joint Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . Reentrant Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalizing . . . . . . DESIGN FOR WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 2. . 4-10 4. . . . . . . . . . 4-9 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 CHAPTER 5. . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 l. 5-10 c. . DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 b. . . Qualified Joint Details . . 5-9 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Design Details . . . . . . . . . 5-8 m. . . . . . 5-7 k. . . . . . . . Minimum / Maximum Weld Sizes . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . 5-11 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications . . . . . . . . 5-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment and Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Weld Size / Throat . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 e. .

Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors . Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Qualification Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAZARDOUS MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 f. 4. . . . . . . . . . AISC Requirements . . . . . . . AWS Requirements . . . . . . . WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . b. . . FCAW-S Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g. GENERAL . . . . . . . . Contractor Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 CHAPTER 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualification Testing . . . . . . . . . . d. c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Prequalification Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . f. . . . . . . . STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD BASE QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 CHAPTER 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . Elevated Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 . . . . . . . . . Inspection Enhancements . . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel Classification . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 CHAPTER 6. WPS Contents . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . Qualification Testing by Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Welding and Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . Welding Direction and Sequence . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 4. . . . .

. . . 8-12 b. . . . Fire . . . . . SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . After Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . General . Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 b. . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . WROUGHT IRON . . . 8-5 c. . CAST STEEL . Confined Spaces . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TUBULAR STRUCTURES . . . . 2. . . . . . Laminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mill Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . AWWA . . . CAST IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mislocated Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 f. . . . . . 8-13 c. . . c. . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burn Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 7. . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 CHAPTER 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrocution . . . ALUMINUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fumes and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . WELD QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Root Opening Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternate Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prior to Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NDT Personnel Qualification . NDT Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . 8-13 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 a. . . . . . . REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS . . . SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-project Inspection . . . . . MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . 4. . . . . Weld Discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Paragraph 1. . . . D1. . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS . . ASME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . REINFORCING STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . 8-13 CHAPTER 9. . . . . . . . . . . . SHEET STEEL WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 d. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondestructive Testing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . v 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. C-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 APPENDIX B. C-31 c. . . . Method Description . C-33 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 a. . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7. . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D. . . . . . . . C-21 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 a. ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . C-29 b. . Filler Metal Designation . . . . C-3 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW) . . . Process Principles . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . C-23 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . . . . . . . . Further Guidance . . . . . . . . . C-29 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . C-29 a. . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 APPENDIX C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PENETRANT TESTING (PT) . . . . . . . . . . C-31 a. Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 g. . . . C-31 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8 c. . . . . . . . . C-15 b. . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . Advantages. . Process Principles . . . . C-31 ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 c. . . . Specification and Certification . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 b. . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . REFERENCES . . . . b. . . . C-21 a. . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . vi D-1 D-1 D-1 D-3 D-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8 b. Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . C-29 ELECTROSLAG WELDING (ESW) . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 b. . . . . . . . . . C-22 c. . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-16 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . VISUAL TESTING (VT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . 10-3 APPENDIX A. . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. C-1 c. . . C-8 a. 3. . . . . . . Method Description . . . Specification and Certification . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . D-12 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3 3. . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 b. . . . . . . . D-7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 a. . . . . . . . . . D-5 b. . . . MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . Method Description . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 6. . . . D-10 b. . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER METHODS . . . . . . ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) . . . . . . . .

Appendix A contains a list of references pertaining to this document. This includes information on design approaches. or cryogenic applications. 2. These instructions are applicable to all USACE elements having military construction responsibilities. fully or partially enclosed. guidance on the application of codes and industry standards. sheet steels. BIBLIOGRAPHY. The scope of this document is welding for general building construction for military applications. APPLICABILITY.CEMP-E CHAPTER 1 GENERAL TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. and the design and specification of welded details. or the welding of materials other than structural steel. 1-1 . A bibliography of publications that provides additional information and background data is in Appendix B. A building is defined as any structure. bridges. use of technical manuals. standards and materials. piping. 3. and does not include underwater. used or intended for sheltering persons or property. This document provides criteria and guidance for the design and specification of welded structural components and systems in accordance with current technology. inspection and quality. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. REFERENCES. 4.

e. The second method. d. a. Buildings are categorized according to occupancy. steel and wood is presented in this TI document. Except as designated within the document. is a more modern probabilistic approach also known as limit states design. LRFD uses load factors and load combinations applied to service loads. Conflicts may arise between codes as new research and methods are adopted in one code before another. all loadings are based upon ASCE 7-95. New steels and welding materials. b. Within AWS standards. industry standards. The design requirements provided herein. The use of the LRFD method is preferred over the use of the ASD method. but is not required. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). Those values established as of the date of this document have been adopted. the standards and specifications are in a constant cycle of revision. The AWS D1. Specification Conflicts. General structural design guidance for buildings. New Materials. 2. and resistance (strength reduction) factors applied to the nominal resistance of the component to achieve a design strength. 2-1 . Because of the varying focus of each standard or specification. The first method is Allowable Stress Design (ASD). a. adopted by the industry. which provides adequate strength based upon service load conditions. and Air Force. masonry.12000 Structural Welding Code . or to expand the code provisions through the use of the project specifications. may not be listed in the codes for periods of several years because of the adoption and printing cycles. and new standards that may be published. Both methods are in current practice. as listed. Others may change with the publication of the D1. with independent dimensional units and values. as the AISC Specification does with AWS D1. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS. GENERAL. or cited by reference. Preferred Design Methodology. to resolve conflicting issues and to permit new materials. There are also specific exceptions one code may take with another. Standards Evaluation. and for building systems constructed of concrete. are based on national building codes. This document provides minimum snow and wind loads plus frost penetration data to be used in the design and construction of buildings and other structures. Specification Cycles. All loads are assumed to have the same variability. b.1. It may be necessary to take exceptions to various code provisions. the filler metal specifications are being revised for metrication.CEMP-E CHAPTER 2 APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings. and technical manuals developed by the Army. listing those exceptions in AISC Specification section J1. The American Institute of Steel Construction provides two methodologies for the design of steel-framed buildings. and the varying dates of adoption and publication. Users of this document should evaluate the various standards listed. c.1 code is also being fully metricated for the year 2000. Building design and welding design are governed by a variety of specifications and standards.Steel. Navy.2. for suitable application. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings.

2-2 .1 Structural Welding Code . Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. The principles and concepts of these two specifications (metric and customary) are identical. but does not provide specific details for welded connections in those systems. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. The Metric LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. This document provides design guidance on the use of cold-formed steel systems for both loadbearing and nonload-bearing applications.i addresses welding for manufacturers not AISC certified in Category MB. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. 3. published in 1994. e. Section J contains design provisions. These types of structures were previously referred to as pre-engineered buildings. This document is intended to provide qualified designers with the necessary criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. will be published by AISC in early 2000. Chapter 7 includes discussion of structural steel framing systems. only the units differ. covering and accessories. d. This document provides guidance on the use of Metal Building Systems. This document provides guidance in the interpretation and implementation of the FEMA 302 provisions for the Life Safety performance objective for all buildings. The LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. Paragraph 5. g. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems. c. defined as a complete integrated set of mutually dependent components and assemblies that form a building. The Metric LRFD Specification. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls.Steel. and the non-structural systems and components in those buildings. Section J contains design provisions. b. including primary and secondary framing.Sheet Steel. The primary basis for this document is the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 302). and it provides criteria for the design and analysis of buildings with enhanced performance objectives. and therefore are not covered by TI 809-26. rather than AWS D1. a.3 Structural Welding Code . and meet serviceability and strength performance objectives is also included in the TI.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Instructions necessary to provide serviceable buildings and to assure load path integrity and continuity is included. and the nonstructural systems and components in the buildings. f. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings.1-92. Revise as needed. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings. Navy. Requirements unique to Army. Cold-formed steel members are generally of a thickness that welding is governed by AWS D1. Supplemental information to help engineers interpret and apply code provisions. is based upon AWS D1. This document provides qualified designers with the criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. 1993 customary units edition. This metric specification is a dimensional conversion of the December 1. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings. This document will become TI 809-03. and Air Force facilities are indicated.

1-96 as the reference welding standard. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. is applicable. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. These structures include all buildings with an SDS >= 0. f. ASD. AWS welding symbols. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. is based upon AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 The LRFD Specification. Publication of an updated or new ASD Specification is not being planned by AISC. and general information regarding welding. Manual of Steel Construction. 2nd Edition. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. and Quality Control in Section 8.20g). Section 7.1-92. containing provisions regarding Welding Procedure Specification approvals. and takes exception to certain provisions of AWS D1. and is in two volumes. d. The AISC Code of Standard Practice defines practices adopted as commonly accepted standards of the structural steel fabricating industry. The ASD Specification. Fabrication in Section 6. Code of Standard Practice. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. Within the document. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. The ASD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. filler metal toughness requirements. Erection in Section 7.1-92. c. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids.33g (SD1 >= 0.50g (SD1 >= 0.1-88.Connections. Section J contains design provisions. g. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. Manual of Steel Construction. published in 1989. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. LRFD. See TI 809-04. In the absence of other contract documents.3 is applicable to welded joints. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds.133g). One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1.1-92.1.1. and Seismic Use Group III when SDS >= 0. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. This AISC document addresses the design and construction of structural steel and composite steel / reinforced concrete building systems in seismic regions. and special concerns for discontinuities in SFRS members.1. It is applicable for use in either LRFD or ASD. published in 1993. Metric Conversion. will be published by AISC in early 2000. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational 2-3 . design examples. Manual of Steel Construction. design examples. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. The provisions are for the members and connections that comprise the Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS) in buildings that are classified as Seismic Design Category D or higher in FEMA 302. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. When using LRFD. and general information regarding welding. LRFD. Part I.Connections. e. Materials are discussed in Section 5. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. the Manual of Steel Construction. AWS welding symbols. is based upon the use of AWS D1. the trade practices of the document govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel.Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. Chapter 4. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. h. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . The Seismic Provisions document cites AWS D1.

ANSI/AWS A5-series documents establish the requirements for electrodes. the use of AWS D1.1 contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel structures. and reinforcing steel to other carbon and low-alloy steels. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications. With the latter application. Chapter 2 contains general information regarding welding. e.1 Structural Welding Code . as applicable.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tables and design aids. and Part C covers Nondestructive Examination Symbols. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. The A52-4 . d. and arc plug welds are included in the Code. Chapter 4 contains Moment Connections.4 follows a different organizational structure than AWS D1.8 mm (3/16 in. The 9th Edition ASD Manual is supplemented by a separate book. With the latter application. plus annexes. D1. ANSI/AWS D1. (3) Prequalification. or when welding to other thicker structural members. (6) Qualification. except Sections 7 and 8 are not included. The requirements include. Brazing and Nondestructive Testing.3 Structural Welding Code . Part A of the document covers Welding Symbols. It is not applicable to pressure vessel or pressure piping applications.4 Standard Symbols for Welding. It is updated biannually. A2. in even years. usability. as applicable. and (7) Inspection.4 covers the welding of reinforcing steel. (4) Qualification.Connections.2 mm (1/8 in. storage. arc seam. markings. It also contains both mandatory and nonmandatory annexes. An Appendix or Annex is provided to explain the provisions and provide additional information. ANSI/AWS A2. 3.4 contains standards for the application of welding symbols on structural design and detail drawings.Reinforcing Steel. (5) Technique. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. chemical composition of the electrode. and includes the following sections: (1) General Provisions. plus commentary. D1. (3) Structural Details. AWS welding symbols. The symbols and use specified in this document supersedes symbols that may be shown in other AWS and industry documents.Sheet Steel. packaging.1-88. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. (2) Design of Welded Connections. and the astested mechanical properties (strength. as well as examples of their use.1.3 Code is applicable when welding sheet steels to other sheet steels. Volume II . Welding of reinforcing steel to reinforcing steel. (4) Workmanship. (6) Inspection. as they may be incorrect or outdated in the other documents. D1.4 Structural Welding Code . 4. and shielding gases.Connections. ANSI/AWS D1. and (8) Strengthening and Repair. The D1.3 Code contents are similar to AWS D1. ANSI/AWS D1. certifications. is covered. of minimum specified yield strength not greater than 690 MPa (100 ksi).) in thickness or greater. fluxes.1 contains eight sections: (1) General Requirements. moisture content. and toughness) and soundness of weld metal. and Chapter 6 contains Column Connections.1 and D1. a.Steel.3 covers arc welding of sheet and strip steels.3. ductility. the use of AWS D1. (5) Fabrication. The D1. The 9th Edition of the Manual contains welding design aids in Part 4 . c. as used in concrete construction.1 Code is limited to carbon and low-alloy steels.1. and design examples. Arc spot. D1. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. including prequalified joint details. Part B covers Brazing Symbols. (2) Allowable Stresses.1 is also required for the structural steel. for given general types of electrodes and given welding processes. D1. (7) Stud Welding.1 is also required for the structural steel. Chapter 3 contains design examples for Simple Shear Connections. including cold-formed members that are equal to or less than 4.) in nominal thickness. The D1. b.

These will supersede FEMA 267 and issued advisories. and structures in areas of low seismicity. based upon information available as of August 1996. electrical distribution structures. FEMA 267B. masonry. FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. and (5) Recommended Specifications for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Buildings. seismic isolation. FEMA 273 provides guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings constructed of steel or cast iron. based upon the results of the SAC Joint Venture Phase 2 project. repairing damaged buildings. including foundations and architectural. The Guidelines include information regarding the pre-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. c. FEMA 302 provides minimum design criteria for the design and construction of structures to resist earthquake motions. piers and wharves. The document is oriented toward structural analysis procedures. mechanical and electrical components. related building components. A second advisory. and (4) Quality Assurance Guidelines for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. published in 1995. Included are provisions for foundations.References. was published in mid-1999. b. post-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. FEMA 267 Replacement. of TI 809-26. a. and are subject to significant inelastic demands from strong earthquake ground motion. (2) Post-Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. with limited information regarding specific details for welding or inspection. wood and light metal. masonry structures. Not included in the provisions are certain classes of one-and two-family residential structures. Phase 1 project. concrete structures. retrofitting existing damaged and undamaged buildings. towers. 2-5 . 5. replacing FEMA 267A. (3) Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Construction. FEMA 267 and 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . FEMA 267A was published as an additional advisory to FEMA 267.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 series specifications applicable to structural steel are listed in Appendix A . stacks and chimneys. agricultural structures. composite structures. and nonbuilding structures such as racks. Guideline recommendations are provided based upon research conducted under the SAC Joint Venture. A series of five new documents are planned for publication in early 2000. The Interim Guidelines. constructing and inspecting new buildings. FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. tanks and vessels. and several other structures.Interim Guidelines. steel structures. concrete. and designing. are applicable to steel moment-resisting frame structures incorporating fully restrained connections in which the girder flanges are welded to the columns. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY. d. The documents will be as follows: (1) Seismic Design Criteria for New MomentResisting Steel Frame Construction.

The application of heat. General . the steel remains at an elevated temperature longer. from the surface to be welded. and the mechanical properties typically have been degraded with reduced ductility and toughness. General . Because preheating slows the cooling rate. hydrogen from the welding operation will have migrated into the hot HAZ. The contract documents. the use of low-hydrogen electrodes is encouraged. The HAZ will also contain higher levels of hydrogen. For further guidance in the use and selection of welding processes and materials. Should any limitations in the use of heat be needed beyond those specified in the codes. In most cases. The HAZ is typically about 3 mm (1/8 in. martensitic HAZ microstructure with a higher risk of cracking during cooling. may have a significant effect upon the mechanical properties of the steel. reducing porosity and other discontinuities. then subsequently been trapped within the metallurgical structure. embrittling the steel. and heataffected zones. Recently.) thick for common size welds. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the portion of steel immediately adjacent to the weld that has been metallurgically modified by the heat of the welding. inspection.Welding.Heating and Thermal Cutting. a. but with increased strength. 2. also embrittling the steel and increasing the risk of cracking. if present. The use of “matching” prequalified filler metals is encouraged. and procedures is vital to achieving the strength and quality necessary for adequate performance in the structure. weld. the use of specified toughness levels for filler metals in specific seismic building applications has been added to standard practice. cutting. a very low cooling rate can detrimentally affect toughness because of grain growth. Preheat also aids in the removal of surface moisture and organic compounds. Conversely. c. The hydrogen will eventually migrate out the HAZ. the contract documents prepared by the Engineer should so state. Project Specifications. at rates dependent upon initial hydrogen levels. such as 3-1 . When SMAW is performed. When preheat above approximately 300oC (550oF) is used. it is adequate to simply require compliance with the codes. APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING.Weld Heat-Affected Zone. d. If the steel is manufactured using heat treatment processes.CEMP-E CHAPTER 3 WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. or testing beyond that required by the codes and standards. The proper selection of welding processes. WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES. prepared by the Engineer. (2) Low Cooling Rates. The microstructure has been changed. General . should specify any special requirements for materials. Cooling Rate Control. see Appendix C. thickness and temperature. increasing the rate and time of hydrogen diffusion and reducing the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking. (1) High Cooling Rates. whether for straightening. Preheat is used primarily to slow the cooling rate of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). a. Also. The contractor may be allowed the full choice of welding processes and materials. A high cooling rate may cause a hard. primarily depending upon welding heat input. materials. weld metal properties may be degraded as well. Preheating may also reduce residual stresses and improve the toughness of the completed joint. b. or welding.

use the higher preheat required for their respective thicknesses.1. lower welding heat input. higher preheats are required to allow additional time for hydrogen to escape from the heat-affected zone. A summary of this table is provided as Table 3-1. the preheat can be reduced because of the reduced hydrogen levels present.5 Bridge Welding Code Tables 12. When steels of different categories are joined. so caution is advised. and AWS D1. When higher preheats are calculated. Increased preheat temperatures may be necessary in situations involving higher restraint.1 Table 3.2 should suffice. Seismic applications with routine building structures is not considered appropriate for requiring higher levels of preheat and interpass temperatures. higher welding heat input.2. With any non-prequalified steel. AWS D1. Such testing may not always adequately replicate restraint conditions. b. preheat and interpass temperatures above 230oC (450oF) should be avoided. or with steel compositions at the upper end of their respective specification.5 provide recommended values. (2) Category D is applicable to A913 steel. low hydrogen levels.1 Table 3. a thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel that has low carbon and alloy levels. the AWS D1. Paragraph 1b. preheats lower than those tabulated may be adequate for conditions of low restraint. (4) Although not required for building applications under AWS D1. 3-2 . higher hydrogen levels. consideration for higher preheat and interpass temperature requirements may be made for critical applications where fracture would result in a catastrophic collapse. provided the steel temperature is above 0oC (32oF). a competent welding advisor should be consulted. Because of the higher diffusible hydrogen present when non-low hydrogen electrodes are used.3 for 8 mL or less of diffusible hydrogen per 100 g of deposited weld metal) or lower is used. 12. Preheat for Prequalified Applications. When lower preheat values are calculated.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 quenched and tempered steels. The basic values for minimum preheat temperatures for prequalified structural steels are provided in AWS D1. Weldability tests have been conducted to document that the steel may be welded without preheat. and an electrode classified as H8 (tested under ANSI/AWS A4.3. For quenched and tempered steels. it is advisable to use these values. and steel compositions low in carbon and other alloys. Guideline on Alternative Methods for Determining Preheat.1 Code requires the WPS to be qualified using the lower preheat value. and restraint and allows for calculation of the estimated preheat necessary to avoid cold cracking. Conversely. See Appendix C. provided maximum preheat levels are not exceeded. too high a preheat may affect steel properties by retempering the steel. The Guide considers hydrogen level. steel composition.4 and 12. with suggestions in Table 3-2 for non-prequalified steels.1 Annex XI. (1) Category A is applicable when non-low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. This is permitted as prequalified only for AWS Group I steels. but is not recommended practice. For these conditions. (3) Users are cautioned that the use of these minimum preheat tables may not be sufficient to avoid cracking in all cases. Additional guidance for these situations may be found in AWS D1. When low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used.

5 mm (2-1/2 in.) over 19 to 38.5 mm (2-1/2 in.) over 63.) over 63.) (1/8 to 3/4 in. grades A and B (round) A500. grades lb. grade 42 A709.1 mm (incl. grades 42 and 50 A588. grade 42 A709.) over 38.1 Category Structural Steel Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl. Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1. & III (round) B When using SMAW with low-hydrogen electrodes.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. or FCAW.) 0oC (32oF)1 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 3-3 .1 mm (incl.) over 38. II.1 to 63. GMAW or SAW 3 to 19 mm (incl. grade B (round) A500.1 to 63.) over 19 to 38.5 mm (incl. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) Shapes and Plates A36 A529.) thick and under A913. 100 mm (4 in.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grades 36.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-1.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. grade 50 (shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A53. grade B (round) A500. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) A618. 50 & 50W A572. grade 36 Round and Rectangular Sections A53.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 0oC (32oF)1 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) A When using SMAW with other than lowhydrogen electrodes Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grades A and B (round) A500.5 mm (incl. grade 50 A992.

GMAW or SAW D When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes. with electrodes of class H8 or lower 1 Shapes and Plates A913. and 230oC (450oF) for thickness greater than 40 mm (1-1/2 inches). must be raised to and maintained at a minimum temperature of 21oC (70oF) prior to and during welding.) over 38. or FCAW.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl. or FCAW. GMAW or SAW. Grades 50. and 65 all thicknesses 0oC (32oF)1 . grade 70W2 A852.5 mm (2-1/2 in. 3-4 .5 mm (incl.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. grades 702 A913.) over 63. 2 .) Shapes and Plates A572. grades 60 and 65 over 19 to 38.) (1/8 to 3/4 in. in the vicinity of welding.Maximum preheat and interpass temperature of 200oC (400oF) for thicknesses up to 40 mm (1-1/2 inches) inclusive. the steel.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) Category Structural Steel C When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes.1 mm (incl.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. 60.If the steel is below 0oC (32oF).1 to 63. grades 60 and 65 A709.

Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel. Category B c. grades Ib.) Catego ry Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. and III (round) A847 NPQ-B same as Table 3-1. (Seek advice of competent welding consultant prior to use of this Table. Other steels should be evaluated by a competent welding consultant. d. grade C (rectangular) A618. Category A Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Shapes and Plates A242.1 Annex XI is suggested. grade C (round) same as Table 3-1. When the structural steel element is of a grade or thickness requiring preheat under the provisions of AWS D1. with suitable qualification testing to be performed to verify the analytical results. 3-5 .1. Preheat requirements for non-prequalified steels and applications may be determined using rational engineering judgement considering material composition. Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications. The use of AWS D1. hydrogen levels. over 4" thick Round and Rectangular Sections A500.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-2.1. grade 46 A283 (plates) NPQ-A Round and Rectangular Sections A500. preheat must be provided to the structural steel element. Suggested Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISCApproved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. II. all grades A529.1. Table 3-2 provides suggested values for common structural steels not currently listed in AWS D1. grades 50 and 55 A588. and experience. restraint. The sheet steel itself need not be preheated.

The PWHT described in AWS D1. b. (1) Thicker materials may absorb enough heat from the weld region that it is necessary to reapply heat to the weld region prior to resuming welding of the joint. it may be adequate to slow cooling rates through the use of insulating blankets applied immediately after completion of welding. It is recommended to first apply a V-heat to the web. when proper attention is applied to preheat and interpass temperatures. Interpass Temperature. Maximum Temperatures.26.2. and adequate control of hydrogen levels is maintained. because the heat is applied to the part of the member that needs to become shorter.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. The temperature to which the steel may be heated as a part of the straightening or cambering process is limited to 650oC (1200oF) for most structural steels. poor weldability steels. 3-6 . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING. Postheat (PWHT). THERMAL CUTTING. Postheating is the continued application of heat following completion of the weld joint. It is not required by specification. also commonly called flame cutting or burning. the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum temperatures should be followed. it should be verified that adequate welding has been completed to sustain any currently applied or anticipated loadings until completion of the joint. not cracking control. postheating is not necessary to avoid cold cracking.1 Section 5. In most cases. (3) When necessary to shut down welding operations on a joint prior to joint completion. Accelerated cooling using water should not be permitted. Thermal cutting is generally grouped into two categories oxyfuel gas cutting. but may vary in specific WPSs.8. (2) With maximum interpass temperature considerations. and plasma arc cutting. c. Thermal cutting is used in steel fabrication to cut material to size and to perform edge preparation for groove welding. to soften the web and minimize web crippling that may occur if only the flange is heated. Heat applied from a heating torch may be used to straighten curved or distorted members. it may be necessary to pause welding operations to allow the steel to cool to below the maximum interpass temperature before resuming welding. but must be reheated to the required preheat / interpass temperature before resumption of welding of the joint. a. and poor hydrogen control exist. Under the difficult conditions mentioned. It is recommended that accelerated cooling using water mist not be used until the temperature of the steel has dropped below approximately 300oC (600oF). For TMCP steels. Principle. Cambering Procedure. Interpass temperature is the temperature maintained during welding. starting with a point near the top. Cooling time may be necessary for larger multi-pass welds on thinner materials or smaller members. See AWS D1. Minimum and maximum interpass temperatures are typically the same as the minimum and maximum preheat temperatures. The method is commonly called “flame shrinking”. 3.1 Section 5. and also to camber or curve members when desired. Cambering a beam with positive camber requires heat to be applied to the bottom flange of the beam. The joint may be allowed to cool below the prescribed interpass temperature. and to 590oC (1100oF) for quenched and tempered steels. f. until completion of the weld joint. but may be used in some cases when conditions of high restraint. 4. but the use of forced air is acceptable. is for the purpose of stress relief.

If not welded. Plasma Arc Cutting.2. It may also be used to remove entire welds when structural repairs or modifications are necessary. as well as less distortion. and is generally limited to steels 25 mm (1 in. as measured using ANSI/ASME B46. Surface Finishing. The oxygen causes rapid oxidation. Limitations are also placed on the depth and sharpness of gouges and notches. takes a minor exception to AWS D1. or other proprietary fuel gases. AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING. however. leaving a cut edge. Gases used for PAC include nitrogen. and is usually performed manually. argon. MPS. Oxyfuel Cutting. Following ACAG. Waviness and Lay). oxygen. the area of steel heated by the process is less. light grinding of the ACAG surface is suggested. Air carbon arc gouging (ACAG) is commonly used to perform edge preparation for groove joints (especially J. For complete information.4. AWS C4. c. acetylene. resulting in less steel metallurgically affected by the heat of cutting. b. Process. only this function is performed using an electric arc. propane. or “burning” to occur. The fuel gas used in oxyfuel cutting may be natural gas.and U-grooves). Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. the electrode is a carbon electrode covered with a copper sheath.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. see ANSI/AWS C5.1-G. Surface Texture (Surface Roughness.1 Section 5. and to remove temporary attachments such as backing bars or lifting lugs. With plasma arc cutting. A plastic sample.15. a. and therefore a water table and water shroud is typically used to minimize these undesirable environmental effects. the joint should be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushing. to remove unacceptable discontinuities from weld deposits. Similar to oxyfuel cutting. b. Limits are placed on surface roughness. PAC generates considerable fume and noise.3. with an electrode holder and a single electrode. The force of the oxygen stream blows away the molten steel. the steel is heated with a torch to its ignition temperature. and mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen and argon/hydrogen. AISC. which itself creates additional heat to allow the process to continue. then exposed to a stream of oxygen from the same torch. air. 3-7 . which is quickly followed by the focused application of compressed air from the electrode holder. Edge Quality. the steel is heated to the point of melting. in Section M2.) thick or less. 5. within the cutting torch. The electrode creates a controlled arc. is typically used for visual comparison in lieu of physical measurement of surface roughness.1 quality criteria. The quality of thermally cut edges is governed by AWS D1. melting the steel. The process appears similar to SMAW. Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. The air provides continued rapid oxidation. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is sometimes used in shop fabrication. as well as removes the molten steel from the area. With oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC).1. propylene. The molten steel is then removed by the high velocity stream of plasma (ionized gas) created by the arc itself. Grinding of surfaces prior to welding is not required.

a.approved for next specification b. For building-type structures. New structural steel specifications have been developed and approved since publication.1 Code. or pending acceptance as noted.added in AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) -added in AISC LRFD Supplement (1998) 3 . only certain strength levels or grades are considered prequalified.1 lists prequalified steels in Table 3. Structural steels currently accepted by AISC in the LRFD Specification.CEMP-E CHAPTER 4 STRUCTURAL STEELS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. AWS Prequalified Steels. the AISC lists approved steels in Section A3. or because certain steels or grades recently came into production and inadequate information was known about their weldability at 4-1 . This situation may be because certain grades have compositional levels outside the range considered readily weldable. and other approved steels in Annex M. such as ASTM A992. are as follows: Shapes and Plates A36 A242 A2831 A514 A529 A572 A588 A709 A852 A9132 A9924 (wide flange shapes only) Rounds and Rectangular Sections A53 A500 A501 A618 A8473 Sheet and Strip A570 A606 A607 1 2 . Prequalified steels have been determined to be generally weldable when using the AWS D1. and should also be considered for application in structures. AISC Approved Steels. AWS D1. For some steel specifications.1 of the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.1. because certain strength levels are less weldable.added in AISC Hollow Structural Sections (1997) 4 . Additional steels are listed in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings because of a more recent publication date. AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS.

-2M. -14.1: E60XX. E7XT-XM (Except -2. the “matching” filler metal for the given welding process is provided.5: E70XX-X1 FCAW A5. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5. -GS) A5. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. and toughness. AWS Approved Steels. They are also generally more sensitive to diffusible hydrogen and are at higher risk of hydrogen-assisted HAZ cracking. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1. which are sensitive to temperature changes from welding operations that may affect their strength.CEMP-E the time of printing. E70XX A5.17: F6XX-EXXX.1 AWS Grou p Structural Steel Prequalified “Matching” Filler Metal SMAW A5. For joint designs requiring “matching” filler metal. The steels listed in Annex M are approved for use.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. Table 4-1. grade 42 A709.1 Table 3. F7XX-ECXXX A5. E70C-XC. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. d. These steels are generally quenched and tempered steels. E6XTX-X1M E7XTX-X1. Table 4-1 provides a summary of structural steels that are both approved by AISC and listed by AWS as prequalified. E6XT-XM E7XT-X. -3. grade 36 I Round and Rectangular Sections A53. but Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) must be qualified prior to use in welding these steels. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5.29: E6XTX-X1. Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels. F7XXECXXX1 Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grades A and B (round) A500.28: ER70S-X1XX. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) 4-2 . F6XX-ECXXX F7XX-EXXX.18: ER70S-X. grade B (round) A500.20: E6XT-X. ductility. -10. -13.

grades 60 and 65 FCAW A5. low hydrogen A5.18: ER70S-X.) thick and under A709. F7XX-ECXXX A5.29: E8XTX-X1. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. -GS) A5. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5. and III (round) FCAW A5.23: F8XX-EXXX-X1. E7XT-XM (Except -2. F7XXECXXX1 SMAW A5. grades 50 and 50W A913. -13. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572.17: F7XX-EXXX. -2M. grades 42 and 50 A588.1: E70XX. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. E80C-X1XX SAW A5.29: E7XTX-X1.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. -10. -14. -3. E70C-XC. F8XXECXXX1 II III 4-3 . II. E8XTX-X1M GMAW A5. 100 mm (4 in.28: ER70S-X1XX.5: E70XX-X1. grades 60 and 65 A913.5: E80XX-X1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. grade 50 Round and Rectangular Sections A618.20: E7XT-X. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572.28: ER80S-X1XX. grades Ib.

29: E9XTX-X1. B7. Quenched and tempered steels are not listed in this table. grade 50 steel.5: E90XX-X1. B6. the advice of a competent welding consultant should be used prior to welding these steels. With the exception of A992. grade 70 FCAW A5. B8L. 4-4 . A992 steel is a new steel specification which is essentially a more restricted A572. Table 4-2 provides “matching” filler metal information for structural steels approved by AISC. B8. B3L. B5L. but not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. B4. E90C-X1XX SAW A5. B5.23: F9XX-EXXX-X1. B7L.1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. F9XXECXXX1 IV 1 . grade 70W A852.28: ER90S-X1XX. B9 e. low hydrogen E9018M Shapes and Plates A709. E9XT-X1M GMAW A5. B4L. B6L. Matching Filler Metals for Non-prequalified Steels.except alloy groups B3.

grade D (plates) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. See Appendix B. grade C (rectangular) A618. Stout and Doty. grade 46 A283. II. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1.1 must be evaluated for their weldability. for further information on these tests. an assumed minimum level of toughness is assumed inherent with the steels listed in AISC Seismic Provisions. grades Ib. ductility and toughness. over 100 mm (4 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-2. all grades A529. AISC design specifications assume adequate strength and ductility. 4-5 . Weldability of Steels. grade C (round) Shapes and Plates A242. Category II f.) A992. The Tekken and Lehigh methods simulate restraint that may be present in the actual joint. Weldability may be evaluated using methods such as carbon equivalency. or physical testing such as the Tekken test. Lehigh Restraint Cracking Test. (2) Steels not listed as prequalified by AWS D1.1 Table 3. the performance of WPS qualification testing. tensile strength. Unlisted Steels. For seismic applications. (1) Steels not listed as approved by AISC must be evaluated for structural properties such as yield strength. and III (round) A847 NPQ-I same as Table 4-1. Other steels may warrant CVN testing or other mill documentation of typical toughness properties. Category I NPQII same as Table 4-1. grades 50 and 55 A588. or the Varestraint Test. (W shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A500.1 Grou p Suggested “Matching” Filler Metal (Not Prequalified) Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529.

The chemical composition of the steel affects weldability and other mechanical properties. Silicon of up to 0. while still increasing strength and hardenability.).04% to minimize the risk of weld and HAZ cracking. but high levels of carbon reduce weldability. copper up to 1. Most steels contain some copper. however. It has relatively little detrimental effect upon weldability. Manganese limits are typically in the order of 1. Carbon increases the hardenability of the steel. whether specified or not.05%. Typical steel specifications limit sulfur to 0.CEMP-E 2. flattened by the rolling operation. increasing the risk of hot cracking. therefore creating weaker areas. Carbon and other elements that increase hardenability increase the risk of “cold” cracking. or for plates and bars up to 20 mm (3/4 in. and is commonly used to “kill” steel.40% or lower. increasing the risk of lamellar tearing when high through-thickness weld shrinkage strains are created. and also reduces toughness and weldability. but other undesirable elements may be present in the scrap materials used to make the steel.50% does not reduce weldability. better hydrogen control. Chemical Composition. With high levels of sulfur.50% may affect mechanical properties in heattreated steels. and therefore higher preheat and interpass temperatures. (5) Silicon (Si) is a deoxidizer used to improve the soundness of the steel.25% and 0. and sometimes postheat are necessary to avoid cold cracking. particularly in the transverse direction. a minimum copper content of 0. reducing the detrimental effects of sulfur. Where nickel is reported as a part of steel composition. Phosphorous tends to segregate in steel.27%. (7) Nickel (Ni) is an alloying element used to improve toughness and ductility. but copper over 0.). numerous large MnS inclusions may be present. thereby increasing the risk of lamellar tearing. Generally.50%. inclusive. Typical steel specifications limit carbon below 0. WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. (1) Carbon (C) is the most common element for increasing the strength of steel. but some steel specifications have much lower limits. but to a lesser extent than carbon. (4) Sulfur (S) reduces ductility. When specified to achieve atmospheric corrosion resistance. A steel such as A36 does not place limits on Mn content for shapes up to 634 kg/m (426 lb.40% is considered acceptable for most steels. (2) Manganese (Mn) is an alloying element that increases strength and hardenability. A minimum Mn:S ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 is recommended. increasing the formation of undesirable martensite with rapid HAZ cooling. Higher preheats and higher heat input welding procedures may be needed when welding a steel with relatively high carbon contents. 4-6 . it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. Several elements are purposefully added in the production of structural steel. It increases both strength and hardness. (6) Copper (Cu) is added to improve the corrosion resistance of the steel.20% is required. Larger quantities of phosphorous reduce ductility and toughness./ft. Higher sulfur levels will form iron sulfide (FeS) along the grain boundaries. such as in weathering steels. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. (3) Phosphorous (P) is an alloying element that increases the strength and brittleness of steel. Manganese is used to form MnS to reduce this tendency. One of the principal benefits of manganese is that it combines with undesirable sulphur to form manganese sulfide (MnS). Phosphorous is typically limited to 0.

When molybdenum is reported as a part of steel composition.55 indicate a high risk that cracks may develop unless special precautions are implemented. and zinc (Zn). The weldability of a steel can be estimated from its composition. For values between 0.48 generally assures good weldability.10%. When vanadium is reported as a part of steel composition. Other low-melting point elements that create a risk of hot cracking include sulfur. it may be necessary to use low heat input welding procedures to minimize dilution effects. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. There are numerous carbon equivalent equations available and in use. lead (Pb).40 and 0.2 guidance for the given steel strength should be adequate. applicable for steels with C greater than 0.07% and 0. The most significant element affecting weldability is carbon.40. CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 +V/5 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 + Si/6 Where C = carbon content (%) Mn = manganese content (%) Cr = chromium content (%) Mo = molybdenum content (%) V = vanadium content (%) Ni = nickel content (%) Cu = copper content (%) Si = silicon content (%) A carbon equivalent of less than 0. Weldability may be reduced by vanadium. When welding with high levels of these elements. The total alloy content has the same effect on weldability as an equivalent amount of carbon.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability 4-7 . and may adversely affect weldability and cause “hot” cracking. using a calculation system termed the carbon equivalent (CE). and copper.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (8) Vanadium (V) is an alloying element used for increasing strength and hardenability. the material is considered readily weldable.55. They have a low melting point. b. (9) Molybdenum (Mo) is an alloying element which greatly increases hardenability and helps maintain strength and minimize creep at higher temperature. phosphorous. (2) Another common carbon equivalent equation is: CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/10 + Ni/20 + Cu/40 . is similar: CE = C + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + V/5 + Mn/6 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 A CE of 0. The effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an additional amount of carbon. (1) The following equation is used in AWS D1.Mo/50. regardless of thickness. vanadium is generally limited to a maximum value between 0.15%.V/10 . Carbon Equivalency.06% and 0. may be present in steel from the scrap material melted for steel-making. and AWS D1. (10) So-called “tramp” elements such as tin (Sn).12%. If the CE from this equation is below 0. (3) The Dearden and O’Neill equation. the use of preheat and low-hydrogen electrodes is generally necessary.1 Table 3.1 Annex XI. Carbon equivalent values above 0.

22%.07% and 0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) For steels with C between 0. the Ito and Bessyo equation may be used.26%.75 + 0.25 * tanh [ 20 (C. The Ito-Bessyo equation is also termed the composition-characterizing parameter.12) ] 4-8 . CE = C + 5B + V/10 + Mo/15 + Mn/20 + Cu/20 + Cr /20 + Si/30 + Ni/60 Where B = boron content (%) A CE of 0.02% and 0. Pcm.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability. (5) The Yurioka equation may also used to calculate CE for steel with C between 0. as follows: CE = C + A(C) * {5B + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/20 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + Nb/5 + V/5} Where Nb = niobium content (%) A(C) = 0.0.

CEMP-E

TI 809-26 1 March 2000
Table 4-3. Chemical Requirements for Sample Structural Steels (heat analysis, %, maximum, unless range is provided)

(Refer to ASTM specifications for complete information, including applicable thickness ranges, grades, types, combinations of elements, etc.)

Steel

Compositio n C Mn P S Si Cu V Co Ni Cr Mo

A36 (shapes)

A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 1 0.23 1.35 0.04 0.05 0.40 #

A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 2 0.23 1.35 0.04 0.05 0.40 # 0.01-0.15

A992

A588, grade B

A852

0.26 --0.04 0.05 0.40 # -----------

0.23 0.50-1.50 0.035 0.045 0.40 0.60 0.11 0.05 0.45 0.35 0.15

0.20 0.75-1.35 0.04 0.05 0.15-0.50 0.20-0.40 0.01-0.10 --0.50 0.40-0.70 ---

0.19 0.80-1.35 0.035 0.04 0.20-0.65 0.20-0.40 0.02-0.10 --0.50 0.40-0.70 ---

0.0050.05 -------

---------

Shapes composition limits are listed for sections up to 634 kg/m (426 plf). # minimum 0.20% when specified

3. PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS. a. Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio. AISC design equations assume some margin in structural steel from the point of yielding to the point of fracture to allow for the redistribution of stress. Some structural steels have been produced with Fy:Fu ratios as high as 0.95, considerably higher than that considered by 4-9

CEMP-E
AISC in developing design methodologies.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

(1) ASTM A572, grade 50, manufactured to the supplemental requirements of AISC Technical Bulletin #3, provides a requirement for a maximum Fy:Fu ratio of 0.85. This same value is a requirement for ASTM A992 steels. Although not considered critical in low-seismic applications, this requirement is advisable for members in the lateral load resisting systems in high-seismic applications. (2) Structural steels providing this maximum Fy:Fu ratio are readily available from mill sources. Such a requirement can be met by special mill order requirements, the specification of A572, grade 50 meeting AISC Technical Bulletin #3, the specification of A992 shapes, or through the review of mill test reports of existing steels in inventory that are traceable to the mill heat number. There is currently no premium in steel mill cost to specify such properties, but some minor delays may be encountered in purchasing until the inventory of such materials is predominant. b. Killed Steel. Killed steel has been processed to remove or bind the oxygen that saturates the molten steel prior to solidification. ASTM A6 / A6M defines killed steel as “steel deoxidized, either by addition of strong deoxidizing agents or by vacuum treatment, to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.” Semi-killed steel is incompletely deoxidized, and may also be specified. (1) The benefit of killing is to reduce the number of gas pockets present in the steel, which can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the steel, including ductility and toughness, as well as reduce the number of oxide-type inclusions in the steel. (2) Most mills provide some form of deoxidation, in the form of semi-killed steel, as a part of routine production practices. AISC does not require killed steel for any specific applications. (3) Most commonly, killing is done using additions of silicon, but may also be done with aluminum or manganese. Killed steels often have silicon levels in the range of 0.10% to 0.30%, but may be higher. (4) Project requirements for killed steel should be considered when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5, and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness, in tension applications, which have special AISC requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3.1c. ASTM A992 requires the steel to be killed. (5) Specifying killed or semi-killed steel may carry a slight cost premium, except in the case of A992 steel. Because killed steel is typically a cost-premium mill order item, the inventory of killed structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants is less than that of regular steels. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. c. Fine Grain Practice. Fine grain practice is the method of achieving Fine Austenitic Grain Size, defined by ASTM A6 / A6M as grain size number 5 or higher, measured using test methods prescribed by ASTM E112. Aluminum is typically used to achieve fine grain practice, which binds oxygen and nitrogen. When aluminum content is above 0.20%, by heat analysis, the steel is considered fine-grained, without the need for testing. (1) Fine grain practice is beneficial in improving ductility and toughness. Consideration of requirements for fine grain practice should be made when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5, and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness, in tension applications, which have special AISC 4-10

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requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3.1c. When specifying steel to fine grain practice, ASTM Supplementary Requirement S91 should be consulted for the specific steel grade. (2) Because fine grain practice is typically a cost-premium mill order item, the inventory of structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants manufactured to fine grain practice is less than that of regular structural steel. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. d. Toughness. Steel toughness, also commonly referred to as “notch toughness”, is the resistance to brittle crack initiation and propagation. For this resistance, the steel must have sufficient plastic ductility to redistribute stresses at the root of a notch to the surrounding material. Toughness may be measured using a variety of methods, but the steel industry standard is the Charpy V-Notch (CVN) method, as prescribed by ASTM A370. CVN testing is an added charge by the steel producer, and steel with CVN testing is not routinely ordered by steel service centers or steel fabricators for inventory. Therefore, steels with CVN testing are generally available only through mill order, which typically requires longer production lead times than service center or stock items. e. Improved Through-thickness Properties. For certain high-restraint applications subject to the risk of lamellar tearing, steels with improved through-thickness properties may be specified. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties, to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing, is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. By reducing the sulfur content, the number and size of manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions is reduced. Typically, low-sulfur steels in plate form can be ordered to 0.005% sulfur, at a cost premium and with longer lead time. Most steel specifications permit maximum sulfur in amounts between 0.30% to 0.50%. Shapes are not routinely available with substantially reduced sulfur levels, and would be available only at substantial cost premium and considerable delay. However, a mill may be able to select heats of steel with particularly lower levels of sulfur for rolling specific sections. It is also possible to specify through-thickness tensile testing using reduction of area as the governing criteria, but this is rarely necessary. f. Normalizing. Normalizing is defined in ASTM A6 / A6M as “a heat treating process in which a steel plate is reheated to a uniform temperature above the critical temperature and then cooled in air to below the transformation range.” In practice, steel is heated to approximately 900oC to 930oC (1650oF to 1700oF). The benefits include refined grain size and uniformity, improved ductility and improved toughness. Few building applications warrant the need for normalized steel. The specification of normalized steel is a mill order item only, an added expense with added time for delivery from the steel mill. Normalized steel is not routinely available from steel service centers or stocked by fabricators.

4. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS. a. High-seismic Applications. The AISC Seismic Provisions, Section 6.3, require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft.-lb. at 70oF), applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes, Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) or thicker, and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) or thicker. Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft.-lb. at 70oF), and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. Specification of steel toughness levels, or the specification of A709 4-11

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steels, is currently considered unnecessary for ordinary building-type applications.

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b. Fatigue Applications. Toughness requirements should be considered for applications involving fatigue. As a guide, the toughness values specified in ASTM A709 / A709M, Table S1.1 and S1.2, summarized and adapted in Table 4-4, may be used for redundant fatigue applications. Modifications to this table are suggested for steels that have yield strengths 103 MPa (15 ksi) or more above the minimum specified yield strengths, for all but A36 steels. See the ASTM A709 / A709M specification for appropriate changes to the testing temperatures for these cases. For nonredundant fatigue applications, see ASTM A709 / A709M, Table S1.3 for guidance. The required CVN toughness and testing temperature may be specified directly in the specifications for the project, to be placed on the mill order. Alternatively, a given ASTM A709 / A709M steel and temperature zone may be specified.

4-12

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Table 4-4. Toughness Guidelines for Structural Steel in Fatigue Applications, Redundant Applications.
Minimum Service Temperature Zone 1 -18oC (0oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (20 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ 10oC (25 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -1oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Zone 2 -34oC (-30oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (20 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -7oC (25 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 48J @ -18oC (35 ft-lbf @ 0oF) Zone 3 -51oC (-60oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -23oC (25 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -34oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF)

Steel

Thickness

Applicatio n bolted or welded bolted or welded bolted

A36

to 100 mm (4 in.), incl. to 50 mm (2 in.), incl. over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in.) over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in.) to 65 mm (21/2 in.), incl. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) to 65 mm (21/2 in.), incl. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.)

A572, gr 50 A588 “

welded

A852

bolted or welded bolted

welded

A514

bolted or welded bolted

welded

4-13

it is generally more cost effective to specify a type of steel with inherently good fracture toughness. published by AISC. with the exception of A913.015%. A992 steels place a limit on nitrogen of 0. Steel toughness requirements should be considered for major loadcarrying components of structures exposed to extreme cold environments. A572. the use of low-strength. compared to conventional carbon steels such as A36 steel. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. 70W. AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. Table 13 lists the producers of specific structural shapes. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. plates and bars in various steel specifications. 100W). Table 1-1. Table 1-4 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications. creating through-thickness shrinkage stresses and strains. Steels that require killing.012%. Cold Weather Applications. A242. A709 (grades 50W. consideration should be made for the risk of lamellar tearing. See 3. or A283 steels. unless nitrogen binders are added.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. grades and strengths. A852. “buttering. When welded joints are made to the side of a member. 100. and A913 (grade 50). High-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels that are manufactured using fine grain practice have improved toughness at low temperature. It is not available for A529. nor specific values for weld size. but the higher strength grades should be avoided because of other welding difficulties. Fine-grain practice can optionally be specified using ASTM Supplemental Requirement S91 for A36. Type 4 steel has a limit on nitrogen of 0. This list is updated semi-annually in Modern Steel Construction magazine. Lamellar tearing is a separation or tearing of the steel on planes parallel to the rolled surface of the member. d. including availability as either steel service center stock or in mill order quantities only. and A913 (grades 60. high-ductility filler metals. AISC-approved steels requiring production to fine-grain practice are A588. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. 5. welding procedure controls. include A992 and A709 (grades 100. Nitrogen has a significant effect upon CVN transition temperatures. A572. There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. A992. and Table 1-5 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. A709 (grades 36 and 50). The AISC Manual of Steel Construction. However. in the January and July issues. although higher strength structural steels present additional welding difficulties and should not be specified unless necessary for weight savings. 65 and 70). Generally. All AISC-approved structural steels are available from domestic steel mills. 4-14 . and avoid a requirement for specific CVN toughness at a reference temperature.e. When structural components in a low-temperature environment are not subject to significant impact loads or fatigue conditions. and limitations on nitrogen may be considered.” and peening. which also improves toughness. lamellar tearing is avoided through using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. 100W). sequencing. weld bead placement selection. provides general information regarding availability of shapes. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. the use of preheat and/or postheat.

The fabricator and erector are typically in the best position to select which process. and when necessary for prequalified groove welds. and joint designs. filler metals. The following items should be considered to permit welding operations to be made with adequate quality: (1) Welding personnel must have direct visual access to the root of the weld. Smaller angles may cause a lack of fusion along the weld / base metal interface. distortion control. Minimum access hole sizes are specified in AWS D1. J. if desired or necessary. In the selection of base metals. All passes must be visually monitored by the welder during welding. and groove angle should be used based upon economics. must be of adequate size to permit the weld to be placed by reaching through the access hole with the electrode. Certain welded joint designs may require notch-tough filler materials. Engineer’s Responsibility. 5-1 . bevel. including connections between elements in built-up members. personnel qualified to perform such welding. the appropriate AWS designation. GENERAL. availability of equipment and personnel. groove type (single. For instance. Critical structural steel connections must be completely detailed and shown on the contract drawings. and NDT equipment and personnel necessary to perform NDT as required. or specify a Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove weld and state the required throat. b. one should consider the availability of the structural steel. Availability of Materials. Larger access holes may be warranted based upon the welding process and type of welding equipment used. When the availability of any of the above is in question. Access should be checked at the design stage when welding in highly confined spaces or with closely spaced parts. and ease of welding operations. but generally it is best to allow the fabricator or erector to select the specific welding detail to be used for a particular joint. the electrode should be positioned so that the angle between the part and the electrode is not less than 30o.CEMP-E CHAPTER 5 DESIGN FOR WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. personnel qualified to inspect the welding. Access. GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE. enclosures for field welding. (3) Weld access holes. welders qualified for specific processes. or nondestructive testing. (2) Access should be adequate so that the welding electrode can be positioned at the proper angle for proper penetration and fusion. a. double.2. placed in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges or making beam-tocolumn moment connections. welding equipment. filler metals. The Engineer may prescribe connection details. U). vee. Equipment and Personnel. This may effectively be done through the use of AWS welding symbols. Generally.1 Figure 5. welding personnel qualified in out-ofposition welding. it may be adequate for the Engineer to specify a Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove weld. 2. The Engineer is responsible for the analysis and design of the connection. a. The Engineer must review and approve the final details selected by the contractor. alternative joint designs should be investigated. welding processes.

