Cultural statistics

2007 edition
EuropEan Commission
Pocketbooks
Culture statistics
The aim of this pocketbook is to set out the main
cultural statistics comparable at European level.
selected tables and graphs describe diferent areas
of the cultural feld for the 27 Eu member states,
the candidate countries and the EFTa countries:
cultural heritage, cultural employment, enterprises
in some cultural sectors - publishing, architectural
activities and cinema, external trade of cultural
goods, households cultural expenditure, cultural
participation and time use in cultural activities.
The book, which is the frst of its kind, is
intentionally modest in scope and does not claim
to be exhaustive. a short commentary on the
data and methodological notes complete this
initial snapshot of cultural statistics, mainly based
on the fndings of existing harmonised surveys
and former work carried out within the European
statistical system.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat
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Cultural statistics
EuropEan Commission
Pocketbooks
2007 edition
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ISBN 978-92-79-05547-8
Cat. No. KS-77-07-296-EN-N
(Cat. No. printed publication KS-77-07-296-EN-C)

Theme: Population and social conditions
Collection: Pocketbooks
© European Communities, 2007
© Cover photo: RMN / Hervé Lewandowski and Thierry Le Mage
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4 Cultural statistics
CULTURAL STATISTICS
EUROSTAT POCKETBOOKS
This publication has been managed and prepared by Eurostat:
• Directorate F - Social Statistics and Information Society,
directed by Michel Glaude
• Unit F4 - Education, science and culture statistics,
headed by Jean-Louis Mercy
Co-ordinator
Marta Beck-Domżalska – Marta. Beck-Domzalska@ec.europa.eu
Eurostat - Statistical Office of the European Communities
Unit F4 - Education, science and culture statistics
Joseph Bech Building, rue A. Weicker, 5
L-71 Luxembourg.
Thanks for their collaboration to:
Emmanuel Kailis (Unit F4), Amedeo Bidoli (Unit F4), Luis Del Barrio (Unit F),
Peter Paul Borg (Unit F), Heidi Seybert (Unit F6), Ulf Johansson (Unit G1),
Jean-Marie Eschenauer (Unit G), Baudouin Quennery (Unit D),
Klas Rydenstam (Hetus website), Guy Frank (Network Egmus).
Conception, data processing, analysis,
design and desktop publishing
French Ministry of Culture and Communication
Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques (Deps)
directed by Philippe Chantepie
Jeannine Cardona (Statistics manager)
Pierre Berret (Project leader)
Chantal Lacroix, Jacqueline Boucherat
Transfaire, F-0450 Turriers
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Délégation au développement et aux affaires internationales (DDAI)
5 Cultural statistics
Introduction
e sociological changes triggered by the spread of the information
society, coupled with the increasingly important and acknowledged
role played by culture in social bonding, have created a need for a
better understanding of the links between culture and social and
economic development.
For the first time Eurostat is publishing a pocketbook containing
comparable data relating to culture already available within the
European Statistical System, plus information from other sources
(Unesco, Eurobarometer, etc.).
is publication does not claim to be exhaustive. Owing to the lack
of a robust definition of culture (or to an over-abundance of defini-
tions), the pocketbook relies on the pragmatic definition generally
agreed upon during the earlier work by the European Leadership
Group (LEG). First, it was decided to restrict the field to activities
recognised as cultural by every Member State. For this reason, sports
and tourism, for example, were excluded. Next, the field to culture
was broken down into about sixty activities, cross-relating eight
“domains” (artistic and monumental heritage, archives, libraries,
books and press, visual arts, architecture, performing arts and audio-
visual/multimedia) with six “functions” (conservation, creation, pro-
duction, dissemination, trade and training).
e field of culture defined in this way does not equate to any par-
ticular economic sector and therefore is not covered by sectoral sur-
veys. It includes activities in numerous areas of social and economic
life, which are not always identifiable in economic classifications. As
a result, statistics are missing for a number of activities which can-
not be singled out and examined from national and European sur-
veys or data collections.
e approach adopted here is cross-cutting and thematic, drawing
on existing data on employment, business, external trade, household
cultural consumption, time use and cultural participation. Method-
ological notes and the classifications used to draw a distinction
between cultural activities, occupations or goods are included at the
end of this pocketbook.
is initial snapshot of cultural statistics could be greatly developed
and improved, first by making a sustained intellectual effort to define
the field and, second, by applying more efficient assessment meth-
ods coupled, where possible, with better identification of cultural
activities in the harmonised data collections and European surveys.
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6 Cultural statistics
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7 Cultural statistics
Table of contents
Cultural statistics
Symbols and abbreviations, countries 12-13
I Contextual data 15
Chap. 1: Demography, social data and economics 17
Demography 18-20
Education 21-27
Employment 28-29
Economic indicators 30-31
Chap. 2: Cultural heritage 33-45
II Cultural employment,
enterprises and external trade 47
Chap. 1: Cultural employment 49-71
Chap. 2: Enterprises in cultural sectors 73
Publishing of books, newspapers,
journals and periodicals 78-85
Sound recordings sector 86-87
Concentration in the publishing sector 88-89
Architecture and engineering sector 90-95
Cinema 96-99
Chap. 3: External trade in cultural goods 101-119
III Cultural expenditure and participation 121
Chap. 1: Household cultural expenditure 123-129
Chap. 2: Cultural participation 131-145
Chap. 3: Time spent on cultural activities 147-167
Background information 169
Data sources, classifications and definitions
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Cultural statistics
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9 Cultural statistics
Table des matières
Statistiques culturelles