Access to the root is also easier to achieve because of the balance and the wider groove angle used. There is added expense in joint preparation for groove welds that is not required with fillet welds. V-groove welds are preferred over bevel-groove welds. (2) For most applications.4 and 4.1 should be used. and therefore may have lost some of the skill necessary to perform quality out-of-position welding. because they are balanced and usually have a downhand position on each groove face. To assist in interpreting the positions given. limited distortion. and lack of fusion on the unbeveled face may result. Welding in other than the flat or horizontal positions increases welding time approximately four-fold. c. there may be offsetting cost savings with groove welds because of decreased weld volume. preferably using joints prequalified under AWS D1. (3) In butt joints. should be considered. 5-2 . or removal of a portion of the root pass area by backgouging followed by backwelding until the joint is complete. PJP groove welding. The quality of out-of-position welds is more difficult to maintain. close visual observation of the welder during the first few out-of-position passes is especially important. fillet welding is generally less expensive than groove welding.4 should be reviewed. and requalification testing may be necessary. (4) For tee joints. PJP groove welds should be considered for tensionand shear-carrying joints when full strength of the connected members is not required. rather than just the amount of welding needed to carry the load. This makes visual inspection and some forms of NDT more difficult. 2 for fillet welds. more welding is required to join the entire thickness of material. which may need to be removed in certain types of joints. especially when the unbeveled face is vertical. the prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. and for compression splices such as column splices. In addition. Bevel-groove welds are generally more difficult to weld. Provided CJP groove welds are not required by Code for the given application or for fatigue and seismic applications. PJP groove welds are prepared to a required depth of chamfer. are easier to weld.6 for tubular joints. and therefore less labor and materials.) deeper. V-groove welds. or a combination groove weld with reinforcing fillets.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) Narrow root openings and narrow groove angles inhibit access to the joint root. fewer passes.1 Figure 4. and Figures 4. Proper joint design.1 for groove welds and in Figure 4. or 3 mm (1/8 in. a welder may not have recently used the special techniques and procedures for welding in these positions. by Code. until the fillet size reaches approximately 16 to 20 mm (5/8 to 3/4 in. on average.5 for fillet welds.1 in Figure 4. depending upon groove angle. plug welds or slot welds. In this case. see AWS D1. Fewer welding personnel are qualified by test to perform welding out-of-position. and cost-effectiveness. Position.3 for groove welds. Figure 4.). Above this size.1 Figures 3. usually the required effective throat. and they typically do not have the smooth appearance of welds performed in the flat or horizontal positions. d. contributing to lack of penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the joint sidewalls. Welding positions are defined in AWS D1. however.3 and 3. Less distortion may also be incurred because of the reduced weld volume. increasing cost and construction time. Although personnel may be previously qualified by test to weld out-of-position. and in either the flat or horizontal positions when making fillet welds. partial joint penetration (PJP) groove welds are more economical than complete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds. The following items should be considered in selecting or evaluating joint selection: (1) For butt joints. Joint Selection. CJP groove welds require the use of either backing bars. For guidance in the selection of groove details that provide sufficient access. It is preferred to weld in the flat position when making groove welds. welding process and position.

provided other prequalification provisions of the Code are also met.3 for Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds.or U-groove welds. lack of fusion. When angular distortion or shrinkage strains must be minimized. When square groove welds are used. When the joint details as shown are used. The use of prequalified groove weld details does not guarantee that welding problems will not occur. the required depth of preparation is provided to achieve the desired effective throat. and Figure 3. and WPS selection.1 Figure 3. without causing excessive angular distortion. Root openings and groove angles are considered adequate for the welding processes and positions noted. The wider root initially requires more weld metal.1 Figures 3.or U-groove joint.and U-groove joints should be considered. cost-effective or easier-to-weld details may be used. (6) For thick materials. (8) Groove angles should be the minimum angle that will provide adequate access for penetration to the root. is required in such cases to verify the ability of the WPS to provide the penetration and quality necessary. Angular distortion can be minimized through the use of double-sided welding. The prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. Qualification testing. tolerances. f. root face.4 for Complete Penetration Joint (CJP) groove welds. presetting of parts. These problems may be minimized through the use of suitable WPSs. reduced or wider groove angles. and other more efficient. Groove weld details may be used other than those shown as prequalified in AWS D1. thickness limits. J. very wide roots contribute to root pass cracking and root HAZ cracking from weld shrinkage. When one side will be welded in its entirety before proceeding to weld the opposite side. The details may not always be the best detail. the root opening must be closely controlled and the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) closely developed and followed. generally starting at thicknesses of 50 mm (2 in. provide root opening. There are also higher initial joint preparation costs to prepare a J. Minimum 5-3 . a balanced groove detail can be used. Double-sided welds balance weld shrinkage about the center of the part’s cross-section. Excessively wide groove angles contribute to added angular distortion. J. so even more weld metal must be saved to recover these costs. Distortion.and V-groove welds. qualification testing is required. and adequate access to the groove faces for complete fusion.and V-groove welds. and higher costs because of the additional material and labor used.1 Section 4. (7) Root opening widths should be generous but not excessive. Generally. increased risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. Prequalified Joint Details. and other information for the effective detailing of groove welds. For PJP groove welds. and trapped slag at the root. Narrow root openings contribute to lack of penetration. or other revised details. the first side groove depth should be approximately 35-40% of the total groove depth of both welds. The completed first side weld restrains the second side weld from shrinking as much as the unrestrained first-side weld. J.). They are better suited for thin materials. g. but the narrower groove angle reduces the total weld volume below that of bevel. when other groove details are used.and U-groove welds may be more economical than bevel. narrower root openings and groove angles increase the risk of incomplete penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the groove faces. increased risk of shrinkage cracking. See AWS D1. However. the use of minimum groove angles. Wider root openings allow for complete penetration to the bottom of the joint preparation. However. When the part can be frequently rotated for welding on opposite sides. as prescribed in AWS D1. The reduced groove angle minimizes the differential in weld width from top to bottom of the joint. e.4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) Square groove welds have limited application for structural steel. groove angle. Alternate details may be selected with reduced or wider root openings. Qualified Joint Details.1 Section 3 for these limits. qualification testing of the joint detail is not required to verify the suitability of the detail.3 and 3.

also called effective throat. (3) For CJP groove welds in transverse compression.1 Code requires the use of either matching filler metal or a filler metal one strength classification less.1 Code permits the use of matching filler metal or a filler metal of lower strength. and effective weld length.1. with a phi of 0. (2) For CJP groove welds that carry transverse tensile stress. with the backing bar remaining in place. the AWS D1. (1) Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove welds have an effective throat equal to the thickness of the thinner part joined. Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths. the weld must be designed as a PJP groove weld. see the appropriate specification. the measurement of leg size is ineffective. 3. Overmatching is not permitted in AWS D1.1 for matching filler metals. a.1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 groove angles and J-and U-groove details reduce the difference in weld width between the root and the face of the weld. Weld design strength (when using LRFD) is provided in AISC Table J2.5.1 Table 2. See AWS D1. (4) CJP groove welds in shear may carry 0. but the effective throat is the shortest distance from the root to a straight line drawn between the two weld toes.5 of the ASD Specification.3.1. as the base metal will be the weaker of the two materials. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. (1) For welds other than CJP groove welds loaded in transverse tension. or in AISC Table J2. is provided in AWS D1.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. without consideration of the resistance factor phi. AISC provides similar information in Table J2. and also overmatching filler metal to the extent of one weld strength classification. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) less. the AWS D1.3. Part A provides the details for the calculation of effective weld size. If ASD is used. and then be detailed to provide the throat required.5 of the LRFD Specification. (2) Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds must have their size specified in the design. Note [d] requires the use of filler metal with a designated CVN toughness of 27J @ +4oC (20 ft. (3) For flat and convex fillet welds.1 Table 3. the effective size is specified in terms of weld leg. AWS D1. AISC permits the use of undermatching for the same conditions. when using ASD. Matching filler metal provides a weld with at least the strength of the base metal in such an application. b. Effective Weld Size / Throat. AWS provides the required depth of preparation for PJP groove welds in D1. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) more. (2) Should the CJP groove weld be used in a T-joint or corner joint loaded in tension transverse to its axis.1 Code requires the use of matching filler metal. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS. Alternatively.9. the AWS D1. Should the fillet weld be concave. and the throat must be measured as the shortest distance from the root to the weld face. Both AWS and AISC tables are similarly structured. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. Figure 3.-lbf @ +40oF). The following information is in terms of LRFD. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. similarly loaded. and therefore reduce the weld shrinkage. 5-4 . AISC places no limit on the undermatching strength. with a phi of 0. Allowable weld stress.1 Section 2.9. with minor differences in certain sections.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) CJP groove welds and other welds carrying tension or compression parallel to the axis of the weld need not be designed for the tensile or compressive stress.14. with a phi of 0. are used for loading other than parallel to the weld axis. For eccentrically loaded fillet weld groups. for joints designed to bear.1 Section 2. (13) When a fillet weld is loaded longitudinally along its axis. (12) When fillet weld strength increases. LRFD values. and the base metal stress may not exceed 0. are generally 1. applied to the throat of the groove weld. because of penetration and HAZ hardening.4 and 2. the leg of the fillet weld is not a failure plane that needs checked. (7) PJP groove welds in compression are currently treated differently by AWS and AISC.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. with a phi of 0. (10) Fillet welds may be stressed to 0. using the effective size (throat) of the groove weld for the check of the base metal stress. 5-5 .45 times the classification strength of the filler metal.6. as the base metal will govern the strength of the joint. an increase is also permitted based upon an equation.5. only AWS provides design values. (9) PJP groove welds in shear may be stressed to 0. allowable shear stress increases are also permitted when using the instantaneous center of rotation approach for the analysis of the weld group. Research indicates that.8.4.5 times the ASD values. considering the factor phi.CEMP-E with a phi of 0. For angles other than transverse. as above. only for any shear forces that may be transferred between the connected parts. with a reduction coefficient Beta of 0.75. with a phi of 0. Note [h] requires the use of CVN toughness as above. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. Under AWS D1. girder web-to-flange welds need not be designed for the axial force from bending.50 times the classification strength of the filler metal.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. AWS D1. the weld stress need not be checked. as in a splice plate or brace member. provides design values only for the joint designed to bear application. with a phi of 0.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. As an example.1. (14) Plug and slot welds may be stressed to 0. The stress on the base metal is also limited to the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. Under AISC. there is a maximum effective length of 100 times the leg size before a reduction factor must be implemented.8. and is loaded from its end.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. Longer fillet welds loaded in such a manner must be analyzed using a reduction coefficient Beta from AISC LRFD Specification equation J2-1.75. AISC. because it is based upon new construction.14.9. permit a 50% increase in the allowable shear stress on the weld. Design values for typical weld groups are provided in the AISC Manual. based upon Allowable Stress Design (ASD). There is no need to check the shear stress in the base metal along the diagrammatic leg of the fillet weld. The maximum effective length is 180 times the leg size. PJP groove welds are categorized into joints designed to bear and joints not designed to bear. (8) For joints not designed to bear. (6) PJP groove welds in transverse tension are permitted to carry 0. The weld stress may not exceed 0. only for the shear transferred between the web and flange. (11) For transversely loaded fillets welds. with a phi of 0.90.5. which would apply when the weld is 300 times the leg size in length. and AISC LRFD Specification Appendix J2.

The rapid cooling creates a hard. For lap joints where the part receiving the fillet weld along its edge is less than 6 mm (1/4 in.75.1 Section 2. Minimum Weld Size. special material.4 provides minimum prequalified PJP groove weld sizes. The basis of these tables is the need to slow the cooling rate when welding on thicker materials.) in thickness. AISC Table J2.17.1 Section 5. the Code requires a check of the base metal in shear. (15) With shear stress in any type weld. and Table 3. with a phi of 0.1 Table 5.1 and AISC codes. Typical reentrant corners in buildings are found at openings for piping and ductwork in beam webs.1 Table 5. Beam copes and weld access holes are treated separately by the code. c. A maximum fillet weld size is established for lap joints where a fillet weld is placed along the edge of a part.5.) or more in thickness. in the form of tables and software.4. Under the AISC LRFD Specification. Larger welds are made with higher welding heat input. and therefore the weld region cools very rapidly. which acts as an efficient heat sink. special provisions regarding surface quality and inspection apply. Weld Access Holes. Weld access holes provide access for welding equipment to reach the weld region.8. This is to protect the edge of the part from melting under the arc. e. The maximum fillet weld size that should be specified. provides minimum fillet weld sizes. martensitic heat-affected zone (HAZ). Available Design Aids.75. when the part is 6 mm (1/4 in. Reentrant corners must be smooth. with potentially high levels of trapped hydrogen. Grinding of reentrant corners and tangency is not required. See AWS D1. Bibliography. Reentrant corners are internal cuts in members. g. reducing the interference from the member itself. not for shear along the walls of the hole or slot. Access holes also serve to separate weld shrinkage stresses when fully welded joints are made in both the member web and flange. and quality. f. are available. See Appendix B.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 with a phi of 0. but may also be used in other joints where interferences exist. with a minimum radius of 25 mm (1 in. This check is applied to the thickness of the material. Small welds provide little heat input to the thick base metal. with a higher risk of cracking. See AWS D1. limiting the base metal stress to 0.1 Section 5. d. Typically. making it difficult to verify adequate leg size and throat. is 2 mm (1/16 in.) less than the thickness of the part. Plug and slot welds may be designed only for shear forces along the base of the hole or slot. This is especially applicable to situations using fillet welds on opposite sides of thin beam and girder webs. h.8. When weld access holes are used in heavy sections or high-seismic applications. See AWS D1. dimensions. and AISC LRFD Specification Section J1. Maximum Fillet Weld Size. Reentrant Corners. AWS D1. and reduce the risk of HAZ cracking to acceptable levels. They also provide access for weld cleaning and inspection. as an example. not the weld/steel interface. to verify that the steel has the capacity to carry the load delivered to or from the weld. Minimum weld sizes are incorporated into both the AWS D1. or when making welded flange connections in beam-tocolumn joints. Heavy Section Joint Provisions. There is no need to check the stress in the base metal along the base of the plug or slot. weld access holes are provided in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges. but does not provide weld size reductions based upon the use of low hydrogen electrodes or preheat.).16.6 for minimum access types. Design aids for welded connections. welding and quality requirements apply for applications using ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. the specified fillet weld size may equal the thickness of the part.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. and for built-up sections 5-6 . therefore reducing the cooling rate. with no notches.3 provides minimum fillet weld sizes similar to AWS D1.

(2) Welding personnel qualified to weld using backing are also qualified to weld without backing. ground to bright metal. may require thicker backing. The special provisions listed do not apply when the joint carries only compression.). then the welder must be qualified to weld without backing. In some joints.8 for preheat requirements.10. includes provisions for backing materials. The AISC ASD Specification does not contain the latest joint details. Backing Bars. such as column splices. Weld tabs are typically used in butt joint member splices. groove welded 5-7 .5 for weld tab and backing bar removal requirements. thickness. and removal. AWS D1. and similar terms in the industry. AWS D1.6 for access hole requirements. but not all. but have also been applied to connections such as beam-to-column connections where the flanges are direct-welded for moment resistance. ceramic or flux.1 Table 3. greatly increasing the risk of weld cracking. “run-off tabs”. difficult to achieve with structural steel sections in either the shop or field.).1 Section 5. For joint welding.1 Section 5. splicing. as the arc may strike the copper and melt copper into the weld. (4) AWS D1. If a welder is qualified without backing.3 are generally suitable to reduce the risk of melting thru the backing bar. Welding is more easily performed with backing to support the root pass. but possible for some types of joints for shop fabrication. of these provisions. (1) Steel backing is used almost universally in steel construction.) in thickness. Joint assembly tolerances are greater when backing bars are used. i. Weld Tabs.1 provisions apply for ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes and for built-up sections with a web plate over 38 mm (1-1/2 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 using plates over 50 mm (2 in. the assembly tolerances are typically enlarged to allow variations of 8 mm (5/16 in. The use of backing materials other than steel is generally considered nonprequalified.10. or when bolted slices are used. j. This adds cost to the operation. If the joint is not backgouged and backwelded. Both codes apply these provisions only when the materials are used with welded tensile splices. See AISC LRFD Figure CJ1. Weld access holes must be preheated to 65oC (150oF) prior to thermal cutting. (3) The minimum backing thicknesses provided in AWS D1. requiring the testing of the WPS with these materials. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the backing bar after use. and inspected using either Penetrant Testing (PT) or Magnetic Particle Testing (MT). minimum preheat and interpass temperature of 175oC (350oF) must be used. Backing bars are used to close and support the root pass of groove welds when made from one side of the joint. particularly in fatigue and seismic applications. The special material requirements include a minimum CVN toughness taken from a specific. J1.1c for materials requirements. higher than that required by AWS D1. Those applications that require subsequent backing removal are sometimes done with nonfusible backing materials such as copper. compared to joints without backing. With backing. provided the weld is backgouged and backwelded. and J1. nonstandard location in the material. Assembly tolerances without backing are typically within 3 mm (1/8 in. and therefore AISC LRFD Specification provisions should be used. The purpose of a weld tab is to allow the weld to be started or stopped beyond the edge of the material being joined. J2.2 for dimensional and fabrication requirements for weld access holes.) in thickness. eliminating concerns for melt-through and repair. Weld tabs and backing bars must be removed after completion of the joint. Weld tabs are also referred to as “extension bars”. then the welder may also weld with backing.2. weld access holes may be made by drilling and saw-cutting. Optionally. but PT or MT of the cut surface is still required. Extreme caution should be used with copper backing.1 code provisions contain most. See AISC section A3. but very high heat input procedures. particularly with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). particularly when rewelding and / or finishing of the removed area is necessary.

For SAW. dispersed. the weld tabs may need to be removed. the use of preheat and/or postheat. provides guidance on these methods. removal is required. The use of intermittent welding. lamellar tearing is avoided by using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. generally parallel to the rolled surface. and at the ends of built-up member welds such as girder web-to-flange welds. weld tabs in statically loaded structures should be allowed to remain in place. rather than numerous small passes. l.” and peening. Repair may involve complete removal of the existing weld and 5-8 . welding procedure controls. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. removal is required at transverse groove welds in moment-resisting joints. removal should be considered when splicing members over 25 mm (1 in. The use of weld tabs places the inherent weld discontinuities made when starting or stopping a weld within the tab. camber. In high seismic regions. Welding Sequence and Distortion Control. the tabs support the flux deposit at the edge of the workpiece. welding from the center of the member’s length. Distortion may also occur along the length of a member. and the implications of potential failure in service should be considered. when weld shrinkage occurs.31. or twist. Removal is required in most fatigue applications. (2) Should lamellar tears be detected. Because the completed joint is more highly restrained than the original joint.1 Section 5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 direct-welded flange joints in beam-to-column moment connections. (1) There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. Large inclusions constitute laminations. which may be detectable using straight-beam ultrasonic testing prior to welding. Tabs also allow the welding arc to stabilize prior to welding the main material.) in thickness when the members are subjected to high tensile stresses at the splice. with no assurance that a tear will not form beneath the repair weld. This occurs because welding is not balanced about the center of gravity of the member cross-section. caused by weld shrinkage stresses applied to the steel in the through-thickness direction. The steel is somewhat weakened by the presence of very small. resulting in unintended sweep. Lamellar tearing is a step-like crack in the base metal. particularly in fatigue and high-seismic applications. (2) AWS D1. sequencing. Generally. nonmetallic inclusions. planar-shaped. is the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. generally cause less angular distortion. without starts and stops or build-out regions along the edges. k. For other applications. Parts can be preset in a skewed position so that. provides information on the use and removal requirements for weld tabs. In some joints. the stress type. In heavy section tensile splices. or for low-stress tensile splices.3. For compression joints such as column splices. The inclusions that initiate lamellar tearing are generally not reliably detected using any form of NDT. The most common method for improving through-thickness properties. Steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. nor specific values for weld size. application. generally sulfur-based. and overwelding in some locations may also be used to reduce longitudinal distortion. Weld tabs allow the welding of the full width of the joint. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the weld tab after use. AWS D1. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. Lamellar Tearing. These inclusions serve as initiation points for tearing. the completed member will be approximately straight. and outside the major stress flow of the spliced material. oriented parallel to the steel surface. repair of joints that have torn is difficult and expensive. WPSs that use large passes. (1) After welding is completed. “buttering. weld bead placement selection. the use of low-strength.1 Commentary C2. high-ductility filler metals. This is because thicker members typically have less toughness than thinner members.1. and the low toughness may allow a crack or other discontinuity in the weld tab to propagate into the primary weld.

unusual materials.000 cycles to 100. such as seismic events or unanticipated out-of-plane bending from applied stresses or distortion. with subcategories for special cases. high seismic risk. (3) The fatigue strength of different welded details varies according to the severity of the stress concentration effect. and are commonly plotted on a logarithmic scale as a straight line. Not all fractures are brittle. Care should be taken to avoid transversely loaded sharp notches and joint transitions. sufficient length of base material should be provided in the assumed area of plastic yielding to allow this to occur. fatigue life is generally not affected by applied stress level or the strength of the material. Each detail has a specific description that defines the geometry. (1) Traditional fatigue design is based upon high-cycle fatigue. The fatigue life of a welded joint is affected by the stress range at the location of crack initiation. The fatigue life of a component. cold temperature environments. HAZ or base metal. Backing bars should be removed in some applications because the notch inherent at the root pass between backing bar and steel may initiate a crack in the weld. whether inadvertent or inherent in the design. However. greatly increase the risk of brittle fracture. Where it is assumed that plastic behavior will be required to provide ductility and energy absorption. m. and the fatigue strength of the detail. the stress ranges are generally too low to initiate crack propagation. The fatigue strength of a welded component is a combination of a stress range and a number of cycles (N) that causes failure of the component. Those with similar fatigue life characteristics are grouped together into a Stress Category.000 cycles and up. a. Notches. and toughness in materials selection. Notch-tough materials reduce the risk of brittle fracture. Reinforcement. should be considered in lieu of repair or replacement. Several design codes are now replacing the design S-N curves with the equations used to generate the plotted curves. Extreme loading conditions. so that brittle fracture will not occur. identified as Classes A through F. (2) The S-N curves used for fatigue design provides an assumed relationship between fatigue life and stress range. Many joint designs assume the ability to deform and redistribute stress throughout the connection. Brittle Fracture. at the low endurance limit. At the lower right end of the curve. There are several details that fall within each class. DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE). Stress range does not require stress reversal. primarily a function of its geometry. The stress range is the total range between the maximum and minimum applied stresses. Standard design and detailing practices are typically adequate for building structures. generally in the range of 20. General. The details and stress categories are classified by: 5-9 . and fatigue applications may require more care in the selection and construction of connections and their details. particularly in areas such as weld toes. In welded joints. 4. as the material may have undergone considerable straining and deformation prior to fracture. The design S-N curves used to design structural members have been established approximately 25% below the mean failure values. Sufficient ductility should be provided in joint design and detailing. such as seismicallyloaded structures. Brittle fracture is a failure that occurs in the steel or weld without appreciable deformation or energy absorption. and notches that would serve as crack initiators should be avoided in this area.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 affected base metal. is the number of cycles to failure. Applications that may experience low-cycle fatigue require design and detailing specific to the application that exceed the general fatigue design provisions of the codes. if appropriate for the application. the high-endurance range. the ultimate material strength is exceeded and failure occurs from static stress. At the upper left end of the straight line. low-cycle fatigue may also occur in cases of extreme stress and strain. also called the endurance limit. only a variation in stress.

fillet-welded attachments. built-up members. (4) Careful design and fabrication can reduce the risk of failure by fatigue. When grinding is appropriate. notch-like corners. and not all methods are necessary. The detail category should be evaluated carefully to verify that the actual detail realistically matches the standard detail. and plug and slot welds. inspection. etc.5:1. location of anticipated crack initiation (base metal. Intermittent stitch welds should be avoided. • • • • • • b.). fillet welds. backing removed. grinding requirements. Groove-welded butt joints have better fatigue life than lap or tee joints made with fillet welds. provide for in-service inspection. Transitions between members of differing thicknesses or widths should be made with a slope of at least 2. Unauthorized attachments. with no welding. appropriate quality. and NDT requirements should be specified. Attachment welds should be kept at least 12 mm (1/2 in. must be prohibited. Joints should be placed in low stress areas. such as a transversely loaded CJP groove weld with reinforcement removed. with progressively more cycles and lower stress ranges for the endurance limit in other categories. C. radius. governing dimensions (attachment dimensions. groove-welded attachments. often made by field or maintenance personnel or other trades. A bolted assembly may be appropriate and more cost-effective in some applications. provided this will not have any other detrimental effect on the structure.) from the edges of plates. with reduced permitted stress ranges for a given fatigue life demand. grinding should be in the direction of stress. groove welds. D and E follow the same line slope. stud welds. Avoid reentrant. etc. and in some cases. weld length. Parts should be aligned to minimize or eliminate eccentricity and minimize secondary bending stresses.1 Section 8. by attachment length. Smooth shapes and transitions are important. If a detail is highly sensitive to weld discontinuities.). and member yield strength. Fatigue Design Details. and inspection requirements (ultrasonic or radiographic testing). For critical details. (1) Stress Category A is limited to plain material.CEMP-E • • • • • TI 809-26 1 March 2000 form of the member (plate base metal. Category F behavior is sufficiently different to use a different slope. weld toe). Illustrative examples are typically provided by the codes to assist in the interpretation of these divisions. at the highest stress range. weld type). Avoid attachments to members subject to fatigue loading. Not all methods of fatigue life improvement are contained in the Codes.) short of the end of the attachment. rolled section base metal. 5-10 . Categories B. weld. radius of transition. NDT requirements. but radiused transitions are expensive and may not substantially improve fatigue life. Further divisions of these general categories are provided using general descriptions. may be cost-effective in extending fatigue life. Fillet welds should be stopped about 12 mm (1/2 in. The endurance limit is also reached soonest. fabrication requirements (ground flush. Fatigue life enhancement techniques such as those found in AWS D1. Fatigue details are identified as plain material. for Category A details. Welds on the edges of flanges should be avoided. • • • • • • • • • Grinding groove welds flush in the direction of the applied stress may improve the Stress Category. when possible.

All three organizations are currently changing to equationbased design. other improved details may be considered. where failure of the welded component would result in collapse of the structure. therefore. but induces residual compressive stresses around the slag line to prevent the introduction of the tensile stresses necessary for crack propagation. grinding of the surface and NDT to improve the fatigue design category. may also be used to remove the slag line. Some joints may be changed from PJP groove or fillet welds to CJP groove welds. for some groove details. Caution should be used when extending fatigue life expectations. melting out and removing the microscopic slag intrusion line. so fatigue life is spent in both crack initiation and crack propagation. the design must be established to keep the stress range below that permitted. as other areas of the welded joint may now fail before the weld toe. so there may be minor differences between codes. Inspection of the weld should be performed prior to implementing fatigue life enhancement techniques. fatigue life may be extended. Generally. Should the size become excessive. acts as a small crack. are often limited by the static stress applied. there is no pre-existing crack. Fatigue life of welded joints. d. Stress ranges at the lower number of cycles. Fatigue design begins with the sizing of the member and the connection for the maximum applied static load. with any required inspection for surface discontinuities repeated following the work. At the toe of every weld. Latest Guidance. Recommendations for the design of welded connections in high seismic regions are undergoing substantial revision as of the date of this document. Performing both toe grinding and hammer peening will provide additional benefits. then checked for the applied stress range. for the better fatigue categories. AISC and AASHTO specifications are the most current and comprehensive. 5. including bolted details. c. Adjustments are then made to increase the component or connection size as needed. As a specification for building construction. and all are based upon the same principles and research data. AISC does not address nonredundant applications. Toe peening. Burr grinding of the weld toe. AASHTO and AWS currently use S-N curves.5. The AASHTO code. requires the use of the AWS D1. does not remove the slag line. begins with an initial crack. Any of these enhancement processes typically double the fatigue life of the treated joint. however. The AWS nonredundant structure fatigue provisions are based upon bridge principles. By applying fatigue life enhancement techniques. Occasional revisions to these provisions and details are made by the various code organizations. With plain material. for fatigue purposes. (3) AASHTO and AWS provide fatigue design curves for both redundant and nonredundant structures. with the exception of welds made using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with no filler metal.1 provisions are limited to welded details. Fracture Control Plan for Nonredundant Structures. Users are advised to seek the latest 5-11 . HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS.1 Section 8. and fatigue life is limited to crack propagation.). The process of TIG dressing can be used to remelt the weld toe area to a limited depth. achieving typically triple the fatigue life of the untreated weld toe. Fatigue life enhancement details are not to be used to increase allowable stress ranges. a microscopic slag intrusion line is present. Another alternative is the use of fatigue life enhancement details to improve fatigue life.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Various design codes may be used for fatigue design. and AISC uses tabular values based upon the S-N curves. Because the number of cycles is usually established for the application. a. but special provisions for nonredundant structures are not required. Fatigue Life Enhancement. This includes. Section 12. and often the type of detail needed to make the component or connection is established. in which localized mechanical compressive stresses are induced into the weld toe area. to a depth of approximately 1 mm (1/32 in. as described in AWS D1. AWS D1. Allowable Stress Ranges. This line.

Studies have identified a reduced toughness in this region caused by cold-working during rotary straightening at the steel mill. Additional requirements for toughness at service temperature. (6) Current studies indicate that through-thickness toughness properties or applied stress on the column face is not a limiting factor. c. air traffic control towers. emergency vehicle garages.-lbf at 70oF). (2) Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b.20g or higher.33g or higher. designated medical facilities providing emergency medical treatment. Table 4-1 for Seismic Use Groups. These specifications have provisions for a maximum ratio of Fy to Fu of 0. Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. or short period response accelerations (SDS) of 0. Applicability. is currently considered unnecessary for building-type applications. 1 should be followed. require filler metals in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at -29oC (20 ft. emergency shelters. rescue and police stations. E and F.133g or higher. Materials Concerns and Specifications. Specification of steel toughness levels. and need not be specified or checked. grade 50 manufactured to AISC Technical Bulletin #3. materials toughness and other mechanical property requirements may be necessary for the steel and filer metal used in seismic applications: (1) The AISC Seismic Provisions. at the intersection of the web and the radius between web and flange. pending further study. AISC Technical Advisory No. hospitals. (5) There are concerns for the performance of rolled steel sections in the vicinity of the K-line. Section 6.CEMP-E guidance from FEMA and AISC documents. emergency operations centers.50g. and a more controlled chemistry for weldability and properties.3b. and buildings of Seismic Use Group III in areas with SD1 of 0.2 for Seismic Design Categories. are also recommended in the latest FEMA Guidelines. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft. 5-12 . or the specification of A709 steels.) or thicker. and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. and Section 4. Seismic Use Group III structures are essential facilities that are required for post-earthquake recovery and those containing substantial quantities of hazardous substances. See TI 809-04. and water treatment facilities needed to provide water pressure for fire suppression. Reduced toughness in these region may increase the risk of crack initiation from welding in the area.-lbf at 70oF). Special compositional. including but not limited to: fire. section 7. These applications include all buildings located in areas with 1 second spectral response accelerations (SD1) of 0.85. particularly stiffeners (continuity plates) and doubler plates.) or thicker. (3) It is also recommended that structural steel shapes used in high seismic applications be specified as either ASTM A992 or A572. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. Improved materials and details should be used for building structures classified as Seismic Categories D.3.-lbf at -20oF). (4) The AISC Seismic Provisions. designated communications towers. tested using welding procedures representative of the range of production WPSs. and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. or SDS of 0.

. Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements. Inspection Enhancements. current AISC guidelines should be followed.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in. Joint Selection. and placement of a reinforcing fillet. 5-13 . also called the “dogbone” system. (4) control of profile and quality of the access hole. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in. f. backgouging of the root. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems . Continuous inspection of all welding performed on CJP and PJP groove welds that are a part of the Seismic Force Resisting System is necessary. See (e) below. e.1.) in thickness. Enhanced quality.. (2) improved quality of the weld access hole. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling of the weld to check for lamellar tearing. (3) removal and finishing of weld tabs. The exact requirements for access hole provisions and web welding depend upon the type of connection used and the design application. Current recommendations include the following modifications to the previous standard beam-to-column connection: (1) removal of bottom flange backing bar. Several types of details may be used to achieve satisfactory moment connection performance in high seismic applications. Bibliography. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1.). The Engineer may allow periodic inspections when appropriate. (5) use of partially or fully welded web connections.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications. and further investigation of the latest recommendations should be made prior to use. See Appendix D. For Reduced Beam Section (RBS) system connections. whether Special Moment resisting Frame (SMRF) or Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF). improved and reinforced details are recommended for conventional-type connections. When using T-joints. Several limitations have been found in the cover-plated and ribbed details.

creating the arc. Occasionally. such as embedment plates or inaccessible connections. STUD WELDING PROCESS. installation may begin. but may also include shear connector applications for composite columns and frames.1 for procedure qualification. See AWS D1. studs applied to curved surfaces. including studs applied through metal decking. This testing requires two studs to be welded. After stud base qualification by the manufacturer.1. The stud welding gun draws the stud away from the steel.7. PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING.1 Section 7. a tension test method may be used.1 Section 7. plus the use of a ceramic ferrule to contain the molten pool. Stud welding is a fully automated process with controlled arc length and arc time. The weld arc and molten pool is protected with the use of a flux tip on the base of the stud. Recommended Practice for Stud Welding. Stud welding for building applications is generally for shear connectors in composite beams. allows a brief period for the melting of the steel and stud base. personnel qualification. However.1 Annex IX.CEMP-E CHAPTER 6 STUD WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. and is conducive to a suitable convenient load test. or qualification testing by the contractor for the applications listed. and inspection. The welding operator conducting the two pre-production tests at the start of the day or work shift is qualified for performing stud welding that day or shift. rather than the capacitor discharge stud welding process. pre-production testing is required at the start of each day or shift to verify the setup of the equipment. studs welded in vertical or overhead positions. Studs may be welded either directly to the structural steel or through metal decking.4. The arc stud welding process is used for structural studs.4. For all other applications. 4. STUD BASE QUALIFICATION. then plunges the stud into the molten pool and terminates the current flow. and therefore is treated separately by AWS D1. Alternatively. 5. See AWS D1. or studs welded to steels not listed as Group I or II in AWS D1. Stud bases are qualified by the manufacturer for application on bare steel in the flat position only. See AWS C5. threaded studs may be used for special connections where bolting is not practical. A DCEN (straight) current is used to create an arc between the stud base and the steel. ten (10) specimens must pass a 90o bend test using representative material and application. 2. GENERAL. for complete information. The purpose of most shear connectors is to integrally connect steel and concrete materials so that they act as a single unit in resisting load.1 Table 3. 3. the contractor must perform qualification testing.6. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. on the 6-1 . Qualification procedures for this application are provided in AWS D1. For the Type B studs used in composite construction.

even if full flash is apparent. INSPECTION. Should the stud weld not fracture. or tested using a bend test applied approximately 15o in the direction opposite the missing flash. The inspector may 15o bend test any stud. all stud welds are visually inspected for flash about the entire perimeter of the stud base. time. 6-2 . Following the application of studs and the removal of the ferrules.7. if desired.1. the stud is accepted and may be left in place in the bent condition when used in composite construction.8. then bent approximately 30o. or gun lift and plunge. If the stud weld passes the visual and bend testing. visually inspected. then production welding may begin. For composite construction. See AWS D1.1 Section 7. The pre-production test must be repeated whenever there are changes to the following items: voltage. Those with missing flash may be repaired.1 Section 7. 6. the stud need not be bent back to the original position. current. See AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 work if desired.

1 Annex XI. Portable spectrographs may also be used. a. Self-shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW-S) weld deposits contain 7-1 .or low-stress locations.CEMP-E CHAPTER 7 WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. provides applicable code provisions. several areas require investigation and. then analyzed spectrographically for composition. AWS D1. Weld sample tests include welding small test plates to the steel. the reduction of strength to existing members when being heated or welded. FCAW-S Deposits. and the greater the importance of low-hydrogen welding. All welding to existing structures should be performed with low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes or with other wire-fed welding processes. although only optical emission spectrography systems currently provide sufficient accuracy for measuring carbon content.1 Section 8. and observing the nature of the fracture. Minimum preheat and interpass temperatures can be determined from AWS D1. WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS. then observing and characterizing the color and nature of the sparks off the steel. and its supporting Commentary. 4. even if the percentage reported is zero. GENERAL. Spark testing applies a grinding wheel at approximately 5000 rpm to the steel. 2. in some cases. although less reliable. then destructively using a sledge hammer to break off the samples. INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS. and the welding to existing weld deposits of unknown origin or made with FCAW-S electrodes. When welding to reinforce existing structures. DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS. The poorer the weldability of steel. or from technical literature. the greater the need for higher preheat and interpass temperatures. Carbon Equivalency. although structural steels were not manufactured specifically for welding properties until A373 and A36 came into use in the early 1960’s. The weldability of steels between these periods is generally considered sufficiently weldable. (2) Other methods. Other than load analysis of the structure to design the connections. Investigation. a. include spark testing and weld sample tests. Investigation of weldability is generally warranted for buildings constructed prior to 1945. if possible. (1) The most reliable method to establish chemical composition for determining carbon equivalent values is to remove samples from various members at selected no. several welding issues arise. The laboratory analysis report should list the quantities of each of the elements in the selected carbon equivalent equation. specific instructions. b. 3. These include weldability of the existing steel.

use shorter sections of weld and then allow cooling. carbon and other alloying elements. Some older structures may contain lead-based paints that must be removed using special hazardous materials precautions.) trailing the weld puddle. typically a carbon-manganese-silicon metallurgical system. the affected area is typically small compared to the area of the unaffected steel. used in numerous coating systems and galvanizing. a. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. or requiring subsequent welding using appropriate FCAW-S should be considered. As a general guide. At approximately 300oC to 400oC (600oF to 800oF). particularly ductility and toughness. When it is suspected that existing weld deposits that will receive subsequent welding were made using FCAW-S. It may be necessary to stagger welding operations. Steel further from the weld region will remain at temperatures that will not significantly reduce the steel’s properties. root pass welding selection. Other Processes. there is the potential for reduced properties. Investigation. Zinc. When welding parallel to the applied stress. Other weld deposits. b. produces noxious fumes. within the weld region. nitrogen. an investigation into the composition of the coating is warranted. do not contain the amount of aluminum necessary in order to preclude the formation of free nitrogen. This is the result of the liberation of nitrogen and aluminum that were previously chemically combined as Al-N in the FCAW-S deposit. Fy and E are reduced approximately 20%. Recent research indicates that this problem may not be limited to non-FCAW-S weld deposits on top of FCAW-S. Elevated Temperature Effects. b. but localized temperatures near the weld region will exceed these temperatures for brief periods. c. steel during welding. STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD. Low-admixture welding procedures. Preheat temperatures at this level are rarely used. additional caution is needed. When welding on steel having existing coatings.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 aluminum. 5.) to the side of a weld. Welding Direction and Sequence. An aluminum content in the range of 1% is indicative of FCAW-S. or use lower heat input procedures. further investigation of the weld deposit is warranted. which can embrittle the steel or weld deposit. When welding under load. Multiple weld processes in a single weld joint may also occur in new construction because of tack welding. unless all coatings in the vicinity of the welding are removed prior to welding. consideration should be made for the temporarily reduced strength of localized areas of the steel. When welding transverse to the load. and a distance of approximately 100 mm (4 in. design assuming reduced mechanical properties. When weld processes that use consumables with significantly different metallurgical systems are mixed with FCAW-S deposits. will exceed these temperatures approximately 25 mm (1 in. 6. or other reasons. Elevated temperatures in steel reduce both the yield strength (Fy) and the modulus of elasticity (E). 7-2 .

Section 7. In some cases.1 requires the use of and inspection of WPSs. whether qualified or prequalified. flux.1. and minimum 8-1 . and welding parameters meet the provisions of AWS Table 3. c. and that filler metals with the required toughness have been selected by the contractor. The WPS also provides information necessary for inspection duties. to review and approve WPSs that are qualified. whether prequalified or qualified by test. REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES. WPS Prequalification Limits.4. thickness of material to be joined. Therefore.1 Section 6. minimum (and sometimes maximum) preheat and interpass temperatures. which is the designated responsibility of the Contractor. and must be reviewed by the inspector. location and number of passes. size of weld.7. Based upon the application. 2. electrode diameter. but requires only “Fabrication / Erection Inspection”.1. GMAW except short-circuiting transfer. Weld procedures are written by the contractor responsible for the welding. such as for thick and highly restrained joints. This is primarily to ensure that WPSs are developed for the welds critical to building performance. any specific welding inspection operations to be performed by personnel other than the Contractor must be fully detailed and placed in the contract documents. or SAW). To be prequalified. FCAW. the welding process must be prequalified (SMAW.CEMP-E CHAPTER 8 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. for the welder and inspector. under AWS D1.3.1 requires inspection of welding. Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are written based upon the steel to be welded. The Engineer is assigned the responsibility in AWS D1. AWS Requirements. must be in writing. current (amperage) or wire feed speed. and other pertinent information specific to the weld to be made. All WPSs. AISC Requirements.3 and 3. “Verification Inspection” is the prerogative of the Owner. Welding procedures are used to specify. WPS Contents. These requirements should be a part of the contract documents. type of joint.1 Section 4. The contractor may develop WPSs based upon manufacturer’s recommended operating parameters. a. GENERAL. d.4. travel speed.1 Section 4. This includes the use of the prequalified groove weld details in AWS Figures 3. b. Prequalified WPSs need not be tested using the tests prescribed in AWS D1. The inspector should review the WPS for general conformity to the welding code and applicability to the joint to be welded. shielding gas flow rate. the WPS specifies the welding materials to be used (electrode. the welding parameters for the weld to be made. The Engineer is responsible for establishing and specifying the requirements of the Quality Control and Quality Assurance programs for the project. voltage. and position of welding.1. AWS D1. AWS D1. minimum prequalified PJP groove weld size in AWS Table 3. for welds that are part of the Seismic Force Resisting System. the Engineer must approve the welding procedures. verified by the contractor’s experience and testing as desired.1 Section 3. the weld details must meet all the requirements of AWS D1. shielding gas).1. The purpose of the Engineer’s approval of the WPS is so that it can be verified that the qualification testing is representative of the actual welding conditions. Prequalified WPSs need not be approved by the Engineer under D1. type of weld. the Engineer is made responsible for the review and approval of all WPSs.3. In the AISC Seismic Provisions.

filler metal selection. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. Personnel Classification. Documentation of the WPS used and test results must be documented in the form of Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs). and made available for inspection by the inspector. and specify polarity. (5) Approval of the WPS should be taken as review only. particularly when CVN toughness is required. 3.1 Section 3. and the resultant weld quality and properties.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 fillet weld size in AWS Table 5. WPS Qualification Requirements. Welding personnel are classified into three categories: welders. remains with the contractor.) test plate thicknesses specified in AWS D1. joints.2. For review of WPSs.8. See references in Appendix B. 8-2 . The 25 mm (1 in. (3) Caution should be used when reviewing WPSs for thick materials and highly restrained joints. and that the responsibility for the suitability of the WPS. PQRs must be in writing.XX filler metal specifications for information regarding the use and limitations of the filler metal. per AWS Table 3. e. with the finish welds to be performed by qualified welders or welding operators.1 Section 4. nor is restraint developed in the welding of standard WPS test specimens. and minimum preheat and interpass temperatures must be provided per AWS Table 3. Qualified WPSs must be referenced to the applicable PQR. but contractors often tend to work near the high end of the ranges provided to maximize deposition rates and reduce welding time. and the use of restraint devices. The middle of the provided ranges are often good starting points. Welding operators set up automatic welding equipment with wire-fed welding processes. a. it is often difficult to verify FCAW procedures through calculation because of the variations between specific electrode types. It may also be necessary to consult the AWS A5. Alternately. for manual or semi-automatic welding. other WPS testing methods may be used as appropriate. Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors. However. manufacturer’s operating recommendations provide a range of welding parameters such as voltage and current (amperage) or wire feed speed. such as mechanized SAW. to travel at selected speeds. Calculation should not be used to determine optimum operating characteristics for welding.1. the contractor should submit all applicable manufacturer data sheets and operating recommendations for the filler material to be used. manipulating and controlling the arc. but do not provide specific travel speeds or adjustments necessary to achieve a particular weld size. Critical joints should be reviewed to verify that the proper welding materials have been designated for the joint. welding operators. the WPS to be used for the joint must be qualified by testing prescribed in AWS D1.1 Section 4. (1) Generally. as these final adjustments are made by experience. (4) A checklist should be prepared to verify that all welded joints on the project have written WPSs. and tack welders. Welders manipulate the electrode by hand. When WPSs. f. The use of thicker plates and NDT. “Matching” filler metals must be used. (2) Calculations such as heat input and deposition rates are helpful in determining if WPSs should produce a reasonable quality weld of the size specified. should be specified as appropriate for critical welding. do not adequately represent the heat sink capabilities of thicker sections (affecting cooling rates). or other details do not meet the prequalification requirements of AWS D1. Tack welders may only place tack welds to assemble pieces.

However. if beyond these provisions.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. The witnessing of performance testing is not required.4 mm (1 in. and 4. Welding position is not a factor in maintaining welding personnel qualification.1 Figures 4. FCAW. Welding personnel qualified for groove welding in a given position and process are also qualified for fillet welding in the same position and process. industry associations and unions. Welding personnel are further classified by type of weld.1 are: (1) current or previous certification as an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in accordance with the provisions of AWS QC1. or EGW.2. the qualification period expires. For the third case.) thick plate are qualified for unlimited thicknesses of material. All performance qualification tests must be fully documented in writing. General Welding and Visual Inspectors. must be specified in the project documents. ESW.4 and 4. INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS a. The basis of qualification. for the contractor to rely upon qualification testing performed by others. even though the certification may have expired. or both.Flat. GTAW.8 provides complete information regarding the cross-over of welding performance qualifications tests and the welding products. GMAW.4. Those who qualify using 9. or (2) current or previous qualification by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) to the requirements of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard W178. Part C. Welders are also qualified by position .5 mm (3/8 in. unless the person has used the process during that time period.1 Table 4. for example Vertical (3).1 Section 4. All welding personnel must demonstrate their skill by performing specific performance qualification tests prescribed by AWS D1. There should be records documenting the use of various processes by the contractor. require a written resume detailing training and experience in welding inspection. inspection and testing. is competent to perform inspection work. Should the welder consistently produce poor quality welds. AWS D1. d. Performance qualification expires six (6) months following testing. Vertical (3) and Overhead (4) welding positions are considered separately.) thick plate or thicker are qualified for twice the test plate thickness. and require a written and hands-on examination prior to approval of the inspector. testing using groove welds or fillet welds. are also qualified for Flat (1) and Horizontal (2) welding. the welder’s qualification can be revoked. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. Should a person not use the process within six months. The contractor is responsible for the qualification of all welding personnel. Such testing may include independent testing laboratories. 4. or (3) an engineer or technician who. Contractor Responsibilities. Additional position classifications apply for tubular construction. by training or experience. and the AWS Certified Welder program. with the Engineer’s approval. Vertical and Overhead. the Engineer should establish minimum levels of training and experience. Although standard practice is to require contractor-based qualification testing of welding personnel. it is acceptable. Welding personnel qualified for more difficult positions. welding vocational schools. Visual welding inspection personnel should be qualified under AWS D1. and are further identified in AWS D1. Welders are qualified by process . Certification of Welding Inspectors.SMAW.6. c. SAW. 2. thicknesses and positions qualified.1 Section 6. Horizontal. (1) The qualification of an previously certified inspector remains in effect indefinitely. Qualification Testing by Others.1. Welding personnel qualified using 25. 3. The Engineer should review the basis and suitability of such programs prior to waiver of contractor-based qualification. in metals fabrication. Acceptable qualification bases under D1. Qualification Testing. requiring retesting. FCAW-S (self-shielded) and FCAW-G (gas-shielded) are considered the same process for performance qualification testing. provided the inspector remains active in the inspection of welded 8-3 . respectively. These are designated on welding personnel qualification records as positions 1.