Signes conventionnels et abréviations, pays 12-13
I Données de cadrage 15
Chap. 1 : Démographie, données sociales
et économiques 17
Démographie 18-20
Éducation 21-27
Emploi 28-29
Indicateurs économiques 30-31
Chap. 2 : Patrimoine culturel 33-45
II Emploi culturel, entreprises
et commerce extérieur 47
Chap. 1 : Emploi culturel 49-71
Chap. 2 : Entreprises des secteurs culturels 73
Édition de livres, journaux, revues et périodiques 78-85
Édition d’enregistrements sonores 86-87
Concentration dans le secteur de l’édition 88-89
Activités d’architecture et d’ingénierie 90-95
Cinéma 96-99
Chap. 3 : Commerce extérieur
des biens culturels 101-119
III Dépenses et pratiques culturelles 121
Chap. 1 : Dépenses culturelles des ménages 123-129
Chap. 2 : Pratiques culturelles 131-145
Chap. 3 : Temps consacré
aux pratiques culturelles 147-167
Présentation des sources,
nomenclatures et définitions 169
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10 Cultural statistics
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11 Cultural statistics
Inhaltsverzeichnis
Kulturelle Statistik
Symbole und Abkürzungen, Länder 12-13
I Hintergrundinformationen 15
Kap. 1 : Demografie, Sozialdaten und Wirtschaft 17
Demografie 18-2
Ausbildung 21-27
Beschäftigung 28-29
Wirtschaft 30-31
Kap. 2 : Kulturelles Erbe 33-45
II Kulturelle Beschäftigung,
Firmen und Außenhandel 47
Kap. 1 : Kulturelle Beschäftigung 49-71
Kap. 2 : Firmen in kulturellen Zweigen 73
Verlegen von Büchern, Zeitungen und Zeitschriften 78-85
Verlegen von bespielten Tonträgern 86-87
Konzentration im Verlegenszweig 88-89
Architektur- und Ingenieurbüros 90-95
Kino 96-99
Kap. 3 : Außenhandel kultureller Waren 101-119
III Kulturelle Ausgaben und Teilnahme 121
Kap. 1 : Kulturelle Ausgaben der Haushalte 123-129
Kap. 2 : Kulturelle Teilnahme 131-145
Kap. 3 : Zeitnutzung in kulturellen Tätigkeiten 147-167
Angaben zur Methodik, Quelle und Definitionen 169
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0
1 Cultural statistics
Country abbreviations (EU)
EU-27 the EU consisting of 7 Member States as from 1.1.007
EU-25 the EU consisting of 5 Member States
BE Belgium
BG Bulgaria
CZ Czech Republic
DK Denmark
DE Germany
EE Estonia
IE Ireland
EL Greece
ES Spain
FR France
IT Italy
CY Cyprus
LV Latvia
LT Lithuania
LU Luxembourg
HU Hungary
MT Malta
NL Netherlands
AT Austria
PL Poland
PT Portugal
RO Romania
SI Slovenia
SK Slovakia
FI Finland
SE Sweden
UK United Kingdom
Candidate countries
HR Croatia
MK Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
TR Turkey
EFTA (European Free Trade Association)
countries
IS Iceland
LI Liechtenstein
NO Norway
CH Switzerland
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1 Cultural statistics
Symbols
: Data not available
- Not applicable or less than half of the unit used
b Break in series
c Confidential
e Estimate
f Forecast
p Provisional
u Unreliable or uncertain
Units and abbreviations
1000s Thousands
EUR Euros
h:mm Hours and minutes
Mio Million
MS Member State(s)
PPS Purchasing power standard
Methodological notes
For each statistical source (most often NewCronos), the date of extraction
is indicated in the first table, just above the reference to the source.
Totals on the breakdown line do not always add up to 100%, either
because of a small percentage of “no answers” or because numbers have
been rounded off.
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I
Contextual data
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Demography, social data
and economics
chapter 1
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
I
18 Cultural statistics
Population on 1.1.2006
and projections for 2010, 2020 and 2030 (1000s)
Population on Projections Density
1. January (1000s) (inhabitants
(1000s) per km
2
)
2006 2010 2020 2030 2003
EU-27 * 491 011 492 838 496 408 494 784 113.4
BE 10 511 10 554 10 790 10 984 342.1
BG 7 719 7 439 6 796 6 175 70.5
CZ 10 251 10 122 9 902 9 693 132.1
DK 5 427 5 465 5 526 5 577 125.1
DE 82 438 82 824 82 676 81 146 231.2
EE 1 345 1 314 1 248 1 202 31.2
IE 4 209 4 323 4 756 5 066 58.4
EL 11 125 11 269 11 427 11 316 84.3
ES 43 758 44 603 45 559 45 379 83.0
FR ** 61 045 61 486 63 571 65 118 97.9
IT 58 752 58 631 58 300 57 071 195.2
CY 766 784 866 921 126.9
LV 2 295 2 240 2 115 2 022 37.3
LT 3 403 3 345 3 182 3 092 55.1
LU 460 477 521 567 174
HU 10 077 9 982 9 693 9 484 108.9
MT 404 423 454 479 1 263
NL 16 334 16 672 17 209 17 589 480.3
AT 8 266 8 256 8 441 8 520 98.5
PL 38 157 37 830 37 065 36 542 122.2
PT 10 570 10 686 10 771 10 660 113.6
RO 21 610 21 345 20 342 19 244 94.5
SI 2 003 2 015 2 017 2 006 99.1
SK 5 389 5 347 5 271 5 186 109.7
FI 5 256 5 294 5 405 5 443 17.1
SE 9 048 9 187 9 575 9 911 21.8
UK 60 393 60 924 62 930 64 388 244.3
HR 4 443 : : : 78.5
MK 2 039 : : : :
TR 72 520 : : : 91.3
IS 300 : : : :
LI 35 : : : :
NO 4 640 : : : 14.9
CH 7 459 : : : 183.5
* The EU-27 total was calculated here with the population of metropolitan France,
because projections for France are available for the metropolitan area only. In 2006, EU-27
had 492 852 thousands inhabitants (including the population of the whole of France).
** Metropolitan France, for population and projections.
Data extraction: August 2007
Source: Eurostat, Demographics statistics
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
19 Cultural statistics
I
Population by age group, 2006 and 2020 projection
(%)
* Metroplitan France.
** The EU-27 total was calculated here with the population of metropolitan France, because
projections for France are available for the metropolitan area only.
Source: Eurostat, Demographics statistics
FR*
UK
RO
EE
NL
LU
LV
FI
SE
BE
NO
LT
MT
BG
ES
EL
DE
IT
MK
HR
IS
LI
CH
PT
CZ
HU
AT
EU-27**
DK
SI
0% 20% 40% 80% 60% 100%
0% 20% 40% 80% 60% 100%
0-24 years old
25-64
65 or more
35.6 11.1 32.0 14.7
34.2 12.0 26.4 17.2
32.5 11.7 24.6 16.3
32.4 13.3 24.8 18.2
32.0 15.3 25.5 17.5
31.6 13.4 26.7 19.4
31.2 16.4 29.2 20.7
31.1 16.0 27.7 19.5
30.8 14.8 25.3 17.1
30.7 16.7 26.2 18.7
30.2 14.3 28.6 18.8
30.2 14.4 29.1 16.5
30.0 16.8 25.2 18.4
29.9 15.2 28.6 20.0
29.7 16.0 27.1 22.6
29.7 17.3 27.9 21.2
29.2 17.2 27.0 20.5
28.6 16.8 25.4 20.6
28.3 15.8 24.7 20.3
28.2 16.5 24.7 20.0
27.8 14.2 23.0 20.8
27.8 17.1 25.5 20.3
27.2 15.6 22.9 20.4
27.1 17.2 21.4 21.7
26.4 16.7 24.0 19.8
26.3 18.5 23.7 21.1
25.9 19.3 23.0 22.6
24.4 19.7
35.5 11.1
28.9 16.9
36.4 11.7
31.9 14.7
29.6 11.6
27.8 16.0
22.7 23.3
IE
CY
SK
PL
2006 2020 projection
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
I
20 Cultural statistics
Non-nationals in total population, 2006 (%)