ANSI/AWS QC1-96.4. or the API 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities code. or ASNT Recommended Practice No. or in accordance with Sections 4. ANSI/ASNT CP-189. (3) AWS D1. steel bar joists. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 steel fabrication. The CWI examination tests the inspector’s knowledge of welding processes.1 does not recognize the AWS Certified Associate Welding Inspector as qualified to perform the work solely based upon this certification. A CAWI has passed the same accreditation examination as the CWI. (2) AWS D1. definitions. as the Level III may not perform actual testing 8-4 . SNT-TC-1A. (1) Certification of NDT personnel should be based on demonstration of satisfactory qualification in accordance with Sections 6. See AWS D1. however. Personnel certifications must be maintained on file by the employer and a copy should be carried by the technician. or is familiar with. 5 and 6 of ANSI/ASNT CP-189.1 Section 6. bolted connections. but has less experience. documented by vision testing performed within the past three years. Inspection by a Level III technician is not recognized. with two years minimum experience rather than five years. and this recent certification option has not been included in the AWS D1. Certified Associate Welding Inspectors. It should also be verified that the AWS Certified Welding Inspector has tested. 7 and 8 of ASNT SNT-TC-1A.1 code because of publication schedules. the AWS D1. and Certified Senior Welding Inspectors.1 allows inspector qualification without the CWI certification under AWS QC1 criteria. terms. (4) Although AWS D1. it is recommended that the welding inspection personnel for critical welding be AWS QC1 certified (or previously certified) by experience and written examination.6 requires that nondestructive testing be performed by NDT Level II technicians.4. reports.1. records. b. and metal decks. Although assumed to be competent to inspect welded construction.. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. Certification of all levels of NDT personnel is the responsibility of the employer of the NDT technician. Employers may rely upon outside training and testing for NDT personnel for certification. It is permitted to take the AWS examinations using either the AWS D1. (5) All welding inspectors must have adequate visual acuity. welding procedures.1 Section 6. symbols. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel. Nondestructive testing personnel should be qualified under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing.14. welder qualification. as modified by the employer's written practice. the employer should supplement such certification testing with a review of the technician’s experience and skill levels. The Senior Certified Welding Inspector is a new program offered by the AWS.1.4. A SCWI should be considered the equivalent of a CWI. NDT Personnel Qualification. or by Level I technicians only when working under the direct supervision of a Level II. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. It is suggested that the certification of NDT personnel should be administered by an ASNT Certified Level III in the specific area on NDT. Inc. destructive testing. in the field of welding inspection. and additional education and training relative to these areas may be needed. and welding inspection experience may be in any area of welding. A CAWI could be acceptable under condition “c” as listed in AWS D1. the AWS Certified Welding Inspector may not have the background or expertise in other areas of steel construction such as general fabrication and erection.1. including experience level. or unless there is a specific reason to question the inspector's ability. governs the requirements and testing of such inspectors.1 Section 6. safety and responsibilities. (2) The American Welding Society offers certification to welding inspectors in the form of Certified Welding Inspectors. nondestructive testing.1 Structural Welding Code.

the status of all joints not accepted.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 regularly enough to maintain the special skills required to set up or to conduct the tests. or by a Level III certified by ASNT. perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results. accepted parts. Under Section 12. The NDT Level I shall be able to follow approved nondestructive testing procedures and shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from a certified NDT Level II or NDT Level III individual. as appropriate. testing of Fracture Critical Members must be done by either a qualified Level II under the supervision of a qualified Level III. and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an NDT Level III. except in the case of Fracture Critical Members. welding procedures. and that any required special supplemental qualification tests. Each person performing welding should have a unique identification 8-5 . The inspector assigned responsibility for the welding of the project should review and understand the applicable portions of the project specifications. from ANSI / ASNT CP-189.An NDT Level II individual shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment. AWS D1. The NDT Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examining of NDT personnel in the methods for which the NDT Level III is qualified. unless the Engineer accepts other forms of qualification. inspection during welding of the joint. • NDT Level II . welding personnel qualifications. inspection prior to welding a particular joint. apply to the various NDT Levels: • NDT Level I . welding operator and tack welder qualification records are available. and verify the accuracy of procedures. 5. and specifications.16.An NDT Level III individual shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques. The Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and NDT Level I personnel. and with prior written approval of the NDT Level III. (1) Personnel. The NDT Level II shall be able to organize and report nondestructive test results. to conduct tests. to interpret codes. General. and other such information as may be required. allowing time for necessary corrections and improvements by the contractor before welding begins. INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS. NDT test reports. standards. The inspector should verify that all applicable welder. b. and to interpret. specific NDT. the contract design drawings. A pre-project inspection should be conducted of the fabricator’s and erector’s facilities and operations to verify the adequacy of their welding operations. by time period: pre-project inspection for general welding operations. • NDT Level III . (3) The following definitions. welding operator or tack welder who has. The scheduling of this inspection should be well before welding is scheduled to begin. evaluate. and inspection of the completed joint. The inspector should participate in a pre-project meeting with the contractor to discuss the quality control and quality assurance requirements for the project. The individual shall also have general familiarity with the other NDT methods.5-96 requires similar qualification. Pre-project Inspection. Requalification is required for any welder.An NDT Level I individual shall have the skills to properly perform specific calibrations. for a period of six months. and the shop or erection drawings for the project. have been passed. a. such as mock-ups. welding operators and tack welders. A record should be kept of all welders. designate the particular technique to be used.1.2. The inspector’s duties can be assigned or placed into four general categories. not used the process for which the person was qualified. current and complete.

1 mandated storage requirements. Welding leads should be inspected for worn or missing insulation. Steel joints to be welded must be smooth. with functioning gauges necessary for following the WPS for the selected process. The contractor should have all necessary welding consumable drying and storage equipment. when desired. or inadequate connectors. rust. In addition to AWS D1. Prior to the beginning of actual welding on the project. (2) Base metal quality. WPSs should be available at welding work stations and used by all welding personnel. Periodic checks should be performed by the contractor to verify the accuracy of gauges and other operating components of welding machines. as appropriate. with an ongoing system in place to confirm compliance.1 Section 5. Welding personnel should be familiar with the SMAW electrode and SAW flux storage and exposure limitations of AWS D1. Such controls and limitations should be based upon manufacturer’s test data and recommendations. it should be verified that all non-compliance revealed during pre-project inspection has been rectified. PQRs should be referenced and available for review for any non-prequalified WPSs.CEMP-E mark or die stamp to identify his or her welds. See AISC Seismic Provisions Section 7. The Engineer’s approval should be verified. perform any physical inspections prior to welding to verify the contractor personnel’s work.15 for complete base metal preparation requirements. c. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Equipment. The contractor should have an operating system to verify that all materials in inventory have proper certification papers on file. This may be done through observation of welding operations and informal inquiries of welding personnel. manufacturersealed containers until ready for placement in storage ovens or use. For high seismic applications.1. (4) Materials Controls. The contractor’s quality control system should be used to confirm that the proper welding consumables are selected. The inspector may. or other harmful foreign materials. Prior to the actual start of welding on the project. Qualified WPSs must be approved by the Engineer.3.1 Section 4. All welding equipment should be in proper operating condition. See AWS D1.2. The proper operating temperatures should be verified on a regular basis as a part of the contractor’s quality control program. uniform. (5) Materials Storage. All other inspection items should be performed prior to beginning the welding of each joint. Part C. research indicates that certain FCAW electrodes may warrant protected storage or limited atmospheric exposure times. slag. See AWS D1. The inspector should verify that all applicable welding Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs) and Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are available. No materials other than electrodes or fluxes. It is not anticipated that the inspector physically perform these inspections at each individual joint. See AWS D1.1. The manufacturer’s identification labels. may be placed in drying or storage ovens. See AWS D1. Prior to Welding. and free from significant surface discontinuities such as cracks or seams. and free of significant amounts of loose or thick scale. should remain on the packaging.3a. current and accurate. but will verify that the contractor’s personnel understand and routinely perform these inspections as a part of their welding operations. Electrodes and fluxes should be stored in their original. but there is no specific requirements for such in AWS D1. including lot number. all WPSs must be approved by the Engineer. (3) WPSs.1.1. Ammeters should be available for verifying the current (amperage) near the arc. Inspections at least annually are recommended. per AWS D1. moisture.11 and 6. rather than at the machine. Records of equipment inspections and calibrations should be maintained.1 Section 4.1 Sections 5.3 for storage requirements. item c(1) below should be performed. 8-6 . (1) Pre-project review. grease.1 Section 5.

flux and shielding gas) with the project requirements and the WPS. as wind above this speed blows away the necessary shielding gas and contributes to poor weld quality and poor mechanical properties. or other special steels. Tack welds must be made using appropriate WPSs. GTAW. For selfshielded welding processes (SMAW.4. then the temperature verification is taken a distance equal to the material thickness.4.). For prequalified steels listed in AWS D1. Welding is not permitted when the ambient (air) temperature is below 18oC (0oF). (7) Wind speed. Verification of preheat temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in.1 Table 3. provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in. See AWS D1. require higher temperatures. may be used to satisfy this requirement and provide adequate protection and warmth for the welders and welding equipment. See AWS D1.2. the leg size of the weld must be increased by an amount equal to the gap.2 if prequalified. The inspector should verify compliance of the welding consumables selected (electrode.) are permitted only for steels over 76 mm (3 in. unless corrective measure are taken. sometimes required for quenched and tempered.) from the joint.1 Table 3.) or less in thickness. When steel temperatures are below these minimum temperatures. and used only in the permitted positions and within the welding parameters specified by the manufacturer and in the WPS. See AWS D1. Tack welds should be visually inspected prior to being welded over by the finish weld.2. The temperature of the steel at the joint prior to the initiation of welding must not be below 0oC (32oF). For gaps exceeding 1. it is advisable to heat the steel to higher temperatures and apply the heat over a wider area. Gas-shielded welding processes (FCAW-G. and ESW).2.). Prequalified groove welds must be assembled within the “as fit-up” tolerance specified for the joint in AWS D1.2. or when welding personnel are exposed to inclement environmental conditions. Preheat temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked for compliance with AWS D1. SAW. Note 1. but should be limited to a maximum of 30 to 40 km per hour (20 to 25 mph). the temperature of the steel should be measured a distance 75 mm (3 in.1 Section 5. For other groove dimension tolerances applicable to other groove welds. and the fillet leg size is increased.22.1 Table 3.1 Section 5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (3) Fillet weld fitup. (5) Steel temperature.1 Section 5. The selected electrodes should be taken only from proper storage. For Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. close-range focused infrared devices.1. but not to exceed 5 mm (3/16 in. FCAW-S. GMAW.22. Steels of thicknesses requiring preheat. it is necessary to heat the steel in the vicinity of the joint to at least 21oC (70oF). After heating. (6) Ambient temperature. the minimum steel temperature at the joint is 10oC (50oF).1 Figures 3.) away from the joint. (8) WPS. or with temperature-indicating crayons. Protective covering or enclosures.6 mm (1/16 in. TMCP. including preheat when required. see AWS D1. (4) Groove weld fitup. or when toughness requirements apply.3 and 3.). Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers.1. If the steel is thicker. as Category C steels. when suitable backing is placed in the root of the joint. Cracks in 8-7 .1 Table 3. per AWS D1.12 for welding environment provisions.1.1 Section 5. It should be verified that the WPS is appropriate for the joint.) in thickness. (9) Preheat. the maximum wind speed is not specified by AWS D1. (10) Tack welds. assembly tolerances are provided in AWS D1. Fillet welded joints must be fitup with a maximum gap of 1.22. with heating as necessary. For welding in extreme cold environments. including preheat. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. and EGW) may not be performed in winds exceeding 8 km per hour (5 mph). It may also be necessary to verify that the preheat temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS.6 mm (1/16 in. Gaps over 5 mm (3/16 in. within any specified limitations.

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tack welds are likely to propagate into the main weld. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. d. During Welding. Observation of welding techniques and performance for each welder should be done periodically during welding operations to verify that the applicable requirements of the WPS and the AWS D1.1 Code are met. Each pass should be visually inspected by the welder for conformance to AWS D1.1 Table 6.1 provisions for cracks, fusion and porosity prior to placement of subsequent passes. To avoid trapped slag, penetration and fusion discontinuities, each weld bead profile should be in substantial conformance with the requirements of Table 6.1. (1) WPS compliance. The inspector should verify that the welding is performed following the appropriate Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). If desired, proper current (amperage) and voltage for the welding operation may be verified using a hand held calibrated amp and volt meter. Because of welding lead losses, measurement should as near the arc as practical. Welds not executed in conformance with the WPS may be considered rejectable, and should be referred to a knowledgeable welding consultant and the Engineer for review. (2) Interpass temperatures. Interpass temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked with compliance with AWS D1.1 Table 3.2 if a prequalified groove weld joint. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. It may also be necessary to verify that the interpass temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS, sometimes specified for quenched and tempered, TMCP, or other special steels, or when toughness requirements apply. Verification of interpass temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in.) from the joint, provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in.) or less in thickness. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers, close-range focused infrared devices, or with temperature-indicating crayons. (3) Consumables control. Exposure of SMAW electrodes and SAW fluxes must meet the time limitations of AWS D1.1 Section 5.3. See AWS D1.1 Table 5.1 for SMAW electrode exposure limits. SAW fluxes may require drying, special handling, recycling, and removal of exposed flux from opened packages. Although not limited by AWS D1.1, research indicates that some FCAW electrodes may absorb moisture in the order of 50% of the “as-manufactured” moisture content. When extra-low hydrogen welding electrodes are required for critical welding applications, and FCAW wires removed from the manufacturer’s packaging will not be consumed within a few days, special storage conditions limiting exposure times, repackaging unused FCAW wire in closed moisture-resistant packing overnight, or the use of storage ovens, may be appropriate. AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code, Section 12 provisions for Fracture Critical Nonredundant Members should be considered for guidance in special cases. (4) Cleaning. Completed weld passes must be cleaned of all slag prior to placement of the next pass. Removal of debris by brushing is required. Wire brushing of the completed weld is recommended, but not required. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. See AWS D1.1 Section 5.30. e. After Welding. After completion of the weld, full compliance with the AWS D1.1 provisions should be verified. If required or specified, NDT is to be performed. Upon completion of inspection of the weld, piece, or project, as appropriate, proper documentation of the acceptance of the welding should be prepared and submitted to the designated parties. (1) Measurement. The work should be visually inspected for conformance with the Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria prescribed in AWS D1.1 Table 6.1. These provisions prohibit cracks and lack of fusion, and permit limited amounts of undercut, porosity, and weld size underrun. Weld profile 8-8

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tolerances are provided in AWS D1.1 Figure 5.4, and Section 5.24. Size and contour of welds should be measured with suitable gauges. Craters are accepted in certain circumstances. Other weld acceptance criteria that is verified visually include arc strikes (AWS D1.1 Section 5.29), and weld cleaning (Section 5.30). Visual inspection may be aided by a strong light, magnifiers, or other devices that may be helpful. (2) Tolerances. The tolerances for the completed member, including cross-section, depth, camber, sweep, straightness, flatness, flange warpage and tilt, stiffener fit, and bearing surface fit, are prescribed in AWS D1.1 Section 5.23. (3) Records. The Inspector should mark the welds, joints, or members, as appropriate, that have been inspected and accepted using a distinguishing mark or die stamp. Alternatively, records indicating the specific welds inspected by each person may be maintained. The accepted, rejected and repaired items should be documented in a written report, distributed to the designated recipients in a timely manner. f. Nondestructive Testing Methods. AWS D1.1 does not require NDT for statically-loaded building structures, but NDT is required by both AISC and AWS D1.1 for certain fatigue detail categories for cyclically-loaded structures. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications, as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems ... shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1.1.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in.) in thickness. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. When using T-joints, with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in.), ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling to check for lamellar tearing. (1) The specific types of NDT, and the applicable acceptance criteria, must be specified in the contract documents. NDT symbols should be used to specify locations and types of NDT. See AWS A2.4 Part C. (2) The contractor is responsible for performing any required NDT, unless specifically designated to be performed by another party. (3) Because of the risk of delayed hydrogen cracking, a delay period of 24 to 48 hours should be considered prior to performing NDT for final acceptance for higher strength steels. See AWS D1.1 Table 6.1 (5). The AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code Section 12.16.4 requires a longer delay period for Fracture Critical Members, depending upon weld size and steel strength. (4) Tables 8-1 and 8-2 provide general guidance for the selection of NDT method(s). For complete information, see Appendix D.

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Table 8-1. Applicable Inspection Methods for Various Discontinuities and Joint Types

Application D i s c o n t i n u i t y J o i n t s

Inspection Method

VT A1 U U U A O A1 A1,3

PT A1 U U U O A A1 A1,3

MT O2 O2 U U O A A2 A2,3

UT O A A A O O A A

RT A A O A A U O U

Porosity Slag Inclusions Incomplete Fusion Inadequate Joint Penetration Undercut Overlap Cracks Laminations

Butt Corner T Lap

A A A A

A A A A

A A A A

A A A O

A O O U

Notes: A - Applicable O - Marginal applicability, depending upon material thickness, discontinuity size, orientation, and location. U - Generally not applicable. Surface only Surface and slightly subsurface only 3 Weld preparation or edge of base metal
1 2

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Table 8-2. Guidelines for Selecting Inspection Techniques
VT PT Fluorescent or visible penetration liquids and developers; ultraviolet light for fluorescent dyes Discontinuities open to the surface only MT Wet or dry iron particles, or fluorescent; special power source; ultraviolet light for fluorescent particles Surface and near surface discontinuities: cracks; porosity; slag UT Ultrasonic units and probes; reference patterns RT X-ray or gamma-ray; film processing and viewing equipment

E q u i p t m e n t D e t e c t i o n

Pocket magnifier, flashlight, weld gauges, scale, etc.

Weld preparation, fitup, cleanliness, roughness, spatter, undercut, overlap, weld contour and size Easy to use; fast; inexpensive; usable at all stages of production

Can locate all internal discontinuiti es located by other methods, as well as small discontinuiti es Extremely sensitive; complex weldments restrict usage

Most internal discontinuiti es; limited by direction of discontinuity

A d v a n t a g e s

Detects small surface imperfections; easy application; inexpensive; low cost

Detects discontinuities not visible to the naked eye; useful for checking edges before welding; no size limitations Surface roughness may distort magnetic field; not permanent

Provides permanent record of surface and internal discontinuiti es

L i m i t a t i o n s

For surface conditions only; dependent on subjective opinion of inspector

Timeconsuming; not permanent

Highly skilled interpreter required; not permanent

Usually not suitable for fillet weld or T-joint inspection; film exposure and processing critical; slow and expensive

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Indications may be misleading on poorly prepared or cleaned surfaces Test from two perpendicular directions to detect any indications parallel to one set of magnetic lines Radiation hazards

C o m m e n t s

Most universally used inspection method

8-12

or may be used to establish when repair or replacement of a weld is required for a given discontinuity or situation.1 Section C6. and eliminates needless repairs. analysis.5.1 (3) Table 6. or experimental evidence to establish alternate acceptance criteria.CEMP-E 6. For ultrasonic 8-13 .1 References Table 6. The Engineer is given the responsibility of determining and specifying the appropriate weld quality acceptance criteria. and magnetic particle testing (MT) are specified. b.5.24 Table 6.1 (6). overlap.30 5. but does not reduce inspection expense.1 (1) Table 6. with some consideration for the effect of surface and near-surface notches upon performance. The Engineer may use experience.1 6. 5.8. NDT Acceptance Criteria.1 Visual Acceptance Criteria.1 c. lack of penetration.1 (8) 5. AWS D1. The first approach is valuable because it reduces the time and expense of inspection. Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria.1 Table 6. based upon the quality readily achievable by a qualified welder. Nondestructive testing acceptance criteria is based upon achievable quality and the ability of the method to detect discontinuities of given size and location. 6.5. This criteria may be applied as the inspection criteria for the project.1 (7) Table 6.1 (2) Table 6.1 quality criteria is a workmanship standard. the acceptance criteria to be used is the same as that for visual inspection. concavity. in lieu of AWS D1.1 (4).1 criteria. WELD QUALITY. See AWS D1. The following table provides the specification reference location for various forms of weld discontinuities: Weld Discontinuity Crack Fusion Weld Craters Weld Profile (convexity. and reduces the potential detrimental effects to the existing base metal. underfill) Undercut Porosity Arc Strike Surface Slag Spatter Length Location AWS D1.30. reducing the risk of creating additional discontinuities while performing repairs. D1. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. The second approach is also valuable.29 5. reinforcement) Weld Size (underrun. When penetrant testing (PT).2 6.

Subsurface inspection for laminations and other defects. structural analysis. Root openings that are too narrow must be increased in width to the required root opening. lack of fusion. Root openings that are too wide are significant in that they increase the weld volume. See AWS D1.1.1 Section 5. should unacceptable internal discontinuities be discovered in the steel.13.1. Repairs for narrow root openings may be done by grinding. During fabrication. provides procedures for the investigation and repair of the exposed laminations. Weld Discontinuities.26. Mill Defects. the unacceptable portion must be completely removed and replaced. 7.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 testing (UT). Laminations at welded joints may serve as sources of porosity and as crack initiation points. REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS. When internal laminations in the steel are discovered during fabrication. to limits specified in ASTM A6 Section 9. a. A root pass placed across a wide root opening may develop shrinkage cracks in the HAZ or in the throat of the weld. For radiographic testing (RT). at extra cost. For excessive undercut. as well as increasing cost. Root Opening Corrections. The mill is permitted to perform removal and repairs to the surface using various means such as grinding and welding.) from the end of the crack and work toward the center of the crack.12. Laminations. and subsequently control bead placement to minimize shrinkage and distortion effects. or overlap. Alternate Acceptance Criteria. but longer and deeper laminations will need either removal by grinding or welding to close the lamination prior to welding the joint. poor penetration and lack of fusion near the root. An alternative to repair of this type would be to use split-layer techniques for the root pass. c. chipping. the steel may be considered rejectable. but may be done by gouging. Should it be necessary to cut the materials apart. The Engineer may base alternate weld quality acceptance criteria on experience. For undersized welds. the weld should have the excess weld metal removed. requires only visual inspection by the mill of the completed product for defects in workmanship.1 Section 5. the weld should be filled to the required size. This is typically done by grinding. service and fracture loads and strengths.1 Section 6. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. the Engineer must be notified. d. Additional caution should be used when repairing cracks. Such a repair does not reduce volume or cost. plus the requirements of AWS D1. or fracture mechanics analysis considering material properties and behavior. Shallow laminations need not be repaired. ASTM A6 Section 9. if refitting the parts is not feasible.1 Section 6. The size or type of internal discontinuity considered rejectable is not defined by specification. b. Some craters may be acceptable if outside the required effective length of weld. the undercut portion should be filled using an approved repair procedure. including craters. such as straight-beam ultrasonic testing. Narrow root openings contribute to trapped slag. All exposed laminations must be explored for depth. Repair of wide root openings entails facing the groove with weld metal until the required root opening is achieved. excessive reinforcement. d. but controls distortion and through-thickness strains in T-joints. air carbon arc gouging. then crack removal should begin approximately 50 mm (2 in. 8-14 . For welds with unacceptable convexity. For cracks. would be performed only when specified in the mill order. plus the requirements of AWS D1. Starting within the crack may cause the crack to grow during removal. and excessive porosity. increasing distortion and increasing the risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. and environmental factors. The end of the crack should be located using PT or MT.15. experimental results. Bibliography. Sources of information to assist in the development of alternate acceptance criteria are provided in Appendix B. AWS D1.

it is best to either leave the hole unfilled or to place a bolt in the hole. 8-15 . then weld using stringer passes. When holes have been mislocated. generally when a new hole must be placed near or adjacent to the misplaced hole.26. When the hole must be filled. NDT is required for repair welds for holes in cyclically loaded members.5. if required elsewhere on the project for groove welds.1 Section 5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. See AWS D1. Mislocated Holes. a special repair procedure should be followed to elongate the hole. NDT may be necessary after welding. It is difficult to fill a hole by welding.

It also applies to other overhead material handling machinery and equipment that supports and transports loads. It is not applicable to pressure vessels or pressure piping with pressures exceeding 104 kPa (15 psig). STAINLESS STEEL. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. See Appendix B . shapes. This specification applies to the welding of all principal structural weldments and all primary welds used in the manufacture of cranes for industrial. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT.) thick. fabric.Bibliography. Sheet steels equal to or greater than 3. including the Fracture Control Plan for nonredundant bridge members.Sheet Steel. including mats.Aluminum.) in thickness.8 mm (3/16 in.Stainless Steel.1 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. but are also applicable to tube-to-plate applications. based upon the structural steel must also be met. but any applicable provisions. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. For welding reinforcing steel. For welding steel materials less than 3.and cold-rolled sheets and plate. but less than or equal to 4. CAST STEEL. tubular members.6 Structural Welding Code . SHEET STEEL WELDING. For the welding of material handling equipment. REINFORCING STEEL. mill.5 Bridge Welding Code. For reinforcing steel welded to structural steel. For welding of stainless steels.2 Structural Welding Code . refer to ANSI/AWS D1. AWS D1. 8. 2. ALUMINUM.TUBULAR STRUCTURES. clad materials. refer to ANSI/AWS D1.4 must be met for the weld. such as preheat requirements. 7.2 mm (1/8 in.) thick. metal inserts and connections in reinforced concrete construction. This code includes welding of hot. castings and forgings of stainless steels.3 or AWS D1. 9-1 . For the welding of highway bridges designed for vehicular traffic. BRIDGES. 3. may be welded under either AWS D1. refer to ANSI/AWS D14.1 tubular provisions and the AISC Connections Manual for Hollow Structural Sections. For the welding of tubular members. and the AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members for general design provisions. refer to the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. 4.4 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel. For the welding of structural aluminum alloys.3 Structural Welding Code . if applicable.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 9 OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 1. 5.2 mm (1/8 in. 6.1. also referred to as hollow structural sections. powerhouse and nuclear facilities. These documents apply to the specific requirements of tube-to-tube applications.

CAST IRON.Bibliography. 9-2 . For the welding of pressure vessels. WROUGHT IRON. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. refer to API Standard 1104. For the welding of pipelines. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. refer to the API RP 2A series documents. See Appendix B . Planning. For the welding of water tanks. Welding and Brazing Qualifications. Section 9. refer to AWWA Manual M42. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. API. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. refer to ANSI/ASME BPVC.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 9. b. For the welding of storage tanks. refer to API 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. 11. AWWA. or API 12F. 10.Bibliography. ASME. OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS a. See Appendix B . Steel Water Storage Tanks . c. For the welding of offshore structures.

electrical power must be disconnected and all gas valves closed when work is suspended for any substantial period of time. molten steel. tied off and held by a worker stationed outside the space. Deaths and severe injuries due to lack of oxygen have occurred where the concentration of these gases becomes too high. no compressed gas cylinders or welding power sources may be placed inside the space. The following provisions should not be considered all-inclusive.. thermal cutting.The following additional safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • • • • • remove flammable or hazardous materials from the space. The fuel gases used pose no hazard. carbon dioxide or nitrogen which will not support life. Work in confined spaces requires additional safety precautions. A confined space could be a tank. 2. and arc gouging operations produce molten metal that may cause burns. or exclusive. inspect all electrical cables and connections. The following safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • move the object to receive the work away from combustible materials move the combustible materials at least 15 m (50 ft. 10-1 . Welding. helium. The arc produced from welding or air carbon arc gouging may burn the eyes. b. test the atmosphere in the space before and during the work. provide adequate ventilation air to the space. c. provided they are handled and stored in a safe and proper manner. SAFETY. (i. but will contribute to more intense fires if pure oxygen is available. During operations. cutting torches must not be lit or extinguished within the space. Fire. complete. SMAW electrode stubs are very hot and could cause a fire if carelessly thrown on wood or paper products. or explosion. that does not allow for adequate ventilation for the removal of hazardous gases or fumes resulting from the work. test all fuel gas and shielding gas lines for leaks. Eye Protection. the welder must wear an approved safety harness equipped with a rope or lifeline.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 10 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1.) from the welding or cutting operation provide suitable fire-resistant shielding around the work area or combustible material fire extinguishing equipment should be accessible to welding personnel trained fire watch personnel should be used if the operations are performed near combustible materials. Oxygen for oxyfuel cutting is not flammable by itself. Refer to applicable governing documents for complete information. Poor quality or poorly maintained electrical connections can cause overheating or sparking and subsequent ignition. a. sparks and spatter often travel a considerable distance. if only a small opening is available for entry. risking a fire in nearby flammable materials.where the available oxygen is too low).e. Certain welding processes use gases such as argon. fires. pit. etc. GENERAL. Proper filters and cover plates must be worn to protect the eyes from sparks and the rays of the arc. Confined Spaces.

require special attention. current level. calcium. (3) Some specific fume components such as chromium. • Use mechanical ventilation when necessary to improve air quality. • Follow the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations for threshold limit values (TLVs) for fumes and gases. electrodes. magnesium. arc length and other factors. the base metal and any coatings present on the base metal. Fumes may also cause symptoms such as nausea. In addition to shielding gases that may be used. The compounds in the fume such as oxides and fluorides of aluminum. e. copper. cobalt.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. hole-free gloves are necessary. fume effects range from irritation of eyes. Dry. . These parts must not be touched with bare skin or wet clothing.1 Safety in Welding. use an approved respirator. except that excessive iron may cause siderosis (iron deposits in the lungs). fluorides. slag. Electrocution. (4) Depending on material involved. f. Further Guidance. gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. • Follow OSHA guidelines for permissible exposure limits (PELs) for various fumes. to keep fumes and gases from the breathing zone and general area. silicon (which is amorphous in welding fumes). cutting and allied processes produce fumes and gases that may be harmful. Cutting and Allied Processes. Burn protection. Protect the skin against radiation and hot particles. electrode reel (for wire-fed processes). and dizziness. Molten metal. Arc burn may be more severe than sunburn. g. and hot material can cause severe burns if precautionary measures are not used. (2) Most welding fumes from carbon steel and low alloy steel electrodes do not require any attention to limits for any specific compound or compounds. manganese. they are listed on the product label and in the MSDS. • Use enough ventilation or exhaust at the arc. Suitable flame-resistant clothing must be worn as protection from sparks and arc rays. and titantium. The work piece and welding equipment must be grounded. (1) Many welding. sparks. • If engineering controls are not feasible. as a minimum: • Keep the head out of the fumes. iron. Their effects are submerged in the overall effects which may be expected from nuisance dusts. use air sampling to determine the need for corrective measures. When these are present at levels of concern. or both. • Where ventilation is questionable. and have special health hazards. potassium. Fumes and Gases. do not have individual effects. • Do not breathe the fumes. natural air movement provides enough ventilation and fresh air. headache. (5) The following safety guidelines should be considered. See ANSI / AWS Z49. Fumes are solid particles that originate from welding consumables. The electrode. and nickel are present in some electrodes. and metal. sodium. welding process. Their health hazards are discussed in the MSDS. and workpiece (or ground) are considered electrically “hot” when the welder is on. skin and respiratory system to more severe complications and may occur immediately or at some later time. The amount and composition of these fumes and gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal and base material. and 10-2 . • In some cases.

FCAW and GMAW welding equipment draws essentially the same current ranges. The total power consumption difference between processes for a given joint configuration is negligible. the minimum weld size and minimum groove cross-sectional area adequate to carry the load should be specified. Power requirements depend more upon electrode diameter than welding process. 10-3 . ENERGY CONSUMPTION. and SAW. ESW and EGW draws more current to provide the higher deposition rates achievable and desired. To save energy. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each product used also provides essential information. SMAW.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 the Bibliography in Appendix B for further general information. Shop welding operations are almost always electrically powered. Field operations may be electrically powered or powered by generators. Some field welding equipment is directly engine driven. 3.

1. 1998) (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Load Assumptions for Buildings TI 809-02. Steel Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/6. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. Aluminum Structures. Composite Structures. Modification and Design of Steel Moment Frames. Structural Plastics. August 1995 FEMA 267B.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX A REFERENCES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS United States Army Corps of Engineers TI 800-01. Department of the Army TM 5-809-6. Structural Design Criteria for Buildings TI 809-04. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation. Repair. 1994 (Supplement No. January 30. October 1997 FEMA 302. IL 60601-2001 www. Structural Engineering. February 1998 NONGOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS American Institute of Steel Construction One East Wacker Drive. 1. December 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. Structural Engineering. January 30. and FiberReinforced Composites. Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls TI 809-30.org Metric Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. General Requirements MIL-HDBK-1002/3. Design Criteria TI 809-01. Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings TI 809-07. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.aisc. 1998) A-1 . December 1. Metal Building Systems MIL-HDBK-1002/1. Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings (to become TI 809-6) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA 267. 2 FEMA 273. Seismic Design for Buildings TI 809-05. Suite 3100 Chicago. 1993 (Supplement No.

aws. 9th Edition. 1999 Manual of Steel Construction. Structural Welding Code .20-95.astm. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction.3-98. FL 33126 www. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction.4-98. Structural Welding Code . Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding ANSI/AWS A5. June 10. 1993 Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections. Nondestructive Testing American Welding Society 550 NW LeJeune Road Miami. 1997 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. PA 19428 www. Volumes I and II.17M-97. Volume II Connections. 1997 (Supplement No. 1999) Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members.23M-97. Reinforcing.03.26M-97.28-96. 1. 1992 Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual.23/A5.Reinforcing Steel ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. Load and Resistance Factor Design.Sheet Steel ANSI/AWS D1. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.25M-97. Structural Welding Code . 1997 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges. Bridge Welding Code ANSI/AWS D1. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.6-98.Steel ANSI/AWS D1.Structural. Pressure Vessel.17/A5.5-96. 1989 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding ANSI/AWS A5.org Annual Book of Standards Volume 1. April 15.18-93. December 1. April 15.04.25/A5. and Nondestructive Testing ANSI/AWS A3.5-96.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design). Specification for Low–Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1992 Metric Conversion of the 2nd Edition Manual of Steel Construction.4-98. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Railway Volume 3. February 15. Brazing. 2nd Edition. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions ANSI/AWS A5.0-94. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Volumes I and II. 2nd Edition. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc A-2 .Stainless Steel ANSI/AWS A2. Allowable Stress Design.org ANSI/AWS D1. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Steel . ASD/LRFD.26/A5.1-91. Structural Welding Code . Standard Symbols for Welding. June 1.1-98.

Cutting and Allied Processes American Society for Nondestructive Testing.29-98. OH 43228-0518 www.org ANSI/ASNT CP-189-1995. PO Box 28518 Columbus. Specification for Welding Shielding Gases ANSI/AWS Z49. 1995 A-3 .1:1999.asnt. Inc.32M-97. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Safety in Welding.32/A5.

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Volume 6: Welding. 2nd Ed. Vol 34. 1996 Steel Castings Handbook. Section 9. Steels. Steel Special Moment Resisting Frames.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Welding Cracks Investigation Report. 6th Ed. Brazing and Soldering. 2nd Ed. No 4. 4th Qtr 1998 Engineering Journal. December 1996 American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections. and High-Performance Alloys. 1990 American Petroleum Institute API 12D. Planning. (1994) American Society for Metals ASM Handbook. 1993 ASM Metals Handbook. 1989 Volume 7: Ultrasonic Testing. 1990 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. Ultimate Strength Considerations for Seismic Design of the Reduced Beam Section (Internal Plastic Hinge) (Iwankiw). 4th Edition. et al). 18th Ed. 1997 Load and Resistance Factor Design of Simple Shear Connections. 1997 Engineering Journal. 2nd Ed. 2nd Ed. Experimental Investigation of Dogbone Moment Connections (Engelhart. 1985 Volume 6: Magnetic Particle Testing. 1997 American Society for Nondestructive Testing Nondestructive Testing Handbook Volume 2: Liquid Penetrant Tests.. Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons. Alaska. 1st Qtr 1997 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. 1995 Weld Integrity and Performance. 2nd Ed. 1991 Volume 8: Visual and Optical Testing. Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998) American Water Works Association AWWA Manual M42 Steel Water Storage Tanks (1998) B-1 . Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. No 1. Elmendorf Air Force Base Hospital. Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API 12F. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API RP 2A series documents. Anchorage. 1990 ASM Handbook. 1998 ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels. 1982 Volume 3: Radiography and Radiation Testing. 2nd Ed. 1996 ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons. 4th Edition.. 1993 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI/ASME BPVC. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms API Standard 1104. Vol 35.

Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and their Significance (Lundin). Materials and Applications. 1984 Design Aids for Welded Connections American Institute of Steel Construction AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD and LRFD versions) Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) CONXPRT (software) B-2 .11-88 Guide for Welding Iron Castings. 1991 Volume 3.6-93 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. 4th Edition. 1985 Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA 288. Linnert.2-89 Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. ANSI/AWS B1.1-97 Welding Handbook. ANSI/AWS C5. Materials and Applications. IIW Guidance on Assessment of the Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures. 1996 Volume 4. Fracture Mechanics. AWS D14. Part 2. Welding. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures Electric Power Research Institute NP-5380. 1990 Welding Research Council WRC Bulletin 295. Visual Weld Acceptance Criteria International Institute of Welding IIW / IIS-SST-1157-90.10-86 Guide for Visual Inspection of Welds. George E. 8th Edition Volume 1. Draft for Development. Welding Technology. Background Reports: Metallurgy. Fundamentals. AWS C4. Volume 1. 1998 Welding Inspection. Welding Processes. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. February 1998 Alternate Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria British Standards Institution BS PD-6493:1991. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures BS 7910: pending (1999).4-93 Specification for Underwater Welding.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 American Welding Society Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds. 1987 Volume 2. ANSI/AWS B1.3-91 Recommended Practices for Stud Welding. ANSI/AWS D3. Moment Connections and Frame Systems Behavior. ANSI/AWS D11. ANSI/AWS C5. March 1997 FEMA 303. 1994 Welding of Cast Iron.1-G Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. 1980 Welding Metallurgy. Part 1.

and Johnson. M.. Quintana. 869-029-00222-5 Intermixed Weld Metal The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 1.. Detroit. Q. and Johnson. Proceedings. Quintana.) DESCON (Omnitech Associates) DETAIL (MacroSoft) fabriCAD (Research Engineers. AWS Annual Convention. Quintana. MI.) SDS/2 (Design Data. M. HI. Proceedings. Order No. and Johnson. M. Welding Journal. Maui. Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment National Fire Protection Association Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes: NFPA 51B. AWS Conference on Welded Construction in Seismic Areas.) CVSpro8 (CadVantage. A. March 1999 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 2.) StruCad (AceCad Software.) Steelcad (Steelcad International..) StrucPro (Eagle Point) Canadian Welding Bureau Weld IT (software) Safety and Health American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLV (R) ) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment American Welding Society.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Load and Resistance Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) Module I . Inc. 1998 B-3 . National Fire Protection Association. Q. Inc. Title 29. Inc. 1994 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations. M. A. A.1450.ASD Simple Shear Connections Module I . M.1 to 1910. Chapter XV11. Q. Parts 1901. Inc. 1998 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 3.LRFD Simple Shear Connections Module II . M.ASD Moment Connections Steel Detailing Software Packages with Connection Design CDS CompuSTEEL (Barasel Corp. Inc. Labor.

1998 Metals Black Book.. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Design of Welded Structures. Prentice-Hall.. W.Theory and Design. Cary. FHWA-IF-99-004. US Dept. 1998 Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures. 4th Ed. 13th Ed. D.. and Rolfe.. Proceedings. Nonferrous Metals. M. 1987 Lincoln Electric Co. August 1999 Other References and Textbooks Cast Publishing Metals Blue Book. 1994 Reviewing and Approving Welding Procedure Specifications. 1998 What Every Engineer Should Know about Welding Procedures. S. April. 1966 Design of Weldments. T. 2nd Ed. of Transportation.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding Procedures Heat-Straightening Repairs of Damaged Steel Bridges – A Technical Guide and Manual of Practice. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. 1953 B-4 . Barsom. Welding Journal.. 13th Edition. 1998 Metals Red Book. 2nd Ed. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. 1994 Tubular Steel Structures . 1962 The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. Miller.. 1976 Metals & How to Weld Them. K. B. H. Ferrous Metals. Federal Highway Administration. 1997 Weldability of Steels. Welding Research Council. Welding Filler Metals. 2nd Ed. D.. K. New Orleans. and Doty. Report No. Stout. D. / James F. 1990 Modern Welding Technology. LA. Prentice-Hall. D. Miller. 3rd Ed. J.. October 1998 Lincoln Electric Company. R.

hydrogen and oxygen. and completed weld. may be welded with non-low hydrogen electrodes. DC+. low hydrogen electrodes are required. DC-. and are designed to be extremely low in moisture.5 similarly covers the low-alloy steel electrodes for SMAW. and another series of values for SMAW with low hydrogen electrodes and all FCAW. For most structural steel fabrication today.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX C WELDING PROCESSES 1. (2) Low hydrogen electrodes have coatings of inorganic materials that are very low in hydrogen. under the arc. and in some cases.1 Table 3.1 lists specific steels and grades where the use of low hydrogen electrodes is required for the prequalification of SMAW Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). also called “reverse” polarity).1 also provides the strength of electrode required for these steels to provide the “matching” strength for the base metal. (3) The term “low hydrogen” was initially used to separate those SMAW electrodes capable of depositing weld metal with low levels of diffusible hydrogen from non-low hydrogen electrodes such as E6010 and E6012 that contain. Filler Metal Designation. This hydrogen can then enter into the weld deposit and may lead to unacceptable weld and heat affected zone cracking under certain conditions. (1) The core of the electrode is steel. (2) SMAW may be operated using either DC (direct current) or AC (alternating current) polarity. either DC polarity. Specification and Certification. a. Process Principles. and cover the solidifying weld to improve bead profile. b. larger electrodes are typically operated using AC. and higher strength groups. DC is used for smaller diameter electrodes. SMAW electrodes should be of the low hydrogen type. SAW and GMAW. when welding on structural steels with a minimum specified yield strength equal to or exceeding 485 MPa (50 ksi). where the current changes direction 120 times per second on 60 Hertz power. Electrodes used on AC must be designed specifically to operate in this mode. and is performed as “manual” welding.8 mm (3/16 in. C-1 . deoxidize the molten weld puddle. coating moisture levels of 2 to 4%. shield the molten weld puddle from atmospheric gases. Filler metal specification AWS A5. The coating is of various materials designed to provide arc stability. typically those with a diameter of less than 4. SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW). For Group II steels. Some coatings contain metallic powders. AWS A5. Generally. adding specific alloys to the weld composition. For prequalified WPSs. This implies a similarity in expected maximum levels of diffusible hydrogen. Group I steels. including A572 grade 50. See AWS D1. is a mixture of base metal and electrode materials. AC electrodes may also operate using either DCEN (DC Electrode Negative. An electric arc is produced between the tip of the electrode and the base metal. also called “straight” polarity) or DCEP (DC Electrode Positive. including A36 steel. (1) Generally. Water (H2O) will break down into its components.). AWS D1. flux the molten puddle of impurities.2 provides one series of minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for “non-low hydrogen electrodes”. To eliminate undesirable arc blow conditions. Table 3.1 Table 3. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is commonly known as “stick” welding. The molten weld pool. by design.1 provides the requirements for carbon steel covered electrodes used with SMAW. melting both. low hydrogen electrodes are prescribed to offer additional assurance against hydrogen induced cracking.

Some electrodes carry the “-W” designation.1 and the AWS A5 filler metal specifications do not currently define “low hydrogen. See Table C-2. for fillet welds only. E7016 electrodes operate using either AC or DCEP. and high hydrogen (15-20).5 low-alloy steel SMAW electrode specification. (5) In the AWS A5. offering economic and time-saving advantages to the contractor. the “2" would indicate that this electrode is suitable for flat position welding and. but these definitions are unrelated to AWS usage and specifications. and include approximately 25% iron powder in their coatings to increase their deposition rate. with suffix “-C3". (8) All low hydrogen electrodes listed in AWS A5. An E7028 electrode contains approximately 50% iron powder in the coating. and some electrodes with very low diffusible hydrogen levels may have poor notch toughness.1 have minimum specified notch toughnesses of 27 J @ -20oC (20 ft-lbf at 0°F) or better.5% nickel. an E8018-C3 nickel steel electrode. medium hydrogen (10-15). enabling it to deposit metal at even higher rates. Most standard low hydrogen electrodes must deposit weld metal with a maximum of 16 mL per 100 g of diffusible hydrogen under test conditions. low hydrogen carbon steel SMAW electrodes are identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX as a 5. Also. See Table C-3 for specific data on these low hydrogen C-2 . as well as on the electrode package. The E7018 electrodes operate using AC or DCEP.1 SMAW low hydrogen electrode classifications include E7015. and have been tested for absorbed moisture and diffusible hydrogen. (6) Optional supplemental designators may be used to indicate the maximum level of hydrogen that may be present in the test weld deposit. E7018. As an example. a similar format is used to identify SMAW electrodes. E7048 electrodes are specifically designed for good welding in the vertical downward progression. The E7015 electrodes operate using DCEP only. (4) SMAW electrodes are classified based on a four or five digit number that follows the letter E (for electrode). The most significant difference in nomenclature from A5. the horizontal position. AWS D1. However. 6 or 8. These designators are a part of the standard AWS classification system and consist of the letter H followed by a single or double digit. Low hydrogen low-alloy SMAW electrodes are similarly identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX-Y as a 5. E7018M. indicating the presence of alloys capable of giving the weld atmospheric corrosion resistance for exposed weathering applications. However.1 for welding on structural steels with minimum specified yield strength of 485 MPa (50 ksi) or greater.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 When SMAW low hydrogen electrodes are used. A “-C1" electrode nominally contains 2. E7028. low hydrogen (5-10).” International Institute of Welding (IIW) documents classify electrodes for diffusible hydrogen as follows: very low hydrogen (0-5 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal). There is generally a cost premium associated with the lower diffusible hydrogen electrodes. In filler metal specification AWS A5. E7016. A5. and E7048. except for vertical welding in the upward progression. as the nomenclature shows. (7) While “low-hydrogen” electrodes are required by AWS D1. manufacturers may optionally list an H8 or H4 designation if their particular SMAW electrodes are capable of delivering these extra low levels of diffusible hydrogen. For example “E7018H8" indicates that the deposit contains a maximum diffusible hydrogen content of 8 mL per 100 g of deposited weld metal. extra-low hydrogen levels should not be specified unless necessary. indicates the electrode nominally contains 1% nickel.1. E7048 electrodes are similar to E7018 electrodes in composition. E7018M electrodes may be used only with DCEP. high notch toughness weld metal from electrodes with good operating characteristics may not be available with the lowest hydrogen designations.1 is the inclusion of a suffix letter and number indicating the alloy content. AC or DCEP. 6 or 8. and may be used in any position. See Table C-1. the required levels of preheat are lower. The electrode classification is imprinted on the coating near the end of the electrode.

E7024).1 Table 5. and these recommendations may vary from AWS D1. up through 550 MPa (80 ksi).5. (11) Low hydrogen SMAW electrodes typically are supplied in hermetically sealed metal containers. E6013.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 electrodes. as listed with operating limitations and uses in Table C-4. SMAW is seldom used as the principal process for structural welding. it begins to pick up moisture. There is no direct correlation between the low hydrogen limits of various electrodes and notch toughness requirements. they should be placed in a holding oven. portable. it may not be possible to complete the weld without stopping. (9) Low hydrogen. used to join high strength steels which are particularly susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking. GMAW and SAW. also called a “rod oven” or “storage oven”. Advantages. and is relatively tolerant of welding technique. The electrode manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed to ensure a baking procedure that eliminates retained moisture. see AWS A5. and wind. they may be used without any preconditioning. Once the electrode has been exposed to the atmosphere. but is commonly used for tack welding. When SMAW electrodes are received in damaged containers or in non-hermetically sealed containers. When supplied in undamaged containers. removing the slag to allow restarting the weld. or from the baking oven. Gas shielding is not required. For electrodes exceeding 550 MPa (80 ksi). to avoid the pickup of moisture from the atmosphere. maximum 8 mm (5/16 in. c. Generally SMAW has a lower deposition rate and is less efficient. AWS D1. (1) SMAW has the benefit of requiring relatively simple.1 limits the exposure time of various electrode classifications. For the notch toughness levels of higher strength electrodes. (2) Smaller prequalified weld bead sizes. AWS D1.5. requires more passes for large welds. but these are not classified as low hydrogen electrodes. fabrication of miscellaneous components. to remove any residual moisture picked up from exposure to the atmosphere. because of the fixed length electrode.1 provisions. in the range of 260oC to 430oC (500 to 800°F). inexpensive. For long welds.1 requires that the electrodes be baked prior to use. SMAW is capable of depositing high quality welds. C-3 . Disadvantages and Limitations. see AWS A5. before use. (10) Electrodes providing a given level of notch toughness are listed in Table C-5. These heated ovens must maintain the electrodes at a minimum temperature of 120oC (250°F). Holding ovens for low hydrogen electrodes are required unless hermetically sealed containers are used to provide dry electrodes when needed. Higher strength electrodes. E6014. and is more costly than the other structural welding processes of FCAW. It can be used in areas with difficult access. (12) Once low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are removed from their hermetically sealed container. welding procedure variations. and repair welding. low-alloy SMAW electrodes. are limited to very short periods. and easy to maintain welding equipment. and using additional electrodes.) in a single pass in the common horizontal position. with additional cleaning time required for slag removal. or baking. There are electrode classifications that have no required notch toughness (such as E6012.

indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements (note: E7018M must meet more stringent requirements. OH) 2 = F. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. Table 3) for E7016-1. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide.1. H. and covering is low hydrogen. iron powder (except E7018M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. indicates improved notch toughness (see AWS A5. H-fillets 4 = F. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7024-1. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. meets special Military specifications. welding positions permitted for use. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F. H. OH Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (E6010) 0 = high iron oxide (E6020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder.1 HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 60 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Generally.1 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . V. V-down. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7018-1. AWS A5. but the R designation is not used) Y Y M -1 HZ R C-4 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-1. average CVN of 27 J @ -18oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -0oF) Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: E7018M meets H4 requirements. iron powder If present.

AWS A5. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F.X# HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Generally.5 Classification System for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements R C-5 . meets special Military specifications. OH) 2 = F. iron powder (except EXX18M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. and covering is low hydrogen. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. V. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. welding positions permitted for use. H-fillets Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (except E7020) 0 = high iron oxide (E7020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder. iron powder Y Y M X# Alloy A B C D G P W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel general low-alloy steel for pipeline use weathering steel HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: EXX18M meets H4 requirements.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-2. H.

H8. OH DCEP 0. H8. OH AC. OH AC. H8. H4 E7018-1 F.3 0. H. H. H-fillets F. V-down.0 1 E7028 E7048 F.6 H16. H4 E7018M F. V. OH AC. DCEP 0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-3. V. H. H8. DCEP 0. DCEP 0. DCEP 0. H4 E7016-1 AC. OH AC. H4 E7018 F. DCEP 0. H8. OH F.4 H16. V. H. H.6 H16. OH DCEP E7016 F.1 4. H8. H4 1 .6 H16.no H designation used for E7018M C-6 . V. H4 H16. Low Hydrogen AWS A5. H. DCEP AC.6 H16.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received ) 0.6 Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. V. H8. H4 Electro de E7015 Position Current CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 68 J @ -29oC (50 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) F. V. H.

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Table C-4. Low Hydrogen AWS A5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2
2 2 2

Electrode E7015-X E7016-X E7018-X E8015-X E8016-X E8018-X
1 1 1 1

Position F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH

Current DCEP AC, DCEP AC, DCEP DCEP AC, DCEP AC, DCEP

Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4

- B3, B3L, B4L, B5, B6, B7, B7L, B8, B8L, and B9 series electrodes not prequalified under AWS D1.1 2 - E70XX-XR and E70XX-X-HZR series Limit on Moisture Content (as received) = 0.3 Table C-5. Toughness Values for Low Hydrogen A5.5 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] CVN Toughness 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -75oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ 100oF) 27 J @ -100oC (20 ft-lbf @ 150oF) Electrodes E7018-W1 E8018-W2 E8016-C3, E8018-C3, E8018-NM1 E7018-C3L E8016-C4, E8016-D3, E8018-C4, E8018-D1, E8018-D3 E8016-C1, E8018-C1 E7015-C1L, E7016-C1L, E7018-C2L E8016-C2, E8018-C2 E7015-C2L, E7016-C2L, E7018-C2L

C-7

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2. FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW). a. Process Principles. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is an arc welding process that uses a continuous tubular electrode fed from a coil or spool into a welding “gun”. The electrode core contains alloy additions, deoxidizers and flux materials. The heat of the arc causes the base metal, tubular electrode wire and core materials to melt. The flux materials bind impurities, rise to the top of the molten weld, and protect the cooling weld from atmospheric nitrogen or oxygen. Shielding of the exposed arc is provided either by the decomposition of the core in self-shielded electrodes, designated FCAW-S, or by an externally supplied gas or gas mixture, designated FCAW-G. (1) With FCAW-G, carbon dioxide (CO2) or a mixture of argon (Ar) of 75 to 90% and of CO2 10 to 25% is used in addition to the gas provided by the flux core. The shielding gas selection may affect the mechanical properties (yield and tensile strength, elongation, and notch toughness) of the weld. Carbon dioxide, as a reactive gas, may cause some of the alloys in the electrode to become oxidized, and therefore less alloy is transferred to the weld deposit. When an inert gas such as argon is substituted for CO2, alloy transfer typically increases. With more alloy in the weld deposit, higher yield and tensile strengths and reduced ductility is expected. The notch toughness of the weld deposit may increase or decrease, depending on the alloys affected. (2) The power source is usually the constant voltage type, using either direct current electrode positive or electrode negative polarity. A separate wire feeder sends wire into the welding gun at a preset rate. The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) provides the appropriate voltage, wire feed speed, electrode extension, and travel speed. For a given wire feed speed and electrode extension, a specific current (amperage) will be provided. As the wire feed speed is increased, the current is likewise increased. The WPS should, preferably, state the wire feed speed to be used because electrode extension, polarity and electrode diameter also affect current. Shorter electrical stickout results in higher current for a given wire feed speed. If current is used in the WPS, an inaccurate electrode extension may go undetected. (3) FCAW is most commonly used as “semiautomatic”, wire fed but with the welding gun manipulated by the welder. It may also be used as automatic, but the intensity of arc rays from the high current arc, and the significant volume of smoke generated, make Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) more desirable for automatic welding. b. Filler Metal Designation, Specification and Certification. FCAW electrodes are specified in AWS filler metal specifications AWS A5.20 and A5.29. AWS A5.20 is applicable to carbon steel electrodes, and AWS A5.29 is applicable to low alloy steel electrodes. The classification and identification system used for these two specifications is summarized in Tables C-6 and C-7. (1) All FCAW electrodes are considered low hydrogen. Self-shielded FCAW electrodes are limited to 550 MPa (80 ksi) tensile strength of less, but higher strengths are available from gas-shielded FCAW electrodes. AWS A5.20 electrodes EXXT-2, -3, -10, -13, -14, and -GS electrodes are not permitted by AWS D1.1 because they are limited to single pass welds. AWS A5.20 electrodes EXXT-3, EXXT-11, and EXXT-14 are for limited thickness applications only, and the manufacturer’s recommendations should be consulted. (2) Tables C-8 and C-9 provide additional information regarding electrode limitations, usage and toughness properties for electrodes permitted by AWS D1.1 for classification strengths of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and lower. For higher strength and other electrodes, the AWS A5.20 and A5.29 specifications should be consulted. C-8

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c. Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations. The Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), but also has a few disadvantages and limitations (1) The FCAW electrode is continuous, eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with FCAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. With FCAW, the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in.) from the end of the electrode, minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. This electrode extension distance, commonly called “stickout,” varies for each WPS, and may be considerably higher. Both factors provide FCAW an economic advantage over SMAW. (3) The number of arc starts and stops, a potential source of weld discontinuities, is also reduced. (4) The equipment required for FCAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW, and more difficult to maintain. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using FCAW compared to SMAW. (5) FCAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens for ordinary applications, but caution should be used when FCAW wires are exposed to the elements for extended periods of time. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits, more restrictive storage requirements may be warranted. (6) FCAW is capable of all-position welding when using small diameter electrodes. Large diameter electrodes, using higher electrical currents, are restricted to the flat and horizontal positions. (7) There are several advantages to using FCAW-S (self-shielded) rather than FCAW-G (gasshielded). The FCAW-S welding gun assembly does not require a gas nozzle, also called a gas cup, therefore access into smaller areas is possible, significant when welding in tight locations such as weld access holes in beam-to-column connections. The welder is also better able to see the arc and weld puddle because the gas cup is not present. (8) A second advantage to FCAW-S over FCAW-G is its ability to make quality welds under field conditions involving wind. For FCAW-G, it is necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. Such shielding may be expensive, timeconsuming, require additional ventilation for the welder, and constitute a fire hazard. FCAW-S eliminates the handling of high pressure gas cylinders, theft of cylinders, protection of gas distribution hosing under field conditions, and the cost of the shielding gas. For shop fabrication, wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. However, drafts from doorways and windows, fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation, and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. (9) FCAW-G “operator appeal” is usually higher than with FCAW-S because of better arc control and less fume generation. FCAW-G is less sensitive to variations in electrode extension and arc voltage than FCAW-S. The range of suitable applications for a single size and classification of FCAW-G electrodes is generally broader than for FCAW-S electrodes. (10) FCAW-S procedures must be closely controlled to ensure the required level of weld quality and mechanical properties. Because of the high deposition rates possible, travel speeds and technique C-9

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must be monitored to ensure that excessively large bead sizes are not produced. Large bead size, because of the high heat input and excessively slow cooling rates, may reduce notch toughness, reduce weld soundness, decrease heat affected zone toughness, and decrease the weld metal yield and tensile strengths.

C-10

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Table C-6. AWS A5.20 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXT-XMJHZ E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode

X

T X M J HZ

Type of electrode, numbered 1-14, or letter G or GS If used, electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar, with balance CO2 If used, electrode has toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) If not used, electrode has toughness as listed in A5.20, Table 1 Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

C-11

AWS A5. with balance CO2 C-12 .self-shielded X T X X# Alloy A B C D K W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel other alloy steels weathering steel M If used. or 8 1 & 5 . electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar.29 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXTX-X#M E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 11 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 12 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode Type of electrode. 5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-7.gas-shielded 4 & 8 . numbered 1. 4.

g.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o DCEP. OH F.May be either 6 or 7. E7XT-9J) have minimum CVN Toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20o . H. V-up. H.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi). not specified DCEP none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC DCEP not specified not specified C E71T-12 EXa0T-G EXa o Note . OH E70T-4 E70T-5 F. DCEN 2 75-80% Ar . V-up. for 60 ksi or 70 ksi tensile strength. V-up.CEMP-E Table C-8. H E70T-7 F. H.CO2 2 Current CVN Toughnessc 27 J @ -18oC DCEP DCEP C 27 J @ -18o 27 J @ -18oC 75-80% Ar . DCEN self DCEN self self self 2 27 J @ -29 C none specified none specified DCEN o C 27 J @ -29 C DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -290C DCEP 2 75-80% Ar . H. H self self CO CO2 not specified F. V-up or V-dn. H. OH E70T-8 F.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o F. H F. V-up.27 J @ -18 C = 20 ft-lbf @ 0o C = 20 ft-lbf @ -20 F a .electrodes with “J” at the end of the designator (e. OH F. H E70T-1M E71T-1 F.CO self 2 DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -29oC DCEP. V-up. H E71T-5 E71T-5M F. H F. OH F. H E71T-9 E71T-9M b b TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Position Testing Shielding Gasd CO 75-80% Ar . H F. V-up. H. OH F. b . H. V-dn. Multipass Only] Electrode F. OH E70T-9 F. H F. AWS A5. H.

Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.CEMP-E d TI 809-26 1 March 2000 . C-14 .

H F. H. V. H F. OH F. H F. H F. V. OH F. H. OH F. V. H. H. V. V. H. V. H Testing Shielding Gasd self self CO2 self self self self CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Current DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP Minimum CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -76oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) . H F. H F. H F. OH F. H F. H F.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. H. V. V. Multipass Only] Electrode E61T8-K6 E70T4-K2 E70T5-A1 E71T8-K2 E71T8-K6 E71T8-Ni1 E71T8-Ni2 E80T1-A1 E81T1-A1 E80T1-B1 E81T1-B1 E81T1-B2 E80T1-B2H E80T1-K2 E80T1-Ni1 E81T1-Ni1 E80T1-Ni2 E81T1-Ni2 E80T1-W E80T5-B2 E80T5-B2L E80T5-Ni1 E80T5-Ni2 E80T5-Ni3 E80T5-K1 E80T5-K2 d Permitted Positions F. H F. OH F. OH F. AWS A5. OH F. OH F. H. OH F. H F. V. H F. H. V. H. H F. H.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-9. OH F.29 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). C-15 . H F. H F.

The arc is maintained by the lower background current. and lack of slag to hold the molten metal in place. Carbon dioxide. With structural steel. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. is not. and subsequently leaves little. or both. extinguishing the arc. causing it to heat and melt. Because of the lower cost of CO2 shielding gas. significant fusion problems such as cold lap may result. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW ) process. may be referred to as “MAG” (Metal Active Gas) welding. (3) Pulsed arc transfer uses a background current that is continuously applied to the electrode. but can be used out of position. pulsed arc transfer. if any. It is not as productive as spray transfer for welding in the flat and horizontal positions. may be specified. the short circuiting mode of transfer. and AWS A5. the arc ejects large globular pieces of molten steel from the end of the electrode. (1) Spray arc transfer uses high wire feed speeds and relatively high voltages. usually between 100 and 400 times per second. also called short arc. C-16 . Specification and Certification. and 95% argon with 5% oxygen. is very similar to gas-shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G). as an active gas rather than inert gas. (4) Short circuiting transfer. Because of the intensity of the arc.28 for low alloy steel electrodes. all smaller in diameter than the electrode diameter. and increased welder comfort. Each pulse of current ejects a single droplet of metal from the electrode. with the balance made up of either carbon dioxide or oxygen.18 for carbon steel electrodes. The shielding used for spray arc transfer is composed of at least 80% argon. creating a characteristic buzzing sound.CEMP-E 3. While GMAW is considered prequalified by AWS D1. commonly referred to as “MIG” (Metal Inert Gas) welding. and should not be used for structural steel.18 and A5. b. As the electrode melts. with better quality than short-circuiting mode. GMAW is commonly applied in one of four ways: spray arc transfer. therefore promoting globular transfer. All GMAW-S welding procedures must be qualified by test. (1) Classification testing is usually performed using specific welding procedures that use CO2 shielding gas. GMAW electrodes are classified under AWS A5. but other gases. plus a pulsing peak current applied at a rate proportional to the wire feed speed. or a mixture of argon (Ar) and either CO2 or small levels of oxygen (O). spray arc is limited to the flat and horizontal position. globular transfer may be selected in place of spray transfer. but may have poor appearance with relatively high levels of spatter. Because of the high concentration of CO2. GMAW uses a solid or metal cored electrode. puddle fluidity. It is also limited to the flat and horizontal positions. and therefore transfer modes. the lower level of heat generated. A fine spray of molten drops. This cycle occurs up to 200 times per second. Filler Metal Designation. shorting the electrical circuit. The arc in spray transfer is continuously maintained. rather than a spray. (2) Globular transfer results when high concentrations of carbon dioxide are used. and uses the same equipment. GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW). The small diameter electrode is fed at a moderate wire feed speed using relatively low voltage. globular transfer. and short arc transfer. is ejected from the electrode toward the work. Short circuiting transfer provides a low deposition rate. is suitable for welding only on thin gauge materials.1. slag. The shielding gas used for GMAW may be carbon dioxide (CO2). This mode of transfer can result in deep penetration. Weld appearance and quality are generally good. The classification systems used for GMAW electrodes in AWS A5.28 are summarized in Tables C-10 and C-11. resulting in high quality welds with good appearance. Pulsed arc transfer GMAW equipment is somewhat more complex and costly than standard GMAW equipment. resulting in very high current flowing through the electrode. Process Principles. abbreviated GMAW-S. Typical mixtures are 90% argon with 10% CO2. Pulsed arc transfer can be used out-of-position. the arc is briefly reestablished. The electrode contacts the workpiece.

However. and the weld is essentially free of slag. Both factors provide GMAW an economic advantage over SMAW.) from the end of the electrode. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW).” varies for each WPS. Such shielding may be expensive. require additional ventilation for the welder. Metal cored electrodes require less current to obtain the same deposition rates. and may be considerably higher. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using GMAW compared to SMAW. and is limited to welding on relatively clean materials. and other surface contaminants. up to 550 MPa (80 ksi). and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. commonly called “stickout. This electrode extension distance. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. For shop fabrication. For field work. With GMAW. wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. Commonly. (1) The GMAW electrode is continuous. (5) GMAW “operator appeal” is usually high because of good arc control and little fume generation. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with GMAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. The consistency of mechanical properties is typically better with metal cored electrodes than with solid wire electrodes. see AWS A5. and constitute a fire hazard. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. and more difficult to maintain. GMAW is intolerant of high levels of mill scale. timeconsuming. are summarized in Tables C-12 and C-13. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. Table C-10. H2. are less likely to cold lap. GMAW electrode wires are available in the lowest diffusible hydrogen category. minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. but also has some disadvantages and limitations. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. with a tubular electrode. AWS A5. Disadvantages and Limitations. but the core contains metallic powders (alloy) rather than flux materials. For higher strength electrodes. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. rust. have better tolerance for mill scale and rust. (3) Properties and usage for GMAW electrodes. drafts from doorways and windows. are now listed in both A5.18 and A5. and when used out-ofposition. it is often necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. Advantages.28.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Metal cored electrodes. a potential source of weld discontinuities.18 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW C-17 . mill scale must be removed by blast cleaning or power wire brushing prior to welding. GMAW with metal cored electrodes is similar to FCAW. Weld appearance is typically very good. (8) The equipment required for GMAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW. c.28. (6) Because no flux is involved. is also reduced. (4) GMAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens. (7) GMAW is also seriously affected by wind because of the removal of the shielding gas from around the weld puddle. Metal cored electrodes typically provide higher deposition rates because higher currents may be used than with solid wire electrodes. previously classified as FCAW electrodes.

X Y N HZ E R XX S or C X composite wire G = unspecified composition Shielding gas used for classification testing C = CO2 M = 75-80% Ar.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 E XX C . designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) S = Solid wire C-18 . balance CO2 N HZ applications H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal If used.

AWS A5.XXX HZ E XX C . or of weld deposit of composite wire A = carbon-molybdenum steel B = chromium-molybdenum steel Ni = nickel steel D = manganese-molybdenum steel 1 = other alloy steels G = not specified Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal HZ C-19 . designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod for GTAW Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) S = Solid wire C = Composite (metal cored) wire S or C XXX Chemical composition of solid wire.XXX HZ E R XX Electrode If used.28 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW ER XX S .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-11.

C-20 . and is not prequalified. H8.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW [480 MPa (70 ksi) only] Electrode ER70S-2 ER70S-3 ER70S-4 ER70S-5 ER70S-6 ER70S-7 ER70S-G E70C-3C E70C-3M E70C-6C E70C-6M E70C-G(X) d Testing Shielding Gasd CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 as agreed CO2 75-80% Ar. Note .Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. AWS A5. balance CO2 as agreed Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) not required not required 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed .All above electrodes optionally available as H16.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-12. and H4 for diffusible hydrogen requirements. Note . balance CO2 CO2 75-80% Ar.E70C-GS(X) electrode is limited to single pass applications.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-13.All above electrodes optionally available as H16. AWS A5. Note . B6.B3. B8 and B9 classification electrodes are not prequalified Note . Multipass Only] Electrode ER70S-A1 ER70S-B2L E70C-B2L E70C-Ni2 Testing Shielding Gasd Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness not required not required not required 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) ER80S-B2 ER80S-Ni1 ER80S-Ni2 ER80S-Ni3 ER80S-D2 E80C-B2 E80C-Ni1 E80C-Ni2 E80C-Ni3 d Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 CO2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) .28 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). H4 and H2 for diffusible hydrogen requirements.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. B3L. C-21 . H8.

(1) The process is typically operated automatic. With drooping voltage. although semiautomatic operation is often used. (4) Several electrodes may be used in series or parallel. The arc is struck between the workpiece and a bare wire or composite electrode. the welder moves the gun. Both electrodes are fed by means of a single electrode feeder. usually equipped with a flux-feeding device. For heat input calculation purposes. Flux may also be applied in advance of the welding operation. When not in use. or it may be through a nozzle tube connected to an air-pressurized flux tank. and multiple beads can be placed when using separate power supplies for each bead. may become contaminated with moisture from the atmosphere. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) uses a blanket of fusible granular material called flux to shield the arc and molten metal. similar to the action in FCAW. C-22 . the arc length is self-adjusting. (3) During welding. or in flux hoppers.3. The tip of the electrode and the welding zone are always shielded by molten flux. Upon cooling and removal of any unmelted flux for reuse. or fully mechanized. Since the arc is completely covered by flux. typical SAW setups have the lead electrode operating on DC current while the trail electrode is operating AC. The guidelines of the flux manufacturer. so exposure should be limited. ahead of the arc. a voltage sensitive relay adjusts the wire feed speed to maintain the desired arc voltage. (5) DC and AC welding machines of both conventional drooping voltage type or constant potential type can be used for SAW. it may be recovered for future use. thus generating additional heat. Process Principles. flux hoppers should be covered or otherwise protected from the atmosphere. it is not visible and the weld is made without the flash. (6) Flux must be stored so that it remains dry. sparks and smoke common for the open-arc processes. As the electrode progresses along the joint. (7) Because unmelted flux does not undergo chemical changes. With constant potential voltage. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. The slag then freezes over the newly solidified weld metal. The electrode is continuously fed from a coil or spool to the welding gun. Flux recovery systems range from vacuum recovery systems to sweeping with brooms and pans. solidifies while the slag above it is still molten. the tip of which is submerged in the flux. In semiautomatic welding. from a hopper run along the joint.CEMP-E 4. spatter.3 regarding storage and usage of the flux must be followed. To minimize the potential interaction of magnetic fields between the two electrodes. surrounded by a layer of unfused flux. Many fully mechanized systems are equipped with vacuum devices to pick up the flux unfused after welding for reuse. The weld metal. having a higher melting (freezing) point. Welding currents typically range from 500 to 1000 amperes. which travels at a preset speed along the joint. as well as AWS D1. Fluxes in open or damaged bags. Multiple electrode SAW uses at least two separate power supplies and two separate wire drives to feed two electrodes independently.1 Section 5. Parallel electrode SAW uses two electrodes connected electrically in parallel to the same power supply. the heat of the arc melts some of the flux along with the steel and the tip of the electrode. the slag is removed from the weld. the total for the two electrodes is used. preceded by a flux deposition system. the lighter molten flux rises above the molten metal in the form of a slag. The molten slag is a good conductor and provides an additional path for the current. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW). (2) Flux feed may be by gravity flow through a nozzle from a small hopper atop the welding gun. continuing to protect the metal from contamination while it is very hot and reactive with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. along the joint by hand.

After an electrode and flux combination is selected and a test plate welded. based upon their performance characteristics during welding. moisture. (4) Fused fluxes are made by blending deoxidizing and alloying ingredients. For structural work. the flux-electrode classification may be established. condition. Fused fluxes are nonhygroscopic. A glass-like fused product is formed as the liquid is cooled to ambient temperature. therefore care is needed. This may limit deoxidizer or C-23 . which is seldom stress relieved. dirt. scale of other contaminants may occur. (3) Fluxes are manufactured using one of four basic processes. Fused fluxes are not subject to chemical segregation during reuse because the complete composition is in each particle and cannot be separated. Specification and Certification. (1) The classification systems for SAW are summarized in Tables C-14 and C-15 for AWS A5. meaning they will not absorb water. but may be contaminated by moisture or other products that adhere to the outside of particles. Fused fluxes with the required chemical composition generally give the best low hydrogen welding performance. and Table C-16 for AWS A5. flux and electrode. Bonded fluxes tend to break down during recycling and increase the percentage of fines. Fused flux performance can be impeded by loss of fines during recycling. which must meet specific compositional and mechanical property requirements. many submerged arc materials have been classified for the post weld heat treated. (5) Bonded fluxes are made by combining all required chemical ingredients with a binder and baking the product at low temperature to form hard granules. therefore blending reclaimed flux with new flux is required. because of the variety of alloys that may be involved. therefore investigation into weld metal properties is warranted whenever the weld will be used differently than the filler metal classification condition. the “A” classification is commonly used. are classified under AWS A5.17 for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes. or stress relieved.23 for low alloy steel electrodes and fluxes.23 materials. and gases may be produced in the molten slag during welding. Some loss of fine particulate matter may also occur with flux recovery. a “P” is placed in the designation rather than an “A”. and AWS A5. Fused fluxes may have less than desired amounts of deoxidizer and ferro-alloy ingredients because of losses that occur from the high temperatures during the manufacturing process. and later ground to the sizes required for welding. When this is done. and then heating the mixture in a furnace until completely melted. (6) Agglomerated fluxes are similar to bonded fluxes in their method of manufacture. (2) Because the submerged arc welding process is frequently used for pressure vessel fabrication where assemblies are stress relieved. Flux-electrode combinations classified in the post weld stress relieved condition may not exhibit notch toughness when used in the as-welded condition. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) filler materials. then broken up and screened for size. Filler Metal Designation. the classification system integrates both materials. the electrodes and fluxes.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Flux contamination through contact with oil. b. as necessary. and because the composition of both the electrode and the resultant weld metal must be specified. active or alloy fluxes.17 materials. Because SAW is dependent upon both components. deoxidizer content or alloying elements that can be added as ferroalloys or as elemental metals are not a problem as with fused fluxes. and are further classified as neutral. Bonded fluxes contain chemically bonded moisture and can absorb moisture as well. Low alloy steel SAW electrodes and fluxes classified under AWS A5. Because the product is baked at low temperature. Bonded fluxes may segregate during use and reuse. except that the binder is a ceramic material that requires baking at higher temperatures.23 have a more complex classification system. Specimens are extracted from the weld deposit to obtain the mechanical properties of the flux-electrode combination.

The slag above the molten weld puddle acts as an insulating blanket. manganese and silicon content. and a uniform bead appearance reducing cleaning and surface preparation costs. Alloy fluxes. Disadvantages and Limitations. concentrating heat in the welding zone and preventing rapid escape of heat. active fluxes are often used in making single pass fillet welds. properly used with carbon steel electrodes.TI 809-26 ferro-alloy content due to high temperature losses. c. Where all mill scale and other contaminants are removed prior to welding.23 filler metal specifications. provide a low-cost method of producing corrosion resistant weld metal for joining weathering steels. or both. the surface contamination tolerance of active fluxes is not needed. Advantages. and the composition of the weld metal is highly dependent upon the alloy content of the mechanical properties of the weld. and will have the attributes of their components. Agglomerated fluxes are generally considered (7) Mechanically mixed fluxes can be a mixture of any flux type in any desired proportion. The covered arc allows SAW to be operated without the need for extensive shielding to protect the operators from the high intensity arc created by the high protection. to help offset the effects of welding though mill scale and light coatings of rust. therefore welding with active with low levels of manganese and silicon. For both active and alloy fluxes. Very high currents can be used in submerged arc and deep penetration. description and limitations of theses fluxes is provided in the Annexes to the AWS A5. With active fluxes. primarily the voltage that determines arc length. The chemistry may build to unacceptable levels in larger multipass welds. reducing distortion.17 and A5. or both. are subject to segregation. is relatively unaffected by changes in welding procedure variables. Continued recycling of (11) Alloy fluxes contain alloys intended to improve the strength or corrosion resistance of the weld metal. Deep penetration allows the High travel speeds reduce the total heat input into the joint. the weld metal (10) Active fluxes have small additions of manganese and silicon. a change in arc voltage will are more resistant to porosity and cracking than welds made with neutral fluxes. C-24 . Unlike active in the alloy content. (1) SAW welds generally have good ductility and toughness. Active fluxes intended for single pass fillet welding should not be combine with the same elements in the electrode to produce weld metal with unacceptable properties.

the operator must acquire and practice a technique to produce good welds without reliance upon arc and weld bead appearance.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) The SAW process does not allow the operator to observe the molten weld puddle. When SAW is performed semi-automatically. forcing reliance on the appearance of the slag blanket to indicate the quality of the weld bead. C-25 .

20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system. 11. Either type must be tested with a specific flux. and 15. 13.0. X HZ H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-26 .25 . indicates nominal carbon content in nominal carbon).17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) S X Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) X A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in F at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0o C) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29o F (-40oC) 5 = tested at -50o C) 6 = tested at -60oF (-51o F (-62oC) Electrode C specified in A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-14. Table 1.17. indicating chemistry in A5.17.60) H = high Mn (varies by classification.12. 14. 1. Manganese (Mn) content. Generally. ECG does not have a specified chemistry. % weight L = low Mn (0. AWS A5.30 low to 2.

electrode is Composite electrode.12. Electrode EC1 meets a chemistry specified in A5.08% nominal carbon).30 low to 2.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [SI (Metric) Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ F S X Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) If present.17.50 high) H = high Mn (varies by classification. X X X - .45 ksi) 43 = 430 MPa (62 ksi) 48 = 480 MPa (70 ksi) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in oC at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 27 J (20 ft-lbf) Z = no impact requirements 0 = tested at 0oC ( 32oF) 2 = tested at -20oC ( -4oF) 3 = tested at -30oC (-22oF) 4 = tested at -40oC (-40oF) 5 = tested at -50oC (-58oF) 6 = tested at -60oC (-76oF) X X E C Electrode If present.17. 1. and 15. AWS A5.0. % weight L = low Mn (0. 14. flux is from crushed slag or blend of crushed slag and virgin flux. Manganese (Mn) content.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-15. 0.60) M = medium Mn (varies by classification. Either type must be tested with a specific flux. 11. Table 1. Generally.25 . ECG does not have a specified chemistry.80 low to 1. indicates nominal carbon content in hundredths of a percent. K indicates that the electrode was made from silicon-killed steel.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system. 13. indicating chemistry in A5. Listed classification numbers: 8 (indicating 0. Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 MPa (1.

CEMP-E
HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

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Table C-16. AWS A5.23 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units]
F Flux Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded X Temperature in o Z = no impact strength test required F ( -18oC) 2 = tested at -20o C) 4 = tested at -40oF ( -40o F ( -46oC) 6 = tested at -60o C) 8 = tested at -80oF ( -62o F ( -73oC) o 15 = tested at -150 C)

E C X If present, electrode is Composite electrode with composition per AWS A5.23 Chemical composition of electrode (Table 1) or weld metal (Table 2) M = carbon steel, medium Mn solid electrode (EM12K) A = carbon-molybdenum weld metal
1

Ni = nickel M = military W = weathering XX N X above Number (and letter, if needed) that makes up a part of the electrode classification Indicates that the electrode is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor

C-29

CEMP-E
N HZ

TI 809-26 1 March 2000
Indicates that the weld metal is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor vessels, with limited chemistry for phosphorous, vanadium, and copper. Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

1

- B3, B4, B5, B6, B6H, B8 are not prequalified in AWS D1.1

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TI 809-26
5. a. Process Principles. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), also frequently called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, is done using the heat of an arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and external shielding gas or gas mixture. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) (straight) polarity is used to produce a deep, narrow penetration when welding thicker materials. Direct current electrode positive metals. Alternating current (AC) is generally used for welding aluminum and magnesium alloys. A high frequency oscillator is usually incorporated into GTAW power supplies to initiate the arc. This reduces tungsten to the base metal. The process may be performed manually, but may also be used as automatic. The tungsten electrode in the welding “torch” gets very hot under high duty cycles, therefore deposition rate through the use a continuous filler metal, supplied with current from a separate power source, to preheat the wire using resistance heating.

welding torch are classified in AWS A5.12, Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for . The filler metal used, if any, is rod classified for GMAW in AWS A5.18 or A5.28, with a designation ER at the beginning. Tungsten electrodes are summarized in Table C-17.

spatter, with excellent arc control that is very beneficial for root passes. It can be used on material thicknesses that range from thin sheet metals up to maximum of about 10 mm (3/8 in.). However, welding processes. Gas shielding is also critical, and wind speeds over 8 km per hour (5 mph) cause quality and mechanical property degradation. GTAW, as an unfluxed welding process, also requires very

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Table C-17. AWS A5.12 Classification System for Tungsten Electrodes for GTAW EWX-X E W X-X Electrode Tungsten Letter (and optionally -number) describing type of tungsten electrode P = pure tungsten Ce = tungsten-cesium alloy La = tungsten-lanthanum alloy Th = tungsten-thorium alloy Zr = tungsten-zirconium alloy G = general, not specified

C-32

Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for .). ESW is not prequalified under AWS D1. deposition rates. an arc is struck in a sump at the bottom of the joint. To start the weld.25. Water-cooled copper shoes are placed on each side of the joint. underneath a deposit The arc is extinguished by the slag. but the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the high electrical resistance of the slag. offering considerable cost and time savings for vertical welding of thick steels. Process Principles. Shielding of the arc and weld pool is provided by the addition of flux into the joint as welding progresses. The plates to be joined are positioned 40 mm (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult may cause low toughness properties. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. distortion upon completion. The classification system is summarized in Table C-18. if interrupted during welding.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 a. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. Electroslag Welding (ESW) is used for welding thick sections. Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. in the range of 20 kg (40 lb. with no edge preparation generally required. forming used. Electrode wires may be either solid or composite. C-33 . (1) ESW.1 qualification testing following AWS D1. specified in AWS A5. depending on welding equipment and material thickness.) in thickness.) thick. as well as make ultrasonic testing more difficult. (2) ESW can be used for joints over 12 mm (1/2 in. for short to moderate lengths.1 vertical require special setups and procedures. but generally does not become the most including the number of joints to be welded. although ESW has been performed at angles to 45 degrees. The weld proceeds as more electrode is fed weld termination.) per hour.

AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-18. for example).25 C-34 . see AWS A5.25 Classification System for Electrodes and Fluxes for ESW FESXX-XXX FES X Flux for Electroslag Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 15 ft-lbf (20 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) X XXX Electrode classification used (EM5K-EW.

Filler materials. Angles beyond 10 to 15 degrees from vertical may require special setups and procedures. Disadvantages and Limitations. and interpass cleaning. for short to opening gap at the joint is generally set to approximately 22 mm (7/8 in. EGW is not prequalified under AWS . and is used for welding thick sections. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult to access and repair. b. compared to ESW. Specification and Certification.) in thickness. The weld Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. composite (cored) wire. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. Filler Metal Designation. The joint is also free from angular (1) EGW.TI 809-26 7. or a flux cored wire designed for EGW. depending upon several factors including the number of joints to be welded. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. When flux cored wires are used. economical choice until a thickness of around 50 mm (2 in. disadvantage. or an argon-CO2 mix. the shielding gas may or may not be necessary. Advantages. Electrogas Welding (EGW) is very similar to Electroslag Welding (ESW). c. a. if interrupted during welding. For solid wires. The large grain size from the substantial heat input.). depending upon the weld pool and allows the welding arc to stabilize before reaching the actual joint. C-35 . with no edge preparation generally required. and the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the arc.) is welded. Process Principles. electrodes and fluxes Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Electrogas Welding classification system is summarized in Table C-19. The arc is maintained. Water-cooled copper current electrode negative (DCEN) currents of 500 to 700 amperes are commonly used. preheating and interpass temperature control. and subsequent slow cooling. depending on welding equipment and material thickness. of requiring protection of the joint from wind over 8 km per hour (5 mph). therefore qualification testing following AWS Section 4 is required. The electrode is either a solid wire. Electrogas Welding (EGW) provides very high vertical welding of thick steels.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-19. AWS A5.26 Classification System for Electrodes for EGW EGXXX-XXX EG X Electrogas Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) S = solid wire T = tubular wire X X XXX Electrode classification used.26 C-36 . see AWS A5.

but they may provide indication (2) Visual inspection cannot reveal subsurface discontinuities such as cracks. and other enhancements. toe cracks.TI 809-26 APPENDIX D 1. and if the inspected item fails to meet visual criteria. convexity and such as weld gauges are required. (4) The cost of visual inspection is usually less. which may include the smoothness of thermally cut edges. slag inclusions. b. per unit length of weld. as a form of nondestructive testing. is the visual observation the first nondestructive testing method applied. undercut. Method Description. When surface discontinuities such as cracks are suspected. incomplete fusion. Such instruments tend to distort the perception of the inspector. D-1 . Advantages and Disadvantages. overlap. undersized welds. buried laminations or lamellar tearing. Visual inspection. weld size. seams and laminations at exposed edges. arc strikes. the use of magnifying devices to further investigate the (2) Visual inspection includes the measurement of the work. a. more extensive nondestructive testing should not be conducted until the visual criteria is satisfied. surrounding heat-affected zone (HAZ). incomplete penetration. groove angles. that the other methods of rather than simple verification measurements and recording of unsatisfactory workmanship. excessive convexity. and the measurement of root openings. See Table D-1. Not all listed discontinuities are structurally significant. VISUAL TESTING (VT).

2 .) Lap.CEMP-E Table D-1. etc.2 in.6 .) Lap.0. < 6 mm (< 0. Visual Inspection Most Applicable Microcracks Shrinkage Cavity Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Misalignment Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Irregular Bead Root Concavity Poor Restart Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. 16 .) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-2 .6 in.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Lap.2 in.) Joint Geometry Applicable Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Crater Pipe Incomplete Penetration Overlap TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap. 6-15 mm (0.50 mm (0. > 50 mm (> 2 in.

(2) Testing materials are small. and other surface discontinuities. visible under ultraviolet light. See Table D-2. Penetrant testing. Advantages and Disadvantages. and then is carefully removed. (3) A relatively short period of training is necessary for technicians who will be performing PT. PENETRANT TESTING (PT). such as buried cracks. is the use of a liquid penetrating dye to detect discontinuities at the surface of a weld or base metal. with no specialized equipment required unless an ultraviolet light is used. allowed to remain on the surface for a specified dwell time to penetrate cracks. The second method uses a flourescent dye. can sometimes provide false indications of weld toe cracks when cleaning is not thoroughly performed. also called dye penetrant or liquid penetrant testing. usually red. (5) Cleaning after inspection to remove residual penetrant and developer prior to weld repairs or the application of coating systems can sometime be difficult and time-consuming. lack of fusion. A developer is then applied to the surface. Method Description. so waiting time is sometimes necessary with PT that would not be required with magnetic particle testing. (4) PT can be performed relatively quickly. portable. (9) PT is especially effective with small surface-breaking cracks. depending upon the penetrant used and the required dwell time. (1) Penetrant testing is relatively economical compared to ultrasonic testing. which contrasts with the developer. (6) Rough surface conditions. usually white. but require a darkened area for testing.CEMP-E 2. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. which is then removed for closer visual examination of the area providing indications. slag inclusions. unless special high-temperature PT materials are used. and especially economical when compared to radiographic testing. This leaves a visible contrasting indication in the developer. and also surface-breaking piping porosity. and inexpensive. laminations along exposed edges and joint preparations. pores. preventing the entry of the penetrant. Flourescent methods are usually more sensitive. and irregular profile conditions such as undercut and overlap. which draws the penetrant out of the discontinuities. crater cracks. The penetrant is applied to the surface. (10 PT is ineffective for any discontinuity below the surface. One method of penetrant testing uses a visible dye. (8) Existing coatings should be removed prior to PT because the coating may bridge narrow cracks. or incomplete penetration. (7) PT cannot be performed when the surface remains hot. such as toe cracks. D-3 . b. or other surface-breaking discontinuities. (4) A disadvantage with some penetrants and developers is the safe handling and disposal of used liquids and cleaning rags. Weld spatter can also make surface removal of the penetrant more difficult.

) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-4 . 16 .) Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Shinkage Cavity Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Burn-Through Lap.2 . etc.2 in. > 50 mm (> 2 in. Penetrant Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Radiating Cracks Surface Pore\ Crater Pipe Overlap Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.2 in.CEMP-E Table D-2.0.) Lap.6 .6 in. 6-15 mm (0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Joint Geometry Lap.) Lap.50 mm (0. < 6 mm (< 0.

(8) Existing coatings may reduce the effectiveness of MT. 8 mm (5/16 in. b. compared with ultrasonic or radiographic equipment. but substantially less than that required for UT or RT. attracted to the magnetic poles. Tight lines are indicative of surface cracks or other discontinuities. After the area has been magnetized. It is also effective for cracks. Magnetic particles. (6) MT can be performed effectively while the joint is still warm from welding or postheating. selection of current.) is generally considered the deepest discontinuity that can be detected under good conditions. and the type of particles used. attracting the magnetic particles. (10) MT is effective for detecting surface-breaking discontinuities such as cracks and laminations. the particles are applied. Magnetic particle testing uses the relationship between electricity and magnetism to induce magnetic fields in the steel. (4) Inspection costs are generally equal to or slightly more than PT. (3) A source of electric power is necessary. (7) After inspection. DC provides higher magnetization levels which allows for inspection for discontinuities somewhat below the surface. (5) More training is necessary for MT. which directly magnetize the steel through direct contact with the steel and the induction of current flow in the steel. or with a yoke. are dusted onto the magnetized surface. Method Description. Inspection with AC is generally limited to surface-breaking and very near-surface discontinuities. (2) The equipment is relatively inexpensive. slag inclusions.CEMP-E 3. then removed with gentle dusting or application of air. and is considered more effective for surface discontinuities because the particles are more mobile. Subsurface cracks and slag inclusions would show a broader indication. removal of magnetic particles is quick and thorough. (1) The magnetic fields can be induced using either prods. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT). Particles attracted to discontinuities remain on the surface at the discontinuity. but considerably less than UT or RT. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. compared to PT. Although opinions vary as to the maximum depth that can be effectively inspected using MT. essentially acting as poles of a magnet. not delaying repairs or affecting coating application. incomplete fusion. which does not transfer electrical current but provides magnetic flux between the two elements of the yoke. The MT technician then evaluates the location and nature of the indicating particles. Advantages and Disadvantages. (2) MT equipment may be operated either DC (rectified AC) or AC. commonly in the form of iron powder colored for better visibility. (9)The depth of inspectability depends upon the equipment. (1) MT is relatively fast and economical. and incomplete penetration D-5 . A permanent record of detected discontinuities can be made with the use of transparent adhesive tape or photography. Cracks and other discontinuities on or near the surface disturb the lines of magnetic force. laminations.

2 .0.2 in.6 in.) Lap. < 6 mm (< 0.6 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 if slightly below the surface. 16 . Magnetic Particle Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap. 6-15 mm (0. See Table D-3. Rounded discontinuities such as porosity do not disturb the magnetic flux lines sufficiently to be effectively detected.) Lap.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Least Applicable Microcracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Burn-Through Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.) Joint Geometry Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Overlap Lap.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-6 . Table D-3.2 in.50 mm (0. etc. > 50 mm (> 2 in.

Such provisions are necessary when using miniature transducers. (1) AWS D1. evaluate and size weld discontinuities. (2) More expensive and sophisticated UT equipment can be operated in digital mode. or the opposite face of the steel. if any. and transducer angles. and can be incorporated into project inspection through the use of AWS D1. (3) Even with conventional equipment. including reflected signal strength. (1) Ultrasonic testing is a highly sensitive method of NDT. The vibration is introduced into the steel at a known angle.) to 200 mm (8 in. the location.1 Section 6. The vibration pulse travels through the steel until it strikes a discontinuity. but Annex K must be used for technique and acceptance. and is capable of detecting discontinuity in welds and base metal in a wide variety of joint applications and thicknesses. or scanning angles other than those prescribed.1 Annex K provisions. with a known frequency and waveform. (3) Although capable of locating discontinuities and measuring discontinuity length. ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT). including calibration.CEMP-E 4. it is less capable of directly sizing discontinuities or determining discontinuity height without the use of advanced techniques. These techniques include tip diffraction and time-of-flight techniques. Using a system of calibration and measurements. which converts electrical energy into vibration energy. generally hand written. depending upon the design of the transducer. discontinuity lengths and locations for weld discontinuities. Annex K requires the use of written UT procedures specific to the application. unless located in specific regions such as along edges. with experienced and qualified UT technicians tested in the use of the procedures. recording weld discontinuities and other material discontinuities that exceed the acceptance criteria specified. Small reflections are generally ignored.) Both thinner and thicker materials may be examined and evaluated using UT. recording and printing display screen images with input data. Part F of AWS D1. (2) AWS D1. relative size and nature of the discontinuity. Advantages and Disadvantages. and also provides for alternate acceptance criteria in lieu of the tables found in Section 6. The speed of travel of the vibration in steel is also known. of the inspected area and discontinuities.1 provisions are applicable for thickness ranges from 8 mm (5/16 in. either of which reflects energy back to the transducer unit or another receiving transducer. Ultrasonic testing requires specialized equipment to produce and receive precise ultrasonic waves induced into the steel using piezoelectric materials. more complex inspection methods can be used to locate. alternate frequencies. The vibration is transmitted into the steel from the transducer using a liquid couplant.1. scanning faces. scanning methods. Report forms. then use computer software systems to produce representative two-dimensional images. D-7 . TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. The unit sends electric pulses into the piezoelectric crystal. from various directions. Method Description. b. Part F provides the UT inspection procedures. are prepared by the UT technician. Such equipment is rarely used in normal construction inspection applications. Locations of discontinuities can be determined using the display screen scale and simple geometry. Very sophisticated automated UT equipment can record the transducer location and the corresponding reflections. but is available and sometimes used for very complex and critical inspections. can be determined by close evaluation of the reflected signals. and weld acceptance criteria.

it is difficult to distinguish between the unfused root face and discontinuities near the root. and therefore reflect signals even when not exactly perpendicular to the direction of the pulse. A good quality weld will provide few responses. and then only for the root area for fillet welds above approximately 18 mm (3/4 in. Slag inclusions are irregular and provide easily identifiable responses. but such rounded discontinuities are rarely detrimental to joint performance. but also much less than RT. requiring little evaluation time. A difficult configuration. It is ineffective for fillet welds unless very large. and considerably less than RT. or a poor quality weld. D-8 . However. of UT inspection can vary greatly. (8) UT is best suited for planar discontinuities such as cracks and lack of fusion. the cost of RT equipment. Second-leg inspections. and therefore cost. The cost of more sophisticated UT units capable of computer-generated imaging approaches.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) A primary disadvantage of ultrasonic testing is that it is highly dependent upon the skill of the UT technician. or lack of penetration or fusion at the root. also providing a weak response. (9) The cost of ultrasonic testing is considerably more than PT or MT. Laminations and lamellar tears are also easily detected. will require numerous time-consuming evaluations and recording of test data. such as unfused root faces.). In welded beam-to-column moment connections. Smooth surfaces. depending upon the quality of the weld to be inspected. the interference of the web with inspection of the bottom flange makes direct evaluation of the area beneath the weld access hole difficult. (7) UT indications are difficult to interpret in certain geometric applications. it is difficult to distinguish between the backing bar interface and cracks. would redirect a signal and provide a weak response unless oriented perpendicular to the pulse. With partial joint penetration groove welds. See Table D-4. Rounded and cylindrical discontinuities such as porosity disperse the signal. These discontinuities tend to be irregular with rough surfaces. discontinuities which are generally most detrimental to joint performance when oriented transverse to the direction of loading. When backing bars remain in place. are necessary to evaluate the entire depth of many welds unless the weld face is ground flush. Discontinuities located just below the weld or material surface are also difficult to detect. The time. (6) The cost of the equipment is considerably more that MT. slag lines. not as accurate or as reliable as first-leg inspections. UT is the best method for detection of the most serious weld discontinuties in a wide variety of thicknesses and joints. and sometimes exceeds.

6 in.CEMP-E Table D-4.2 in.0. > 50 mm (> 2 in.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap. 16 .6 . 6-15 mm (0.50 mm (0. Ultrasonic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Applicable Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Elongated Cavity Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Burn-Through Irregular Bead Poor Restart TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity “Worm Hole” Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Overlap Misalignment Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Lap.2 . < 6 mm (< 0.) Lap.2 in.) Lap.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove D-9 .

some scattered. (9) The cost of radiographic equipment. and a 200 kV unit to 25 mm (1 in. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. voids. cesium 137. Advantages and Disadvantages. Cobalt 60 can effectively penetrate up to approximately 230 mm (9 in. some radiation is absorbed. cracks. and related licensing is higher than any other NDT process. b. slag. Radiographic Testing (RT) uses a radioactive source and. Method Description. (6) The radiographic images provide a permanent record for future review. and some transmitted through the weld onto the film. discontinuities such as porosity or slag are readily detected. Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) are used to verify the quality and sensitivity of the image.). particularly helpful with ESW and EGW welds. a film imaging process similar to X-ray film. A large 2000 kV X-ray unit is capable of penetrating approximately 200 mm (8 in. The two types of radiation sources commonly used in weld inspection are x-ray machines and radioactive isotopes. (7) RT is generally unaffected by grain structure. RT is not effective when testing fillet welds or groove welds in tee or corner joints. D-10 . typically.) of steel. See Table D-5. an imperfection must be oriented roughly parallel to the radiation beam. (5) The limitations on RT sensitivity are such that discontinuities smaller than about 1½ percent of the metal thickness may not be detected. Because of the constantly changing thickness for the exposure.) of steel. (1) X-rays are produced by portable units capable of radiographing relatively thin objects. and iridium 192 to 75 mm (3 in. irregularities. although other image recording methods are also used. (2) Radioisotopes are used to emit gamma radiation. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT).CEMP-E 5.) of steel. safety programs. Real-time radiography uses a fluoroscope to receive radiation. and lack of fusion. RT may miss laminations and cracks parallel to the film surface. The film provides a permanent record of the inspection. (10) There is usually a significant waiting time between the testing process and the availability of results. (4) To be detected. Most conventional RT techniques involve exposures that record a permanent image on film. (2) Accessibility to both sides of the weld is required. (3) RT is limited to butt joint applications by AWS D1. As a consequence. (8) RT is a potential radiation hazard to personnel. a 400 kV unit to 75 mm (3 in. When a weld is exposed to penetrating radiation. and strict safety regulations must be monitored and enforced. and aid in characterizing and locating discontinuities for repair.1. Because they are usually volumetric in cross-section. (1) RT can detect subsurface porosity. facilities.). cesium 137 to 100 mm (4 in. then presents an on-screen image for evaluation.) of steel. and iridium 192. The three most common RT isotopes are cobalt 60.

CEMP-E Table D-5.2 in.6 .2 in. 16 .50 mm (0.) TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Overlap D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap. etc. Radiographic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Lap. < 6 mm (< 0.2 .) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Applicable Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.6 in.0. 6-15 mm (0.) Lap.) Lap.) Single-V Groove D-11 . > 50 mm (> 2 in.

OTHER METHODS.CEMP-E 6. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Because of severe limitations in applicability. or other methods not mentioned above is discouraged. the use of eddy current. D-12 . acoustic emission.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Technical Instructions Welding Design Procedures And Inspections Headquarters US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs Washington. DC 20314-1000 .

Procedures and Inspection dated 20 May 1985 . Record of Changes (changes indicated \1\. Date Location This Technical Instruction supersedes TM 5-805-7.DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Any copyrighted material included in this document is identified at its point of use. distribution is unlimited.. Approved for public release.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS WELDING . Use of the copyrighted material apart from this document must have the permission of the copyright holder. Welding Design../1/) No.

Washington. FOR THE COMMANDER: DWIGHT A. TI will be used for all Army projects and for projects executed for other military services or work for other customers where appropriate. 20 Massachusetts Ave. should be sent to HQUSACE. Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs .E. Chief. DC 20314-1000. with rationale for the changes. ATTN: CEMP-ET. technical content of TI is the responsibility of the HQUSACE element of the discipline involved. Hard copies of these instructions produced by the user from the electronic media should be checked against the current electronic version prior to use to assure that the latest instructions are used.S. updated. NW. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) commands having military construction responsibilities.usace. TI are distributed only in electronic media through the TECHINFO Internet site http://www. BERANEK. and made available to users as part of the HQUSACE responsibility for technical criteria and policy for new military construction. TI are living documents and will be periodically reviewed.mil/technifo/index. Recommended changes to TI.hnd.ccb..CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 FOREWORD These technical instructions (TI) provide design and construction criteria and apply to all U. P.htm and the Construction Criteria Base (CCB) system maintained by the National Institute of Building Sciences at Internet site http://www. TI are effective upon issuance.army.org/html/home/. CEMP-ET is responsible for administration of the TI system.