1. Eurostat estimate distribution of non-nationals (EU and non-EU).
2. Includes French overseas departments.
Source: Eurostat
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
EU-27
IS
CH
TR
RO
BG
SK
LT
HU
FI
SI
CZ
PT
NL
IT
DK
UK
SE
DE
ES
AT
LI
1
PL
1
LU
1
MT
FR
2
IE
1
EL
1
BE
1
CY
EE
1
LV
NO
of which other EU nationals
of which non-EU nationals
Non-nationals:
5.6
5.3
5.1
5.0
4.5
4.2
3.0
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.0
0.3
0.3
0.2
39.6
19.9
18.0
12.8
9.8
9.1
8.8
8.6
7.9
7.5
0.4
34.1
20.7
4.8
3.5
5.7
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
21 Cultural statistics
I
Highest level of education attained by age group,
2006 (%)
40-64 years old 25-39 years old
Low Medium High Low Medium High
EU-27 34.8 45.3 19.8 22.7 49.8 27.5
BE 40.8 32.5 26.7 20.2 39.7 40.1
BG 27.4 51.8 20.7 19.6 56.4 24.0
CZ 12.5 75.0 12.6 5.7 79.4 14.9
DK 21.8 46.5 31.7 12.6 47.6 39.9
DE 17.5p 58.3p 24.2p 15.4p 61.1p 23.5p
EE 11.7 55.5 32.8 11.2 54.6 34.2
IE 45.3 31.7 23.0 20.0 39.7 40.3
EL 51.4 30.5 18.2 26.2 47.5 26.3
ES 60.4 18.2 21.5 38.4 24.4 37.2
FR 40.9p 40.6p 18.5p 20.6p 42.8p 36.7p
IT 56.8 32.7 10.5 36.7 46.9 16.4
CY 40.1 37.2 22.7 17.0 41.6 41.5
LV 15.0 64.6 20.4 16.3 61.5 22.1
LT 12.0 66.1 21.9 11.1 54.7 34.1
LU 40.1 40.3 19.6 25.6 43.5 30.9
HU 26.5 57.2 16.3 15.4 64.9 19.7
MT 81.8 10.1 8.1 58.8 22.1 19.0
NL 32.4 40.0 27.6 19.7 45.9 34.5
AT 23.4 60.2 16.4 13.8 66.7 19.5
PL 17.9 69.0 13.1 8.5 66.3 25.2
PT 81.4 8.7 9.9 59.7 21.7 18.5
RO 31.9 57.8 10.4 18.5 68.2 13.3
SI 23.5 57.8 18.7 10.6 63.9 25.6
SK 14.6 71.8 13.5 6.5 77.6 16.0
FI 25.1 42.2 32.6 11.4 48.8 39.9
SE 20.0 52.8 27.2 9.0 54.8 36.1
UK 30.3 41.6 28.1 22.9 42.5 34.7
HR : : : : : :
IS : : : : : :
NO 15.1 55.9 29.0 6.1 55.0 38.9
CH : : : : : :
Levels of education based on ISCED 1997:
Low (ISCED levels 0-2): Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education.
Medium (ISCED levels 3-4): Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
High (ISCED levels 5-6): Tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
I
22 Cultural statistics
Tertiary level as highest level of education attained
by gender and age group, 2006 (%)
“Tertiary level” of education means levels 5 and 6 in ISCED 1997.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey
0% 20% 40% 60% 0% 20% 40%
30.0
28.9
28.8
23.0
23.0
22.3p
20.2
19.2
18.6
16.9
15.1
14.2
44.3 33.5
12.5
14.7
15.1
20.3
13.6
18.0
24.6p
14.2
16.5
24.0
15.4
25.1
20.4
16.9
30.3
19.0
33.9
33.0
33.1p
28.0
27.3
33.1
30.4
39.4
35.9
33.6
35.6
31.5
31.3
31.6
32.3
34.8
35.0
40.3p
40.3
40.9
41.5
41.7
43.5
43.7
43.8
44.7
48.5
29.9
NO
HR
CZ
SK
AT
IT
MT
DE
PT
HU
EL
LV
LT
PL
BG
LU
SI
UK
NL
FR
EE
EU-27
SE
ES
CY
DK
IE
BE
FI
25-39 years old 40-64 years old
Women Men
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
23 Cultural statistics
I
Number of foreign languages learned by pupils
in general education, 2004/2005 (%)
Percentage of pupils Percentage of pupils
at ISCED level 2 learning at ISCED level 3 learning
3 or more 2 1 none 3 or more 2 1 none
foreign languages foreign languages
BE - 28.6 68.8 2.6 28.8 59.9 10.8 0.5
BG - 23.9 76 0.2 - 76.9 21.4 1.7
CZ 0.4 5.3 91.5 2.7 3.8 96.2 - -
DK 2.3 97.1 0.6 - 23.8 72.6 - 3.6
DE : : : : : : : :
EE 16.7 67.1 16.2 - 46.8 34.1 19.1 -
IE 0.2 11.8 75.6 12.3 1.1 7.8 72.8 18.3
EL - 94.3 5.5 0.2 - 6.7 92.2 1.1
ES 0.1 40.4 58.6 0.9 0.1 28,0 68.5 3.3
FR
1
- 50.2 49.6 0.3 6.6 83.6 9.8 -
IT 0.1 43.8 56.1 - 6.5 14.3 65.9 13.3
CY : : : : : : : :
LV 0.9 60.3 38.0 0.9 10.4 63.7 24.9 1.0
LT 0.5 78.0 21.1 0.4 4.1 50.9 44.1 0.9
LU 52.9 47.1 - - 90.1 9.9 - -
HU : : : : : : : :
MT 21.3 73.9 4.9 - 0.8 13.2 67.2 18.7
NL 66.9 33.1 - - 55.6 44.4 - -
AT 0.2 9.1 90.4 0.3 12.4 63.7 22.4 1.5
PL : : : : : : : :
PT - 90.7 8.8 0.5 - 17.1 38.0 44.9
RO 0.2 94.8 3.7 1.4 3.5 88.3 8.2 -
SI 0.9 28.4 65.9 4.8 8.4 86.7 3.0 1.9
SK 0.1 12.6 87.1 0.3 2.0 97.4 0.7 -
FI 23.6 73.8 2.0 0.6 60.7 39.1 0.3 -
SE 1.6 70.5 27.9 - 20.2 72.4 7.3 -
UK 0.3 6.4 54.1 39.3 : : : 88.5
HR : : : : 4.8 85.8 9.4 :
MK - 51.5 48.5 - : : : :
TR
1
: : : : - 5.5 59.6 34.9
IS 8.5 90.3 0.6 0.7 28.2 39.5 21.9 10.4
NO : : : : : : : :
1. Level 3: 2003/2004.
Foreign languages: All modern languages taught as “foreign languages”.
Ancient Greek, Latin, Esperanto and sign languages are not included.