. Brazing and Nondestructive Testing 2-4 e. . 2-3 h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1. . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LRFD. .4 Standard Symbols for Welding. . . . .4 Structural Welding Code . . . . . . . . . . AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2. . . . . . . . .Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2-1 b. .CEMP-E WELDING . . PURPOSE AND SCOPE . . . . . . . Manual of Steel Construction. . Preferred Design Methodology . . . . Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . 2-1 c. . . . 2-3 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 g. . . LRFD . . . . . . . . Manual of Steel Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . New Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . 2-1 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. . . TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other than Buildings 2-2 3. . . . . . 2-2 c. . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . Code of Standard Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 d. . . . . . . . .Sheet Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2. . . . . . . . . D1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 g. . . . . . . . . . .DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Table of Contents TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Page CHAPTER 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. . . . . . TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings . 2-1 e. . . 2-2 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Structural Welding Code . . . 2-2 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. . . . . . . . . 2-2 f. . . . . . . . . 2-3 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standards Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 b. . . . . TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY . . Metric Conversion . . . . . . . TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls . . . 2-4 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 i . .Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steel . . 2. . . . . 2-2 e. . TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems . . . . . . . . . AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . 2-4 5. . Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structural Welding Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 f. . . . . . Manual of Steel Construction. . . . . . . . A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . APPLICABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings . . 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 CHAPTER 2. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpass Temperature . . . . . Plasma Arc Cutting . . . . . . . . Surface Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURAL STEELS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 267 Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . c. . . . . Matching Filler Metals for Non-qualified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 2-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Temperatures . . . . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . c. . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . b. . . . . . . . . FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cambering Procedure . . . . PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . .Interim Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . Postheat (PWHT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. THERMAL CUTTING . . . AWS Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . d. . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. .Weld Heat-Affected Zone . b. . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Prequalified Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . .Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 CHAPTER 4. . d. . . . . . AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING . . . . . . a. . . . Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxyfuel Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle . a. . . . . . . . . ii 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 CHAPTER 3. . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC Approved Steels . . AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unlisted Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . Process . Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . Cooling Rate Control . . . . . . . . . . . AWS Prequalified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . General . . a. . . FEMA 267 & 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Heating and Thermal Cutting . . . . . . . . . b. . . f. . . . . . . c. . . . 2-5 c. . . . c. . WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 5-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Access Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS . 5-6 h. . . . . . . Allowable Stress Ranges . . . 5-3 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS . . . . . Availability of Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brittle Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 j. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 f. . . . Minimum / Maximum Weld Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . Lamellar Tearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment and Personnel . . . DESIGN FOR WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . 5-9 a. . 5-8 m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 d. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Life Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine Grain Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 b. . . . . . Materials Concerns and Specifications . . . . 5-11 a. . . . . . Weld Tabs . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Sequence and Distortion Control . 5-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heavy Section Joint Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distortion . . . Qualified Joint Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Design Aids . . . . . . 4-13 CHAPTER 5. . . . . . 5-13 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 5. . 5-9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 c. . . . . Fatigue Applications . . . . 4-10 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 b. . . . . . . 5-6 g. 5-3 g. . . . . . . . . . . Effective Weld Size / Throat . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 i. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-seismic Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . Cold Weather Applications . Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 d. . . . . . . . . . Normalizing . . . . 5-1 b. . . 5-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . . . . . . 5-4 c. . 5-4 a. . . . 5-12 b. Killed Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access . . . . . . . . . . Backing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 c. . . . . . . . . GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reentrant Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 e. . . . . . . . . . . . AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Fillet Weld Size . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved Through-thickness Properties . . . . . . . . High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications . . . . . . . Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 e. . . . . . . . . 5-2 e. . . . . . . . . Latest Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 d. . . . . . . . . Prequalified Joint Details . . 4-10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 5. . . . . . Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTION . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION Paragraph 1. . . . STUD WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . Contractor Responsibilities . . . . . . FCAW-S Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . Inspection Enhancements . . . . PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING . . . Welding Direction and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAZARDOUS MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . b. . . c. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . WPS Qualification Requirements . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Processes . . 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 CHAPTER 7. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevated Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Welding and Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD BASE QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . Qualification Testing by Others . . . . . . . a. . . . . . REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING PROCESS . . . . 6. g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . f. . . . . . . . Personnel Classification . . . . . 2. . . . a. . . . STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualification Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 CHAPTER 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Prequalification Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 CHAPTER 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWS Requirements . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 7. . . . . . 8-13 d. . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 a. . . . . . . . . CAST IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . . 8-8 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WROUGHT IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REINFORCING STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . Eye Protection . Electrocution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . NDT Personnel Qualification . . . . . . . INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS . . . . . . . Root Opening Corrections . . . . . . . . . . SHEET STEEL WELDING . . 8-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-project Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY . . . . . D1. . . . . . . 8-13 b. . . . . . . After Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWWA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 a. . . . . . . . Burn Protection . . . WELD QUALITY . Fire . . 8-13 c. . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prior to Welding . . . . . . . . . . CAST STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondestructive Testing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. c. . . . . . d. . . . . . During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALUMINUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . 8-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . 8-5 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . Alternate Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 d. . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 e. . . . . . . . 8-8 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . b. . . . . Weld Discontinuities . . . . . . . Mill Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fumes and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Paragraph 1. . . . . . 8-9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 CHAPTER 10. . . . . . Laminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . NDT Acceptance Criteria . . . . . Mislocated Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 . . . . . 8-13 CHAPTER 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TUBULAR STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7. . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW . 10-3 APPENDIX A. . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . C-29 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 g. . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . vi D-1 D-1 D-1 D-3 D-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-23 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . 10-2 3. . . . . . . . Process Principles . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 a. . . b. . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . 2. . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . C-8 a. . C-29 b. . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-21 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . C-29 c. . . . . . . . . PENETRANT TESTING (PT) . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 c. . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . Further Guidance . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . C-21 b. . . . . . . C-31 b. . . . C-1 c. C-31 a. . . . . . . . . C-33 b. . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . Advantages. . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . C-16 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8 b. . . Filler Metal Designation. . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . ENERGY CONSUMPTION . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . C-8 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES Paragraph 1. . C-15 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . Advantages. C-31 ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 a. . B-1 APPENDIX C. C-3 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISUAL TESTING (VT) . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-29 ELECTROSLAG WELDING (ESW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 b. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-22 c. C-33 2. . . . . . . . Advantages. Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . C-33 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . D-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 b. . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 b. . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 a. . . . . D-7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12 vii . . . . . . . . D-10 b. . . . . . RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 6. . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . D-7 a. . . . . . . . ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) .

PURPOSE AND SCOPE. sheet steels. or the welding of materials other than structural steel. A bibliography of publications that provides additional information and background data is in Appendix B. 4. This document provides criteria and guidance for the design and specification of welded structural components and systems in accordance with current technology. piping. This includes information on design approaches. standards and materials. or cryogenic applications. 2. inspection and quality. A building is defined as any structure. guidance on the application of codes and industry standards. used or intended for sheltering persons or property. REFERENCES. fully or partially enclosed. 1-1 . Appendix A contains a list of references pertaining to this document. and the design and specification of welded details. The scope of this document is welding for general building construction for military applications. 3. APPLICABILITY.CEMP-E CHAPTER 1 GENERAL TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. use of technical manuals. These instructions are applicable to all USACE elements having military construction responsibilities. and does not include underwater. bridges. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

c. It may be necessary to take exceptions to various code provisions.CEMP-E CHAPTER 2 APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. is a more modern probabilistic approach also known as limit states design. General structural design guidance for buildings. industry standards. steel and wood is presented in this TI document. and resistance (strength reduction) factors applied to the nominal resistance of the component to achieve a design strength. 2-1 . The American Institute of Steel Construction provides two methodologies for the design of steel-framed buildings. Building design and welding design are governed by a variety of specifications and standards. New Materials. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS.12000 Structural Welding Code . e. New steels and welding materials. or to expand the code provisions through the use of the project specifications. b. Users of this document should evaluate the various standards listed. the filler metal specifications are being revised for metrication. with independent dimensional units and values.1 code is also being fully metricated for the year 2000. a. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings. The first method is Allowable Stress Design (ASD). and the varying dates of adoption and publication. and Air Force. a. which provides adequate strength based upon service load conditions. This document provides minimum snow and wind loads plus frost penetration data to be used in the design and construction of buildings and other structures. LRFD uses load factors and load combinations applied to service loads. for suitable application. Specification Conflicts. Conflicts may arise between codes as new research and methods are adopted in one code before another. All loads are assumed to have the same variability. The use of the LRFD method is preferred over the use of the ASD method. may not be listed in the codes for periods of several years because of the adoption and printing cycles. The AWS D1. are based on national building codes. Because of the varying focus of each standard or specification. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Preferred Design Methodology.2. Those values established as of the date of this document have been adopted.Steel. and technical manuals developed by the Army. but is not required. and new standards that may be published. Except as designated within the document. Within AWS standards. Buildings are categorized according to occupancy. There are also specific exceptions one code may take with another. Others may change with the publication of the D1.1. all loadings are based upon ASCE 7-95. as the AISC Specification does with AWS D1. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings. masonry. GENERAL. Specification Cycles. to resolve conflicting issues and to permit new materials. Standards Evaluation. and for building systems constructed of concrete. or cited by reference. The design requirements provided herein. Both methods are in current practice. d. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). adopted by the industry. b. 2. The second method. as listed. Navy. the standards and specifications are in a constant cycle of revision. listing those exceptions in AISC Specification section J1.

and the nonstructural systems and components in the buildings. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. a.3 Structural Welding Code . d. and Air Force facilities are indicated. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. and it provides criteria for the design and analysis of buildings with enhanced performance objectives. 2-2 . This document provides qualified designers with the criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. The Metric LRFD Specification. This metric specification is a dimensional conversion of the December 1. and the non-structural systems and components in those buildings. Navy. published in 1994. TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings. This document will become TI 809-03. Chapter 7 includes discussion of structural steel framing systems. but does not provide specific details for welded connections in those systems.Sheet Steel.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Instructions necessary to provide serviceable buildings and to assure load path integrity and continuity is included. This document provides guidance on the use of Metal Building Systems. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. This document provides guidance in the interpretation and implementation of the FEMA 302 provisions for the Life Safety performance objective for all buildings. covering and accessories. and therefore are not covered by TI 809-26. The Metric LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. is based upon AWS D1. Section J contains design provisions. Supplemental information to help engineers interpret and apply code provisions. e. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. 3. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings. These types of structures were previously referred to as pre-engineered buildings. will be published by AISC in early 2000.1 Structural Welding Code . and meet serviceability and strength performance objectives is also included in the TI. Cold-formed steel members are generally of a thickness that welding is governed by AWS D1. g. Paragraph 5. b. The principles and concepts of these two specifications (metric and customary) are identical. Requirements unique to Army. This document provides design guidance on the use of cold-formed steel systems for both loadbearing and nonload-bearing applications. This document is intended to provide qualified designers with the necessary criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. only the units differ. The primary basis for this document is the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 302). AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS.i addresses welding for manufacturers not AISC certified in Category MB. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls.Steel. 1993 customary units edition. defined as a complete integrated set of mutually dependent components and assemblies that form a building. Section J contains design provisions. Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. c. f. including primary and secondary framing. rather than AWS D1. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings. The LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application.1-92. Revise as needed.

In the absence of other contract documents. and general information regarding welding. Chapter 4. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. will be published by AISC in early 2000. Materials are discussed in Section 5. and Seismic Use Group III when SDS >= 0. ASD. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds.1. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. Erection in Section 7.1-96 as the reference welding standard. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. The Seismic Provisions document cites AWS D1. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . containing provisions regarding Welding Procedure Specification approvals. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. It is applicable for use in either LRFD or ASD. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. Publication of an updated or new ASD Specification is not being planned by AISC. and takes exception to certain provisions of AWS D1. Metric Conversion.3 is applicable to welded joints. When using LRFD. These structures include all buildings with an SDS >= 0.33g (SD1 >= 0. LRFD. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. design examples. AWS welding symbols. c. Manual of Steel Construction.50g (SD1 >= 0. e. the trade practices of the document govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel.Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. Section J contains design provisions. filler metal toughness requirements. Within the document.1. published in 1993.1-92. f. This AISC document addresses the design and construction of structural steel and composite steel / reinforced concrete building systems in seismic regions. the Manual of Steel Construction. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. and Quality Control in Section 8. is based upon AWS D1. and is in two volumes. Fabrication in Section 6. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational 2-3 .1. Code of Standard Practice.Connections.20g). See TI 809-04. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. The AISC Code of Standard Practice defines practices adopted as commonly accepted standards of the structural steel fabricating industry. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. Part I. design examples. Manual of Steel Construction. Manual of Steel Construction. The ASD Specification. The provisions are for the members and connections that comprise the Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS) in buildings that are classified as Seismic Design Category D or higher in FEMA 302. and general information regarding welding. is applicable. g.1-92. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. published in 1989. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1.133g). One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. Section 7.1-88.1-92. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 The LRFD Specification. 2nd Edition. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. d. and special concerns for discontinuities in SFRS members. is based upon the use of AWS D1. LRFD.Connections. The ASD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. AWS welding symbols. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. h. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings .

The 9th Edition ASD Manual is supplemented by a separate book. plus commentary. 3. storage. including prequalified joint details. as they may be incorrect or outdated in the other documents. D1. (6) Inspection.Sheet Steel. plus annexes. Brazing and Nondestructive Testing. and reinforcing steel to other carbon and low-alloy steels. and the astested mechanical properties (strength.1 Structural Welding Code . The D1. as well as examples of their use.3 Code is applicable when welding sheet steels to other sheet steels. in even years.4 Standard Symbols for Welding. is covered. It also contains both mandatory and nonmandatory annexes.1. The 9th Edition of the Manual contains welding design aids in Part 4 . The requirements include.3 Structural Welding Code .8 mm (3/16 in. AWS welding symbols. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. and shielding gases. ANSI/AWS D1. c. Chapter 3 contains design examples for Simple Shear Connections. 4. as applicable. and Chapter 6 contains Column Connections. D1. and (7) Inspection. ductility. as used in concrete construction. The D1. and Part C covers Nondestructive Examination Symbols. Volume II . Chapter 2 contains general information regarding welding. markings. ANSI/AWS D1. and arc plug welds are included in the Code. for given general types of electrodes and given welding processes. arc seam.) in nominal thickness. except Sections 7 and 8 are not included.1 contains eight sections: (1) General Requirements. and toughness) and soundness of weld metal. (5) Technique. the use of AWS D1.Connections. D1.1. Part B covers Brazing Symbols.4 contains standards for the application of welding symbols on structural design and detail drawings.1-88.) in thickness or greater.4 Structural Welding Code . chemical composition of the electrode. b. The symbols and use specified in this document supersedes symbols that may be shown in other AWS and industry documents. d. D1.Connections.3 covers arc welding of sheet and strip steels. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS.3 Code contents are similar to AWS D1. An Appendix or Annex is provided to explain the provisions and provide additional information. e. including cold-formed members that are equal to or less than 4. (3) Structural Details. With the latter application. packaging. Welding of reinforcing steel to reinforcing steel. and includes the following sections: (1) General Provisions. ANSI/AWS A2. It is updated biannually. (3) Prequalification.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tables and design aids.Reinforcing Steel.Steel. (2) Design of Welded Connections.1 Code is limited to carbon and low-alloy steels. moisture content. of minimum specified yield strength not greater than 690 MPa (100 ksi).1 and D1. as applicable. usability. A2.1 is also required for the structural steel. (4) Qualification. the use of AWS D1. Arc spot. or when welding to other thicker structural members.4 covers the welding of reinforcing steel. (4) Workmanship.1 is also required for the structural steel. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. ANSI/AWS A5-series documents establish the requirements for electrodes. (5) Fabrication.1 contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel structures. certifications. ANSI/AWS D1. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. The D1.3. It is not applicable to pressure vessel or pressure piping applications. (7) Stud Welding. fluxes.4 follows a different organizational structure than AWS D1. With the latter application. and design examples. D1. (6) Qualification. The A52-4 . Chapter 4 contains Moment Connections. Part A of the document covers Welding Symbols. and (8) Strengthening and Repair. a. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1.2 mm (1/8 in. A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications. (2) Allowable Stresses.

published in 1995. FEMA 267A was published as an additional advisory to FEMA 267. FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. steel structures. FEMA 302 provides minimum design criteria for the design and construction of structures to resist earthquake motions. The document is oriented toward structural analysis procedures. and structures in areas of low seismicity. and several other structures. 5. including foundations and architectural. The Interim Guidelines. c. Not included in the provisions are certain classes of one-and two-family residential structures. The documents will be as follows: (1) Seismic Design Criteria for New MomentResisting Steel Frame Construction. Phase 1 project. mechanical and electrical components. constructing and inspecting new buildings. FEMA 273 provides guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings constructed of steel or cast iron. (2) Post-Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. d. of TI 809-26. masonry. and (5) Recommended Specifications for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Buildings. 2-5 . and nonbuilding structures such as racks. concrete. are applicable to steel moment-resisting frame structures incorporating fully restrained connections in which the girder flanges are welded to the columns. post-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. with limited information regarding specific details for welding or inspection. piers and wharves.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 series specifications applicable to structural steel are listed in Appendix A . was published in mid-1999. and (4) Quality Assurance Guidelines for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. A second advisory. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY. FEMA 267B. Included are provisions for foundations. b. related building components. concrete structures. agricultural structures. retrofitting existing damaged and undamaged buildings. based upon the results of the SAC Joint Venture Phase 2 project. seismic isolation. FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Guideline recommendations are provided based upon research conducted under the SAC Joint Venture. and are subject to significant inelastic demands from strong earthquake ground motion. replacing FEMA 267A. wood and light metal. masonry structures. a. and designing. FEMA 267 Replacement. A series of five new documents are planned for publication in early 2000. FEMA 267 and 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . These will supersede FEMA 267 and issued advisories.Interim Guidelines. repairing damaged buildings. composite structures. based upon information available as of August 1996. stacks and chimneys. electrical distribution structures.References. The Guidelines include information regarding the pre-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. tanks and vessels. towers. (3) Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Construction.

and the mechanical properties typically have been degraded with reduced ductility and toughness. (2) Low Cooling Rates. Because preheating slows the cooling rate. In most cases. Conversely. The HAZ will also contain higher levels of hydrogen. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the portion of steel immediately adjacent to the weld that has been metallurgically modified by the heat of the welding. When preheat above approximately 300oC (550oF) is used. Also. If the steel is manufactured using heat treatment processes. General . When SMAW is performed. or testing beyond that required by the codes and standards. d. but with increased strength. should specify any special requirements for materials.Welding. General . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING. Preheat is used primarily to slow the cooling rate of the heat-affected zone (HAZ).Weld Heat-Affected Zone. The contract documents. Should any limitations in the use of heat be needed beyond those specified in the codes. whether for straightening. increasing the rate and time of hydrogen diffusion and reducing the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking. the use of low-hydrogen electrodes is encouraged. also embrittling the steel and increasing the risk of cracking. The hydrogen will eventually migrate out the HAZ. a very low cooling rate can detrimentally affect toughness because of grain growth. Preheating may also reduce residual stresses and improve the toughness of the completed joint. General . see Appendix C. such as 3-1 . weld. and heataffected zones. c. a. it is adequate to simply require compliance with the codes.Heating and Thermal Cutting. at rates dependent upon initial hydrogen levels. b. then subsequently been trapped within the metallurgical structure. (1) High Cooling Rates. The contractor may be allowed the full choice of welding processes and materials. WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES. thickness and temperature. materials. weld metal properties may be degraded as well. a. primarily depending upon welding heat input. martensitic HAZ microstructure with a higher risk of cracking during cooling. the steel remains at an elevated temperature longer. A high cooling rate may cause a hard. Cooling Rate Control. embrittling the steel. the contract documents prepared by the Engineer should so state. the use of specified toughness levels for filler metals in specific seismic building applications has been added to standard practice. if present. inspection. Recently. The use of “matching” prequalified filler metals is encouraged. hydrogen from the welding operation will have migrated into the hot HAZ. Project Specifications. The HAZ is typically about 3 mm (1/8 in. For further guidance in the use and selection of welding processes and materials. prepared by the Engineer. may have a significant effect upon the mechanical properties of the steel. The proper selection of welding processes. reducing porosity and other discontinuities. and procedures is vital to achieving the strength and quality necessary for adequate performance in the structure. 2. The microstructure has been changed. from the surface to be welded. cutting. The application of heat.) thick for common size welds. Preheat also aids in the removal of surface moisture and organic compounds.CEMP-E CHAPTER 3 WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. or welding.

(3) Users are cautioned that the use of these minimum preheat tables may not be sufficient to avoid cracking in all cases. it is advisable to use these values. and AWS D1.1 Code requires the WPS to be qualified using the lower preheat value. Guideline on Alternative Methods for Determining Preheat. preheat and interpass temperatures above 230oC (450oF) should be avoided. Conversely. with suggestions in Table 3-2 for non-prequalified steels.5 provide recommended values. lower welding heat input. use the higher preheat required for their respective thicknesses. With any non-prequalified steel. Weldability tests have been conducted to document that the steel may be welded without preheat. higher welding heat input.1 Annex XI. higher preheats are required to allow additional time for hydrogen to escape from the heat-affected zone.3 for 8 mL or less of diffusible hydrogen per 100 g of deposited weld metal) or lower is used. When low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. 12. For these conditions.2 should suffice. (2) Category D is applicable to A913 steel.3.2. preheats lower than those tabulated may be adequate for conditions of low restraint. provided maximum preheat levels are not exceeded. the preheat can be reduced because of the reduced hydrogen levels present. low hydrogen levels. For quenched and tempered steels. (1) Category A is applicable when non-low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. but is not recommended practice. Preheat for Prequalified Applications. A summary of this table is provided as Table 3-1. or with steel compositions at the upper end of their respective specification.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 quenched and tempered steels. The Guide considers hydrogen level. b. and an electrode classified as H8 (tested under ANSI/AWS A4. When steels of different categories are joined.1 Table 3. a competent welding advisor should be consulted. When higher preheats are calculated.4 and 12. The basic values for minimum preheat temperatures for prequalified structural steels are provided in AWS D1. When lower preheat values are calculated. provided the steel temperature is above 0oC (32oF). Such testing may not always adequately replicate restraint conditions. See Appendix C. a thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel that has low carbon and alloy levels.1 Table 3.1.5 Bridge Welding Code Tables 12. (4) Although not required for building applications under AWS D1. This is permitted as prequalified only for AWS Group I steels. Increased preheat temperatures may be necessary in situations involving higher restraint. 3-2 . too high a preheat may affect steel properties by retempering the steel. Seismic applications with routine building structures is not considered appropriate for requiring higher levels of preheat and interpass temperatures. Additional guidance for these situations may be found in AWS D1. consideration for higher preheat and interpass temperature requirements may be made for critical applications where fracture would result in a catastrophic collapse. and steel compositions low in carbon and other alloys. steel composition. higher hydrogen levels. and restraint and allows for calculation of the estimated preheat necessary to avoid cold cracking. the AWS D1. AWS D1. Because of the higher diffusible hydrogen present when non-low hydrogen electrodes are used. Paragraph 1b. so caution is advised.

5 mm (2-1/2 in. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grades A and B (round) A500.) over 38.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-1. Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in.1 mm (incl.) 0oC (32oF)1 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 3-3 . II.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grade 36 Round and Rectangular Sections A53. grade 42 A709.5 mm (incl. grade B (round) A500. grade 50 (shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A53. grade 50 A992.) over 19 to 38.) over 19 to 38.1 to 63. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) A618. 50 & 50W A572.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. or FCAW. 100 mm (4 in.) thick and under A913.) over 63. grades lb.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 0oC (32oF)1 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) A When using SMAW with other than lowhydrogen electrodes Shapes and Plates A36 A529.) (1/8 to 3/4 in. grade B (round) A500. & III (round) B When using SMAW with low-hydrogen electrodes.5 mm (2-1/2 in. GMAW or SAW 3 to 19 mm (incl.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grades 36.) over 38. grades A and B (round) A500. grades 42 and 50 A588.5 mm (incl.1 Category Structural Steel Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl.) over 63.1 mm (incl. grade 42 A709.1 to 63.

and 65 all thicknesses 0oC (32oF)1 . 2 .5 mm (2-1/2 in. 60.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.) over 38.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) Category Structural Steel C When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes.1 mm (incl. GMAW or SAW D When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes. must be raised to and maintained at a minimum temperature of 21oC (70oF) prior to and during welding.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl. or FCAW.If the steel is below 0oC (32oF). or FCAW. the steel.5 mm (incl.) Shapes and Plates A572. with electrodes of class H8 or lower 1 Shapes and Plates A913.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grades 60 and 65 over 19 to 38. grades 702 A913. in the vicinity of welding. GMAW or SAW.1 to 63. 3-4 . grades 60 and 65 A709. Grades 50. and 230oC (450oF) for thickness greater than 40 mm (1-1/2 inches).) over 63.Maximum preheat and interpass temperature of 200oC (400oF) for thicknesses up to 40 mm (1-1/2 inches) inclusive.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. grade 70W2 A852.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-2. grades Ib.1 Annex XI is suggested. grade C (rectangular) A618.1. restraint. When the structural steel element is of a grade or thickness requiring preheat under the provisions of AWS D1. d. Category B c. Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications. with suitable qualification testing to be performed to verify the analytical results. Category A Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Shapes and Plates A242.1. The use of AWS D1. over 4" thick Round and Rectangular Sections A500. II. grade 46 A283 (plates) NPQ-A Round and Rectangular Sections A500. and experience. 3-5 . The sheet steel itself need not be preheated. Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel. hydrogen levels.) Catego ry Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. and III (round) A847 NPQ-B same as Table 3-1. (Seek advice of competent welding consultant prior to use of this Table. grades 50 and 55 A588. Table 3-2 provides suggested values for common structural steels not currently listed in AWS D1. Other steels should be evaluated by a competent welding consultant. Suggested Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISCApproved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. grade C (round) same as Table 3-1. Preheat requirements for non-prequalified steels and applications may be determined using rational engineering judgement considering material composition. preheat must be provided to the structural steel element. all grades A529.1.

until completion of the weld joint. also commonly called flame cutting or burning. c. a. because the heat is applied to the part of the member that needs to become shorter. it should be verified that adequate welding has been completed to sustain any currently applied or anticipated loadings until completion of the joint. but may vary in specific WPSs. and adequate control of hydrogen levels is maintained. (1) Thicker materials may absorb enough heat from the weld region that it is necessary to reapply heat to the weld region prior to resuming welding of the joint. See AWS D1.8. Minimum and maximum interpass temperatures are typically the same as the minimum and maximum preheat temperatures. and also to camber or curve members when desired. Thermal cutting is generally grouped into two categories oxyfuel gas cutting. Interpass temperature is the temperature maintained during welding. Cambering Procedure. starting with a point near the top. Heat applied from a heating torch may be used to straighten curved or distorted members. The method is commonly called “flame shrinking”. It is recommended that accelerated cooling using water mist not be used until the temperature of the steel has dropped below approximately 300oC (600oF).26. f. Cooling time may be necessary for larger multi-pass welds on thinner materials or smaller members. Postheat (PWHT). and to 590oC (1100oF) for quenched and tempered steels. when proper attention is applied to preheat and interpass temperatures. 3. b. APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING. Thermal cutting is used in steel fabrication to cut material to size and to perform edge preparation for groove welding. 3-6 . the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum temperatures should be followed. Principle.2. it may be adequate to slow cooling rates through the use of insulating blankets applied immediately after completion of welding. Interpass Temperature.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. THERMAL CUTTING. (2) With maximum interpass temperature considerations. Postheating is the continued application of heat following completion of the weld joint. (3) When necessary to shut down welding operations on a joint prior to joint completion. not cracking control. It is recommended to first apply a V-heat to the web. but may be used in some cases when conditions of high restraint. It is not required by specification.1 Section 5. it may be necessary to pause welding operations to allow the steel to cool to below the maximum interpass temperature before resuming welding. but the use of forced air is acceptable. Under the difficult conditions mentioned. poor weldability steels. and plasma arc cutting. The joint may be allowed to cool below the prescribed interpass temperature. In most cases. Maximum Temperatures. but must be reheated to the required preheat / interpass temperature before resumption of welding of the joint. Accelerated cooling using water should not be permitted. and poor hydrogen control exist. is for the purpose of stress relief. For TMCP steels. The temperature to which the steel may be heated as a part of the straightening or cambering process is limited to 650oC (1200oF) for most structural steels. The PWHT described in AWS D1. Cambering a beam with positive camber requires heat to be applied to the bottom flange of the beam. 4. to soften the web and minimize web crippling that may occur if only the flange is heated.1 Section 5. postheating is not necessary to avoid cold cracking.

Waviness and Lay). the joint should be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushing. as well as removes the molten steel from the area. It may also be used to remove entire welds when structural repairs or modifications are necessary. If not welded. to remove unacceptable discontinuities from weld deposits. A plastic sample. Surface Finishing. then exposed to a stream of oxygen from the same torch. MPS. as well as less distortion. the steel is heated to the point of melting. as measured using ANSI/ASME B46. The molten steel is then removed by the high velocity stream of plasma (ionized gas) created by the arc itself.3. which itself creates additional heat to allow the process to continue. c. leaving a cut edge. propylene.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. however. or “burning” to occur. and therefore a water table and water shroud is typically used to minimize these undesirable environmental effects.2. only this function is performed using an electric arc. The force of the oxygen stream blows away the molten steel. in Section M2. The air provides continued rapid oxidation. and to remove temporary attachments such as backing bars or lifting lugs. resulting in less steel metallurgically affected by the heat of cutting. Oxyfuel Cutting. oxygen. Plasma Arc Cutting. Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. or other proprietary fuel gases. takes a minor exception to AWS D1. within the cutting torch. argon. The electrode creates a controlled arc. the steel is heated with a torch to its ignition temperature. Limits are placed on surface roughness. The oxygen causes rapid oxidation. the electrode is a carbon electrode covered with a copper sheath. acetylene. see ANSI/AWS C5. With plasma arc cutting.1 Section 5.15. AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING. With oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC). propane. Surface Texture (Surface Roughness.) thick or less. the area of steel heated by the process is less.1 quality criteria. Similar to oxyfuel cutting. 3-7 . Grinding of surfaces prior to welding is not required. Air carbon arc gouging (ACAG) is commonly used to perform edge preparation for groove joints (especially J.1. 5.4. melting the steel.1-G. a. AISC. Limitations are also placed on the depth and sharpness of gouges and notches. The fuel gas used in oxyfuel cutting may be natural gas. Process. Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. AWS C4. PAC generates considerable fume and noise. The quality of thermally cut edges is governed by AWS D1. For complete information. b. Gases used for PAC include nitrogen. air. light grinding of the ACAG surface is suggested. which is quickly followed by the focused application of compressed air from the electrode holder. b. and is generally limited to steels 25 mm (1 in. and mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen and argon/hydrogen.and U-grooves). The process appears similar to SMAW. with an electrode holder and a single electrode. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is sometimes used in shop fabrication. and is usually performed manually. Edge Quality. Following ACAG. is typically used for visual comparison in lieu of physical measurement of surface roughness.

This situation may be because certain grades have compositional levels outside the range considered readily weldable. a.1 of the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.1.1 Code. Prequalified steels have been determined to be generally weldable when using the AWS D1.CEMP-E CHAPTER 4 STRUCTURAL STEELS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. the AISC lists approved steels in Section A3.added in AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) -added in AISC LRFD Supplement (1998) 3 . Additional steels are listed in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings because of a more recent publication date. For building-type structures.added in AISC Hollow Structural Sections (1997) 4 . because certain strength levels are less weldable. only certain strength levels or grades are considered prequalified. AWS D1. Structural steels currently accepted by AISC in the LRFD Specification. New structural steel specifications have been developed and approved since publication. and should also be considered for application in structures. such as ASTM A992. AISC Approved Steels.1 lists prequalified steels in Table 3. For some steel specifications. or pending acceptance as noted.approved for next specification b. AWS Prequalified Steels. or because certain steels or grades recently came into production and inadequate information was known about their weldability at 4-1 . are as follows: Shapes and Plates A36 A242 A2831 A514 A529 A572 A588 A709 A852 A9132 A9924 (wide flange shapes only) Rounds and Rectangular Sections A53 A500 A501 A618 A8473 Sheet and Strip A570 A606 A607 1 2 . AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS. and other approved steels in Annex M.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. E6XT-XM E7XT-X.17: F6XX-EXXX.1 Table 3. grades A and B (round) A500. The steels listed in Annex M are approved for use. These steels are generally quenched and tempered steels. AWS Approved Steels. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1. E6XTX-X1M E7XTX-X1. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5. -2M. E70C-XC. the “matching” filler metal for the given welding process is provided.CEMP-E the time of printing. For joint designs requiring “matching” filler metal.1: E60XX.20: E6XT-X. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. but Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) must be qualified prior to use in welding these steels. F6XX-ECXXX F7XX-EXXX. d. and toughness.1 AWS Grou p Structural Steel Prequalified “Matching” Filler Metal SMAW A5. grade B (round) A500. They are also generally more sensitive to diffusible hydrogen and are at higher risk of hydrogen-assisted HAZ cracking. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. E7XT-XM (Except -2. -14. which are sensitive to temperature changes from welding operations that may affect their strength. Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) 4-2 . -GS) A5. -10. -13.5: E70XX-X1 FCAW A5. F7XXECXXX1 Shapes and Plates A36 A529. -3. Table 4-1 provides a summary of structural steels that are both approved by AISC and listed by AWS as prequalified. ductility.28: ER70S-X1XX. Table 4-1. E70XX A5.18: ER70S-X. F7XX-ECXXX A5. grade 42 A709. grade 36 I Round and Rectangular Sections A53.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1.29: E6XTX-X1.

grades 60 and 65 A913. E70C-X1XX SAW A5.20: E7XT-X. grades 60 and 65 FCAW A5.1: E70XX. -2M.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. -10.28: ER70S-X1XX. grades 42 and 50 A588. low hydrogen A5. F7XXECXXX1 SMAW A5.29: E7XTX-X1. F8XXECXXX1 II III 4-3 . grades 50 and 50W A913. grade 50 Round and Rectangular Sections A618. II. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5. -13.28: ER80S-X1XX. E70C-XC. -GS) A5.18: ER70S-X. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572.23: F8XX-EXXX-X1. F7XX-ECXXX A5.29: E8XTX-X1. E8XTX-X1M GMAW A5.17: F7XX-EXXX.5: E80XX-X1. and III (round) FCAW A5. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572. -14.) thick and under A709. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. -3. E80C-X1XX SAW A5.5: E70XX-X1. grades Ib.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. E7XT-XM (Except -2. 100 mm (4 in.

B6. F9XXECXXX1 IV 1 . B4L. Table 4-2 provides “matching” filler metal information for structural steels approved by AISC.23: F9XX-EXXX-X1. E9XT-X1M GMAW A5. B9 e. B5L.1. B5. B6L. B8L. B8. the advice of a competent welding consultant should be used prior to welding these steels. B4. 4-4 .28: ER90S-X1XX. Quenched and tempered steels are not listed in this table.5: E90XX-X1. grade 70W A852. grade 70 FCAW A5.except alloy groups B3. With the exception of A992. Matching Filler Metals for Non-prequalified Steels. B7. B7L. E90C-X1XX SAW A5. grade 50 steel. low hydrogen E9018M Shapes and Plates A709. B3L. but not listed as prequalified by AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5.29: E9XTX-X1. A992 steel is a new steel specification which is essentially a more restricted A572.

for further information on these tests. over 100 mm (4 in.1 Grou p Suggested “Matching” Filler Metal (Not Prequalified) Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. Unlisted Steels. Lehigh Restraint Cracking Test. grade 46 A283. all grades A529. grade C (round) Shapes and Plates A242. Other steels may warrant CVN testing or other mill documentation of typical toughness properties. or the Varestraint Test. ductility and toughness. (W shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. an assumed minimum level of toughness is assumed inherent with the steels listed in AISC Seismic Provisions. II.1 Table 3. AISC design specifications assume adequate strength and ductility. The Tekken and Lehigh methods simulate restraint that may be present in the actual joint. tensile strength. For seismic applications. Category I NPQII same as Table 4-1. grade D (plates) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. 4-5 . and III (round) A847 NPQ-I same as Table 4-1. grade C (rectangular) A618. Weldability may be evaluated using methods such as carbon equivalency.1 must be evaluated for their weldability. (2) Steels not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. the performance of WPS qualification testing. Stout and Doty. Category II f. (1) Steels not listed as approved by AISC must be evaluated for structural properties such as yield strength. or physical testing such as the Tekken test.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-2. grades Ib. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. Weldability of Steels.) A992. grades 50 and 55 A588. See Appendix B.

reducing the detrimental effects of sulfur. and sometimes postheat are necessary to avoid cold cracking. a minimum copper content of 0. or for plates and bars up to 20 mm (3/4 in. Where nickel is reported as a part of steel composition.04% to minimize the risk of weld and HAZ cracking. whether specified or not.20% is required. Typical steel specifications limit carbon below 0. WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. thereby increasing the risk of lamellar tearing.CEMP-E 2.40% is considered acceptable for most steels.50% may affect mechanical properties in heattreated steels. When specified to achieve atmospheric corrosion resistance.). increasing the risk of lamellar tearing when high through-thickness weld shrinkage strains are created. Larger quantities of phosphorous reduce ductility and toughness. (2) Manganese (Mn) is an alloying element that increases strength and hardenability. numerous large MnS inclusions may be present. and therefore higher preheat and interpass temperatures. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. but copper over 0. better hydrogen control. One of the principal benefits of manganese is that it combines with undesirable sulphur to form manganese sulfide (MnS).50% does not reduce weldability. copper up to 1. but other undesirable elements may be present in the scrap materials used to make the steel. inclusive. A steel such as A36 does not place limits on Mn content for shapes up to 634 kg/m (426 lb. increasing the formation of undesirable martensite with rapid HAZ cooling. (1) Carbon (C) is the most common element for increasing the strength of steel. flattened by the rolling operation. increasing the risk of hot cracking. particularly in the transverse direction. (5) Silicon (Si) is a deoxidizer used to improve the soundness of the steel./ft. Manganese limits are typically in the order of 1. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a.40% or lower. Higher preheats and higher heat input welding procedures may be needed when welding a steel with relatively high carbon contents.). (6) Copper (Cu) is added to improve the corrosion resistance of the steel. but high levels of carbon reduce weldability. Generally. however. Manganese is used to form MnS to reduce this tendency. It increases both strength and hardness. Most steels contain some copper. but to a lesser extent than carbon. and also reduces toughness and weldability. Typical steel specifications limit sulfur to 0. Chemical Composition. A minimum Mn:S ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 is recommended. while still increasing strength and hardenability. and is commonly used to “kill” steel. Several elements are purposefully added in the production of structural steel. The chemical composition of the steel affects weldability and other mechanical properties. such as in weathering steels. (4) Sulfur (S) reduces ductility. (3) Phosphorous (P) is an alloying element that increases the strength and brittleness of steel. Phosphorous tends to segregate in steel. With high levels of sulfur. Phosphorous is typically limited to 0. (7) Nickel (Ni) is an alloying element used to improve toughness and ductility. but some steel specifications have much lower limits. therefore creating weaker areas.50%. It has relatively little detrimental effect upon weldability. Carbon and other elements that increase hardenability increase the risk of “cold” cracking. 4-6 . Higher sulfur levels will form iron sulfide (FeS) along the grain boundaries.05%. Carbon increases the hardenability of the steel.27%.25% and 0. Silicon of up to 0.

Mo/50.1 Table 3.55. If the CE from this equation is below 0. (2) Another common carbon equivalent equation is: CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/10 + Ni/20 + Cu/40 . The weldability of a steel can be estimated from its composition. (1) The following equation is used in AWS D1. the material is considered readily weldable. For values between 0.40 and 0. (10) So-called “tramp” elements such as tin (Sn). using a calculation system termed the carbon equivalent (CE). b. and zinc (Zn). it may be necessary to use low heat input welding procedures to minimize dilution effects. (3) The Dearden and O’Neill equation.10%. and AWS D1. The total alloy content has the same effect on weldability as an equivalent amount of carbon.12%.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability 4-7 . Carbon equivalent values above 0.06% and 0. vanadium is generally limited to a maximum value between 0.V/10 . They have a low melting point. may be present in steel from the scrap material melted for steel-making. Carbon Equivalency. lead (Pb). phosphorous. The most significant element affecting weldability is carbon. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0.07% and 0. Weldability may be reduced by vanadium.2 guidance for the given steel strength should be adequate. The effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an additional amount of carbon. When welding with high levels of these elements. There are numerous carbon equivalent equations available and in use. is similar: CE = C + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + V/5 + Mn/6 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 A CE of 0.40. Other low-melting point elements that create a risk of hot cracking include sulfur. applicable for steels with C greater than 0.55 indicate a high risk that cracks may develop unless special precautions are implemented. (9) Molybdenum (Mo) is an alloying element which greatly increases hardenability and helps maintain strength and minimize creep at higher temperature. and copper.48 generally assures good weldability.1 Annex XI. When vanadium is reported as a part of steel composition.15%. the use of preheat and low-hydrogen electrodes is generally necessary.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (8) Vanadium (V) is an alloying element used for increasing strength and hardenability. CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 +V/5 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 + Si/6 Where C = carbon content (%) Mn = manganese content (%) Cr = chromium content (%) Mo = molybdenum content (%) V = vanadium content (%) Ni = nickel content (%) Cu = copper content (%) Si = silicon content (%) A carbon equivalent of less than 0. When molybdenum is reported as a part of steel composition. regardless of thickness. and may adversely affect weldability and cause “hot” cracking.

35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability.0.75 + 0. Pcm.12) ] 4-8 . the Ito and Bessyo equation may be used.07% and 0. CE = C + 5B + V/10 + Mo/15 + Mn/20 + Cu/20 + Cr /20 + Si/30 + Ni/60 Where B = boron content (%) A CE of 0.26%.22%. (5) The Yurioka equation may also used to calculate CE for steel with C between 0. The Ito-Bessyo equation is also termed the composition-characterizing parameter.02% and 0.25 * tanh [ 20 (C.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) For steels with C between 0. as follows: CE = C + A(C) * {5B + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/20 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + Nb/5 + V/5} Where Nb = niobium content (%) A(C) = 0.

Chemical Requirements for Sample Structural Steels (heat analysis.15-0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-3.20-0.23 0.05 0. including applicable thickness ranges. considerably higher than that considered by 4-9 .05 0.70 --- 0.035 0.50 0.23 1.15 A992 A588.20-0.80-1.0050.40 0.40-0.60 0.04 0.75-1. combinations of elements.04 0. a.02-0.65 0.26 --0. etc.40 # A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 2 0. grades.50 0.04 0.01-0.50 0.05 0.04 0. # minimum 0.05 0.05 ------- --------- Shapes composition limits are listed for sections up to 634 kg/m (426 plf). grade B A852 0. Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio.35 0.35 0.50-1.40 # 0.20% when specified 3.20-0.10 --0. types.40-0.35 0.05 0.) Steel Compositio n C Mn P S Si Cu V Co Ni Cr Mo A36 (shapes) A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 1 0. PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS.95.04 0. unless range is provided) (Refer to ASTM specifications for complete information.45 0.19 0.01-0.23 1.35 0.035 0.70 --- 0.40 0.40 # ----------- 0.045 0. maximum. %.50 0.35 0.10 --0.20 0. Some structural steels have been produced with Fy:Fu ratios as high as 0. AISC design equations assume some margin in structural steel from the point of yielding to the point of fracture to allow for the redistribution of stress.40 0.15 0.11 0.

(1) Fine grain practice is beneficial in improving ductility and toughness. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (1) ASTM A572.30%. in the form of semi-killed steel. and may also be specified. but may also be done with aluminum or manganese. as a part of routine production practices. and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness. Killed Steel. this requirement is advisable for members in the lateral load resisting systems in high-seismic applications.10% to 0. the steel is considered fine-grained. in tension applications. except in the case of A992 steel. Aluminum is typically used to achieve fine grain practice. but may be higher. as well as reduce the number of oxide-type inclusions in the steel. provides a requirement for a maximum Fy:Fu ratio of 0. manufactured to the supplemental requirements of AISC Technical Bulletin #3. c. which binds oxygen and nitrogen. killing is done using additions of silicon. measured using test methods prescribed by ASTM E112. b. including ductility and toughness. Such a requirement can be met by special mill order requirements. (2) Structural steels providing this maximum Fy:Fu ratio are readily available from mill sources. which can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the steel. the specification of A572. There is currently no premium in steel mill cost to specify such properties.CEMP-E AISC in developing design methodologies. which have special AISC requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3. by heat analysis. Consideration of requirements for fine grain practice should be made when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5. grade 50. Although not considered critical in low-seismic applications. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. in tension applications. without the need for testing.1c. When aluminum content is above 0. or through the review of mill test reports of existing steels in inventory that are traceable to the mill heat number. (4) Project requirements for killed steel should be considered when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5. AISC does not require killed steel for any specific applications. defined by ASTM A6 / A6M as grain size number 5 or higher. either by addition of strong deoxidizing agents or by vacuum treatment. (1) The benefit of killing is to reduce the number of gas pockets present in the steel. but some minor delays may be encountered in purchasing until the inventory of such materials is predominant. Killed steels often have silicon levels in the range of 0. (5) Specifying killed or semi-killed steel may carry a slight cost premium. Because killed steel is typically a cost-premium mill order item. Killed steel has been processed to remove or bind the oxygen that saturates the molten steel prior to solidification. grade 50 meeting AISC Technical Bulletin #3. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.” Semi-killed steel is incompletely deoxidized. the inventory of killed structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants is less than that of regular steels. (3) Most commonly. (2) Most mills provide some form of deoxidation.85. Fine Grain Practice. the specification of A992 shapes. This same value is a requirement for ASTM A992 steels. Fine grain practice is the method of achieving Fine Austenitic Grain Size. ASTM A992 requires the steel to be killed. and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness. which have special AISC 4-10 .20%. ASTM A6 / A6M defines killed steel as “steel deoxidized.

CVN testing is an added charge by the steel producer. Steel toughness.1c.3. f. a mill may be able to select heats of steel with particularly lower levels of sulfur for rolling specific sections. However. steels with improved through-thickness properties may be specified. as prescribed by ASTM A370. the steel must have sufficient plastic ductility to redistribute stresses at the root of a notch to the surrounding material. For this resistance.-lb. Most steel specifications permit maximum sulfur in amounts between 0. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. at 70oF).) or thicker. Section 6. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. 4. and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. and steel with CVN testing is not routinely ordered by steel service centers or steel fabricators for inventory. or the specification of A709 4-11 . and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3.005% sulfur. but this is rarely necessary. Normalized steel is not routinely available from steel service centers or stocked by fabricators. at a cost premium and with longer lead time. improved ductility and improved toughness. Shapes are not routinely available with substantially reduced sulfur levels. Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. Specification of steel toughness levels.30% to 0. at 70oF). For certain high-restraint applications subject to the risk of lamellar tearing. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS. is the resistance to brittle crack initiation and propagation. steel is heated to approximately 900oC to 930oC (1650oF to 1700oF). By reducing the sulfur content. but the steel industry standard is the Charpy V-Notch (CVN) method. Therefore. The AISC Seismic Provisions. and would be available only at substantial cost premium and considerable delay. the number and size of manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions is reduced. When specifying steel to fine grain practice. ASTM Supplementary Requirement S91 should be consulted for the specific steel grade. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. a. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. (2) Because fine grain practice is typically a cost-premium mill order item. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. an added expense with added time for delivery from the steel mill. low-sulfur steels in plate form can be ordered to 0. The specification of normalized steel is a mill order item only. Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft. Toughness may be measured using a variety of methods.-lb. High-seismic Applications. Typically. Normalizing. also commonly referred to as “notch toughness”. d. Few building applications warrant the need for normalized steel. Normalizing is defined in ASTM A6 / A6M as “a heat treating process in which a steel plate is reheated to a uniform temperature above the critical temperature and then cooled in air to below the transformation range.50%. The benefits include refined grain size and uniformity. which typically requires longer production lead times than service center or stock items. It is also possible to specify through-thickness tensile testing using reduction of area as the governing criteria. steels with CVN testing are generally available only through mill order. Improved Through-thickness Properties. the inventory of structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants manufactured to fine grain practice is less than that of regular structural steel.” In practice. Toughness. e.) or thicker.

for all but A36 steels.3 for guidance. a given ASTM A709 / A709M steel and temperature zone may be specified.2. Table S1.CEMP-E steels. Modifications to this table are suggested for steels that have yield strengths 103 MPa (15 ksi) or more above the minimum specified yield strengths. may be used for redundant fatigue applications. Table S1. the toughness values specified in ASTM A709 / A709M. As a guide. See the ASTM A709 / A709M specification for appropriate changes to the testing temperatures for these cases. Alternatively. For nonredundant fatigue applications. to be placed on the mill order. Fatigue Applications. see ASTM A709 / A709M.1 and S1. The required CVN toughness and testing temperature may be specified directly in the specifications for the project. Toughness requirements should be considered for applications involving fatigue. summarized and adapted in Table 4-4. 4-12 . TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. is currently considered unnecessary for ordinary building-type applications.

to 50 mm (2 in.) A572. gr 50 A588 “ “ welded A852 bolted or welded bolted “ “ welded A514 bolted or welded bolted “ “ welded 4-13 .) to 65 mm (21/2 in.).).) to 65 mm (21/2 in.) over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in. over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in. incl. incl. Toughness Guidelines for Structural Steel in Fatigue Applications. incl. Minimum Service Temperature Zone 1 -18oC (0oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (20 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ 10oC (25 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -1oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Zone 2 -34oC (-30oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (20 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -7oC (25 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 48J @ -18oC (35 ft-lbf @ 0oF) Zone 3 -51oC (-60oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -23oC (25 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -34oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Steel Thickness Applicatio n bolted or welded bolted or welded bolted A36 to 100 mm (4 in. incl.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.). over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in. Redundant Applications. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.).) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-4.

“buttering. grades and strengths.015%. 5. Table 13 lists the producers of specific structural shapes. 100. but the higher strength grades should be avoided because of other welding difficulties. it is generally more cost effective to specify a type of steel with inherently good fracture toughness. Cold Weather Applications. 4-14 . A242. A709 (grades 50W. A572. provides general information regarding availability of shapes. steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. All AISC-approved structural steels are available from domestic steel mills. 100W). consideration should be made for the risk of lamellar tearing.” and peening. sequencing. the use of low-strength. 70W. 100W). in the January and July issues. the use of preheat and/or postheat. High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications. although higher strength structural steels present additional welding difficulties and should not be specified unless necessary for weight savings. published by AISC. Table 1-4 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. including availability as either steel service center stock or in mill order quantities only. which also improves toughness.012%. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction. weld bead placement selection. See 3. or A283 steels. AISC-approved steels requiring production to fine-grain practice are A588. Nitrogen has a significant effect upon CVN transition temperatures. include A992 and A709 (grades 100. welding procedure controls. and limitations on nitrogen may be considered. and Table 1-5 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. Lamellar tearing is a separation or tearing of the steel on planes parallel to the rolled surface of the member. A709 (grades 36 and 50). A572. and A913 (grades 60. This list is updated semi-annually in Modern Steel Construction magazine. A992 steels place a limit on nitrogen of 0. Steel toughness requirements should be considered for major loadcarrying components of structures exposed to extreme cold environments. Steels that require killing. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. Table 1-1. Type 4 steel has a limit on nitrogen of 0. 65 and 70). lamellar tearing is avoided through using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. A992. However. d. creating through-thickness shrinkage stresses and strains. Fine-grain practice can optionally be specified using ASTM Supplemental Requirement S91 for A36. High-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels that are manufactured using fine grain practice have improved toughness at low temperature. with the exception of A913. nor specific values for weld size. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. When structural components in a low-temperature environment are not subject to significant impact loads or fatigue conditions. and avoid a requirement for specific CVN toughness at a reference temperature. Generally. high-ductility filler metals. stresses or strains that will induce tearing.e. and A913 (grade 50). The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. A852.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. unless nitrogen binders are added. compared to conventional carbon steels such as A36 steel. When welded joints are made to the side of a member. It is not available for A529. plates and bars in various steel specifications.

vee.1 Figure 5. welding personnel qualified in out-ofposition welding. GENERAL. Minimum access hole sizes are specified in AWS D1. including connections between elements in built-up members. a. and ease of welding operations. distortion control. b. J. In the selection of base metals. personnel qualified to inspect the welding. The Engineer may prescribe connection details. and when necessary for prequalified groove welds. the electrode should be positioned so that the angle between the part and the electrode is not less than 30o.2. (2) Access should be adequate so that the welding electrode can be positioned at the proper angle for proper penetration and fusion. enclosures for field welding. Engineer’s Responsibility. and joint designs. 5-1 . This may effectively be done through the use of AWS welding symbols. must be of adequate size to permit the weld to be placed by reaching through the access hole with the electrode. but generally it is best to allow the fabricator or erector to select the specific welding detail to be used for a particular joint.CEMP-E CHAPTER 5 DESIGN FOR WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. Availability of Materials. and NDT equipment and personnel necessary to perform NDT as required. GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE. Critical structural steel connections must be completely detailed and shown on the contract drawings. bevel. one should consider the availability of the structural steel. filler metals. double. availability of equipment and personnel. (3) Weld access holes. or specify a Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove weld and state the required throat. For instance. welders qualified for specific processes. 2. personnel qualified to perform such welding. Larger access holes may be warranted based upon the welding process and type of welding equipment used. The following items should be considered to permit welding operations to be made with adequate quality: (1) Welding personnel must have direct visual access to the root of the weld. or nondestructive testing. Generally. All passes must be visually monitored by the welder during welding. alternative joint designs should be investigated. and groove angle should be used based upon economics. When the availability of any of the above is in question. it may be adequate for the Engineer to specify a Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove weld. welding processes. if desired or necessary. U). Certain welded joint designs may require notch-tough filler materials. The fabricator and erector are typically in the best position to select which process. the appropriate AWS designation. a. Access should be checked at the design stage when welding in highly confined spaces or with closely spaced parts. placed in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges or making beam-tocolumn moment connections. Equipment and Personnel. filler metals. groove type (single. Smaller angles may cause a lack of fusion along the weld / base metal interface. The Engineer is responsible for the analysis and design of the connection. Access. The Engineer must review and approve the final details selected by the contractor. welding equipment.

4 and 4.1 Figures 3. CJP groove welds require the use of either backing bars.) deeper. limited distortion. Less distortion may also be incurred because of the reduced weld volume. and Figures 4. and in either the flat or horizontal positions when making fillet welds. which may need to be removed in certain types of joints.6 for tubular joints. and requalification testing may be necessary. the prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. close visual observation of the welder during the first few out-of-position passes is especially important. and for compression splices such as column splices. plug welds or slot welds. should be considered. on average. and therefore may have lost some of the skill necessary to perform quality out-of-position welding. Proper joint design. Access to the root is also easier to achieve because of the balance and the wider groove angle used. Fewer welding personnel are qualified by test to perform welding out-of-position. c. or removal of a portion of the root pass area by backgouging followed by backwelding until the joint is complete. Welding in other than the flat or horizontal positions increases welding time approximately four-fold. usually the required effective throat.1 for groove welds and in Figure 4. and lack of fusion on the unbeveled face may result. depending upon groove angle. especially when the unbeveled face is vertical. are easier to weld.1 in Figure 4. or a combination groove weld with reinforcing fillets. V-groove welds are preferred over bevel-groove welds. The quality of out-of-position welds is more difficult to maintain. Bevel-groove welds are generally more difficult to weld. there may be offsetting cost savings with groove welds because of decreased weld volume. contributing to lack of penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the joint sidewalls. see AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) Narrow root openings and narrow groove angles inhibit access to the joint root. rather than just the amount of welding needed to carry the load. In this case. Joint Selection. Provided CJP groove welds are not required by Code for the given application or for fatigue and seismic applications. and cost-effectiveness. welding process and position. more welding is required to join the entire thickness of material. V-groove welds. and therefore less labor and materials.3 and 3. Welding positions are defined in AWS D1. fillet welding is generally less expensive than groove welding. In addition. however. preferably using joints prequalified under AWS D1. d. a welder may not have recently used the special techniques and procedures for welding in these positions. until the fillet size reaches approximately 16 to 20 mm (5/8 to 3/4 in. fewer passes. 5-2 . or 3 mm (1/8 in. It is preferred to weld in the flat position when making groove welds. by Code. (4) For tee joints. There is added expense in joint preparation for groove welds that is not required with fillet welds. PJP groove welding. PJP groove welds should be considered for tensionand shear-carrying joints when full strength of the connected members is not required. Position.).3 for groove welds. Above this size.1 Figure 4. 2 for fillet welds. For guidance in the selection of groove details that provide sufficient access. partial joint penetration (PJP) groove welds are more economical than complete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds. This makes visual inspection and some forms of NDT more difficult. The following items should be considered in selecting or evaluating joint selection: (1) For butt joints. PJP groove welds are prepared to a required depth of chamfer.1 should be used. increasing cost and construction time.4 should be reviewed. and they typically do not have the smooth appearance of welds performed in the flat or horizontal positions. Although personnel may be previously qualified by test to weld out-of-position. Figure 4. (2) For most applications. (3) In butt joints. because they are balanced and usually have a downhand position on each groove face.5 for fillet welds. To assist in interpreting the positions given.

When the part can be frequently rotated for welding on opposite sides. The use of prequalified groove weld details does not guarantee that welding problems will not occur. the first side groove depth should be approximately 35-40% of the total groove depth of both welds. and trapped slag at the root. There are also higher initial joint preparation costs to prepare a J. cost-effective or easier-to-weld details may be used.4. See AWS D1. qualification testing is required. They are better suited for thin materials. reduced or wider groove angles. and higher costs because of the additional material and labor used.and V-groove welds.and U-groove joints should be considered.1 Figures 3. qualification testing of the joint detail is not required to verify the suitability of the detail. provide root opening.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) Square groove welds have limited application for structural steel. increased risk of shrinkage cracking. Prequalified Joint Details. provided other prequalification provisions of the Code are also met. J.or U-groove joint. When the joint details as shown are used.or U-groove welds. lack of fusion. very wide roots contribute to root pass cracking and root HAZ cracking from weld shrinkage. However. The details may not always be the best detail. so even more weld metal must be saved to recover these costs. a balanced groove detail can be used. J. increased risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints.1 Section 3 for these limits. Qualification testing. The completed first side weld restrains the second side weld from shrinking as much as the unrestrained first-side weld. Generally. Qualified Joint Details. Angular distortion can be minimized through the use of double-sided welding. Root openings and groove angles are considered adequate for the welding processes and positions noted. is required in such cases to verify the ability of the WPS to provide the penetration and quality necessary.1 Figure 3. root face. the required depth of preparation is provided to achieve the desired effective throat. e.4 for Complete Penetration Joint (CJP) groove welds. or other revised details. Double-sided welds balance weld shrinkage about the center of the part’s cross-section. but the narrower groove angle reduces the total weld volume below that of bevel. tolerances.and V-groove welds.1 Section 4.3 for Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. These problems may be minimized through the use of suitable WPSs. narrower root openings and groove angles increase the risk of incomplete penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the groove faces. Groove weld details may be used other than those shown as prequalified in AWS D1. Excessively wide groove angles contribute to added angular distortion. J.). (8) Groove angles should be the minimum angle that will provide adequate access for penetration to the root. The prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. and Figure 3. thickness limits.and U-groove welds may be more economical than bevel. When angular distortion or shrinkage strains must be minimized.3 and 3. Narrow root openings contribute to lack of penetration. The wider root initially requires more weld metal. and adequate access to the groove faces for complete fusion. The reduced groove angle minimizes the differential in weld width from top to bottom of the joint. f. Wider root openings allow for complete penetration to the bottom of the joint preparation. g. (7) Root opening widths should be generous but not excessive. Minimum 5-3 . the root opening must be closely controlled and the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) closely developed and followed. For PJP groove welds. and WPS selection. generally starting at thicknesses of 50 mm (2 in. as prescribed in AWS D1. Alternate details may be selected with reduced or wider root openings. Distortion. presetting of parts. However. groove angle. When one side will be welded in its entirety before proceeding to weld the opposite side. When square groove welds are used. (6) For thick materials. without causing excessive angular distortion. the use of minimum groove angles. and other more efficient. when other groove details are used. and other information for the effective detailing of groove welds.

and also overmatching filler metal to the extent of one weld strength classification. (3) For CJP groove welds in transverse compression. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS. Part A provides the details for the calculation of effective weld size. and effective weld length.1. (2) Should the CJP groove weld be used in a T-joint or corner joint loaded in tension transverse to its axis. see the appropriate specification.1 Table 3. Effective Weld Size / Throat. the AWS D1. with a phi of 0. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. without consideration of the resistance factor phi. with minor differences in certain sections. AWS D1. Both AWS and AISC tables are similarly structured. and the throat must be measured as the shortest distance from the root to the weld face. The following information is in terms of LRFD. b. AISC places no limit on the undermatching strength. the AWS D1. the measurement of leg size is ineffective. and therefore reduce the weld shrinkage. Weld design strength (when using LRFD) is provided in AISC Table J2. also called effective throat. If ASD is used. the AWS D1. and then be detailed to provide the throat required.1 Table 2.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. Note [d] requires the use of filler metal with a designated CVN toughness of 27J @ +4oC (20 ft.5 of the ASD Specification. when using ASD.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 groove angles and J-and U-groove details reduce the difference in weld width between the root and the face of the weld. or in AISC Table J2. Overmatching is not permitted in AWS D1. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. AWS provides the required depth of preparation for PJP groove welds in D1.1 for matching filler metals. but the effective throat is the shortest distance from the root to a straight line drawn between the two weld toes. AISC permits the use of undermatching for the same conditions. with the backing bar remaining in place. (1) Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove welds have an effective throat equal to the thickness of the thinner part joined. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) more. AISC provides similar information in Table J2. Alternatively. (2) For CJP groove welds that carry transverse tensile stress. See AWS D1. Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths.1 Code permits the use of matching filler metal or a filler metal of lower strength. similarly loaded.1 Section 2.3. a. the effective size is specified in terms of weld leg. with a phi of 0. (2) Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds must have their size specified in the design. Figure 3. Allowable weld stress.5. as the base metal will be the weaker of the two materials.1.9. Should the fillet weld be concave.3. (4) CJP groove welds in shear may carry 0. Matching filler metal provides a weld with at least the strength of the base metal in such an application.1 Code requires the use of matching filler metal. is provided in AWS D1. (1) For welds other than CJP groove welds loaded in transverse tension. the weld must be designed as a PJP groove weld. 3.-lbf @ +40oF). 5-4 .9. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) less.1 Code requires the use of either matching filler metal or a filler metal one strength classification less. (3) For flat and convex fillet welds.1.5 of the LRFD Specification.

(12) When fillet weld strength increases. (10) Fillet welds may be stressed to 0. because of penetration and HAZ hardening. are generally 1.75.1 Section 2. The weld stress may not exceed 0. only for the shear transferred between the web and flange.90. girder web-to-flange welds need not be designed for the axial force from bending. and AISC LRFD Specification Appendix J2.CEMP-E with a phi of 0.8. and is loaded from its end.9. (9) PJP groove welds in shear may be stressed to 0. AWS D1. (7) PJP groove welds in compression are currently treated differently by AWS and AISC. as above. PJP groove welds are categorized into joints designed to bear and joints not designed to bear. (11) For transversely loaded fillets welds. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. provides design values only for the joint designed to bear application.5. the weld stress need not be checked. Under AWS D1. (14) Plug and slot welds may be stressed to 0. The maximum effective length is 180 times the leg size. 5-5 . Design values for typical weld groups are provided in the AISC Manual. with a phi of 0.75. the leg of the fillet weld is not a failure plane that needs checked. For eccentrically loaded fillet weld groups. (13) When a fillet weld is loaded longitudinally along its axis. Under AISC.4 and 2. applied to the throat of the groove weld.5 times the ASD values. AISC. as in a splice plate or brace member. with a phi of 0. and the base metal stress may not exceed 0. only AWS provides design values.14.4.50 times the classification strength of the filler metal. For angles other than transverse. for joints designed to bear. (6) PJP groove welds in transverse tension are permitted to carry 0. Note [h] requires the use of CVN toughness as above. There is no need to check the shear stress in the base metal along the diagrammatic leg of the fillet weld.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. which would apply when the weld is 300 times the leg size in length.5. as the base metal will govern the strength of the joint. permit a 50% increase in the allowable shear stress on the weld. considering the factor phi. only for any shear forces that may be transferred between the connected parts. LRFD values.6.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. an increase is also permitted based upon an equation. (8) For joints not designed to bear. using the effective size (throat) of the groove weld for the check of the base metal stress.14. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) CJP groove welds and other welds carrying tension or compression parallel to the axis of the weld need not be designed for the tensile or compressive stress. based upon Allowable Stress Design (ASD).1. with a phi of 0. because it is based upon new construction.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. there is a maximum effective length of 100 times the leg size before a reduction factor must be implemented.8. The stress on the base metal is also limited to the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. allowable shear stress increases are also permitted when using the instantaneous center of rotation approach for the analysis of the weld group. with a reduction coefficient Beta of 0.45 times the classification strength of the filler metal. are used for loading other than parallel to the weld axis. Longer fillet welds loaded in such a manner must be analyzed using a reduction coefficient Beta from AISC LRFD Specification equation J2-1. Research indicates that.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. with a phi of 0. with a phi of 0. As an example.

Reentrant corners are internal cuts in members.1 Table 5. Reentrant corners must be smooth. Plug and slot welds may be designed only for shear forces along the base of the hole or slot.1 Section 2. Small welds provide little heat input to the thick base metal. Access holes also serve to separate weld shrinkage stresses when fully welded joints are made in both the member web and flange. This check is applied to the thickness of the material.8. welding and quality requirements apply for applications using ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. Grinding of reentrant corners and tangency is not required. are available. when the part is 6 mm (1/4 in. When weld access holes are used in heavy sections or high-seismic applications. weld access holes are provided in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges.1 and AISC codes. Typical reentrant corners in buildings are found at openings for piping and ductwork in beam webs.) in thickness. Bibliography.) less than the thickness of the part. Maximum Fillet Weld Size. and quality. not for shear along the walls of the hole or slot. to verify that the steel has the capacity to carry the load delivered to or from the weld. with a phi of 0. Heavy Section Joint Provisions. reducing the interference from the member itself. e. is 2 mm (1/16 in. and for built-up sections 5-6 . Minimum weld sizes are incorporated into both the AWS D1.1 Section 5.5. See AWS D1. special provisions regarding surface quality and inspection apply. special material. with a higher risk of cracking.1 Section 5. The maximum fillet weld size that should be specified. and Table 3. and therefore the weld region cools very rapidly. Available Design Aids. See Appendix B. The rapid cooling creates a hard. dimensions. with a minimum radius of 25 mm (1 in.). therefore reducing the cooling rate. g. h.75. (15) With shear stress in any type weld. limiting the base metal stress to 0. The basis of these tables is the need to slow the cooling rate when welding on thicker materials. not the weld/steel interface. making it difficult to verify adequate leg size and throat.4. There is no need to check the stress in the base metal along the base of the plug or slot. as an example. in the form of tables and software. d. See AWS D1. with no notches. and AISC LRFD Specification Section J1.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. the Code requires a check of the base metal in shear.17. f. This is especially applicable to situations using fillet welds on opposite sides of thin beam and girder webs. Minimum Weld Size.6 for minimum access types.3 provides minimum fillet weld sizes similar to AWS D1. Weld Access Holes. but does not provide weld size reductions based upon the use of low hydrogen electrodes or preheat. or when making welded flange connections in beam-tocolumn joints. c.8. A maximum fillet weld size is established for lap joints where a fillet weld is placed along the edge of a part. Reentrant Corners. and reduce the risk of HAZ cracking to acceptable levels. the specified fillet weld size may equal the thickness of the part. Larger welds are made with higher welding heat input. This is to protect the edge of the part from melting under the arc. Design aids for welded connections.4 provides minimum prequalified PJP groove weld sizes. provides minimum fillet weld sizes.16. For lap joints where the part receiving the fillet weld along its edge is less than 6 mm (1/4 in. AISC Table J2. with potentially high levels of trapped hydrogen. Weld access holes provide access for welding equipment to reach the weld region.75. but may also be used in other joints where interferences exist. Under the AISC LRFD Specification. which acts as an efficient heat sink. Beam copes and weld access holes are treated separately by the code. Typically. AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 with a phi of 0. See AWS D1. martensitic heat-affected zone (HAZ).1 Table 5.) or more in thickness. They also provide access for weld cleaning and inspection.

includes provisions for backing materials. Backing Bars. then the welder must be qualified to weld without backing. “run-off tabs”. the assembly tolerances are typically enlarged to allow variations of 8 mm (5/16 in. AWS D1. i.1 Section 5. Weld tabs are also referred to as “extension bars”. For joint welding. Both codes apply these provisions only when the materials are used with welded tensile splices.2. (1) Steel backing is used almost universally in steel construction. particularly with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).8 for preheat requirements. Extreme caution should be used with copper backing. J1. (2) Welding personnel qualified to weld using backing are also qualified to weld without backing.). J2.1c for materials requirements.) in thickness. eliminating concerns for melt-through and repair. See AISC section A3.). The purpose of a weld tab is to allow the weld to be started or stopped beyond the edge of the material being joined.3 are generally suitable to reduce the risk of melting thru the backing bar. and therefore AISC LRFD Specification provisions should be used. may require thicker backing. but have also been applied to connections such as beam-to-column connections where the flanges are direct-welded for moment resistance. groove welded 5-7 .1 provisions apply for ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes and for built-up sections with a web plate over 38 mm (1-1/2 in. but PT or MT of the cut surface is still required. as the arc may strike the copper and melt copper into the weld.) in thickness. minimum preheat and interpass temperature of 175oC (350oF) must be used. ground to bright metal. provided the weld is backgouged and backwelded. but not all. This adds cost to the operation. With backing. The AISC ASD Specification does not contain the latest joint details. higher than that required by AWS D1. AWS D1. requiring the testing of the WPS with these materials. nonstandard location in the material. splicing. Optionally. then the welder may also weld with backing.10. particularly in fatigue and seismic applications. but very high heat input procedures. ceramic or flux. of these provisions.1 Table 3. thickness. but possible for some types of joints for shop fabrication. The special provisions listed do not apply when the joint carries only compression. difficult to achieve with structural steel sections in either the shop or field. The special material requirements include a minimum CVN toughness taken from a specific.2 for dimensional and fabrication requirements for weld access holes.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 using plates over 50 mm (2 in. The use of backing materials other than steel is generally considered nonprequalified. Welding is more easily performed with backing to support the root pass. See AISC LRFD Figure CJ1. Backing bars are used to close and support the root pass of groove welds when made from one side of the joint. Weld tabs and backing bars must be removed after completion of the joint. such as column splices. and inspected using either Penetrant Testing (PT) or Magnetic Particle Testing (MT). Weld access holes must be preheated to 65oC (150oF) prior to thermal cutting. weld access holes may be made by drilling and saw-cutting. and similar terms in the industry.6 for access hole requirements.5 for weld tab and backing bar removal requirements. greatly increasing the risk of weld cracking.10. particularly when rewelding and / or finishing of the removed area is necessary. (4) AWS D1. or when bolted slices are used. If a welder is qualified without backing. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the backing bar after use. Weld tabs are typically used in butt joint member splices. Those applications that require subsequent backing removal are sometimes done with nonfusible backing materials such as copper.1 code provisions contain most. Joint assembly tolerances are greater when backing bars are used.1 Section 5. If the joint is not backgouged and backwelded. (3) The minimum backing thicknesses provided in AWS D1. Weld Tabs. j. and removal. and J1. compared to joints without backing. In some joints. Assembly tolerances without backing are typically within 3 mm (1/8 in.

planar-shaped. welding procedure controls. l. and outside the major stress flow of the spliced material. Lamellar tearing is a step-like crack in the base metal. sequencing.” and peening. weld tabs in statically loaded structures should be allowed to remain in place. For other applications. Generally. Steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. (2) Should lamellar tears be detected. WPSs that use large passes. camber. and overwelding in some locations may also be used to reduce longitudinal distortion. nonmetallic inclusions. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the weld tab after use. removal is required. resulting in unintended sweep. high-ductility filler metals. caused by weld shrinkage stresses applied to the steel in the through-thickness direction. Large inclusions constitute laminations. without starts and stops or build-out regions along the edges. Repair may involve complete removal of the existing weld and 5-8 . The steel is somewhat weakened by the presence of very small.) in thickness when the members are subjected to high tensile stresses at the splice.1 Section 5. particularly in fatigue and high-seismic applications. oriented parallel to the steel surface. generally parallel to the rolled surface. The most common method for improving through-thickness properties. Lamellar Tearing. provides guidance on these methods. and the implications of potential failure in service should be considered. The inclusions that initiate lamellar tearing are generally not reliably detected using any form of NDT. generally cause less angular distortion. provides information on the use and removal requirements for weld tabs. k. or twist. rather than numerous small passes. AWS D1. is the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels.1 Commentary C2. These inclusions serve as initiation points for tearing. the use of preheat and/or postheat. dispersed. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 direct-welded flange joints in beam-to-column moment connections. (2) AWS D1. generally sulfur-based. For compression joints such as column splices. The use of intermittent welding. the tabs support the flux deposit at the edge of the workpiece.3. and at the ends of built-up member welds such as girder web-to-flange welds. Parts can be preset in a skewed position so that. the weld tabs may need to be removed. Tabs also allow the welding arc to stabilize prior to welding the main material. with no assurance that a tear will not form beneath the repair weld. removal is required at transverse groove welds in moment-resisting joints. the use of low-strength. weld bead placement selection. the stress type. Because the completed joint is more highly restrained than the original joint. removal should be considered when splicing members over 25 mm (1 in. (1) After welding is completed. In heavy section tensile splices.1. Welding Sequence and Distortion Control. welding from the center of the member’s length. Distortion may also occur along the length of a member. Removal is required in most fatigue applications. This is because thicker members typically have less toughness than thinner members. (1) There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. The use of weld tabs places the inherent weld discontinuities made when starting or stopping a weld within the tab.31. lamellar tearing is avoided by using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. or for low-stress tensile splices. In high seismic regions. In some joints. For SAW. “buttering. nor specific values for weld size. when weld shrinkage occurs. the completed member will be approximately straight. application. and the low toughness may allow a crack or other discontinuity in the weld tab to propagate into the primary weld. which may be detectable using straight-beam ultrasonic testing prior to welding. repair of joints that have torn is difficult and expensive. This occurs because welding is not balanced about the center of gravity of the member cross-section. Weld tabs allow the welding of the full width of the joint.

Those with similar fatigue life characteristics are grouped together into a Stress Category. However. also called the endurance limit. identified as Classes A through F. The design S-N curves used to design structural members have been established approximately 25% below the mean failure values. and the fatigue strength of the detail. sufficient length of base material should be provided in the assumed area of plastic yielding to allow this to occur. The stress range is the total range between the maximum and minimum applied stresses. Notches. Applications that may experience low-cycle fatigue require design and detailing specific to the application that exceed the general fatigue design provisions of the codes. Sufficient ductility should be provided in joint design and detailing. the ultimate material strength is exceeded and failure occurs from static stress. Stress range does not require stress reversal. Brittle Fracture. whether inadvertent or inherent in the design. Extreme loading conditions. the stress ranges are generally too low to initiate crack propagation. Notch-tough materials reduce the risk of brittle fracture. Reinforcement. Not all fractures are brittle. should be considered in lieu of repair or replacement. At the lower right end of the curve.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 affected base metal. low-cycle fatigue may also occur in cases of extreme stress and strain.000 cycles and up. (1) Traditional fatigue design is based upon high-cycle fatigue. Care should be taken to avoid transversely loaded sharp notches and joint transitions. Each detail has a specific description that defines the geometry. Standard design and detailing practices are typically adequate for building structures. with subcategories for special cases. The fatigue strength of a welded component is a combination of a stress range and a number of cycles (N) that causes failure of the component. Backing bars should be removed in some applications because the notch inherent at the root pass between backing bar and steel may initiate a crack in the weld. unusual materials. and are commonly plotted on a logarithmic scale as a straight line. only a variation in stress. as the material may have undergone considerable straining and deformation prior to fracture. so that brittle fracture will not occur. The details and stress categories are classified by: 5-9 . greatly increase the risk of brittle fracture. at the low endurance limit. There are several details that fall within each class. and notches that would serve as crack initiators should be avoided in this area. DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE). primarily a function of its geometry. (3) The fatigue strength of different welded details varies according to the severity of the stress concentration effect. a. fatigue life is generally not affected by applied stress level or the strength of the material.000 cycles to 100. HAZ or base metal. Where it is assumed that plastic behavior will be required to provide ductility and energy absorption. if appropriate for the application. The fatigue life of a welded joint is affected by the stress range at the location of crack initiation. In welded joints. Brittle fracture is a failure that occurs in the steel or weld without appreciable deformation or energy absorption. 4. At the upper left end of the straight line. such as seismic events or unanticipated out-of-plane bending from applied stresses or distortion. particularly in areas such as weld toes. The fatigue life of a component. high seismic risk. cold temperature environments. Many joint designs assume the ability to deform and redistribute stress throughout the connection. is the number of cycles to failure. m. and toughness in materials selection. Several design codes are now replacing the design S-N curves with the equations used to generate the plotted curves. General. and fatigue applications may require more care in the selection and construction of connections and their details. (2) The S-N curves used for fatigue design provides an assumed relationship between fatigue life and stress range. generally in the range of 20. the high-endurance range. such as seismicallyloaded structures.

weld type). (4) Careful design and fabrication can reduce the risk of failure by fatigue. weld. radius of transition. and NDT requirements should be specified. with progressively more cycles and lower stress ranges for the endurance limit in other categories. at the highest stress range. A bolted assembly may be appropriate and more cost-effective in some applications. location of anticipated crack initiation (base metal. groove welds. If a detail is highly sensitive to weld discontinuities. Categories B. must be prohibited. The detail category should be evaluated carefully to verify that the actual detail realistically matches the standard detail.5:1. Further divisions of these general categories are provided using general descriptions. Avoid attachments to members subject to fatigue loading. backing removed.CEMP-E • • • • • TI 809-26 1 March 2000 form of the member (plate base metal. Joints should be placed in low stress areas.). such as a transversely loaded CJP groove weld with reinforcement removed. Parts should be aligned to minimize or eliminate eccentricity and minimize secondary bending stresses. C. Groove-welded butt joints have better fatigue life than lap or tee joints made with fillet welds. and inspection requirements (ultrasonic or radiographic testing). weld length. Fatigue life enhancement techniques such as those found in AWS D1. and not all methods are necessary. Fillet welds should be stopped about 12 mm (1/2 in. and in some cases. etc. notch-like corners. • • • • • • b.) short of the end of the attachment.1 Section 8. Fatigue details are identified as plain material. For critical details. may be cost-effective in extending fatigue life. stud welds. The endurance limit is also reached soonest. (1) Stress Category A is limited to plain material. fillet welds. built-up members. groove-welded attachments.) from the edges of plates. fabrication requirements (ground flush. Transitions between members of differing thicknesses or widths should be made with a slope of at least 2. When grinding is appropriate. but radiused transitions are expensive and may not substantially improve fatigue life. with reduced permitted stress ranges for a given fatigue life demand. NDT requirements. with no welding. governing dimensions (attachment dimensions. often made by field or maintenance personnel or other trades. Fatigue Design Details. radius. fillet-welded attachments. Unauthorized attachments. rolled section base metal. provide for in-service inspection. provided this will not have any other detrimental effect on the structure. 5-10 . Welds on the edges of flanges should be avoided. by attachment length. • • • • • • • • • Grinding groove welds flush in the direction of the applied stress may improve the Stress Category. Category F behavior is sufficiently different to use a different slope. Smooth shapes and transitions are important. Intermittent stitch welds should be avoided. Attachment welds should be kept at least 12 mm (1/2 in. Illustrative examples are typically provided by the codes to assist in the interpretation of these divisions. D and E follow the same line slope.). weld toe). inspection. when possible. grinding requirements. grinding should be in the direction of stress. Not all methods of fatigue life improvement are contained in the Codes. appropriate quality. for Category A details. etc. Avoid reentrant. and member yield strength. and plug and slot welds.

a microscopic slag intrusion line is present. are often limited by the static stress applied. AASHTO and AWS currently use S-N curves. AWS D1. Some joints may be changed from PJP groove or fillet welds to CJP groove welds. to a depth of approximately 1 mm (1/32 in. grinding of the surface and NDT to improve the fatigue design category. the design must be established to keep the stress range below that permitted. may also be used to remove the slag line.). including bolted details. and often the type of detail needed to make the component or connection is established. where failure of the welded component would result in collapse of the structure. acts as a small crack. as other areas of the welded joint may now fail before the weld toe. c. Fatigue Life Enhancement. The AWS nonredundant structure fatigue provisions are based upon bridge principles. and AISC uses tabular values based upon the S-N curves. At the toe of every weld. Allowable Stress Ranges. Should the size become excessive. achieving typically triple the fatigue life of the untreated weld toe. then checked for the applied stress range. Occasional revisions to these provisions and details are made by the various code organizations. with the exception of welds made using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with no filler metal. as described in AWS D1. in which localized mechanical compressive stresses are induced into the weld toe area.1 provisions are limited to welded details. and fatigue life is limited to crack propagation. there is no pre-existing crack. All three organizations are currently changing to equationbased design. fatigue life may be extended. As a specification for building construction. Users are advised to seek the latest 5-11 . so fatigue life is spent in both crack initiation and crack propagation. a. Because the number of cycles is usually established for the application. but induces residual compressive stresses around the slag line to prevent the introduction of the tensile stresses necessary for crack propagation. Section 12. 5. Fatigue life of welded joints. This line. but special provisions for nonredundant structures are not required. begins with an initial crack. By applying fatigue life enhancement techniques. melting out and removing the microscopic slag intrusion line. Burr grinding of the weld toe. HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS. Latest Guidance. Generally.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Various design codes may be used for fatigue design. however. with any required inspection for surface discontinuities repeated following the work. Inspection of the weld should be performed prior to implementing fatigue life enhancement techniques. Another alternative is the use of fatigue life enhancement details to improve fatigue life.5. Toe peening. The process of TIG dressing can be used to remelt the weld toe area to a limited depth. Adjustments are then made to increase the component or connection size as needed. therefore. Performing both toe grinding and hammer peening will provide additional benefits. Fracture Control Plan for Nonredundant Structures. AISC does not address nonredundant applications. (3) AASHTO and AWS provide fatigue design curves for both redundant and nonredundant structures. This includes. Fatigue life enhancement details are not to be used to increase allowable stress ranges. Caution should be used when extending fatigue life expectations. requires the use of the AWS D1. d. The AASHTO code. Stress ranges at the lower number of cycles. Fatigue design begins with the sizing of the member and the connection for the maximum applied static load.1 Section 8. Recommendations for the design of welded connections in high seismic regions are undergoing substantial revision as of the date of this document. AISC and AASHTO specifications are the most current and comprehensive. for some groove details. does not remove the slag line. so there may be minor differences between codes. With plain material. for fatigue purposes. and all are based upon the same principles and research data. Any of these enhancement processes typically double the fatigue life of the treated joint. other improved details may be considered. for the better fatigue categories.

Seismic Use Group III structures are essential facilities that are required for post-earthquake recovery and those containing substantial quantities of hazardous substances. and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. emergency operations centers.3b. (2) Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft.50g. (4) The AISC Seismic Provisions. pending further study. and need not be specified or checked.133g or higher. emergency shelters.20g or higher. materials toughness and other mechanical property requirements may be necessary for the steel and filer metal used in seismic applications: (1) The AISC Seismic Provisions. emergency vehicle garages. Section 6. and water treatment facilities needed to provide water pressure for fire suppression. require filler metals in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at -29oC (20 ft. is currently considered unnecessary for building-type applications. These applications include all buildings located in areas with 1 second spectral response accelerations (SD1) of 0. (5) There are concerns for the performance of rolled steel sections in the vicinity of the K-line. 5-12 . AISC Technical Advisory No. E and F.) or thicker. (3) It is also recommended that structural steel shapes used in high seismic applications be specified as either ASTM A992 or A572. Materials Concerns and Specifications.-lbf at -20oF). TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. hospitals. or the specification of A709 steels. or short period response accelerations (SDS) of 0. Studies have identified a reduced toughness in this region caused by cold-working during rotary straightening at the steel mill. 1 should be followed. rescue and police stations.2 for Seismic Design Categories. Specification of steel toughness levels. at the intersection of the web and the radius between web and flange. and Section 4. Special compositional. or SDS of 0. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft.33g or higher. are also recommended in the latest FEMA Guidelines. Improved materials and details should be used for building structures classified as Seismic Categories D.85. c. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. and a more controlled chemistry for weldability and properties.CEMP-E guidance from FEMA and AISC documents. air traffic control towers.-lbf at 70oF). Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. designated communications towers. particularly stiffeners (continuity plates) and doubler plates. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. These specifications have provisions for a maximum ratio of Fy to Fu of 0. Applicability. Reduced toughness in these region may increase the risk of crack initiation from welding in the area.-lbf at 70oF). (6) Current studies indicate that through-thickness toughness properties or applied stress on the column face is not a limiting factor. and buildings of Seismic Use Group III in areas with SD1 of 0. grade 50 manufactured to AISC Technical Bulletin #3. See TI 809-04. Table 4-1 for Seismic Use Groups. designated medical facilities providing emergency medical treatment. tested using welding procedures representative of the range of production WPSs. Additional requirements for toughness at service temperature.3. section 7.) or thicker. including but not limited to: fire.

See (e) below.. Several types of details may be used to achieve satisfactory moment connection performance in high seismic applications.. (4) control of profile and quality of the access hole.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. Inspection Enhancements. See Appendix D. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in. The Engineer may allow periodic inspections when appropriate. Joint Selection. improved and reinforced details are recommended for conventional-type connections. Continuous inspection of all welding performed on CJP and PJP groove welds that are a part of the Seismic Force Resisting System is necessary. (5) use of partially or fully welded web connections. and further investigation of the latest recommendations should be made prior to use. Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems . current AISC guidelines should be followed. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints.1. Current recommendations include the following modifications to the previous standard beam-to-column connection: (1) removal of bottom flange backing bar.) in thickness. The exact requirements for access hole provisions and web welding depend upon the type of connection used and the design application. 5-13 . When using T-joints. For Reduced Beam Section (RBS) system connections. (3) removal and finishing of weld tabs. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications.). Bibliography. also called the “dogbone” system. whether Special Moment resisting Frame (SMRF) or Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF). e. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling of the weld to check for lamellar tearing.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in. backgouging of the root. (2) improved quality of the weld access hole. and placement of a reinforcing fillet. Enhanced quality. f. Several limitations have been found in the cover-plated and ribbed details.

1 for procedure qualification. on the 6-1 . and is conducive to a suitable convenient load test.1 Section 7. GENERAL. Studs may be welded either directly to the structural steel or through metal decking.1. rather than the capacitor discharge stud welding process. For the Type B studs used in composite construction. studs welded in vertical or overhead positions.1 Annex IX. and inspection. Stud welding for building applications is generally for shear connectors in composite beams. the contractor must perform qualification testing.1 Table 3. then plunges the stud into the molten pool and terminates the current flow. The stud welding gun draws the stud away from the steel. for complete information. 5. including studs applied through metal decking. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION.7. This testing requires two studs to be welded. The arc stud welding process is used for structural studs. ten (10) specimens must pass a 90o bend test using representative material and application. allows a brief period for the melting of the steel and stud base. See AWS D1.1 Section 7.6. Occasionally. After stud base qualification by the manufacturer. STUD BASE QUALIFICATION. pre-production testing is required at the start of each day or shift to verify the setup of the equipment. 3. Recommended Practice for Stud Welding. See AWS D1. Stud bases are qualified by the manufacturer for application on bare steel in the flat position only. such as embedment plates or inaccessible connections. or studs welded to steels not listed as Group I or II in AWS D1.4. PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING.CEMP-E CHAPTER 6 STUD WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. 2. See AWS C5. but may also include shear connector applications for composite columns and frames. For all other applications. threaded studs may be used for special connections where bolting is not practical. The purpose of most shear connectors is to integrally connect steel and concrete materials so that they act as a single unit in resisting load.4. studs applied to curved surfaces. installation may begin. and therefore is treated separately by AWS D1. 4. A DCEN (straight) current is used to create an arc between the stud base and the steel. personnel qualification. or qualification testing by the contractor for the applications listed. However. The weld arc and molten pool is protected with the use of a flux tip on the base of the stud. creating the arc. Alternatively. a tension test method may be used. STUD WELDING PROCESS. Qualification procedures for this application are provided in AWS D1. Stud welding is a fully automated process with controlled arc length and arc time. The welding operator conducting the two pre-production tests at the start of the day or work shift is qualified for performing stud welding that day or shift. plus the use of a ceramic ferrule to contain the molten pool.

The inspector may 15o bend test any stud. 6. If the stud weld passes the visual and bend testing.1. the stud need not be bent back to the original position. current. visually inspected. then production welding may begin. See AWS D1. Following the application of studs and the removal of the ferrules.1 Section 7.8. the stud is accepted and may be left in place in the bent condition when used in composite construction. if desired. time. Should the stud weld not fracture. then bent approximately 30o. Those with missing flash may be repaired.7. or gun lift and plunge. all stud welds are visually inspected for flash about the entire perimeter of the stud base.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 work if desired. For composite construction. or tested using a bend test applied approximately 15o in the direction opposite the missing flash.1 Section 7. The pre-production test must be repeated whenever there are changes to the following items: voltage. INSPECTION. even if full flash is apparent. See AWS D1. 6-2 .

2. DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS. several areas require investigation and. or from technical literature.1 Section 8. Investigation of weldability is generally warranted for buildings constructed prior to 1945. the reduction of strength to existing members when being heated or welded. a. the greater the need for higher preheat and interpass temperatures. then observing and characterizing the color and nature of the sparks off the steel. (1) The most reliable method to establish chemical composition for determining carbon equivalent values is to remove samples from various members at selected no. When welding to reinforce existing structures. WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS. INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS.or low-stress locations. even if the percentage reported is zero. Minimum preheat and interpass temperatures can be determined from AWS D1. several welding issues arise. Spark testing applies a grinding wheel at approximately 5000 rpm to the steel. if possible. (2) Other methods. Self-shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW-S) weld deposits contain 7-1 . in some cases. 4. and the greater the importance of low-hydrogen welding. Portable spectrographs may also be used. The poorer the weldability of steel. The laboratory analysis report should list the quantities of each of the elements in the selected carbon equivalent equation. although only optical emission spectrography systems currently provide sufficient accuracy for measuring carbon content. specific instructions. then analyzed spectrographically for composition. a. These include weldability of the existing steel. 3. Weld sample tests include welding small test plates to the steel. b. although less reliable. The weldability of steels between these periods is generally considered sufficiently weldable. Other than load analysis of the structure to design the connections.1 Annex XI. then destructively using a sledge hammer to break off the samples. Carbon Equivalency. provides applicable code provisions. include spark testing and weld sample tests. All welding to existing structures should be performed with low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes or with other wire-fed welding processes.CEMP-E CHAPTER 7 WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. and its supporting Commentary. although structural steels were not manufactured specifically for welding properties until A373 and A36 came into use in the early 1960’s. FCAW-S Deposits. GENERAL. Investigation. and observing the nature of the fracture. and the welding to existing weld deposits of unknown origin or made with FCAW-S electrodes. AWS D1.

there is the potential for reduced properties. the affected area is typically small compared to the area of the unaffected steel. 5. will exceed these temperatures approximately 25 mm (1 in. When it is suspected that existing weld deposits that will receive subsequent welding were made using FCAW-S. Elevated Temperature Effects. steel during welding. design assuming reduced mechanical properties. Welding Direction and Sequence. 7-2 . When welding parallel to the applied stress. produces noxious fumes. Zinc. do not contain the amount of aluminum necessary in order to preclude the formation of free nitrogen.) to the side of a weld. typically a carbon-manganese-silicon metallurgical system. or requiring subsequent welding using appropriate FCAW-S should be considered. At approximately 300oC to 400oC (600oF to 800oF). Low-admixture welding procedures. An aluminum content in the range of 1% is indicative of FCAW-S. which can embrittle the steel or weld deposit. additional caution is needed. used in numerous coating systems and galvanizing. a. STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD. Other Processes. When weld processes that use consumables with significantly different metallurgical systems are mixed with FCAW-S deposits. root pass welding selection. This is the result of the liberation of nitrogen and aluminum that were previously chemically combined as Al-N in the FCAW-S deposit. consideration should be made for the temporarily reduced strength of localized areas of the steel. particularly ductility and toughness.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 aluminum. Elevated temperatures in steel reduce both the yield strength (Fy) and the modulus of elasticity (E). Some older structures may contain lead-based paints that must be removed using special hazardous materials precautions. 6. When welding on steel having existing coatings. use shorter sections of weld and then allow cooling. within the weld region. Preheat temperatures at this level are rarely used. When welding transverse to the load. or use lower heat input procedures. Investigation. b. or other reasons. Recent research indicates that this problem may not be limited to non-FCAW-S weld deposits on top of FCAW-S. and a distance of approximately 100 mm (4 in. Fy and E are reduced approximately 20%. b. Steel further from the weld region will remain at temperatures that will not significantly reduce the steel’s properties. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. unless all coatings in the vicinity of the welding are removed prior to welding.) trailing the weld puddle. It may be necessary to stagger welding operations. an investigation into the composition of the coating is warranted. nitrogen. but localized temperatures near the weld region will exceed these temperatures for brief periods. Other weld deposits. c. As a general guide. Multiple weld processes in a single weld joint may also occur in new construction because of tack welding. carbon and other alloying elements. When welding under load. further investigation of the weld deposit is warranted.

type of joint. These requirements should be a part of the contract documents. whether prequalified or qualified by test. The WPS also provides information necessary for inspection duties. and that filler metals with the required toughness have been selected by the contractor. voltage. AWS Requirements. and other pertinent information specific to the weld to be made.1 Section 3. location and number of passes. 2. To be prequalified.1 Section 4.3 and 3. b. shielding gas flow rate. but requires only “Fabrication / Erection Inspection”. FCAW. the welding parameters for the weld to be made. d. flux. which is the designated responsibility of the Contractor. In the AISC Seismic Provisions. This is primarily to ensure that WPSs are developed for the welds critical to building performance. and minimum 8-1 . The contractor may develop WPSs based upon manufacturer’s recommended operating parameters. Welding procedures are used to specify. All WPSs. for welds that are part of the Seismic Force Resisting System. the welding process must be prequalified (SMAW. REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES. AWS D1. whether qualified or prequalified. the Engineer must approve the welding procedures. under AWS D1. verified by the contractor’s experience and testing as desired. must be in writing.1 Section 6. the Engineer is made responsible for the review and approval of all WPSs. GMAW except short-circuiting transfer.1 requires the use of and inspection of WPSs. current (amperage) or wire feed speed.1 requires inspection of welding. The purpose of the Engineer’s approval of the WPS is so that it can be verified that the qualification testing is representative of the actual welding conditions. “Verification Inspection” is the prerogative of the Owner. the weld details must meet all the requirements of AWS D1. c.1. travel speed. Therefore.CEMP-E CHAPTER 8 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. AWS D1. a.4. Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are written based upon the steel to be welded.4. or SAW).1 Section 4. Weld procedures are written by the contractor responsible for the welding.7. The Engineer is assigned the responsibility in AWS D1. minimum (and sometimes maximum) preheat and interpass temperatures. and position of welding. and must be reviewed by the inspector. such as for thick and highly restrained joints. any specific welding inspection operations to be performed by personnel other than the Contractor must be fully detailed and placed in the contract documents. and welding parameters meet the provisions of AWS Table 3. Based upon the application. WPS Contents. The inspector should review the WPS for general conformity to the welding code and applicability to the joint to be welded. to review and approve WPSs that are qualified. The Engineer is responsible for establishing and specifying the requirements of the Quality Control and Quality Assurance programs for the project. Prequalified WPSs need not be approved by the Engineer under D1.3.1. electrode diameter. shielding gas). size of weld. WPS Prequalification Limits.1. type of weld. Section 7.3. In some cases. This includes the use of the prequalified groove weld details in AWS Figures 3. Prequalified WPSs need not be tested using the tests prescribed in AWS D1. minimum prequalified PJP groove weld size in AWS Table 3.1. AISC Requirements. for the welder and inspector. GENERAL. the WPS specifies the welding materials to be used (electrode. thickness of material to be joined.

The use of thicker plates and NDT. The middle of the provided ranges are often good starting points. to travel at selected speeds. and the use of restraint devices. See references in Appendix B. particularly when CVN toughness is required. When WPSs. (3) Caution should be used when reviewing WPSs for thick materials and highly restrained joints. with the finish welds to be performed by qualified welders or welding operators. (5) Approval of the WPS should be taken as review only.) test plate thicknesses specified in AWS D1. and that the responsibility for the suitability of the WPS. and specify polarity.2. the contractor should submit all applicable manufacturer data sheets and operating recommendations for the filler material to be used. nor is restraint developed in the welding of standard WPS test specimens. (1) Generally. WPS Qualification Requirements. Critical joints should be reviewed to verify that the proper welding materials have been designated for the joint. f. e. Welders manipulate the electrode by hand. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. (2) Calculations such as heat input and deposition rates are helpful in determining if WPSs should produce a reasonable quality weld of the size specified. Welding personnel are classified into three categories: welders. a. but do not provide specific travel speeds or adjustments necessary to achieve a particular weld size. it is often difficult to verify FCAW procedures through calculation because of the variations between specific electrode types. the WPS to be used for the joint must be qualified by testing prescribed in AWS D1. should be specified as appropriate for critical welding.1 Section 3. such as mechanized SAW. Alternately. remains with the contractor. and minimum preheat and interpass temperatures must be provided per AWS Table 3. The 25 mm (1 in. PQRs must be in writing. It may also be necessary to consult the AWS A5. per AWS Table 3. or other details do not meet the prequalification requirements of AWS D1. and the resultant weld quality and properties.8. joints. Welding operators set up automatic welding equipment with wire-fed welding processes. However. filler metal selection.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 fillet weld size in AWS Table 5. 3. Tack welders may only place tack welds to assemble pieces. Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors. other WPS testing methods may be used as appropriate. Personnel Classification. and tack welders.XX filler metal specifications for information regarding the use and limitations of the filler metal. for manual or semi-automatic welding. but contractors often tend to work near the high end of the ranges provided to maximize deposition rates and reduce welding time. For review of WPSs. Qualified WPSs must be referenced to the applicable PQR. and made available for inspection by the inspector. Documentation of the WPS used and test results must be documented in the form of Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs).1 Section 4. manufacturer’s operating recommendations provide a range of welding parameters such as voltage and current (amperage) or wire feed speed. as these final adjustments are made by experience.1 Section 4. 8-2 . (4) A checklist should be prepared to verify that all welded joints on the project have written WPSs.1. manipulating and controlling the arc. welding operators. do not adequately represent the heat sink capabilities of thicker sections (affecting cooling rates). “Matching” filler metals must be used. Calculation should not be used to determine optimum operating characteristics for welding.

unless the person has used the process during that time period. Certification of Welding Inspectors.4.1 Section 6. INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS a. must be specified in the project documents.) thick plate are qualified for unlimited thicknesses of material. However. The basis of qualification. it is acceptable. in metals fabrication. Visual welding inspection personnel should be qualified under AWS D1.) thick plate or thicker are qualified for twice the test plate thickness. d.1 Table 4. even though the certification may have expired.2. Such testing may include independent testing laboratories. the Engineer should establish minimum levels of training and experience. 3. by training or experience.Flat. or (2) current or previous qualification by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) to the requirements of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard W178. the welder’s qualification can be revoked.4 and 4. Qualification Testing by Others. GTAW. (1) The qualification of an previously certified inspector remains in effect indefinitely. is competent to perform inspection work. Vertical (3) and Overhead (4) welding positions are considered separately. The contractor is responsible for the qualification of all welding personnel. c. Welders are qualified by process .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b.5 mm (3/8 in. welding vocational schools. Part C. The Engineer should review the basis and suitability of such programs prior to waiver of contractor-based qualification. 2. FCAW-S (self-shielded) and FCAW-G (gas-shielded) are considered the same process for performance qualification testing.8 provides complete information regarding the cross-over of welding performance qualifications tests and the welding products. FCAW.6. Those who qualify using 9. provided the inspector remains active in the inspection of welded 8-3 . Although standard practice is to require contractor-based qualification testing of welding personnel. Welding personnel qualified for more difficult positions. Horizontal. These are designated on welding personnel qualification records as positions 1. Qualification Testing. Performance qualification expires six (6) months following testing. respectively. and require a written and hands-on examination prior to approval of the inspector. and are further identified in AWS D1. Welding personnel qualified using 25.1 Section 4. All welding personnel must demonstrate their skill by performing specific performance qualification tests prescribed by AWS D1. Welders are also qualified by position . The witnessing of performance testing is not required. or (3) an engineer or technician who. or both. with the Engineer’s approval. industry associations and unions. Should the welder consistently produce poor quality welds. GMAW. the qualification period expires.1. if beyond these provisions. for the contractor to rely upon qualification testing performed by others. and the AWS Certified Welder program. Welding position is not a factor in maintaining welding personnel qualification. All performance qualification tests must be fully documented in writing. for example Vertical (3).1 Figures 4. General Welding and Visual Inspectors. testing using groove welds or fillet welds. are also qualified for Flat (1) and Horizontal (2) welding. or EGW. and 4. AWS D1.SMAW. Acceptable qualification bases under D1. SAW.4 mm (1 in. Contractor Responsibilities. ESW. Welding personnel are further classified by type of weld.1 are: (1) current or previous certification as an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in accordance with the provisions of AWS QC1. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. There should be records documenting the use of various processes by the contractor. 4. require a written resume detailing training and experience in welding inspection. requiring retesting. Welding personnel qualified for groove welding in a given position and process are also qualified for fillet welding in the same position and process. inspection and testing. For the third case. Should a person not use the process within six months. Vertical and Overhead. Additional position classifications apply for tubular construction. thicknesses and positions qualified.