The curriculum drawn up by the central education authorities in each country defines which are to
be considered“foreign languages” in that country. This is the definition applied for data collection.
Regional languages are included if they are considered as alternatives to foreign languages in the
curriculum. Only foreign languages studied as compulsory subjects or as compulsory curriculum
options are included.
Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection
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Chapter 1
Demography, social data and economics
I
24 Cultural statistics
Tertiary students by field of education related
to culture, 2004/2005
Humanities Arts
Journalism Architecture
and information and building
Number %* Number %* Number %* Number %*
EU-27** 1 389 406 8.5 634 267 3.9 279 704 1.7 625 221 3.8
BE 22 993 5.9 17 468 4.5 8 628 2.2 14 900 3.8
BG 13 766 5.8 6 145 2.6 3 158 1.3 5 748 2.4
CZ 23 403 7.0 8 621 2.6 1 151 0.3 16 663 5.0
DK 26 858 11.6 7 927 3.4 2 562 1.1 8 140 3.5
DE 272 489 12.0 84 258 3.7 24 625 1.1 96 108 4.2
EE 4 693 6.9 2 989 4.4 1 122 1.7 2 777 4.1
IE 12 538 6.7 18 911 10.2 1 313 0.7 8 524 4.6
EL 63 830 9.9 10 942 1.7 7 890 1.2 22 396 3.5
ES 107 480 5.9 82 477 4.6 28 703 1.6 91 525 5.1
FR : : : : : : : :
IT 203 039 10.1 112 872 5.6 69 187 3.4 116 036 5.8
CY 981 4.9 761 3.8 402 2.0 256 1.3
LV 5 615 4.3 3 049 2.3 1 430 1.1 4 069 3.1
LT 8 404 4.3 5 270 2.7 1 599 0.8 8 640 4.4
LU : : : : : : : :
HU 28 577 6.6 5 527 1.3 11 061 2.5 11 033 2.5
MT 240 2.5 1 030 10.9 334 3.5 339 3.6
NL 19 701 3.5 24 833 4.4 5 876 1.0 17 756 3.1
AT 23 622 9.7 9 964 4.1 6 320 2.6 10 259 4.2
PL 149 851 7.1 20 899 1.0 15 580 0.7 56 046 2.6
PT 16 681 4.4 15 977 4.2 8 332 2.2 29 154 7.7
RO 68 332 9.2 10 015 1.4 18 513 2.5 8 019 1.1
SI 6 881 6.1 1 678 1.5 689 0.6 4 416 3.9
SK 7 136 3.9 3 238 1.8 3 212 1.8 7 614 4.2
FI 27 945 9.1 16 349 5.3 3 124 1.0 9 436 3.1
SE 40 530 9.5 14 679 3.4 8 128 1.9 11 278 2.6
UK 233 821 10.2 148 388 6.5 46 765 2.0 64 089 2.8
HR 9 388 7.0 3 172 2.4 2 324 1.7 5 383 4.0
MK 4 670 9.5 720 1.5 381 0.8 1 633 3.3
TR 73 831 3.5 26 318 1.2 28 145 1.3 46 691 2.2
IS 1 781 11.7 389 2.6 176 1.2 360 2.4
NO 17 536 8.2 6 873 3.2 3 819 1.8 3 969 1.9
CH 17 695 8.9 7 712 3.9 3 937 2.0 8 014 4.0
* Students as % of all tertiary students.
** Total for all EU MS available.
Tertiary students: ISCED levels 5-6.
Humanities: Religion, Foreign languages, Mother tongue, History and archaelogy, Philosophy and
ethics.
Arts: Fine arts, Music and performing arts, Audio-visual techniques and media production, Design,
Craft skills.
Journalism and information: Journalism and reporting, Library, information and archive.
Architecture and building: Architecture and town planning, Building and civil engineering.
Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection
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Students in arts as % of all tertiary students,
2004/2005
0% 12%
EU-27: 3.9
DE
SE
IT
CZ
RO
FI
NL
EL
MT
PT
HU
DK
LT
SK
BE
SI
BG
LV
UK
ES
CY
IE
AT
EE
10.9
6.5
5.6
5.3
4.6
4.5
10.2
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.8
3.7
3.4
3.4
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.3
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.0
HR
NO
IS
PL
TR
CH
MK
2.4
1.5
1.2
3.9
3.2
2.6
9% 6% 3%
Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection
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26 Cultural statistics
Tertiary students in fields of education related
to culture by gender, 2004/2005 (%)
Humanities Arts
Journalism Architecture
and information and building
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
EU-27* 32.0 68.0 38.5 61.5 35.9 64.1 64.1 35.9
BE 37.4 62.6 48.6 51.4 39.4 60.6 66.2 33.8
BG 38.5 61.5 41.9 58.1 35.6 64.4 59.1 40.9
CZ 34.3 65.7 44.3 55.7 32.2 67.8 70.9 29.1
DK 36.4 63.6 40.3 59.7 47.5 52.5 64.5 35.5
DE 32.3 67.7 38.4 61.6 37.8 62.2 64.2 35.8
EE 21.9 78.1 27.1 72.9 19.1 80.9 70.4 29.6
IE 37.5 62.5 35.4 64.6 35.3 64.7 82.2 17.8
EL 25.5 74.5 33.0 67.0 42.8 57.2 48.9 51.1
ES 38.4 61.6 39.7 60.3 32.6 67.4 62.9 37.1
FR : : : : : : : :
IT 24.6 75.4 33.0 67.0 38.4 61.6 57.4 42.6
CY 14.1 85.9 37.8 62.2 43.5 56.5 67.2 32.8
LV 19.0 81.0 26.7 73.3 15.2 84.8 76.5 23.5
LT 22.4 77.6 33.1 66.9 27.9 72.1 68.7 31.3
LU : : : : : : : :
HU 32.4 67.6 43.6 56.4 28.5 71.5 64.7 35.3
MT 61.3 38.8 39.0 61.0 37.7 62.3 61.1 38.9
NL 40.9 59.1 48.3 51.7 40.8 59.2 82.4 17.6
AT 33.9 66.1 35.2 64.8 31.7 68.3 69.5 30.5
PL 28.7 71.3 36.3 63.7 29.3 70.7 63.5 36.5
PT 32.5 67.5 43.7 56.3 30.4 69.6 64.8 35.2
RO 31.0 69.0 45.2 54.8 30.6 69.4 50.2 49.8
SI 24.5 75.5 35.2 64.8 18.6 81.4 65.1 34.9
SK 42.5 57.5 47.3 52.7 31.4 68.6 67.4 32.6
FI 25.8 74.2 33.6 66.4 26.3 73.7 74.9 25.1
SE 35.4 64.6 43.2 56.8 32.0 68.0 58.1 41.9
UK 37.5 62.5 39.3 60.7 40.8 59.2 72.5 27.5
HR 28.3 71.7 33.4 66.6 30.5 69.5 69.2 30.8
MK 27.5 72.5 58.5 41.5 36.0 64.0 56.1 43.9
TR 44.9 55.1 41.9 58.1 48.8 51.2 69.8 30.2
IS 33.4 66.6 34.7 65.3 19.9 80.1 58.1 41.9
NO 38.6 61.4 37.8 62.2 38.5 61.5 66.1 33.9
CH 40.9 59.1 41.6 58.4 41.8 58.2 75.3 24.7
* Total for all EU MS available.
Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection
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100
%
80
60
40
20
0
Men Women
Total
tertiary
level
Humanities Arts Journalism
and
information
Architecture
and
building
55 68 62 64 36
32 38 36 64 45
EU-27* tertiary students in fields of education related
to culture by gender, 2004/2005 (%)
* Percentages based on EU MS available.
Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection
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28 Cultural statistics
Activity rates by gender and unemployment rates
by level of education and gender, 2006 (%)
Activity rates (%) Unemployment rates (%)
Total by gender Total by highest level of by gender
education attained
Men Women Low Medium High Men Women
EU-27 70.2 77.6 62.9 8.3 11.8 8.3 4.6 7.7 9.1
BE 66.5 73.4 59.5 8.3 14.0 8.2 4.5 7.5 9.4
BG 64.5 68.8 60.2 9.0 20.5 7.7 4.0 8.7 9.3
CZ 70.3 78.3 62.3 7.2 24.8 6.4 2.5 5.9 8.9
DK 80.6 84.1 77.0 4.0 6.7 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.6
DE 75.6p 81.5p 69.5p 10.2p 19.1p 10.0p 4.4p 10.3p 10.1p
EE 72.4 75.8 69.3 6.0 13.5u 6.3 3.3u 6.3 5.8
IE 71.8 81.5 61.9 4.4 7.1 4.1 2.5 4.7 4.1
EL 67.0 79.1 55.0 9.0 8.3 10.7 7.3 5.7 13.8
ES 70.8 81.4 60.0 8.6 10.3 8.5 6.3 6.4 11.6
FR 69.4p 74.8p 64.1p 9.1p 13.6p 8.2p 6.0p 8.4p 9.9p
IT 62.7 74.6 50.8 6.9 8.2 6.2 5.3 5.5 8.8
CY 73.0 82.7 63.8 4.7 5.1 4.6 4.4 4.0 5.5
LV 71.3 76.2 66.7 7.0 14.9 6.3 3.8 7.6 6.3
LT 67.4 70.5 64.6 5.7 10.6u 6.5 2.6u 5.9 5.5
LU 66.7 75.3 58.2 4.8 6.6 4.5 3.1 3.6 6.3
HU 62.0 68.7 55.5 7.5 16.7 6.9 2.8 7.2 7.9
MT 59.2 79.7 38.3 7.3 9.6 : : 6.5 8.9
NL 77.1 83.9 70.3 4.5 7.2 4.1 2.5 4.1 5.0
AT 73.7 80.5 67.0 4.8 9.4 4.1 2.6 4.4 5.3
PL 63.4 70.1 56.8 14.0 23.7 15.0 6.0 13.1 15.1
PT 73.9 79.5 68.4 8.1 8.4 8.5 6.4 7.0 9.5
RO 63.6 70.7 56.6 7.6 9.0 7.9 3.8 8.5 6.4
SI 70.9 74.9 66.7 6.1 8.4 6.6 3.3u 5.0 7.4
SK 68.6 76.4 60.9 13.4 48.6 11.8 3.3 12.3 14.8
FI 75.2 77.1 73.3 7.8 14.2 8.2 3.7 7.5 8.1
SE 78.8 81.2 76.3 7.1 13.9 6.3 4.4 7.0 7.3
UK 75.5 82.1 69.2 5.4 9.1 5.3 2.8 5.8 5.0
HR 62.8 68.9 56.9 11.5 14.2 12.4 6.1 10.1 13.2
IS 87.1 90.5 83.4 2.9 4.8 : : 2.7 3.0
NO 78.1 81.3 74.8 3.4 7.8 3.5 1.9 3.5 3.4
CH 81.3 87.8 74.7 4.1 7.3 3.8 2.5 3.4 4.8
Population: 15-64 years old.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey
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Women activity rates, 2000 and 2006 (%)
Activity rate = active persons (employed and unemployed) as a percentage of total population of
the same age.
Population: 15-64 years old.
In grey, countries where the women activity rate in 2006 was lower than in 2000.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey
100%
DK
FI
DE
HU
CY
IE
UK
AT
NL
BE
SI
FR
SE 76.3 73.4
77.0 75.9
73.3 74.1
69.2 67.8
67.0 62.5
2006 2000
2000 2006
66.7 63.1
SK 62.8 60.9
CZ 63.5 62.3
RO 63.6 56.6
PT 68.4 63.7
69.5p 63.0
64.1p 62.5
70.3 65.7
LT 67.7 64.6
EE 69.3 64.8
PL 60.5 56.8
LV 66.7 61.7
63.8 57.3
EU-27 62.9 60.1
59.5 56.6
55.5 52.5
61.9 55.6
BG 60.2 56.1
60.0 51.8
55.0 50.6
58.2 51.7
50.8 46.2
EL
ES
IT
IS
74.7 71.6
85.9 83.4
MT 38.3 35.8
CH
74.8 76.4 NO
LU
80% 60% 20% 40%
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30 Cultural statistics
Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices,
2000 and 2006 (euro and PPS per inhabitant)
GDP GDP
at market prices per inhabitant
2006 2000 2006
EUR Million PPS PPS
million of PPS per inhabitant per inhabitant
EU-27 11 557 853.2 11 557 853.2 19 000 23 400
BE 314 084.1 302 570.3 24 000 28 700
BG 25 100.0 66 798.5 5 300 8 700
CZ 113 969.4f 191 079.8f 13 000 18 600f
DK 220 162.6 161 613.1 25 100 29 700
DE 2 322 200.0 2 197 005.9 22 600 26 700
EE 13 073.5 21 170.0 8 500 15 700
IE 175 794.5f 143 474.9f 24 900 33 700f
EL 195 213.0 230 658.9 14 600 20 800f
ES 976 189.0 1 053 600.4 18 500 23 900
FR 1 791 953.0 1 673 128.1 22 000 26 500
IT 1 475 401.4 1 432 261.4 22 300 24 300
CY 14 522.0 16 848.6 16 900 21 900
LV 16 180.3 29 971.0 7 000 13 100
LT 23 746.4 46 015.4 7 500 13 600
LU 33 054.8 30 182.5 46 400 65 300
HU 89 883.9 154 357.7 10 700 15 300
MT 5 096.0 7 288.5 15 900 18 000
NL 534 324.0 506 840.2 25 600 31 000
AT 257 897.2 250 247.0 25 400 30 200
PL 271 530.3 473 773.9 9 200 12 400
PT 155 215.8 185 082.5 14 900 17 500f
RO 97 117.8 190 656.6 4 900 8 800f
SI 29 741.8 40 866.9 14 700 20 400
SK 43 945.4 79 338.5 9 600 14 700
FI 167 062.0 143 818.2 22 300 27 300
SE 305 989.2 256 327.4 23 800 28 200
UK 1 906 358.8 1 688 659.5 22 300 27 900
HR 34 211.7 52 082.4 8 200 11 700f
MK 4 951.5f 13 080.1f 5 100 6 400f
TR 318 586.1 503 855.9 5 700 6 900f
IS 13 009.9 9 526.5 25 000 31 300
NO 267 381.2 204 465.3 31 400 43 900
CH 301 722.8 235 144.3 27 100 31 100f
PPS: Purchasing power standard.