It is permitted to take the AWS examinations using either the AWS D1. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. SNT-TC-1A.1 Section 6. Certification of all levels of NDT personnel is the responsibility of the employer of the NDT technician. or by Level I technicians only when working under the direct supervision of a Level II. A CAWI has passed the same accreditation examination as the CWI. (4) Although AWS D1. documented by vision testing performed within the past three years. however. Personnel certifications must be maintained on file by the employer and a copy should be carried by the technician. and this recent certification option has not been included in the AWS D1.1 Section 6.1. b. destructive testing. as the Level III may not perform actual testing 8-4 . and welding inspection experience may be in any area of welding.14.. with two years minimum experience rather than five years.1 does not recognize the AWS Certified Associate Welding Inspector as qualified to perform the work solely based upon this certification. in the field of welding inspection. the AWS D1. Employers may rely upon outside training and testing for NDT personnel for certification.1. including experience level. records. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel.6 requires that nondestructive testing be performed by NDT Level II technicians. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. and additional education and training relative to these areas may be needed. A CAWI could be acceptable under condition “c” as listed in AWS D1. the employer should supplement such certification testing with a review of the technician’s experience and skill levels. or in accordance with Sections 4. terms. (1) Certification of NDT personnel should be based on demonstration of satisfactory qualification in accordance with Sections 6. welder qualification. NDT Personnel Qualification.1 allows inspector qualification without the CWI certification under AWS QC1 criteria. (2) AWS D1. The CWI examination tests the inspector’s knowledge of welding processes. or the API 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities code. 7 and 8 of ASNT SNT-TC-1A. Inc. but has less experience.4. Nondestructive testing personnel should be qualified under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing. A SCWI should be considered the equivalent of a CWI.1 code because of publication schedules. Inspection by a Level III technician is not recognized. (5) All welding inspectors must have adequate visual acuity. bolted connections.4. definitions. steel bar joists. 5 and 6 of ANSI/ASNT CP-189. Although assumed to be competent to inspect welded construction. welding procedures. It is suggested that the certification of NDT personnel should be administered by an ASNT Certified Level III in the specific area on NDT. Certified Associate Welding Inspectors. See AWS D1. (3) AWS D1. It should also be verified that the AWS Certified Welding Inspector has tested. (2) The American Welding Society offers certification to welding inspectors in the form of Certified Welding Inspectors. and metal decks.1 Structural Welding Code. ANSI/ASNT CP-189. and Certified Senior Welding Inspectors. as modified by the employer's written practice. or is familiar with. reports.1 Section 6. governs the requirements and testing of such inspectors. nondestructive testing. it is recommended that the welding inspection personnel for critical welding be AWS QC1 certified (or previously certified) by experience and written examination. symbols. ANSI/AWS QC1-96.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 steel fabrication. The Senior Certified Welding Inspector is a new program offered by the AWS.4. safety and responsibilities.1. the AWS Certified Welding Inspector may not have the background or expertise in other areas of steel construction such as general fabrication and erection. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. or unless there is a specific reason to question the inspector's ability. or ASNT Recommended Practice No.

and with prior written approval of the NDT Level III. by time period: pre-project inspection for general welding operations. The NDT Level I shall be able to follow approved nondestructive testing procedures and shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from a certified NDT Level II or NDT Level III individual. such as mock-ups. NDT test reports. welding procedures. allowing time for necessary corrections and improvements by the contractor before welding begins. The inspector should participate in a pre-project meeting with the contractor to discuss the quality control and quality assurance requirements for the project. testing of Fracture Critical Members must be done by either a qualified Level II under the supervision of a qualified Level III. current and complete. or by a Level III certified by ASNT. for a period of six months. • NDT Level III . Under Section 12. AWS D1. Requalification is required for any welder. and that any required special supplemental qualification tests. except in the case of Fracture Critical Members. a. (1) Personnel. The NDT Level II shall be able to organize and report nondestructive test results. 5. General. evaluate. the contract design drawings. not used the process for which the person was qualified.An NDT Level II individual shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment. to conduct tests. A pre-project inspection should be conducted of the fabricator’s and erector’s facilities and operations to verify the adequacy of their welding operations. unless the Engineer accepts other forms of qualification.An NDT Level III individual shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques. standards. Each person performing welding should have a unique identification 8-5 . and specifications. and to interpret. and the shop or erection drawings for the project. and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an NDT Level III. The scheduling of this inspection should be well before welding is scheduled to begin. from ANSI / ASNT CP-189. and other such information as may be required. The NDT Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examining of NDT personnel in the methods for which the NDT Level III is qualified. welding operator or tack welder who has. accepted parts. The individual shall also have general familiarity with the other NDT methods. and inspection of the completed joint. INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 regularly enough to maintain the special skills required to set up or to conduct the tests. welding personnel qualifications. inspection during welding of the joint. apply to the various NDT Levels: • NDT Level I . The inspector should verify that all applicable welder. and verify the accuracy of procedures. have been passed.1. • NDT Level II . welding operator and tack welder qualification records are available. to interpret codes. as appropriate. A record should be kept of all welders. The inspector assigned responsibility for the welding of the project should review and understand the applicable portions of the project specifications. b. the status of all joints not accepted.An NDT Level I individual shall have the skills to properly perform specific calibrations. welding operators and tack welders.5-96 requires similar qualification.2. The inspector’s duties can be assigned or placed into four general categories. The Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and NDT Level I personnel. designate the particular technique to be used.16. (3) The following definitions. Pre-project Inspection. specific NDT. perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results. inspection prior to welding a particular joint.

1 Section 5. See AWS D1. current and accurate. Welding personnel should be familiar with the SMAW electrode and SAW flux storage and exposure limitations of AWS D1. item c(1) below should be performed.CEMP-E mark or die stamp to identify his or her welds. slag. Part C. including lot number.1.1 Sections 5. See AWS D1. with functioning gauges necessary for following the WPS for the selected process. See AWS D1. or other harmful foreign materials. Inspections at least annually are recommended. uniform. Ammeters should be available for verifying the current (amperage) near the arc. when desired. It is not anticipated that the inspector physically perform these inspections at each individual joint. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Equipment. all WPSs must be approved by the Engineer. but will verify that the contractor’s personnel understand and routinely perform these inspections as a part of their welding operations. All other inspection items should be performed prior to beginning the welding of each joint.3a.2.11 and 6. and free from significant surface discontinuities such as cracks or seams. 8-6 . Prior to the actual start of welding on the project. rather than at the machine. The contractor should have an operating system to verify that all materials in inventory have proper certification papers on file. Records of equipment inspections and calibrations should be maintained. (2) Base metal quality.1 mandated storage requirements.3 for storage requirements. research indicates that certain FCAW electrodes may warrant protected storage or limited atmospheric exposure times. and free of significant amounts of loose or thick scale. Qualified WPSs must be approved by the Engineer.1. but there is no specific requirements for such in AWS D1. per AWS D1. rust. The Engineer’s approval should be verified. WPSs should be available at welding work stations and used by all welding personnel. c. Steel joints to be welded must be smooth. See AWS D1. All welding equipment should be in proper operating condition. as appropriate. grease. or inadequate connectors. it should be verified that all non-compliance revealed during pre-project inspection has been rectified. No materials other than electrodes or fluxes. The manufacturer’s identification labels. See AISC Seismic Provisions Section 7. Electrodes and fluxes should be stored in their original. (1) Pre-project review. Such controls and limitations should be based upon manufacturer’s test data and recommendations. The inspector may. (3) WPSs. The contractor’s quality control system should be used to confirm that the proper welding consumables are selected.1 Section 4. (4) Materials Controls. The inspector should verify that all applicable welding Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs) and Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are available. The contractor should have all necessary welding consumable drying and storage equipment. perform any physical inspections prior to welding to verify the contractor personnel’s work. should remain on the packaging.15 for complete base metal preparation requirements.1 Section 5. may be placed in drying or storage ovens. (5) Materials Storage. Periodic checks should be performed by the contractor to verify the accuracy of gauges and other operating components of welding machines.1. with an ongoing system in place to confirm compliance. Prior to Welding. manufacturersealed containers until ready for placement in storage ovens or use.1. Prior to the beginning of actual welding on the project. In addition to AWS D1.3. The proper operating temperatures should be verified on a regular basis as a part of the contractor’s quality control program.1 Section 4. This may be done through observation of welding operations and informal inquiries of welding personnel. For high seismic applications. PQRs should be referenced and available for review for any non-prequalified WPSs. moisture. Welding leads should be inspected for worn or missing insulation.

After heating.1 Section 5. assembly tolerances are provided in AWS D1. including preheat.1. the leg size of the weld must be increased by an amount equal to the gap.). The inspector should verify compliance of the welding consumables selected (electrode.).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (3) Fillet weld fitup. When steel temperatures are below these minimum temperatures. For gaps exceeding 1. For welding in extreme cold environments. flux and shielding gas) with the project requirements and the WPS.6 mm (1/16 in. See AWS D1. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. Welding is not permitted when the ambient (air) temperature is below 18oC (0oF). Tack welds should be visually inspected prior to being welded over by the finish weld. the maximum wind speed is not specified by AWS D1. SAW. sometimes required for quenched and tempered. TMCP. If the steel is thicker. within any specified limitations.1 Table 3. provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in. Steels of thicknesses requiring preheat.) in thickness. it is advisable to heat the steel to higher temperatures and apply the heat over a wider area. For selfshielded welding processes (SMAW.6 mm (1/16 in.1. The selected electrodes should be taken only from proper storage. For other groove dimension tolerances applicable to other groove welds. Protective covering or enclosures.1 Section 5. close-range focused infrared devices. then the temperature verification is taken a distance equal to the material thickness.1 Table 3. see AWS D1. or when toughness requirements apply. with heating as necessary. Preheat temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked for compliance with AWS D1. may be used to satisfy this requirement and provide adequate protection and warmth for the welders and welding equipment. or other special steels. (5) Steel temperature.1 Table 3.1 Figures 3. (7) Wind speed.12 for welding environment provisions. it is necessary to heat the steel in the vicinity of the joint to at least 21oC (70oF). (9) Preheat. or when welding personnel are exposed to inclement environmental conditions. including preheat when required.1 Table 3.2 if prequalified.) are permitted only for steels over 76 mm (3 in.) from the joint.4.). For prequalified steels listed in AWS D1. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers.22. See AWS D1. The temperature of the steel at the joint prior to the initiation of welding must not be below 0oC (32oF). Cracks in 8-7 . per AWS D1.) or less in thickness. It may also be necessary to verify that the preheat temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS. (8) WPS.2. unless corrective measure are taken.22. (6) Ambient temperature. Gaps over 5 mm (3/16 in.1. GTAW. when suitable backing is placed in the root of the joint. the minimum steel temperature at the joint is 10oC (50oF). and EGW) may not be performed in winds exceeding 8 km per hour (5 mph).4.) away from the joint. but not to exceed 5 mm (3/16 in. See AWS D1. Gas-shielded welding processes (FCAW-G. (4) Groove weld fitup. Fillet welded joints must be fitup with a maximum gap of 1. Verification of preheat temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in. Prequalified groove welds must be assembled within the “as fit-up” tolerance specified for the joint in AWS D1.2. and the fillet leg size is increased. or with temperature-indicating crayons. but should be limited to a maximum of 30 to 40 km per hour (20 to 25 mph). as wind above this speed blows away the necessary shielding gas and contributes to poor weld quality and poor mechanical properties.22. and used only in the permitted positions and within the welding parameters specified by the manufacturer and in the WPS. (10) Tack welds. as Category C steels. It should be verified that the WPS is appropriate for the joint. the temperature of the steel should be measured a distance 75 mm (3 in.3 and 3. Note 1. FCAW-S.1 Section 5.2. GMAW.2. Tack welds must be made using appropriate WPSs. require higher temperatures. For Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. and ESW).1 Section 5.

Wire brushing of the completed weld is recommended. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. Exposure of SMAW electrodes and SAW fluxes must meet the time limitations of AWS D1. d. e. To avoid trapped slag. During Welding. or the use of storage ovens. but not required.1 Table 6. and FCAW wires removed from the manufacturer’s packaging will not be consumed within a few days. Interpass temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked with compliance with AWS D1. provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in.1 Code are met. measurement should as near the arc as practical. each weld bead profile should be in substantial conformance with the requirements of Table 6.1 Table 3. Although not limited by AWS D1. (4) Cleaning. The inspector should verify that the welding is performed following the appropriate Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). Weld profile 8-8 . repackaging unused FCAW wire in closed moisture-resistant packing overnight. porosity. Section 12 provisions for Fracture Critical Nonredundant Members should be considered for guidance in special cases.) or less in thickness.1 for SMAW electrode exposure limits. full compliance with the AWS D1. and removal of exposed flux from opened packages. piece.1 Table 6. (3) Consumables control. proper documentation of the acceptance of the welding should be prepared and submitted to the designated parties. may be appropriate.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tack welds are likely to propagate into the main weld. proper current (amperage) and voltage for the welding operation may be verified using a hand held calibrated amp and volt meter. See AWS D1. TMCP. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. Because of welding lead losses. Verification of interpass temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in. SAW fluxes may require drying. After Welding. Observation of welding techniques and performance for each welder should be done periodically during welding operations to verify that the applicable requirements of the WPS and the AWS D1. (1) Measurement. or when toughness requirements apply. and weld size underrun. Welds not executed in conformance with the WPS may be considered rejectable. fusion and porosity prior to placement of subsequent passes.1.5 Bridge Welding Code. (1) WPS compliance. penetration and fusion discontinuities. Removal of debris by brushing is required. (2) Interpass temperatures. recycling.30. AWS D1. If required or specified. and permit limited amounts of undercut.2 if a prequalified groove weld joint.) from the joint. If desired. or project. These provisions prohibit cracks and lack of fusion. Upon completion of inspection of the weld. close-range focused infrared devices. sometimes specified for quenched and tempered. or with temperature-indicating crayons. The work should be visually inspected for conformance with the Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria prescribed in AWS D1. as appropriate.3. See AWS D1. research indicates that some FCAW electrodes may absorb moisture in the order of 50% of the “as-manufactured” moisture content.1 Section 5.1 Section 5. special storage conditions limiting exposure times.1 provisions should be verified. When extra-low hydrogen welding electrodes are required for critical welding applications. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. and should be referred to a knowledgeable welding consultant and the Engineer for review. It may also be necessary to verify that the interpass temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS. NDT is to be performed. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers.1 provisions for cracks.1 Table 5.1. or other special steels. After completion of the weld. Each pass should be visually inspected by the welder for conformance to AWS D1. Completed weld passes must be cleaned of all slag prior to placement of the next pass. special handling.1.

and bearing surface fit. as appropriate.24.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in. are prescribed in AWS D1. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1. See AWS A2. The Inspector should mark the welds. see Appendix D. camber. that have been inspected and accepted using a distinguishing mark or die stamp. including cross-section. and weld cleaning (Section 5. f. NDT symbols should be used to specify locations and types of NDT.23. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. (4) Tables 8-1 and 8-2 provide general guidance for the selection of NDT method(s). depth. a delay period of 24 to 48 hours should be considered prior to performing NDT for final acceptance for higher strength steels. The tolerances for the completed member.1 Table 6. must be specified in the contract documents. (1) The specific types of NDT. (2) Tolerances. magnifiers. Size and contour of welds should be measured with suitable gauges. 8-9 . or other devices that may be helpful. (3) Because of the risk of delayed hydrogen cracking. The accepted. The AWS D1. AWS D1.1 Section 5.29).4. Nondestructive Testing Methods.4 Part C..1 Section 5. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling to check for lamellar tearing. Alternatively.16.1 for certain fatigue detail categories for cyclically-loaded structures. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in. (3) Records. (2) The contractor is responsible for performing any required NDT. records indicating the specific welds inspected by each person may be maintained. sweep. Visual inspection may be aided by a strong light. straightness. flange warpage and tilt.5 Bridge Welding Code Section 12. stiffener fit. but NDT is required by both AISC and AWS D1. When using T-joints.) in thickness. joints. and the applicable acceptance criteria.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tolerances are provided in AWS D1.. flatness. and Section 5.4 requires a longer delay period for Fracture Critical Members. distributed to the designated recipients in a timely manner. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications.1 (5). rejected and repaired items should be documented in a written report.1 does not require NDT for statically-loaded building structures. or members.30). For complete information. unless specifically designated to be performed by another party.1. See AWS D1. depending upon weld size and steel strength. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems . Craters are accepted in certain circumstances.). Other weld acceptance criteria that is verified visually include arc strikes (AWS D1.1 Figure 5.

Applicable O . orientation. U .3 MT O2 O2 U U O A A2 A2.3 PT A1 U U U O A A1 A1. depending upon material thickness. Applicable Inspection Methods for Various Discontinuities and Joint Types Application D i s c o n t i n u i t y J o i n t s Inspection Method VT A1 U U U A O A1 A1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 8-1.Generally not applicable. Surface only Surface and slightly subsurface only 3 Weld preparation or edge of base metal 1 2 8-10 .3 UT O A A A O O A A RT A A O A A U O U Porosity Slag Inclusions Incomplete Fusion Inadequate Joint Penetration Undercut Overlap Cracks Laminations Butt Corner T Lap A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A O A O O U Notes: A .Marginal applicability. discontinuity size. and location.

no size limitations Surface roughness may distort magnetic field. usable at all stages of production Can locate all internal discontinuiti es located by other methods. flashlight. limited by direction of discontinuity A d v a n t a g e s Detects small surface imperfections.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 8-2. useful for checking edges before welding. film exposure and processing critical. dependent on subjective opinion of inspector Timeconsuming. slag UT Ultrasonic units and probes. special power source. film processing and viewing equipment E q u i p t m e n t D e t e c t i o n Pocket magnifier. inexpensive. porosity. weld contour and size Easy to use. overlap. etc. roughness. fast. ultraviolet light for fluorescent dyes Discontinuities open to the surface only MT Wet or dry iron particles. Weld preparation. scale. ultraviolet light for fluorescent particles Surface and near surface discontinuities: cracks. low cost Detects discontinuities not visible to the naked eye. or fluorescent. as well as small discontinuiti es Extremely sensitive. complex weldments restrict usage Most internal discontinuiti es. fitup. undercut. cleanliness. Guidelines for Selecting Inspection Techniques VT PT Fluorescent or visible penetration liquids and developers. not permanent Highly skilled interpreter required. reference patterns RT X-ray or gamma-ray. inexpensive. not permanent Provides permanent record of surface and internal discontinuiti es L i m i t a t i o n s For surface conditions only. weld gauges. slow and expensive 8-11 . spatter. not permanent Usually not suitable for fillet weld or T-joint inspection. easy application.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Indications may be misleading on poorly prepared or cleaned surfaces Test from two perpendicular directions to detect any indications parallel to one set of magnetic lines Radiation hazards C o m m e n t s Most universally used inspection method 8-12 .

2 6. This criteria may be applied as the inspection criteria for the project. overlap.1 (8) 5.8. and reduces the potential detrimental effects to the existing base metal.1 quality criteria is a workmanship standard. NDT Acceptance Criteria. AWS D1.1 Section C6. Nondestructive testing acceptance criteria is based upon achievable quality and the ability of the method to detect discontinuities of given size and location.1 (2) Table 6. and magnetic particle testing (MT) are specified.1 (7) Table 6. but does not reduce inspection expense. WELD QUALITY. b. reducing the risk of creating additional discontinuities while performing repairs.5. or may be used to establish when repair or replacement of a weld is required for a given discontinuity or situation.30. Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria.CEMP-E 6. The second approach is also valuable.24 Table 6. D1.30 5.1 (1) Table 6. lack of penetration.1 criteria.29 5. reinforcement) Weld Size (underrun. When penetrant testing (PT). 5. For ultrasonic 8-13 . and eliminates needless repairs.1 c. or experimental evidence to establish alternate acceptance criteria.1 (6). The first approach is valuable because it reduces the time and expense of inspection.1 Table 6.1 Visual Acceptance Criteria.1 (4). 6. concavity. in lieu of AWS D1.5.1 References Table 6.5. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. See AWS D1. based upon the quality readily achievable by a qualified welder. the acceptance criteria to be used is the same as that for visual inspection. analysis.1 6. with some consideration for the effect of surface and near-surface notches upon performance. underfill) Undercut Porosity Arc Strike Surface Slag Spatter Length Location AWS D1. The following table provides the specification reference location for various forms of weld discontinuities: Weld Discontinuity Crack Fusion Weld Craters Weld Profile (convexity. The Engineer may use experience. The Engineer is given the responsibility of determining and specifying the appropriate weld quality acceptance criteria.1 (3) Table 6.

Mill Defects. d. but controls distortion and through-thickness strains in T-joints. the steel may be considered rejectable. For excessive undercut.13. including craters. the undercut portion should be filled using an approved repair procedure. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. The Engineer may base alternate weld quality acceptance criteria on experience. at extra cost. During fabrication. Repair of wide root openings entails facing the groove with weld metal until the required root opening is achieved.1 Section 6. For undersized welds. The mill is permitted to perform removal and repairs to the surface using various means such as grinding and welding. c. and excessive porosity. should unacceptable internal discontinuities be discovered in the steel. For radiographic testing (RT). the Engineer must be notified.12. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. if refitting the parts is not feasible. Starting within the crack may cause the crack to grow during removal. 7. the unacceptable portion must be completely removed and replaced. Root openings that are too narrow must be increased in width to the required root opening. but longer and deeper laminations will need either removal by grinding or welding to close the lamination prior to welding the joint. as well as increasing cost. plus the requirements of AWS D1. An alternative to repair of this type would be to use split-layer techniques for the root pass. and environmental factors.15. Root openings that are too wide are significant in that they increase the weld volume. to limits specified in ASTM A6 Section 9.1 Section 6. b. air carbon arc gouging. This is typically done by grinding. Laminations at welded joints may serve as sources of porosity and as crack initiation points. Some craters may be acceptable if outside the required effective length of weld. would be performed only when specified in the mill order. For welds with unacceptable convexity.1. chipping. Shallow laminations need not be repaired. ASTM A6 Section 9. requires only visual inspection by the mill of the completed product for defects in workmanship. Should it be necessary to cut the materials apart. plus the requirements of AWS D1.) from the end of the crack and work toward the center of the crack. such as straight-beam ultrasonic testing. the weld should have the excess weld metal removed. Narrow root openings contribute to trapped slag. See AWS D1. excessive reinforcement. Additional caution should be used when repairing cracks.26. The end of the crack should be located using PT or MT. Sources of information to assist in the development of alternate acceptance criteria are provided in Appendix B. lack of fusion. or overlap. For cracks.1 Section 5. A root pass placed across a wide root opening may develop shrinkage cracks in the HAZ or in the throat of the weld. Bibliography. Alternate Acceptance Criteria. AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 testing (UT). poor penetration and lack of fusion near the root. the weld should be filled to the required size. Laminations. service and fracture loads and strengths. or fracture mechanics analysis considering material properties and behavior. a.1 Section 5. When internal laminations in the steel are discovered during fabrication. 8-14 . structural analysis. provides procedures for the investigation and repair of the exposed laminations. All exposed laminations must be explored for depth. experimental results. and subsequently control bead placement to minimize shrinkage and distortion effects. Weld Discontinuities. Such a repair does not reduce volume or cost. Repairs for narrow root openings may be done by grinding.1. increasing distortion and increasing the risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. d. Subsurface inspection for laminations and other defects. REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS. The size or type of internal discontinuity considered rejectable is not defined by specification. then crack removal should begin approximately 50 mm (2 in. but may be done by gouging. Root Opening Corrections.

When the hole must be filled. Mislocated Holes. then weld using stringer passes. if required elsewhere on the project for groove welds. When holes have been mislocated.26. 8-15 . it is best to either leave the hole unfilled or to place a bolt in the hole.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. a special repair procedure should be followed to elongate the hole. generally when a new hole must be placed near or adjacent to the misplaced hole. NDT may be necessary after welding. See AWS D1.5.1 Section 5. NDT is required for repair welds for holes in cyclically loaded members. It is difficult to fill a hole by welding.

For welding of stainless steels.) in thickness. For the welding of structural aluminum alloys. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. 7.1 tubular provisions and the AISC Connections Manual for Hollow Structural Sections.and cold-rolled sheets and plate. but any applicable provisions. clad materials. powerhouse and nuclear facilities.3 or AWS D1.TUBULAR STRUCTURES. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. refer to the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1.8 mm (3/16 in. AWS D1. refer to ANSI/AWS D14. including mats. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. may be welded under either AWS D1.4 must be met for the weld.1 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. REINFORCING STEEL. but less than or equal to 4. 4.Sheet Steel. It also applies to other overhead material handling machinery and equipment that supports and transports loads.Aluminum.Bibliography.4 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel. based upon the structural steel must also be met. These documents apply to the specific requirements of tube-to-tube applications. SHEET STEEL WELDING. CAST STEEL. ALUMINUM. It is not applicable to pressure vessels or pressure piping with pressures exceeding 104 kPa (15 psig).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 9 OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 1. This specification applies to the welding of all principal structural weldments and all primary welds used in the manufacture of cranes for industrial.) thick. This code includes welding of hot.2 mm (1/8 in. but are also applicable to tube-to-plate applications. tubular members. mill.1. shapes. 2. For the welding of tubular members. For welding steel materials less than 3.) thick. For the welding of highway bridges designed for vehicular traffic. including the Fracture Control Plan for nonredundant bridge members. 9-1 . Sheet steels equal to or greater than 3. 3. For the welding of material handling equipment. castings and forgings of stainless steels. such as preheat requirements. fabric. For reinforcing steel welded to structural steel. 6. BRIDGES.5 Bridge Welding Code.2 Structural Welding Code . 5.6 Structural Welding Code . MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT. if applicable. STAINLESS STEEL. See Appendix B . and the AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members for general design provisions. 8. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. metal inserts and connections in reinforced concrete construction. also referred to as hollow structural sections.2 mm (1/8 in. For welding reinforcing steel.Stainless Steel.3 Structural Welding Code .

CAST IRON. For the welding of pressure vessels. b. Section 9. refer to AWWA Manual M42. See Appendix B . For the welding of water tanks. or API 12F. For the welding of offshore structures. WROUGHT IRON. For the welding of pipelines. c. Welding and Brazing Qualifications. refer to the API RP 2A series documents. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. refer to API 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. 10. ASME. Planning. Steel Water Storage Tanks . Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities.Bibliography. refer to API Standard 1104.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 9. API. 9-2 . See Appendix B . For the welding of storage tanks. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. 11. OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS a. AWWA. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms.Bibliography. refer to ANSI/ASME BPVC.

molten steel. fires.where the available oxygen is too low). sparks and spatter often travel a considerable distance. Welding. and arc gouging operations produce molten metal that may cause burns. The arc produced from welding or air carbon arc gouging may burn the eyes. Certain welding processes use gases such as argon.) from the welding or cutting operation provide suitable fire-resistant shielding around the work area or combustible material fire extinguishing equipment should be accessible to welding personnel trained fire watch personnel should be used if the operations are performed near combustible materials. Poor quality or poorly maintained electrical connections can cause overheating or sparking and subsequent ignition. GENERAL. test all fuel gas and shielding gas lines for leaks. The following provisions should not be considered all-inclusive. thermal cutting. if only a small opening is available for entry. or explosion.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 10 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1.. Eye Protection. carbon dioxide or nitrogen which will not support life. c. test the atmosphere in the space before and during the work. electrical power must be disconnected and all gas valves closed when work is suspended for any substantial period of time. tied off and held by a worker stationed outside the space. Fire. SAFETY.e. During operations. Work in confined spaces requires additional safety precautions. (i. complete. helium. pit. A confined space could be a tank. The following safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • move the object to receive the work away from combustible materials move the combustible materials at least 15 m (50 ft. risking a fire in nearby flammable materials.The following additional safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • • • • • remove flammable or hazardous materials from the space. inspect all electrical cables and connections. Refer to applicable governing documents for complete information. SMAW electrode stubs are very hot and could cause a fire if carelessly thrown on wood or paper products. etc. Deaths and severe injuries due to lack of oxygen have occurred where the concentration of these gases becomes too high. 2. Oxygen for oxyfuel cutting is not flammable by itself. Proper filters and cover plates must be worn to protect the eyes from sparks and the rays of the arc. cutting torches must not be lit or extinguished within the space. no compressed gas cylinders or welding power sources may be placed inside the space. The fuel gases used pose no hazard. that does not allow for adequate ventilation for the removal of hazardous gases or fumes resulting from the work. but will contribute to more intense fires if pure oxygen is available. a. 10-1 . provide adequate ventilation air to the space. or exclusive. the welder must wear an approved safety harness equipped with a rope or lifeline. Confined Spaces. b. provided they are handled and stored in a safe and proper manner.

(2) Most welding fumes from carbon steel and low alloy steel electrodes do not require any attention to limits for any specific compound or compounds. In addition to shielding gases that may be used. Fumes are solid particles that originate from welding consumables. Fumes and Gases. Their health hazards are discussed in the MSDS. and metal. or both. gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. iron. and have special health hazards. (5) The following safety guidelines should be considered. See ANSI / AWS Z49. and 10-2 . (3) Some specific fume components such as chromium. calcium. to keep fumes and gases from the breathing zone and general area.1 Safety in Welding. hole-free gloves are necessary. The amount and composition of these fumes and gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal and base material. sodium. skin and respiratory system to more severe complications and may occur immediately or at some later time. Further Guidance. Electrocution. Arc burn may be more severe than sunburn. and hot material can cause severe burns if precautionary measures are not used. • Where ventilation is questionable. natural air movement provides enough ventilation and fresh air. Their effects are submerged in the overall effects which may be expected from nuisance dusts. • In some cases. current level. • If engineering controls are not feasible. Dry. arc length and other factors. When these are present at levels of concern.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. Molten metal. sparks. The work piece and welding equipment must be grounded. the base metal and any coatings present on the base metal. manganese. slag. The compounds in the fume such as oxides and fluorides of aluminum. Cutting and Allied Processes. use air sampling to determine the need for corrective measures. copper. fluorides. • Do not breathe the fumes. e. welding process. g. • Follow the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations for threshold limit values (TLVs) for fumes and gases. These parts must not be touched with bare skin or wet clothing. • Use mechanical ventilation when necessary to improve air quality. potassium. silicon (which is amorphous in welding fumes). electrodes. electrode reel (for wire-fed processes). Protect the skin against radiation and hot particles. Suitable flame-resistant clothing must be worn as protection from sparks and arc rays. Burn protection. and dizziness. do not have individual effects. and nickel are present in some electrodes. cutting and allied processes produce fumes and gases that may be harmful. and workpiece (or ground) are considered electrically “hot” when the welder is on. fume effects range from irritation of eyes. magnesium. use an approved respirator. and titantium. • Use enough ventilation or exhaust at the arc. (4) Depending on material involved. . require special attention. (1) Many welding. • Follow OSHA guidelines for permissible exposure limits (PELs) for various fumes. headache. they are listed on the product label and in the MSDS. as a minimum: • Keep the head out of the fumes. f. Fumes may also cause symptoms such as nausea. except that excessive iron may cause siderosis (iron deposits in the lungs). cobalt. The electrode.

SMAW. ENERGY CONSUMPTION. 3. ESW and EGW draws more current to provide the higher deposition rates achievable and desired. Field operations may be electrically powered or powered by generators. the minimum weld size and minimum groove cross-sectional area adequate to carry the load should be specified. To save energy. FCAW and GMAW welding equipment draws essentially the same current ranges. Shop welding operations are almost always electrically powered. Some field welding equipment is directly engine driven.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 the Bibliography in Appendix B for further general information. The total power consumption difference between processes for a given joint configuration is negligible. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each product used also provides essential information. 10-3 . Power requirements depend more upon electrode diameter than welding process. and SAW.

1998) (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. 2 FEMA 273. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation. Structural Engineering. Modification and Design of Steel Moment Frames. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Suite 3100 Chicago. Aluminum Structures.org Metric Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. 1. General Requirements MIL-HDBK-1002/3. Metal Building Systems MIL-HDBK-1002/1. December 1. Composite Structures. Structural Plastics. January 30. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. Load Assumptions for Buildings TI 809-02. Design Criteria TI 809-01. Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings (to become TI 809-6) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA 267. December 1. IL 60601-2001 www. August 1995 FEMA 267B. Seismic Design for Buildings TI 809-05. October 1997 FEMA 302.aisc. February 1998 NONGOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS American Institute of Steel Construction One East Wacker Drive. Structural Engineering. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. 1993 (Supplement No.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX A REFERENCES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS United States Army Corps of Engineers TI 800-01. Structural Design Criteria for Buildings TI 809-04. 1. Department of the Army TM 5-809-6. Steel Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/6. Repair. 1994 (Supplement No. January 30. and FiberReinforced Composites. 1998) A-1 . Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls TI 809-30. Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings TI 809-07.

Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding ANSI/AWS A5.aws. Brazing. Volumes I and II.3-98.4-98. 1992 Metric Conversion of the 2nd Edition Manual of Steel Construction.03. 1999 Manual of Steel Construction.org Annual Book of Standards Volume 1.Stainless Steel ANSI/AWS A2.26M-97. Reinforcing. 1. Specification for Low–Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1993 Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections. April 15. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Volume II Connections. Allowable Stress Design.26/A5.17/A5. FL 33126 www. Structural Welding Code . 1994 Manual of Steel Construction. 1997 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken. Nondestructive Testing American Welding Society 550 NW LeJeune Road Miami.4-98.20-95.23M-97. Structural Welding Code . 1999) Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members. Volumes I and II. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 2nd Edition. April 15.04. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc A-2 . PA 19428 www. Structural Welding Code . Structural Welding Code . 1989 Manual of Steel Construction.org ANSI/AWS D1. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.Reinforcing Steel ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. Railway Volume 3. 9th Edition. Standard Symbols for Welding. June 1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design). Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.18-93. December 1.5-96.astm. Load and Resistance Factor Design. February 15. 1997 (Supplement No.Steel ANSI/AWS D1.23/A5. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.Structural. ASD/LRFD. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions ANSI/AWS A5. Steel .25/A5.17M-97. June 10. 2nd Edition.25M-97.28-96. Pressure Vessel.5-96.Sheet Steel ANSI/AWS D1. Bridge Welding Code ANSI/AWS D1. 1992 Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual. and Nondestructive Testing ANSI/AWS A3.1-91. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding ANSI/AWS A5.0-94. 1989 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.1-98. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1997 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges.6-98.

OH 43228-0518 www.1:1999.org ANSI/ASNT CP-189-1995.32/A5. 1995 A-3 .asnt. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel Recommended Practice No.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding ANSI/AWS A5. SNT-TC-1A. Safety in Welding. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.32M-97. Inc. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. Cutting and Allied Processes American Society for Nondestructive Testing. PO Box 28518 Columbus.29-98. Specification for Welding Shielding Gases ANSI/AWS Z49.

1995 Weld Integrity and Performance. (1994) American Society for Metals ASM Handbook. 1990 ASM Handbook. 6th Ed. Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998) American Water Works Association AWWA Manual M42 Steel Water Storage Tanks (1998) B-1 . Brazing and Soldering. No 1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Welding Cracks Investigation Report. Vol 35. 2nd Ed. and High-Performance Alloys. 1998 ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels.. 18th Ed. 1996 Steel Castings Handbook. 1993 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI/ASME BPVC. 1990 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. Steel Special Moment Resisting Frames. 4th Edition. 4th Qtr 1998 Engineering Journal. 1997 Load and Resistance Factor Design of Simple Shear Connections. 1990 American Petroleum Institute API 12D. Alaska. Planning. 1985 Volume 6: Magnetic Particle Testing. 4th Edition. Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API 12F. Vol 34. 2nd Ed. December 1996 American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections. 2nd Ed.. Anchorage. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms API Standard 1104. 1st Qtr 1997 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. Section 9. et al). No 4. Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons. Elmendorf Air Force Base Hospital. 1993 ASM Metals Handbook. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 2nd Ed. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API RP 2A series documents. 2nd Ed. Experimental Investigation of Dogbone Moment Connections (Engelhart. Steels. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. 1991 Volume 8: Visual and Optical Testing. 1997 American Society for Nondestructive Testing Nondestructive Testing Handbook Volume 2: Liquid Penetrant Tests. Ultimate Strength Considerations for Seismic Design of the Reduced Beam Section (Internal Plastic Hinge) (Iwankiw). 1982 Volume 3: Radiography and Radiation Testing. 1997 Engineering Journal. Volume 6: Welding. 1996 ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons. 2nd Ed. 1989 Volume 7: Ultrasonic Testing.

1984 Design Aids for Welded Connections American Institute of Steel Construction AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD and LRFD versions) Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) CONXPRT (software) B-2 . 1996 Volume 4. 8th Edition Volume 1. 1998 Welding Inspection.4-93 Specification for Underwater Welding. Welding Technology. ANSI/AWS B1.11-88 Guide for Welding Iron Castings. Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and their Significance (Lundin). Draft for Development. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. ANSI/AWS D11.6-93 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. 4th Edition. March 1997 FEMA 303. Materials and Applications. AWS C4. IIW Guidance on Assessment of the Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures. Moment Connections and Frame Systems Behavior. Visual Weld Acceptance Criteria International Institute of Welding IIW / IIS-SST-1157-90. 1987 Volume 2. 1985 Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA 288. George E. 1991 Volume 3. Welding. Part 1. ANSI/AWS B1. Materials and Applications.1-97 Welding Handbook.10-86 Guide for Visual Inspection of Welds. 1990 Welding Research Council WRC Bulletin 295. 1994 Welding of Cast Iron. ANSI/AWS C5. AWS D14. Part 2. ANSI/AWS D3. Linnert. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures Electric Power Research Institute NP-5380.2-89 Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge.1-G Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 American Welding Society Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds. ANSI/AWS C5. February 1998 Alternate Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria British Standards Institution BS PD-6493:1991. Fracture Mechanics. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures BS 7910: pending (1999). Welding Processes.3-91 Recommended Practices for Stud Welding. Volume 1. Fundamentals. Background Reports: Metallurgy. 1980 Welding Metallurgy.

Order No. Proceedings. Welding Journal. Labor. Quintana. Q. Maui. and Johnson. M. and Johnson. Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment National Fire Protection Association Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes: NFPA 51B. Parts 1901. 1994 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations. M. Q.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Load and Resistance Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) Module I . Inc.LRFD Simple Shear Connections Module II . Quintana.) StruCad (AceCad Software. Q. Inc..) SDS/2 (Design Data. Title 29. March 1999 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 2. A. Inc. 1998 B-3 .1 to 1910. and Johnson..ASD Simple Shear Connections Module I .ASD Moment Connections Steel Detailing Software Packages with Connection Design CDS CompuSTEEL (Barasel Corp. M. HI. 869-029-00222-5 Intermixed Weld Metal The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 1. M. MI. Inc. Detroit. A. AWS Annual Convention. Proceedings. National Fire Protection Association.) DESCON (Omnitech Associates) DETAIL (MacroSoft) fabriCAD (Research Engineers.. Chapter XV11. 1998 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 3. M.) CVSpro8 (CadVantage.) StrucPro (Eagle Point) Canadian Welding Bureau Weld IT (software) Safety and Health American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLV (R) ) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment American Welding Society. Inc. M. Quintana. AWS Conference on Welded Construction in Seismic Areas. A.) Steelcad (Steelcad International.1450.

Federal Highway Administration. M. Stout. 1998 Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures.. 1998 Metals Black Book. Barsom. Report No. 13th Ed. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Design of Welded Structures. D.. Prentice-Hall. FHWA-IF-99-004. R. Miller. August 1999 Other References and Textbooks Cast Publishing Metals Blue Book. J. Miller.. 1997 Weldability of Steels. 4th Ed. K. 1953 B-4 . Cary. 13th Edition. Nonferrous Metals. US Dept. 2nd Ed.. 1998 Metals Red Book. 2nd Ed. 1990 Modern Welding Technology. 1994 Tubular Steel Structures . 1976 Metals & How to Weld Them. 1994 Reviewing and Approving Welding Procedure Specifications. New Orleans. D. of Transportation. / James F. 1987 Lincoln Electric Co.. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. Welding Research Council. October 1998 Lincoln Electric Company.Theory and Design. T. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. and Doty.. Prentice-Hall. 1966 Design of Weldments. K..CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding Procedures Heat-Straightening Repairs of Damaged Steel Bridges – A Technical Guide and Manual of Practice. D. H. 3rd Ed. 2nd Ed. April. 1962 The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. W.. S. and Rolfe. 1998 What Every Engineer Should Know about Welding Procedures. Welding Filler Metals. Proceedings. Welding Journal. D. B. Ferrous Metals. LA.

shield the molten weld puddle from atmospheric gases.1 also provides the strength of electrode required for these steels to provide the “matching” strength for the base metal. DC is used for smaller diameter electrodes. C-1 . Filler Metal Designation. low hydrogen electrodes are required. AWS D1.).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX C WELDING PROCESSES 1. See AWS D1. Table 3.5 similarly covers the low-alloy steel electrodes for SMAW. For prequalified WPSs. Specification and Certification. Process Principles. and higher strength groups. when welding on structural steels with a minimum specified yield strength equal to or exceeding 485 MPa (50 ksi). AC electrodes may also operate using either DCEN (DC Electrode Negative. is a mixture of base metal and electrode materials. The coating is of various materials designed to provide arc stability. b. and another series of values for SMAW with low hydrogen electrodes and all FCAW. also called “reverse” polarity).2 provides one series of minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for “non-low hydrogen electrodes”. also called “straight” polarity) or DCEP (DC Electrode Positive. typically those with a diameter of less than 4. a.1 provides the requirements for carbon steel covered electrodes used with SMAW. and cover the solidifying weld to improve bead profile. DC-. Some coatings contain metallic powders. DC+. SAW and GMAW. To eliminate undesirable arc blow conditions. (2) SMAW may be operated using either DC (direct current) or AC (alternating current) polarity. Electrodes used on AC must be designed specifically to operate in this mode. under the arc.1 Table 3. by design. (2) Low hydrogen electrodes have coatings of inorganic materials that are very low in hydrogen. (3) The term “low hydrogen” was initially used to separate those SMAW electrodes capable of depositing weld metal with low levels of diffusible hydrogen from non-low hydrogen electrodes such as E6010 and E6012 that contain. larger electrodes are typically operated using AC. For most structural steel fabrication today. Group I steels. including A36 steel. where the current changes direction 120 times per second on 60 Hertz power. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is commonly known as “stick” welding.1 lists specific steels and grades where the use of low hydrogen electrodes is required for the prequalification of SMAW Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). Generally. may be welded with non-low hydrogen electrodes. and in some cases. SMAW electrodes should be of the low hydrogen type. AWS A5. flux the molten puddle of impurities. (1) Generally. deoxidize the molten weld puddle. coating moisture levels of 2 to 4%.1 Table 3. including A572 grade 50. The molten weld pool. For Group II steels. Water (H2O) will break down into its components. and is performed as “manual” welding. and completed weld. hydrogen and oxygen.8 mm (3/16 in. either DC polarity. Filler metal specification AWS A5. (1) The core of the electrode is steel. An electric arc is produced between the tip of the electrode and the base metal. adding specific alloys to the weld composition. low hydrogen electrodes are prescribed to offer additional assurance against hydrogen induced cracking. and are designed to be extremely low in moisture. This implies a similarity in expected maximum levels of diffusible hydrogen. This hydrogen can then enter into the weld deposit and may lead to unacceptable weld and heat affected zone cracking under certain conditions. SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW). melting both.

(6) Optional supplemental designators may be used to indicate the maximum level of hydrogen that may be present in the test weld deposit. The E7015 electrodes operate using DCEP only. These designators are a part of the standard AWS classification system and consist of the letter H followed by a single or double digit. A5. E7028. E7016 electrodes operate using either AC or DCEP.1 for welding on structural steels with minimum specified yield strength of 485 MPa (50 ksi) or greater. However. the horizontal position. (7) While “low-hydrogen” electrodes are required by AWS D1. offering economic and time-saving advantages to the contractor. Some electrodes carry the “-W” designation. (5) In the AWS A5. The E7018 electrodes operate using AC or DCEP. indicating the presence of alloys capable of giving the weld atmospheric corrosion resistance for exposed weathering applications. E7016. (4) SMAW electrodes are classified based on a four or five digit number that follows the letter E (for electrode). In filler metal specification AWS A5. AWS D1.” International Institute of Welding (IIW) documents classify electrodes for diffusible hydrogen as follows: very low hydrogen (0-5 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal). and some electrodes with very low diffusible hydrogen levels may have poor notch toughness. Most standard low hydrogen electrodes must deposit weld metal with a maximum of 16 mL per 100 g of diffusible hydrogen under test conditions. A “-C1" electrode nominally contains 2. with suffix “-C3". Also. except for vertical welding in the upward progression. (8) All low hydrogen electrodes listed in AWS A5. The electrode classification is imprinted on the coating near the end of the electrode. E7048 electrodes are similar to E7018 electrodes in composition. manufacturers may optionally list an H8 or H4 designation if their particular SMAW electrodes are capable of delivering these extra low levels of diffusible hydrogen. the “2" would indicate that this electrode is suitable for flat position welding and. See Table C-3 for specific data on these low hydrogen C-2 . E7048 electrodes are specifically designed for good welding in the vertical downward progression. medium hydrogen (10-15). and E7048. E7018M. See Table C-1. and include approximately 25% iron powder in their coatings to increase their deposition rate.5 low-alloy steel SMAW electrode specification. and have been tested for absorbed moisture and diffusible hydrogen. 6 or 8.1 is the inclusion of a suffix letter and number indicating the alloy content. high notch toughness weld metal from electrodes with good operating characteristics may not be available with the lowest hydrogen designations. and high hydrogen (15-20). See Table C-2. low hydrogen carbon steel SMAW electrodes are identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX as a 5. a similar format is used to identify SMAW electrodes. for fillet welds only.1 SMAW low hydrogen electrode classifications include E7015. As an example. E7018M electrodes may be used only with DCEP.1 and the AWS A5 filler metal specifications do not currently define “low hydrogen. indicates the electrode nominally contains 1% nickel. but these definitions are unrelated to AWS usage and specifications. For example “E7018H8" indicates that the deposit contains a maximum diffusible hydrogen content of 8 mL per 100 g of deposited weld metal. the required levels of preheat are lower. extra-low hydrogen levels should not be specified unless necessary. An E7028 electrode contains approximately 50% iron powder in the coating. as the nomenclature shows. low hydrogen (5-10). enabling it to deposit metal at even higher rates. as well as on the electrode package. Low hydrogen low-alloy SMAW electrodes are similarly identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX-Y as a 5. 6 or 8. E7018. and may be used in any position. an E8018-C3 nickel steel electrode. AC or DCEP.1. However.5% nickel. The most significant difference in nomenclature from A5. There is generally a cost premium associated with the lower diffusible hydrogen electrodes.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 When SMAW low hydrogen electrodes are used.1 have minimum specified notch toughnesses of 27 J @ -20oC (20 ft-lbf at 0°F) or better.

it may not be possible to complete the weld without stopping. (9) Low hydrogen. E6013.1 provisions. SMAW is capable of depositing high quality welds. For the notch toughness levels of higher strength electrodes. see AWS A5. AWS D1. and wind. used to join high strength steels which are particularly susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking. When SMAW electrodes are received in damaged containers or in non-hermetically sealed containers. to avoid the pickup of moisture from the atmosphere. or baking. Disadvantages and Limitations. Advantages. AWS D1. C-3 . There is no direct correlation between the low hydrogen limits of various electrodes and notch toughness requirements. (10) Electrodes providing a given level of notch toughness are listed in Table C-5. but is commonly used for tack welding. with additional cleaning time required for slag removal. Gas shielding is not required.5. or from the baking oven.1 Table 5. are limited to very short periods. portable. fabrication of miscellaneous components. and repair welding. When supplied in undamaged containers. requires more passes for large welds. These heated ovens must maintain the electrodes at a minimum temperature of 120oC (250°F). inexpensive. It can be used in areas with difficult access. before use. For long welds. The electrode manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed to ensure a baking procedure that eliminates retained moisture. Once the electrode has been exposed to the atmosphere. to remove any residual moisture picked up from exposure to the atmosphere. it begins to pick up moisture. as listed with operating limitations and uses in Table C-4. and these recommendations may vary from AWS D1. (11) Low hydrogen SMAW electrodes typically are supplied in hermetically sealed metal containers. removing the slag to allow restarting the weld. but these are not classified as low hydrogen electrodes. (12) Once low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are removed from their hermetically sealed container. c. There are electrode classifications that have no required notch toughness (such as E6012.1 limits the exposure time of various electrode classifications. (2) Smaller prequalified weld bead sizes. Holding ovens for low hydrogen electrodes are required unless hermetically sealed containers are used to provide dry electrodes when needed. maximum 8 mm (5/16 in. (1) SMAW has the benefit of requiring relatively simple. because of the fixed length electrode. E6014. in the range of 260oC to 430oC (500 to 800°F). welding procedure variations. up through 550 MPa (80 ksi). GMAW and SAW. they may be used without any preconditioning. they should be placed in a holding oven.) in a single pass in the common horizontal position. and easy to maintain welding equipment. and is relatively tolerant of welding technique. also called a “rod oven” or “storage oven”. Higher strength electrodes.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 electrodes. low-alloy SMAW electrodes. and using additional electrodes. E7024). see AWS A5. For electrodes exceeding 550 MPa (80 ksi).5. SMAW is seldom used as the principal process for structural welding. and is more costly than the other structural welding processes of FCAW.1 requires that the electrodes be baked prior to use. Generally SMAW has a lower deposition rate and is less efficient.

H. OH) 2 = F. H. H-fillets 4 = F. iron powder (except E7018M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present.1 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . V-down. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7024-1. indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements (note: E7018M must meet more stringent requirements. meets special Military specifications. but the R designation is not used) Y Y M -1 HZ R C-4 . indicates improved notch toughness (see AWS A5. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. iron powder If present. average CVN of 27 J @ -18oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -0oF) Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: E7018M meets H4 requirements. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7018-1. AWS A5. Table 3) for E7016-1. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-1. V. OH Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (E6010) 0 = high iron oxide (E6020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder. and covering is low hydrogen.1. welding positions permitted for use. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide.1 HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 60 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Generally.

5 Classification System for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M .X# HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Generally. H-fillets Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (except E7020) 0 = high iron oxide (E7020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder. iron powder (except EXX18M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. meets special Military specifications.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-2. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. iron powder Y Y M X# Alloy A B C D G P W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel general low-alloy steel for pipeline use weathering steel HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: EXX18M meets H4 requirements. V. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F. OH) 2 = F. H. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. and covering is low hydrogen. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. AWS A5. indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements R C-5 . welding positions permitted for use.

H4 Electro de E7015 Position Current CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 68 J @ -29oC (50 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) F. OH AC. H8. OH AC. H-fillets F. H4 E7018M F. OH F. OH DCEP E7016 F.6 H16. H8. DCEP AC. DCEP 0. H4 1 . V. DCEP 0. OH AC.3 0.no H designation used for E7018M C-6 . DCEP 0. OH AC. H. V. H. H4 E7018-1 F.6 H16. H4 E7018 F.6 H16.1 4. H4 H16. V-down.6 H16. H8. V. H8. DCEP 0.0 1 E7028 E7048 F. V. H8.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-3.4 H16.6 Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. H. V. OH DCEP 0. H. H8. H4 E7016-1 AC. H. V. H. DCEP 0. H8. Low Hydrogen AWS A5. H.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received ) 0.

OH F. H4 H16.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received) 0.2 2 2 2 Electrode E7015-X E7016-X E7018-X E8015-X E8016-X E8018-X 1 1 1 1 Position F. H8.4 0. H4 . H4 H16. V.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-4. E8018-NM1 E7018-C3L E8016-C4. OH F. E8018-C4. V. H.2 0. H8. H. H4 H16. B7L. E8016-D3. H8. V.E70XX-XR and E70XX-X-HZR series Limit on Moisture Content (as received) = 0.2 0.B3. OH F. DCEP AC. E7016-C1L. DCEP AC. B8. H. OH F. H8. H8. V. E7018-C2L C-7 . V. E7018-C2L E8016-C2. E8018-D3 E8016-C1. E8018-C3.4 0. and B9 series electrodes not prequalified under AWS D1. DCEP DCEP AC. B4L.1 2 .5 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] CVN Toughness 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -75oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ 100oF) 27 J @ -100oC (20 ft-lbf @ 150oF) Electrodes E7018-W1 E8018-W2 E8016-C3. E8018-C2 E7015-C2L. V. B7. B3L. H4 H16. E8018-D1. H. B6. DCEP Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. OH F. B8L. H. E8018-C1 E7015-C1L. B5.3 Table C-5. E7016-C2L.4 0. H8. H4 H16. H. Low Hydrogen AWS A5. Toughness Values for Low Hydrogen A5. OH Current DCEP AC.

A separate wire feeder sends wire into the welding gun at a preset rate. For higher strength and other electrodes. an inaccurate electrode extension may go undetected. as a reactive gas. and the manufacturer’s recommendations should be consulted.1 for classification strengths of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and lower. The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) provides the appropriate voltage. and protect the cooling weld from atmospheric nitrogen or oxygen. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is an arc welding process that uses a continuous tubular electrode fed from a coil or spool into a welding “gun”. and the significant volume of smoke generated. AWS A5. tubular electrode wire and core materials to melt. polarity and electrode diameter also affect current. C-8 . designated FCAW-G.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 2. AWS A5. elongation. AWS A5. using either direct current electrode positive or electrode negative polarity. The heat of the arc causes the base metal. and EXXT-14 are for limited thickness applications only. wire fed but with the welding gun manipulated by the welder. (1) All FCAW electrodes are considered low hydrogen. alloy transfer typically increases. the AWS A5. With more alloy in the weld deposit.29 specifications should be consulted. (2) Tables C-8 and C-9 provide additional information regarding electrode limitations. but the intensity of arc rays from the high current arc. Filler Metal Designation. and AWS A5. deoxidizers and flux materials.20 is applicable to carbon steel electrodes. The shielding gas selection may affect the mechanical properties (yield and tensile strength. EXXT-11. Carbon dioxide. higher yield and tensile strengths and reduced ductility is expected. state the wire feed speed to be used because electrode extension. The electrode core contains alloy additions. The notch toughness of the weld deposit may increase or decrease. carbon dioxide (CO2) or a mixture of argon (Ar) of 75 to 90% and of CO2 10 to 25% is used in addition to the gas provided by the flux core. (2) The power source is usually the constant voltage type. (3) FCAW is most commonly used as “semiautomatic”. For a given wire feed speed and electrode extension. electrode extension. FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW).20 electrodes EXXT-2. and therefore less alloy is transferred to the weld deposit.29. depending on the alloys affected. As the wire feed speed is increased. but higher strengths are available from gas-shielded FCAW electrodes. b. and travel speed. -10. -3. or by an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. the current is likewise increased. a specific current (amperage) will be provided. The classification and identification system used for these two specifications is summarized in Tables C-6 and C-7. may cause some of the alloys in the electrode to become oxidized.1 because they are limited to single pass welds. and -GS electrodes are not permitted by AWS D1.20 and A5. designated FCAW-S. When an inert gas such as argon is substituted for CO2. The flux materials bind impurities. It may also be used as automatic. Specification and Certification.29 is applicable to low alloy steel electrodes. Shorter electrical stickout results in higher current for a given wire feed speed. -13.20 and A5. wire feed speed. and notch toughness) of the weld. usage and toughness properties for electrodes permitted by AWS D1. Self-shielded FCAW electrodes are limited to 550 MPa (80 ksi) tensile strength of less. make Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) more desirable for automatic welding. -14. (1) With FCAW-G.20 electrodes EXXT-3. Process Principles. If current is used in the WPS. preferably. Shielding of the exposed arc is provided either by the decomposition of the core in self-shielded electrodes. The WPS should. rise to the top of the molten weld. a. FCAW electrodes are specified in AWS filler metal specifications AWS A5.

FCAW-S eliminates the handling of high pressure gas cylinders. This electrode extension distance. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. (5) FCAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens for ordinary applications. significant when welding in tight locations such as weld access holes in beam-to-column connections. The welder is also better able to see the arc and weld puddle because the gas cup is not present. With FCAW. require additional ventilation for the welder. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. Such shielding may be expensive. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. also called a gas cup. Because of the high deposition rates possible. and more difficult to maintain. commonly called “stickout. (6) FCAW is capable of all-position welding when using small diameter electrodes. are restricted to the flat and horizontal positions. theft of cylinders. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using FCAW compared to SMAW. and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. but also has a few disadvantages and limitations (1) The FCAW electrode is continuous. therefore access into smaller areas is possible. For shop fabrication. wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. The FCAW-S welding gun assembly does not require a gas nozzle. but caution should be used when FCAW wires are exposed to the elements for extended periods of time. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with FCAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW.” varies for each WPS.) from the end of the electrode. FCAW-G is less sensitive to variations in electrode extension and arc voltage than FCAW-S. and the cost of the shielding gas. travel speeds and technique C-9 . Both factors provide FCAW an economic advantage over SMAW. The range of suitable applications for a single size and classification of FCAW-G electrodes is generally broader than for FCAW-S electrodes. (9) FCAW-G “operator appeal” is usually higher than with FCAW-S because of better arc control and less fume generation. (7) There are several advantages to using FCAW-S (self-shielded) rather than FCAW-G (gasshielded). a potential source of weld discontinuities. timeconsuming. using higher electrical currents. (10) FCAW-S procedures must be closely controlled to ensure the required level of weld quality and mechanical properties. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. (4) The equipment required for FCAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW. (8) A second advantage to FCAW-S over FCAW-G is its ability to make quality welds under field conditions involving wind. it is necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. However. drafts from doorways and windows. Advantages. and may be considerably higher. minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. Large diameter electrodes. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. For FCAW-G. more restrictive storage requirements may be warranted. protection of gas distribution hosing under field conditions. The Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). and constitute a fire hazard. Disadvantages and Limitations. is also reduced.

Large bead size. may reduce notch toughness. because of the high heat input and excessively slow cooling rates. C-10 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 must be monitored to ensure that excessively large bead sizes are not produced. reduce weld soundness. decrease heat affected zone toughness. and decrease the weld metal yield and tensile strengths.

Table 1 Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-11 .20. AWS A5. electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar. numbered 1-14. electrode has toughness as listed in A5. with balance CO2 If used. or letter G or GS If used. electrode has toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) If not used.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-6.20 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXT-XMJHZ E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode X T X M J HZ Type of electrode.

with balance CO2 C-12 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-7.29 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXTX-X#M E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 11 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 12 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode Type of electrode. 5.gas-shielded 4 & 8 . 4. or 8 1 & 5 . numbered 1. electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar.self-shielded X T X X# Alloy A B C D K W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel other alloy steels weathering steel M If used. AWS A5.

CO2 2 Current CVN Toughnessc 27 J @ -18oC DCEP DCEP C 27 J @ -18o 27 J @ -18oC 75-80% Ar . H. Multipass Only] Electrode F. AWS A5. H.CEMP-E Table C-8. for 60 ksi or 70 ksi tensile strength. OH F.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o F.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi). OH F. H. E7XT-9J) have minimum CVN Toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20o .electrodes with “J” at the end of the designator (e. H F. V-dn. V-up. DCEN 2 75-80% Ar .May be either 6 or 7. OH F. V-up. OH E70T-4 E70T-5 F. b . V-up. OH F. H. V-up. H E71T-9 E71T-9M b b TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Position Testing Shielding Gasd CO 75-80% Ar . OH E70T-9 F. H. H. V-up. H.CO self 2 DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -29oC DCEP. V-up or V-dn. H F. H self self CO CO2 not specified F. H F. H.g.27 J @ -18 C = 20 ft-lbf @ 0o C = 20 ft-lbf @ -20 F a . H E71T-5 E71T-5M F. not specified DCEP none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC DCEP not specified not specified C E71T-12 EXa0T-G EXa o Note . H E70T-1M E71T-1 F. V-up. H F.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o DCEP. H E70T-7 F. DCEN self DCEN self self self 2 27 J @ -29 C none specified none specified DCEN o C 27 J @ -29 C DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -290C DCEP 2 75-80% Ar . OH E70T-8 F.

Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. C-14 .CEMP-E d TI 809-26 1 March 2000 .

H. OH F. H.29 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). H F. V.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-9. H. V. H F. OH F. H. OH F. H F. V. OH F. OH F. H F. V. H F. H F. OH F. H F. OH F. H Testing Shielding Gasd self self CO2 self self self self CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Current DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP Minimum CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -76oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) . C-15 . H F. OH F. H F. H F. H F. H. V. H. V. OH F. H F. AWS A5. OH F. H. V. V. H.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. H. V. Multipass Only] Electrode E61T8-K6 E70T4-K2 E70T5-A1 E71T8-K2 E71T8-K6 E71T8-Ni1 E71T8-Ni2 E80T1-A1 E81T1-A1 E80T1-B1 E81T1-B1 E81T1-B2 E80T1-B2H E80T1-K2 E80T1-Ni1 E81T1-Ni1 E80T1-Ni2 E81T1-Ni2 E80T1-W E80T5-B2 E80T5-B2L E80T5-Ni1 E80T5-Ni2 E80T5-Ni3 E80T5-K1 E80T5-K2 d Permitted Positions F. H F. H F. V. H. H F.

The small diameter electrode is fed at a moderate wire feed speed using relatively low voltage. Short circuiting transfer provides a low deposition rate. may be specified. the short circuiting mode of transfer. commonly referred to as “MIG” (Metal Inert Gas) welding. extinguishing the arc. but other gases. globular transfer. the arc is briefly reestablished. as an active gas rather than inert gas. A fine spray of molten drops. may be referred to as “MAG” (Metal Active Gas) welding. GMAW is commonly applied in one of four ways: spray arc transfer. Typical mixtures are 90% argon with 10% CO2. plus a pulsing peak current applied at a rate proportional to the wire feed speed. pulsed arc transfer. Because of the high concentration of CO2. (1) Classification testing is usually performed using specific welding procedures that use CO2 shielding gas. This cycle occurs up to 200 times per second. abbreviated GMAW-S. The classification systems used for GMAW electrodes in AWS A5. Weld appearance and quality are generally good. the lower level of heat generated. GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW). and increased welder comfort. and 95% argon with 5% oxygen. With structural steel. and AWS A5. Because of the intensity of the arc. (2) Globular transfer results when high concentrations of carbon dioxide are used. creating a characteristic buzzing sound.1.18 and A5. Pulsed arc transfer can be used out-of-position. resulting in very high current flowing through the electrode. puddle fluidity. All GMAW-S welding procedures must be qualified by test. the arc ejects large globular pieces of molten steel from the end of the electrode. Each pulse of current ejects a single droplet of metal from the electrode. While GMAW is considered prequalified by AWS D1. usually between 100 and 400 times per second. Because of the lower cost of CO2 shielding gas. The shielding used for spray arc transfer is composed of at least 80% argon. It is not as productive as spray transfer for welding in the flat and horizontal positions. and lack of slag to hold the molten metal in place. C-16 . Process Principles. but may have poor appearance with relatively high levels of spatter. It is also limited to the flat and horizontal positions. if any. This mode of transfer can result in deep penetration. globular transfer may be selected in place of spray transfer.28 are summarized in Tables C-10 and C-11. significant fusion problems such as cold lap may result. Carbon dioxide. and short arc transfer. therefore promoting globular transfer. GMAW uses a solid or metal cored electrode. is not. and uses the same equipment. slag. (4) Short circuiting transfer. GMAW electrodes are classified under AWS A5. spray arc is limited to the flat and horizontal position. The arc is maintained by the lower background current. resulting in high quality welds with good appearance. shorting the electrical circuit. and should not be used for structural steel.CEMP-E 3. and therefore transfer modes. is suitable for welding only on thin gauge materials. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. all smaller in diameter than the electrode diameter. causing it to heat and melt. As the electrode melts. or both. with better quality than short-circuiting mode. but can be used out of position. The shielding gas used for GMAW may be carbon dioxide (CO2). rather than a spray. with the balance made up of either carbon dioxide or oxygen.18 for carbon steel electrodes. or a mixture of argon (Ar) and either CO2 or small levels of oxygen (O). also called short arc. (3) Pulsed arc transfer uses a background current that is continuously applied to the electrode. The electrode contacts the workpiece.28 for low alloy steel electrodes. Specification and Certification. b. and subsequently leaves little. Filler Metal Designation. Pulsed arc transfer GMAW equipment is somewhat more complex and costly than standard GMAW equipment. is ejected from the electrode toward the work. is very similar to gas-shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G). The arc in spray transfer is continuously maintained. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW ) process. (1) Spray arc transfer uses high wire feed speeds and relatively high voltages.

AWS A5. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using GMAW compared to SMAW. and may be considerably higher. The consistency of mechanical properties is typically better with metal cored electrodes than with solid wire electrodes. This electrode extension distance. (6) Because no flux is involved. For shop fabrication.18 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW C-17 . minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. (8) The equipment required for GMAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. Disadvantages and Limitations. Metal cored electrodes require less current to obtain the same deposition rates. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. For field work. and constitute a fire hazard. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with GMAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. Weld appearance is typically very good. are now listed in both A5. (7) GMAW is also seriously affected by wind because of the removal of the shielding gas from around the weld puddle. commonly called “stickout. require additional ventilation for the welder. Such shielding may be expensive. (3) Properties and usage for GMAW electrodes. up to 550 MPa (80 ksi). SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. (5) GMAW “operator appeal” is usually high because of good arc control and little fume generation.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Metal cored electrodes. With GMAW.) from the end of the electrode. Table C-10. For higher strength electrodes. (4) GMAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. and is limited to welding on relatively clean materials. with a tubular electrode. GMAW is intolerant of high levels of mill scale. a potential source of weld discontinuities. rust.28. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. but also has some disadvantages and limitations. are less likely to cold lap. wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. mill scale must be removed by blast cleaning or power wire brushing prior to welding.18 and A5. Commonly. and more difficult to maintain. Advantages. timeconsuming. and the weld is essentially free of slag.28. and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. have better tolerance for mill scale and rust. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). However. Metal cored electrodes typically provide higher deposition rates because higher currents may be used than with solid wire electrodes. GMAW electrode wires are available in the lowest diffusible hydrogen category. c. is also reduced. are summarized in Tables C-12 and C-13. drafts from doorways and windows. and other surface contaminants. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. and when used out-ofposition. it is often necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. (1) The GMAW electrode is continuous. GMAW with metal cored electrodes is similar to FCAW. Both factors provide GMAW an economic advantage over SMAW. see AWS A5. but the core contains metallic powders (alloy) rather than flux materials. H2. previously classified as FCAW electrodes.” varies for each WPS.

designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) S = Solid wire C-18 . balance CO2 N HZ applications H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal If used.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 E XX C .X Y N HZ E R XX S or C X composite wire G = unspecified composition Shielding gas used for classification testing C = CO2 M = 75-80% Ar.

designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod for GTAW Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) S = Solid wire C = Composite (metal cored) wire S or C XXX Chemical composition of solid wire. AWS A5.28 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW ER XX S .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-11.XXX HZ E XX C .XXX HZ E R XX Electrode If used. or of weld deposit of composite wire A = carbon-molybdenum steel B = chromium-molybdenum steel Ni = nickel steel D = manganese-molybdenum steel 1 = other alloy steels G = not specified Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal HZ C-19 .

H8. and is not prequalified.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW [480 MPa (70 ksi) only] Electrode ER70S-2 ER70S-3 ER70S-4 ER70S-5 ER70S-6 ER70S-7 ER70S-G E70C-3C E70C-3M E70C-6C E70C-6M E70C-G(X) d Testing Shielding Gasd CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 as agreed CO2 75-80% Ar. Note . AWS A5. and H4 for diffusible hydrogen requirements.E70C-GS(X) electrode is limited to single pass applications. C-20 . Note .Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.All above electrodes optionally available as H16. balance CO2 CO2 75-80% Ar.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-12. balance CO2 as agreed Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) not required not required 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed .

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-13. Note . H8. B6.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.All above electrodes optionally available as H16. H4 and H2 for diffusible hydrogen requirements. B3L.B3. AWS A5.28 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). B8 and B9 classification electrodes are not prequalified Note . Multipass Only] Electrode ER70S-A1 ER70S-B2L E70C-B2L E70C-Ni2 Testing Shielding Gasd Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness not required not required not required 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) ER80S-B2 ER80S-Ni1 ER80S-Ni2 ER80S-Ni3 ER80S-D2 E80C-B2 E80C-Ni1 E80C-Ni2 E80C-Ni3 d Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 CO2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) . C-21 .

(7) Because unmelted flux does not undergo chemical changes.1 Section 5. usually equipped with a flux-feeding device. With constant potential voltage. Flux may also be applied in advance of the welding operation. the slag is removed from the weld. Fluxes in open or damaged bags. The slag then freezes over the newly solidified weld metal. In semiautomatic welding. or it may be through a nozzle tube connected to an air-pressurized flux tank. thus generating additional heat. the heat of the arc melts some of the flux along with the steel and the tip of the electrode. C-22 . Multiple electrode SAW uses at least two separate power supplies and two separate wire drives to feed two electrodes independently.CEMP-E 4. The guidelines of the flux manufacturer. it may be recovered for future use. (3) During welding. it is not visible and the weld is made without the flash.3. so exposure should be limited. Flux recovery systems range from vacuum recovery systems to sweeping with brooms and pans. a voltage sensitive relay adjusts the wire feed speed to maintain the desired arc voltage. continuing to protect the metal from contamination while it is very hot and reactive with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Many fully mechanized systems are equipped with vacuum devices to pick up the flux unfused after welding for reuse. the arc length is self-adjusting. sparks and smoke common for the open-arc processes. The tip of the electrode and the welding zone are always shielded by molten flux. The electrode is continuously fed from a coil or spool to the welding gun. (5) DC and AC welding machines of both conventional drooping voltage type or constant potential type can be used for SAW. similar to the action in FCAW. solidifies while the slag above it is still molten. The molten slag is a good conductor and provides an additional path for the current. the tip of which is submerged in the flux. and multiple beads can be placed when using separate power supplies for each bead. having a higher melting (freezing) point. typical SAW setups have the lead electrode operating on DC current while the trail electrode is operating AC. When not in use. Upon cooling and removal of any unmelted flux for reuse. Welding currents typically range from 500 to 1000 amperes. from a hopper run along the joint. To minimize the potential interaction of magnetic fields between the two electrodes. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. Parallel electrode SAW uses two electrodes connected electrically in parallel to the same power supply. which travels at a preset speed along the joint. or in flux hoppers. As the electrode progresses along the joint.3 regarding storage and usage of the flux must be followed. although semiautomatic operation is often used. may become contaminated with moisture from the atmosphere. the welder moves the gun. the lighter molten flux rises above the molten metal in the form of a slag. ahead of the arc. as well as AWS D1. Both electrodes are fed by means of a single electrode feeder. The arc is struck between the workpiece and a bare wire or composite electrode. surrounded by a layer of unfused flux. preceded by a flux deposition system. For heat input calculation purposes. along the joint by hand. Since the arc is completely covered by flux. Process Principles. (1) The process is typically operated automatic. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) uses a blanket of fusible granular material called flux to shield the arc and molten metal. spatter. The weld metal. With drooping voltage. the total for the two electrodes is used. flux hoppers should be covered or otherwise protected from the atmosphere. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW). (4) Several electrodes may be used in series or parallel. (6) Flux must be stored so that it remains dry. (2) Flux feed may be by gravity flow through a nozzle from a small hopper atop the welding gun. or fully mechanized.

This may limit deoxidizer or C-23 . (3) Fluxes are manufactured using one of four basic processes. (2) Because the submerged arc welding process is frequently used for pressure vessel fabrication where assemblies are stress relieved. Bonded fluxes may segregate during use and reuse. and because the composition of both the electrode and the resultant weld metal must be specified. and Table C-16 for AWS A5. Fused flux performance can be impeded by loss of fines during recycling. as necessary. therefore care is needed. moisture. meaning they will not absorb water. therefore blending reclaimed flux with new flux is required. active or alloy fluxes. When this is done. which is seldom stress relieved. or stress relieved. and are further classified as neutral. but may be contaminated by moisture or other products that adhere to the outside of particles. because of the variety of alloys that may be involved. Flux-electrode combinations classified in the post weld stress relieved condition may not exhibit notch toughness when used in the as-welded condition. deoxidizer content or alloying elements that can be added as ferroalloys or as elemental metals are not a problem as with fused fluxes. dirt. Low alloy steel SAW electrodes and fluxes classified under AWS A5. Fused fluxes with the required chemical composition generally give the best low hydrogen welding performance. except that the binder is a ceramic material that requires baking at higher temperatures. Because the product is baked at low temperature. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) filler materials.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Flux contamination through contact with oil. Specification and Certification. (1) The classification systems for SAW are summarized in Tables C-14 and C-15 for AWS A5. which must meet specific compositional and mechanical property requirements. A glass-like fused product is formed as the liquid is cooled to ambient temperature. a “P” is placed in the designation rather than an “A”.17 for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes. Fused fluxes are nonhygroscopic. condition. (6) Agglomerated fluxes are similar to bonded fluxes in their method of manufacture. Bonded fluxes contain chemically bonded moisture and can absorb moisture as well. and AWS A5.23 for low alloy steel electrodes and fluxes. are classified under AWS A5. For structural work. and later ground to the sizes required for welding. Fused fluxes may have less than desired amounts of deoxidizer and ferro-alloy ingredients because of losses that occur from the high temperatures during the manufacturing process. and then heating the mixture in a furnace until completely melted.23 materials. flux and electrode. (5) Bonded fluxes are made by combining all required chemical ingredients with a binder and baking the product at low temperature to form hard granules. After an electrode and flux combination is selected and a test plate welded. the “A” classification is commonly used. scale of other contaminants may occur. Specimens are extracted from the weld deposit to obtain the mechanical properties of the flux-electrode combination.23 have a more complex classification system. therefore investigation into weld metal properties is warranted whenever the weld will be used differently than the filler metal classification condition. then broken up and screened for size. (4) Fused fluxes are made by blending deoxidizing and alloying ingredients. the classification system integrates both materials. the flux-electrode classification may be established. Because SAW is dependent upon both components. Filler Metal Designation. Some loss of fine particulate matter may also occur with flux recovery. based upon their performance characteristics during welding.17 materials. the electrodes and fluxes. b. and gases may be produced in the molten slag during welding. Fused fluxes are not subject to chemical segregation during reuse because the complete composition is in each particle and cannot be separated. many submerged arc materials have been classified for the post weld heat treated. Bonded fluxes tend to break down during recycling and increase the percentage of fines.

Agglomerated fluxes are generally considered (7) Mechanically mixed fluxes can be a mixture of any flux type in any desired proportion. active fluxes are often used in making single pass fillet welds. primarily the voltage that determines arc length. The slag above the molten weld puddle acts as an insulating blanket. Deep penetration allows the High travel speeds reduce the total heat input into the joint. The chemistry may build to unacceptable levels in larger multipass welds. and the composition of the weld metal is highly dependent upon the alloy content of the mechanical properties of the weld. Alloy fluxes. reducing distortion. a change in arc voltage will are more resistant to porosity and cracking than welds made with neutral fluxes. to help offset the effects of welding though mill scale and light coatings of rust. C-24 . is relatively unaffected by changes in welding procedure variables. Unlike active in the alloy content. or both. Where all mill scale and other contaminants are removed prior to welding.17 and A5. properly used with carbon steel electrodes.23 filler metal specifications. the weld metal (10) Active fluxes have small additions of manganese and silicon. For both active and alloy fluxes.TI 809-26 ferro-alloy content due to high temperature losses. Active fluxes intended for single pass fillet welding should not be combine with the same elements in the electrode to produce weld metal with unacceptable properties. provide a low-cost method of producing corrosion resistant weld metal for joining weathering steels. are subject to segregation. therefore welding with active with low levels of manganese and silicon. or both. and will have the attributes of their components. Continued recycling of (11) Alloy fluxes contain alloys intended to improve the strength or corrosion resistance of the weld metal. (1) SAW welds generally have good ductility and toughness. c. and a uniform bead appearance reducing cleaning and surface preparation costs. The covered arc allows SAW to be operated without the need for extensive shielding to protect the operators from the high intensity arc created by the high protection. Very high currents can be used in submerged arc and deep penetration. description and limitations of theses fluxes is provided in the Annexes to the AWS A5. concentrating heat in the welding zone and preventing rapid escape of heat. Advantages. the surface contamination tolerance of active fluxes is not needed. With active fluxes. manganese and silicon content. Disadvantages and Limitations.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) The SAW process does not allow the operator to observe the molten weld puddle. When SAW is performed semi-automatically. forcing reliance on the appearance of the slag blanket to indicate the quality of the weld bead. the operator must acquire and practice a technique to produce good welds without reliance upon arc and weld bead appearance. C-25 .

Either type must be tested with a specific flux. Table 1.30 low to 2. ECG does not have a specified chemistry.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) S X Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) X A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in F at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0o C) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29o F (-40oC) 5 = tested at -50o C) 6 = tested at -60oF (-51o F (-62oC) Electrode C specified in A5.17. X HZ H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-26 .25 . Generally. indicates nominal carbon content in nominal carbon). indicating chemistry in A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-14. 13.12. AWS A5. Manganese (Mn) content. and 15.17. % weight L = low Mn (0. 11.60) H = high Mn (varies by classification.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system. 14. 1.0.

Electrode EC1 meets a chemistry specified in A5. Generally. 13. % weight L = low Mn (0. electrode is Composite electrode. X X X - . AWS A5. indicates nominal carbon content in hundredths of a percent.45 ksi) 43 = 430 MPa (62 ksi) 48 = 480 MPa (70 ksi) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in oC at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 27 J (20 ft-lbf) Z = no impact requirements 0 = tested at 0oC ( 32oF) 2 = tested at -20oC ( -4oF) 3 = tested at -30oC (-22oF) 4 = tested at -40oC (-40oF) 5 = tested at -50oC (-58oF) 6 = tested at -60oC (-76oF) X X E C Electrode If present.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system.08% nominal carbon).12.25 .17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [SI (Metric) Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ F S X Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) If present. Listed classification numbers: 8 (indicating 0. indicating chemistry in A5. and 15.17. K indicates that the electrode was made from silicon-killed steel.30 low to 2. Either type must be tested with a specific flux. Manganese (Mn) content.50 high) H = high Mn (varies by classification. Table 1.0. 0. 11. 1.17. ECG does not have a specified chemistry.60) M = medium Mn (varies by classification. flux is from crushed slag or blend of crushed slag and virgin flux. 14. Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 MPa (1.80 low to 1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-15.

CEMP-E HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal TI 809-26 1 March 2000 C-28 .

medium Mn solid electrode (EM12K) A = carbon-molybdenum weld metal 1 Ni = nickel M = military W = weathering XX N X above Number (and letter. if needed) that makes up a part of the electrode classification Indicates that the electrode is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor C-29 . AWS A5. electrode is Composite electrode with composition per AWS A5.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-16.23 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] F Flux Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded X Temperature in o Z = no impact strength test required F ( -18oC) 2 = tested at -20o C) 4 = tested at -40oF ( -40o F ( -46oC) 6 = tested at -60o C) 8 = tested at -80oF ( -62o F ( -73oC) o 15 = tested at -150 C) E C X If present.23 Chemical composition of electrode (Table 1) or weld metal (Table 2) M = carbon steel.

B3.1 C-30 . and copper. B6. B4. Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal 1 . B6H. vanadium. B8 are not prequalified in AWS D1. with limited chemistry for phosphorous. B5.CEMP-E N HZ TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Indicates that the weld metal is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor vessels.

with a designation ER at the beginning. to preheat the wire using resistance heating. GTAW.12. Process Principles. but may also be used as automatic. is done using the heat of an arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and external shielding gas or gas mixture. However.28. also requires very C-31 . Gas shielding is also critical. A high frequency oscillator is usually incorporated into GTAW power supplies to initiate the arc. a.18 or A5. Tungsten electrodes are summarized in Table C-17. with excellent arc control that is very beneficial for root passes.TI 809-26 5. as an unfluxed welding process. supplied with current from a separate power source. Direct current electrode positive metals. Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for . welding processes. therefore deposition rate through the use a continuous filler metal. The process may be performed manually. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). if any. and wind speeds over 8 km per hour (5 mph) cause quality and mechanical property degradation. The filler metal used. Alternating current (AC) is generally used for welding aluminum and magnesium alloys. The tungsten electrode in the welding “torch” gets very hot under high duty cycles. It can be used on material thicknesses that range from thin sheet metals up to maximum of about 10 mm (3/8 in.). is rod classified for GMAW in AWS A5. also frequently called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding. narrow penetration when welding thicker materials. welding torch are classified in AWS A5. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) (straight) polarity is used to produce a deep. This reduces tungsten to the base metal. spatter.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-17. not specified C-32 .12 Classification System for Tungsten Electrodes for GTAW EWX-X E W X-X Electrode Tungsten Letter (and optionally -number) describing type of tungsten electrode P = pure tungsten Ce = tungsten-cesium alloy La = tungsten-lanthanum alloy Th = tungsten-thorium alloy Zr = tungsten-zirconium alloy G = general. AWS A5.

(2) ESW can be used for joints over 12 mm (1/2 in. Shielding of the arc and weld pool is provided by the addition of flux into the joint as welding progresses. as well as make ultrasonic testing more difficult. in the range of 20 kg (40 lb. Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. offering considerable cost and time savings for vertical welding of thick steels. C-33 .). ESW is not prequalified under AWS D1. Process Principles. but generally does not become the most including the number of joints to be welded. an arc is struck in a sump at the bottom of the joint. deposition rates. Electrode wires may be either solid or composite.) per hour. with no edge preparation generally required. although ESW has been performed at angles to 45 degrees. depending on welding equipment and material thickness. forming used. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation.) in thickness.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 a.25. The weld proceeds as more electrode is fed weld termination. underneath a deposit The arc is extinguished by the slag. Water-cooled copper shoes are placed on each side of the joint. but the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the high electrical resistance of the slag.1 qualification testing following AWS D1. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult may cause low toughness properties. if interrupted during welding. Electroslag Welding (ESW) is used for welding thick sections. To start the weld. for short to moderate lengths. (1) ESW. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for . specified in AWS A5.1 vertical require special setups and procedures. The plates to be joined are positioned 40 mm (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. The classification system is summarized in Table C-18. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. distortion upon completion.) thick.

25 C-34 .25 Classification System for Electrodes and Fluxes for ESW FESXX-XXX FES X Flux for Electroslag Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 15 ft-lbf (20 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) X XXX Electrode classification used (EM5K-EW. AWS A5. see AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-18. for example).

or a flux cored wire designed for EGW. depending upon the weld pool and allows the welding arc to stabilize before reaching the actual joint. The arc is maintained. b. Water-cooled copper current electrode negative (DCEN) currents of 500 to 700 amperes are commonly used. Filler materials.TI 809-26 7. The joint is also free from angular (1) EGW. When flux cored wires are used. a. therefore qualification testing following AWS Section 4 is required. and is used for welding thick sections. compared to ESW. Electrogas Welding (EGW) provides very high vertical welding of thick steels. depending upon several factors including the number of joints to be welded. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult to access and repair. the shielding gas may or may not be necessary. Specification and Certification. Angles beyond 10 to 15 degrees from vertical may require special setups and procedures. The electrode is either a solid wire.). EGW is not prequalified under AWS . and subsequent slow cooling. and the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the arc. Disadvantages and Limitations. or an argon-CO2 mix. composite (cored) wire. and interpass cleaning. of requiring protection of the joint from wind over 8 km per hour (5 mph). for short to opening gap at the joint is generally set to approximately 22 mm (7/8 in. depending on welding equipment and material thickness. economical choice until a thickness of around 50 mm (2 in. The weld Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. C-35 . electrodes and fluxes Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Electrogas Welding classification system is summarized in Table C-19. with no edge preparation generally required. The large grain size from the substantial heat input. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. disadvantage. Process Principles. Electrogas Welding (EGW) is very similar to Electroslag Welding (ESW).) is welded. preheating and interpass temperature control. Filler Metal Designation. c. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation.) in thickness. Advantages. For solid wires. if interrupted during welding.

26 C-36 . AWS A5.26 Classification System for Electrodes for EGW EGXXX-XXX EG X Electrogas Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) S = solid wire T = tubular wire X X XXX Electrode classification used.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-19. see AWS A5.

Visual inspection. surrounding heat-affected zone (HAZ). See Table D-1. arc strikes. a. groove angles. the use of magnifying devices to further investigate the (2) Visual inspection includes the measurement of the work. weld size. is the visual observation the first nondestructive testing method applied. b. seams and laminations at exposed edges. and the measurement of root openings. excessive convexity. Such instruments tend to distort the perception of the inspector. slag inclusions. buried laminations or lamellar tearing. overlap. convexity and such as weld gauges are required. VISUAL TESTING (VT). undersized welds. Not all listed discontinuities are structurally significant. (4) The cost of visual inspection is usually less. that the other methods of rather than simple verification measurements and recording of unsatisfactory workmanship. per unit length of weld. more extensive nondestructive testing should not be conducted until the visual criteria is satisfied. as a form of nondestructive testing. which may include the smoothness of thermally cut edges.TI 809-26 APPENDIX D 1. toe cracks. When surface discontinuities such as cracks are suspected. D-1 . undercut. but they may provide indication (2) Visual inspection cannot reveal subsurface discontinuities such as cracks. and other enhancements. incomplete penetration. Method Description. and if the inspected item fails to meet visual criteria. Advantages and Disadvantages. incomplete fusion.

50 mm (0. > 50 mm (> 2 in.6 . < 6 mm (< 0.CEMP-E Table D-1.6 in.2 in.) Joint Geometry Applicable Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Crater Pipe Incomplete Penetration Overlap TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap.) Lap.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-2 .) Lap.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Lap. 16 .2 in.0.2 . 6-15 mm (0. Visual Inspection Most Applicable Microcracks Shrinkage Cavity Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Misalignment Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Irregular Bead Root Concavity Poor Restart Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. etc.

b. (4) A disadvantage with some penetrants and developers is the safe handling and disposal of used liquids and cleaning rags. and other surface discontinuities. crater cracks. and irregular profile conditions such as undercut and overlap. The second method uses a flourescent dye. (2) Testing materials are small. (4) PT can be performed relatively quickly. which is then removed for closer visual examination of the area providing indications. (5) Cleaning after inspection to remove residual penetrant and developer prior to weld repairs or the application of coating systems can sometime be difficult and time-consuming. also called dye penetrant or liquid penetrant testing. portable. or other surface-breaking discontinuities. with no specialized equipment required unless an ultraviolet light is used.CEMP-E 2. The penetrant is applied to the surface. Advantages and Disadvantages. lack of fusion. (1) Penetrant testing is relatively economical compared to ultrasonic testing. pores. Weld spatter can also make surface removal of the penetrant more difficult. (9) PT is especially effective with small surface-breaking cracks. preventing the entry of the penetrant. slag inclusions. unless special high-temperature PT materials are used. laminations along exposed edges and joint preparations. but require a darkened area for testing. usually white. can sometimes provide false indications of weld toe cracks when cleaning is not thoroughly performed. (8) Existing coatings should be removed prior to PT because the coating may bridge narrow cracks. (10 PT is ineffective for any discontinuity below the surface. (3) A relatively short period of training is necessary for technicians who will be performing PT. and then is carefully removed. Flourescent methods are usually more sensitive. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. and inexpensive. which draws the penetrant out of the discontinuities. D-3 . is the use of a liquid penetrating dye to detect discontinuities at the surface of a weld or base metal. See Table D-2. PENETRANT TESTING (PT). so waiting time is sometimes necessary with PT that would not be required with magnetic particle testing. such as toe cracks. which contrasts with the developer. and also surface-breaking piping porosity. depending upon the penetrant used and the required dwell time. (7) PT cannot be performed when the surface remains hot. One method of penetrant testing uses a visible dye. such as buried cracks. (6) Rough surface conditions. Penetrant testing. A developer is then applied to the surface. visible under ultraviolet light. allowed to remain on the surface for a specified dwell time to penetrate cracks. Method Description. This leaves a visible contrasting indication in the developer. usually red. or incomplete penetration. and especially economical when compared to radiographic testing.

2 . < 6 mm (< 0.50 mm (0.2 in.6 in.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-4 . > 50 mm (> 2 in.CEMP-E Table D-2. 6-15 mm (0.) Lap. etc.0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Joint Geometry Lap.6 .) Lap.) Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Shinkage Cavity Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Burn-Through Lap. Penetrant Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Radiating Cracks Surface Pore\ Crater Pipe Overlap Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. 16 .2 in.

or with a yoke. Inspection with AC is generally limited to surface-breaking and very near-surface discontinuities. (9)The depth of inspectability depends upon the equipment. (1) MT is relatively fast and economical. and incomplete penetration D-5 . It is also effective for cracks. compared to PT. A permanent record of detected discontinuities can be made with the use of transparent adhesive tape or photography. attracted to the magnetic poles. removal of magnetic particles is quick and thorough. but considerably less than UT or RT. and the type of particles used. (4) Inspection costs are generally equal to or slightly more than PT. DC provides higher magnetization levels which allows for inspection for discontinuities somewhat below the surface. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT). laminations. (8) Existing coatings may reduce the effectiveness of MT. which directly magnetize the steel through direct contact with the steel and the induction of current flow in the steel. Cracks and other discontinuities on or near the surface disturb the lines of magnetic force. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. After the area has been magnetized. which does not transfer electrical current but provides magnetic flux between the two elements of the yoke. slag inclusions.CEMP-E 3. Subsurface cracks and slag inclusions would show a broader indication. Magnetic particle testing uses the relationship between electricity and magnetism to induce magnetic fields in the steel. (7) After inspection. are dusted onto the magnetized surface. Tight lines are indicative of surface cracks or other discontinuities. the particles are applied. 8 mm (5/16 in.) is generally considered the deepest discontinuity that can be detected under good conditions. then removed with gentle dusting or application of air. incomplete fusion. (5) More training is necessary for MT. (2) The equipment is relatively inexpensive. essentially acting as poles of a magnet. b. Advantages and Disadvantages. but substantially less than that required for UT or RT. (10) MT is effective for detecting surface-breaking discontinuities such as cracks and laminations. attracting the magnetic particles. and is considered more effective for surface discontinuities because the particles are more mobile. (2) MT equipment may be operated either DC (rectified AC) or AC. (1) The magnetic fields can be induced using either prods. Magnetic particles. not delaying repairs or affecting coating application. (3) A source of electric power is necessary. compared with ultrasonic or radiographic equipment. Particles attracted to discontinuities remain on the surface at the discontinuity. commonly in the form of iron powder colored for better visibility. selection of current. Method Description. (6) MT can be performed effectively while the joint is still warm from welding or postheating. The MT technician then evaluates the location and nature of the indicating particles. Although opinions vary as to the maximum depth that can be effectively inspected using MT.

50 mm (0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Least Applicable Microcracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Burn-Through Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. 6-15 mm (0. etc. Magnetic Particle Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap. See Table D-3. < 6 mm (< 0.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-6 .6 .) Joint Geometry Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Overlap Lap. Rounded discontinuities such as porosity do not disturb the magnetic flux lines sufficiently to be effectively detected.6 in. Table D-3.2 .) Lap.2 in. > 50 mm (> 2 in.2 in. 16 .) Lap.0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 if slightly below the surface.

Report forms. generally hand written. The vibration is transmitted into the steel from the transducer using a liquid couplant. (2) AWS D1. and is capable of detecting discontinuity in welds and base metal in a wide variety of joint applications and thicknesses. (2) More expensive and sophisticated UT equipment can be operated in digital mode.CEMP-E 4. and transducer angles. scanning methods. recording weld discontinuities and other material discontinuities that exceed the acceptance criteria specified. Such equipment is rarely used in normal construction inspection applications. Annex K requires the use of written UT procedures specific to the application. Part F provides the UT inspection procedures. The unit sends electric pulses into the piezoelectric crystal. evaluate and size weld discontinuities. relative size and nature of the discontinuity. Very sophisticated automated UT equipment can record the transducer location and the corresponding reflections. are prepared by the UT technician. depending upon the design of the transducer. or scanning angles other than those prescribed. can be determined by close evaluation of the reflected signals. and weld acceptance criteria. (1) Ultrasonic testing is a highly sensitive method of NDT. the location. Such provisions are necessary when using miniature transducers. either of which reflects energy back to the transducer unit or another receiving transducer. from various directions.1 Annex K provisions. including reflected signal strength. The vibration pulse travels through the steel until it strikes a discontinuity. alternate frequencies. including calibration. recording and printing display screen images with input data. Small reflections are generally ignored. and can be incorporated into project inspection through the use of AWS D1. of the inspected area and discontinuities. scanning faces. Using a system of calibration and measurements. Advantages and Disadvantages. The speed of travel of the vibration in steel is also known.) Both thinner and thicker materials may be examined and evaluated using UT. if any.1 provisions are applicable for thickness ranges from 8 mm (5/16 in. and also provides for alternate acceptance criteria in lieu of the tables found in Section 6. Part F of AWS D1. unless located in specific regions such as along edges. (1) AWS D1. b. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. then use computer software systems to produce representative two-dimensional images. but is available and sometimes used for very complex and critical inspections. discontinuity lengths and locations for weld discontinuities. These techniques include tip diffraction and time-of-flight techniques. more complex inspection methods can be used to locate. it is less capable of directly sizing discontinuities or determining discontinuity height without the use of advanced techniques. Ultrasonic testing requires specialized equipment to produce and receive precise ultrasonic waves induced into the steel using piezoelectric materials. with a known frequency and waveform.1. which converts electrical energy into vibration energy.) to 200 mm (8 in.1 Section 6. Locations of discontinuities can be determined using the display screen scale and simple geometry. ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT). The vibration is introduced into the steel at a known angle. D-7 . (3) Although capable of locating discontinuities and measuring discontinuity length. but Annex K must be used for technique and acceptance. or the opposite face of the steel. with experienced and qualified UT technicians tested in the use of the procedures. (3) Even with conventional equipment. Method Description.

The time. the cost of RT equipment. and therefore cost. not as accurate or as reliable as first-leg inspections. and then only for the root area for fillet welds above approximately 18 mm (3/4 in. It is ineffective for fillet welds unless very large. discontinuities which are generally most detrimental to joint performance when oriented transverse to the direction of loading. and considerably less than RT. but such rounded discontinuities are rarely detrimental to joint performance. but also much less than RT. slag lines. When backing bars remain in place. With partial joint penetration groove welds. it is difficult to distinguish between the backing bar interface and cracks. Laminations and lamellar tears are also easily detected. Second-leg inspections. it is difficult to distinguish between the unfused root face and discontinuities near the root. A good quality weld will provide few responses. Slag inclusions are irregular and provide easily identifiable responses. of UT inspection can vary greatly. (6) The cost of the equipment is considerably more that MT. and sometimes exceeds. and therefore reflect signals even when not exactly perpendicular to the direction of the pulse.). D-8 . Discontinuities located just below the weld or material surface are also difficult to detect. or a poor quality weld. or lack of penetration or fusion at the root. are necessary to evaluate the entire depth of many welds unless the weld face is ground flush. A difficult configuration. These discontinuities tend to be irregular with rough surfaces. depending upon the quality of the weld to be inspected. Smooth surfaces. the interference of the web with inspection of the bottom flange makes direct evaluation of the area beneath the weld access hole difficult. such as unfused root faces. (8) UT is best suited for planar discontinuities such as cracks and lack of fusion. UT is the best method for detection of the most serious weld discontinuties in a wide variety of thicknesses and joints. requiring little evaluation time. However. In welded beam-to-column moment connections. also providing a weak response. will require numerous time-consuming evaluations and recording of test data. See Table D-4. (9) The cost of ultrasonic testing is considerably more than PT or MT.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) A primary disadvantage of ultrasonic testing is that it is highly dependent upon the skill of the UT technician. The cost of more sophisticated UT units capable of computer-generated imaging approaches. would redirect a signal and provide a weak response unless oriented perpendicular to the pulse. (7) UT indications are difficult to interpret in certain geometric applications. Rounded and cylindrical discontinuities such as porosity disperse the signal.

) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove D-9 . 16 .50 mm (0.6 .CEMP-E Table D-4.2 .) Lap.6 in.2 in. 6-15 mm (0.2 in.0.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap.) Lap. > 50 mm (> 2 in. Ultrasonic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Applicable Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Elongated Cavity Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Burn-Through Irregular Bead Poor Restart TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity “Worm Hole” Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Overlap Misalignment Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Lap. < 6 mm (< 0.

some scattered. D-10 .). and aid in characterizing and locating discontinuities for repair. (8) RT is a potential radiation hazard to personnel. cesium 137 to 100 mm (4 in. As a consequence. although other image recording methods are also used. and iridium 192 to 75 mm (3 in. an imperfection must be oriented roughly parallel to the radiation beam. The three most common RT isotopes are cobalt 60.) of steel. Advantages and Disadvantages. a 400 kV unit to 75 mm (3 in. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. (5) The limitations on RT sensitivity are such that discontinuities smaller than about 1½ percent of the metal thickness may not be detected. Cobalt 60 can effectively penetrate up to approximately 230 mm (9 in. and a 200 kV unit to 25 mm (1 in. and related licensing is higher than any other NDT process. (2) Radioisotopes are used to emit gamma radiation. See Table D-5. Because they are usually volumetric in cross-section. (4) To be detected.) of steel. and strict safety regulations must be monitored and enforced.) of steel. safety programs. (2) Accessibility to both sides of the weld is required. and iridium 192. (9) The cost of radiographic equipment. cracks. Most conventional RT techniques involve exposures that record a permanent image on film. b. When a weld is exposed to penetrating radiation. particularly helpful with ESW and EGW welds. (1) X-rays are produced by portable units capable of radiographing relatively thin objects. cesium 137. A large 2000 kV X-ray unit is capable of penetrating approximately 200 mm (8 in. Method Description. Radiographic Testing (RT) uses a radioactive source and. Real-time radiography uses a fluoroscope to receive radiation. (7) RT is generally unaffected by grain structure. RT is not effective when testing fillet welds or groove welds in tee or corner joints. a film imaging process similar to X-ray film. voids. and some transmitted through the weld onto the film. slag.). then presents an on-screen image for evaluation.) of steel.1. Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) are used to verify the quality and sensitivity of the image.CEMP-E 5. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT). (3) RT is limited to butt joint applications by AWS D1. (1) RT can detect subsurface porosity. The two types of radiation sources commonly used in weld inspection are x-ray machines and radioactive isotopes. irregularities. Because of the constantly changing thickness for the exposure. typically. The film provides a permanent record of the inspection. discontinuities such as porosity or slag are readily detected. and lack of fusion. (10) There is usually a significant waiting time between the testing process and the availability of results. (6) The radiographic images provide a permanent record for future review. RT may miss laminations and cracks parallel to the film surface. some radiation is absorbed. facilities.

etc.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Applicable Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.0.50 mm (0. 16 .) Lap. > 50 mm (> 2 in.) Single-V Groove D-11 . Radiographic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Lap.6 . 6-15 mm (0.CEMP-E Table D-5.6 in.) TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Overlap D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap.2 in. < 6 mm (< 0.) Lap.2 in.2 .

or other methods not mentioned above is discouraged.CEMP-E 6. D-12 . the use of eddy current. acoustic emission. OTHER METHODS. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Because of severe limitations in applicability.

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