Source: Eurostat, Annual National Accounts
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I
Share of each country in EU-27 GDP
and in the total population, 2006 (%)
Source: Eurostat, Annual National Accounts and Demographic Statistics
0% 10% 5% 15% 20%
SI
DE
IT
PL
CY
EL
UK
IE
LV
AT
SE
LU
PT
LT
SK
BG
MT
EE
BE
FI
ES
CZ
NL
RO
DK
HU
FR
Share in EU-27 GDP (PPS) Share in EU-27 population
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.7
1.2
2.2
2.2
2.6
4.1
4.4
9.1
12.4
14.5
14.6
19.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.7
2.0
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34 Cultural statistics
European cultural sites
on the Unesco World Heritage List, 2007
BE Flemish Béguinages (1998)
La Grand-Place, Brussels (1998)
The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and
Le Roeulx (Hainault) (1998)
Belfries of Belgium and France (1999, 2005)*
1
Historic Centre of Brugge (2000)
Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels) (2000)
Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) (2000)
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai (2000)
Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex (2005)
BG Boyana Church (1979)
Madara Rider (1979)
Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo (1979)
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (1979)
Ancient City of Nessebar (1983)
Rila Monastery (1983)
Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari (1985)
CZ Historic Centre of Český Krumlov (1992)
Historic Centre of Prague (1992)
Historic Centre of Telč (1992)
Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora (1994)
Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and
the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec (1995)
Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (1996)
Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž (1998)
Holašovice Historical Village Reservation (1998)
Litomyšl Castle (1999)
Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc (2000)
Tugendhat Villa in Brno (2001)
Jewish Quarter and St Procopius’ Basilica in Třebíč (2003)
DK Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church (1994)
Roskilde Cathedral (1995)
Kronborg Castle (2000)
DE Aachen Cathedral (1978)
Speyer Cathedral (1981)
Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square (1981)
Pilgrimage Church of Wies (1983)
Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl (1984)
St Mary’s Cathedral and St Michael’s Church at Hildesheim (1985)
Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in
Trier (1986)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987, 2005)*
2
Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1987)
Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin (1990, 1992, 1999)
Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch (1991)
Mines of Rammelsberg and Historic Town of Goslar (1992)
Maulbronn Monastery Complex (1993)
Town of Bamberg (1993)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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35 Cultural statistics
I
BE
FR
DE
LU
MT
CY
318 European* cultural sites
on the Unesco World Heritage List, 2007
* EU-27, candidate countries (HR, MK and TR) and EFTA (IS, LI, NO and CH)
Source: Unesco
Cultural site
Mixed (cultural/natural) property
Number of worldwilde cultural sites
on the Unesco World Heritage List, 2007
Cultural sites including
transboundary properties
EU-27 292* 7
Asia and the Pacific 174 1
Latin America and the Caribbean 117 2
Arab states 59 0
Africa 38 1
United States and Canada 14 0
* including two mixed properties (cultural and natural)
Source: Unesco
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36 Cultural statistics
DE Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg (1994)
Völklingen Ironworks (1994)
Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau (1996)
Cologne Cathedral (1996)
Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg (1996)
Classical Weimar (1998)
Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin (1999)
Wartburg Castle (1999)
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (2000)
Monastic Island of Reichenau (2000)
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen (2001)
Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar (2002)
Upper Middle Rhine Valley (2002)
Dresden Elbe Valley (2004)
Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)*
Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen (2004)
Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof (2006)
EE Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn (1997)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
IE Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne (1993)
Skellig Michael (1996)
EL Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae (1986)
Acropolis, Athens (1987)
Archaeological Site of Delphi (1987)
Archaeological Site of Epidaurus (1988)
Medieval City of Rhodes (1988)
Meteora (1988) µ
Mount Athos (1988) µ
Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika (1988)
Archaeological Site of Olympia (1989)
Mystras (1989)
Delos (1990)
Monasteries of Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios (1990)
Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos (1992)
Archaeological Site of Vergina (1996)
Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns (1999)
Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint John“the
Theologian” and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos
(1999)
Old Town of Corfu (2007)
ES Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada (1984, 1994)
3
Burgos Cathedral (1984)
Historic Centre of Cordoba (1984, 1994)
4
Monastery and Site of the Escurial, Madrid (1984)
Works of Antoni Gaudí (1984, 2005)
5
Altamira Cave (1985)
Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias (1985, 1998)
6
Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches (1985)
Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct (1985)
Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) (1985)
Historic City of Toledo (1986)
Mudejar Architecture of Aragon (1986, 2001)
7
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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37 Cultural statistics
I
ES Old Town of Cáceres (1986)
Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (1987)
Old City of Salamanca (1988)
Poblet Monastery (1991)
Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida (1993)
Route of Santiago de Compostela (1993)
Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe (1993)
Historic Walled Town of Cuenca (1996)
La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (1996)
Las Médulas (1997)
Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (1997)
Pyrénées - Mont Perdu (1997, 1999)* µ
San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries (1997)
Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (1998)
University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares (1998)
Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture (1999) µ
San Cristóbal de La Laguna (1999)
Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco (2000)
Archaeological Site of Atapuerca (2000)
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí (2000)
Palmeral of Elche (2000)
Roman Walls of Lugo (2000)
Aranjuez Cultural Landscape (2001)
Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (2003)
Vizcaya Bridge (2006)
FR Chartres Cathedral (1979)
Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay (1979)
Palace and Park of Versailles (1979)
Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley (1979)
Vézelay, Church and Hill (1979)
Amiens Cathedral (1981)
Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments (1981)
Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay (1981)
Palace and Park of Fontainebleau (1981)
Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the “Triumphal Arch” of Orange
(1981)
Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans (1982)
Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe (1983)
Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d’Alliance in Nancy (1983)
Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct) (1985)
Strasbourg – Grande île (1988)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Remi and Palace of Tau,
Reims (1991)
Paris, Banks of the Seine (1991)
Bourges Cathedral (1992)
Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and
Avignon Bridge (1995)
Canal du Midi (1996)
Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne (1997)
Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997, 1999)* µ
Historic Site of Lyons (1998)
Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France (1998)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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38 Cultural statistics
FR Belfries of Belgium and France (1999, 2005)*
1
Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion (1999)
The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes (2000)
8
Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs (2001)
Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret (2005)
Bordeaux, Port of the Moon (2007)
IT Rock Drawings in Valcamonica (1979)
Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with "The
Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci (1980)
Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City
Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980, 1990)*
Historic Centre of Florence (1982)
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa (1987)
Venice and its Lagoon (1987)
Historic Centre of San Gimignano (1990)
I Sassi di Matera (1993)
City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto (1994, 1996)
Crespi d’Adda (1995)
Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, and its Po Delta (1995, 1999)
Historic Centre of Naples (1995)
Historic Centre of Siena (1995)
Castel del Monte (1996)
Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna (1996)
Historic Centre of the City of Pienza (1996)
The Trulli of Alberobello (1996)
18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of
Vanvitelli and the San Leucio Complex (1997)
Archaeological Area of Agrigento (1997)
Archaeological Areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata
(1997)
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico), Padua (1997)
Cathedral, Torre Civica and Piazza Grande, Modena (1997)
Costiera Amalfitana (1997)
Portovenere, Cinque Terre and the Islands (Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto)
(1997)
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy (1997)
Su Nuraxi di Barumini (1997)
Villa Romana del Casale (1997)
Archaeological Area and the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia (1998)
Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, with the Archaeological Sites of
Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula (1998)
Historic Centre of Urbino (1998)
Villa Adriana (Tivoli) (1999)
Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and Other Franciscan Sites (2000)
City of Verona (2000)
Villa d’Este, Tivoli (2001)
Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily) (2002)
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy (2003)
Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia (2004)
Val d’Orcia (2004)
Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica (2005)
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the System of the Palazzi dei Rolli (2006)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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39 Cultural statistics
I
CY Paphos (1980)
Painted Churches in the Troodos Region (1985, 2001)
Choirokoitia (1998)
LV Historic Centre of Riga (1997)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
LT Vilnius Historic Centre (1994)
Curonian Spit (2000)*
Kernavė Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernavė) (2004)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
LU City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications (1994)
HU Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter
and Andrássy Avenue (1987, 2002)
Old Village of Hollókö and its Surroundings (1987)
Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural
Environment (1996)
Hortobágy National Park – the Puszta (1999)
Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae) (2000)
Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)*
Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape (2002)
MT City of Valletta (1980)
Hal Saflieni Hypogeum (1980)
Megalithic Temples of Malta (1980, 1992)
9
NL Schokland and Surroundings (1995)
Defence Line of Amsterdam (1996)
Historic Area of Willemstad, Inner City and Harbour, Netherlands Antilles
(1997)
Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout (1997)
Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station) (1998)
Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder) (1999)
Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) (2000)
AT Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg (1996)
Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (1996)
Hallstatt-Dachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape (1997)
Semmering Railway (1998)
City of Graz – Historic Centre (1999)
Wachau Cultural Landscape (2000)
Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)*
Historic Centre of Vienna (2001)
PL Cracow’s Historic Centre (1978)
Wieliczka Salt Mine (1978)
Auschwitz Concentration Camp (1979)
Historic Centre of Warsaw (1980)
Old City of Zamość (1992)
Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (1997)
Medieval Town of Toruń (1997)
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape
Complex and Pilgrimage Park (1999)
Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica (2001)
Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland (2003)
Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)*
Centennial Hall in Wroclaw (2006)
PT Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (1983)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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40 Cultural statistics
PT Convent of Christ in Tomar (1983)
Monastery of Batalha (1983)
Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon (1983)
Historic Centre of Évora (1986)
Monastery of Alcobaça (1989)
Cultural Landscape of Sintra (1995)
Historic Centre of Oporto (1996)
Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley (1998)
Alto Douro Wine Region (2001)
Historic Centre of Guimarães (2001)
Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture (2004)
RO Churches of Moldavia (1993)
Monastery of Horezu (1993)
Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (1993, 1999)
10
Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (1999)
Historic Centre of Sighişoara (1999)
Wooden Churches of Maramureş (1999)
SK Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its
Vicinity (1993)
Spišský Hrad and its Associated Cultural Monuments (1993)
Vlkolínec (1993)
Bardejov Town Conservation Reserve (2000)
FI Fortress of Suomenlinna (1991)
Old Rauma (1991)
Petäjävesi Old Church (1994)
Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (1996)
Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (1999)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
SE Royal Domain of Drottningholm (1991)
Birka and Hovgården (1993)
Engelsberg Ironworks (1993)
Rock Carvings in Tanum (1994)
Skogskyrkogården (1994)
Hanseatic Town of Visby (1995)
Church Village of Gammelstad, Luleå (1996)
Laponian Area (1996) µ
Naval Port of Karlskrona (1998)
Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland (2000)
Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun (2001)
Varberg Radio Station (2004)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
UK Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd (1986)
Durham Castle and Cathedral (1986)
Ironbridge Gorge (1986)
St Kilda (1986, 2004, 2005) µ
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites (1986)
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey (1986)
Blenheim Palace (1987)
City of Bath (1987)
Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987, 2005)*
2
Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Margaret’s Church (1987)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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Chapter 2
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41 Cultural statistics
I
UK Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine’s Abbey, and St Martin’s Church
(1988)
Tower of London (1988)
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh (1995)
Maritime Greenwich (1997)
Heart of Neolithic Orkney (1999)
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape (2000)
Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda (2000)
Derwent Valley Mills (2001)
New Lanark (2001)
Saltaire (2001)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2003)
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (2004)
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape (2006)
HR Historical Complex of Split with the Palace of Diocletian (1979)
Old City of Dubrovnik (1979, 1994)
Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica in the Historic Centre of
Poreč (1997)
Historic City of Trogir (1997)
The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik (2000)
MK Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region (1979, 1980) µ
TR Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (1985) µ
Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği (1985)
Historic Areas of Istanbul (1985)
Hattusha: the Hittite Capital (1986)
Nemrut Dağ (1987)
Hierapolis-Pamukkale (1988) µ
Xanthos-Letoon (1988)
City of Safranbolu (1994)
Archaeological Site of Troy (1998)
IS Þingvellir National Park (2004)
NO Bryggen (1979)
Urnes Stave Church (1979)
Røros Mining Town (1980)
Rock Art of Alta (1985)
Vegaøyan – The Vega Archipelago (2004)
Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
CH Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair (1983)
Convent of St Gall (1983)
Old City of Berne (1983)
Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of
Bellinzone (2000)
Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces (2007)
Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties
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42 Cultural statistics
µ = mixed properties
* = transboundary property
1. The “Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia”, previously on the World Heritage List, are part of the
transboundary property “The Belfries of Belgium and France”.
2. “Hadrian’s Wall”, previously on the World Heritage List, is part of the transboundary property
“Frontiers of the Roman Empire”.
3. Extension of the “Alhambra and the Generalife, Granada”, to include the Albayzin quarter.
4. Extension of the “Mosque of Cordoba”.
5. The property “Parque Güell, Palacio Güell and Casa Mila in Barcelona”, previously on the World
Heritage List, is part of the “Works of Antoni Gaudí”.
6. Extension of the “Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias”, to include monuments in the city of
Oviedo.
7. Extension of the “Mudejar Architecture of Teruel”.
8. The “Chateau and Estate of Chambord”, previously on the World Heritage List, is part of the “Loire
Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes”.
9. The Committee decided to extend the existing cultural property, “Temple of Ggantija”, to include
the five prehistoric temples on the islands of Malta and Gozo and to rename the property
“The Megalithic Temples of Malta”.
10. Extension of “Biertan and its Fortified Church”.
Source: Unesco
BE Belfries of Belgium and France (1999, 2005)*
1
FR Belfries of Belgium and France (1999, 2005)*
1
LT Curonian Spit (2000)*
HU Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)*
AT Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)*
UK Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987, 2005)*
2
DE Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987, 2005)*
2
IT Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City
Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980, 1990)*
DE Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)*
PL Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)*
FR Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997, 1999)* µ
ES Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997, 1999)* µ
EE Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
FI Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
LV Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
LT Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
NO Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
SE Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)*
UK St Kilda (1986, 2004, 2005) µ
Country Cultural transboundary properties
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Chapter 2
Cultural heritage
43 Cultural statistics
BE 2004
Centre belge de la Bande dessinée, Brussels 250
Musée royal de l’Armée et d’Histoire militaire, Brussels 246
Muséum des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels 239
Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels 214
Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels 212
CZ 2006
Jewish Museum, Prague 629
National Museum, Prague 561
National Gallery, Prague 554
Terezín Memorial, Terezín 291
Wallachian Open-Air Museum, Rožnov pod Radhoštĕm 231
DK 2006
Nationalmuseet, Prinsens Palais, Copenhagen 463
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen 413
ARoS, Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Aarhus 373
Den Gamle By, Aarhus 362
Louisiana (Museum of Modern Art), Humlebæk 351
IE 2006
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin 757
Chester Beatty of Ireland, Dublin 206
Muckross House, Killarney 197
Lewis Glucksman Gallery, University College, Cork 75
Gaa Museum, Dublin 61
EL Annual average 1998-2005
Archaeological Museum of Acropolis, Athens 1 043
Archaeological Museum of Epidaurus 351
Archaeological Museum of Herakleion 321
Archaeological Museum of Mycena 254
Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights, Rhodes 241
FR 2006
Musée du Louvre, Paris 8 314
Château de Versailles 4 742
Musée d’Orsay, Paris 3 009
Musée national d’Art moderne
(Centre national d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou), Paris 1 120
Musée de l’Armée, Paris 1 100
IT 2006
Archaeological Circuit Colosseum and Palatino
2
, Rome 4 065
Excavations of Pompeii
2
2 544
Uffizi Gallery and Corridoio Vasariano, Florence 1 664
The Accademia Gallery
2
, Florence 1 237
I
The five most visited museums per country
and total admissions (1000s)
Country Total admissions
(1000s)
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Chapter 2
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44 Cultural statistics
IT Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome 876
LV 2006
Turaida Museum Reserve, Riga region 202
Rundale Palace Museum, Bauska region 147
Latvian Ethnographical Open-Air Museum, Riga 138
Latvian War Museum, Riga 118
Latvian National Museum of Art, Riga 111
LU 2006
Musée d’Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean (MUDAM), Luxembourg 66
Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN), Luxembourg 49
Musée National d’Histoire et d’Art (MNHA), Luxembourg 48
Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg (MVL), Luxembourg 35
Musée National d’Histoire Militaire (MNHM), Diekirch 27
NL 2006
Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 1 700
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 1 100
Netherlands Open-Air Museum, Arnhem 400
Railway Museum, Utrecht 386
Palace Het Loo, Apeldoorn 360
PT
3
2005
Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, Lisbon 460
Palácio Nacional de Sintra 361
Palácio Nacional da Pena, Sintra 331
Torre de Belém, Lisbon 288
Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitória, Batalha 284
FI 2006
Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma, Helsinki 234
Museum Centre Vapriikki, Tampere 186
Ateneum Art Museum, Helsinki 142
Turku Castle and the City of Turku Historical Museum 133
Helsinki City Art Museum 103
SE 2005
Skansen, Stockholm 1 405
Vasamuseet, Stockholm 893
Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm 794
Moderna museet, Stockholm 703
Världskulturmuseet, Göteborg 382
UK 2005
British Museum, London 4 536
National Gallery, London 4 202
Tate Modern, London 3 902
Natural History Museum, London 3 078
Science Museum, London 2 020
HR 2005
Cultural History Museum, Dubrovnik 430
Country Museums Total admissions
(1000s)
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Chapter 2
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45 Cultural statistics
HR Archaeological Museum of Istria, Pula 400
Public Institution Brijuni National Park – Departement
for the Protection of Cultural Assets, Fažana 148
Technical Museum, Zagreb 103
Archaeological Museum, Zadar 64
NO 2006
National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo 579
Museum of Cultural History, Oslo 478
Natural History Museums and Botanical Garden, Oslo 413
Nidaros Cathedral Restoration Workshop, Trondheim 388
Norwegian Defence Museums, Oslo, Horten, Trondheim and Bodø 278
1. Each country has its own definition of what is considered a museum (some are actually a group
of two or more museums). The number of admissions is also established on specific national bases.
Some countries have included only museums charging an entrance fee. Others have considered
only public museums, State museums and/or subsidised museums.
2. IT: The data refers to the tickets (single or combined) sold by museums charging an entrance fee.
3. PT: Only State museums.
Names of museums are given in the language used by the countries when they provided data.
Source: European Group on Museum Statistics (Egmus)
I
Country Museums Total admissions
(1000s)
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Cultural employment,
enterprises and external trade
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Cultural employment
chapter 1
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Chapter
Cultural employment
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment
In 2005 cultural employment, meaning both employment in cultural
occupations in the whole economy and any employment in cultural
economic activities, was estimated at 4.9 million people in EU-27
and accounted for 2.4% of total employment.
In EU-27 cultural employment as a proportion of total employment
has remained unchanged since 2002, when the analysis was con-
ducted for the first time using the specific statistical matrix crossing
cultural occupations and cultural sectors of the economy. is pro-
portion ranges from 1.1% in Romania to 3.8% in the Netherlands.
No major differences appear at EU level between cultural employ-
ment and total employment with regard to gender or age, though
some discrepancies can be seen in some countries.
On the other hand, specific features of cultural employment can be
identified particularly in terms of levels of education and job secu-
rity.
Persons working in the cultural field are generally better educated
than those employed in the economy as a whole: nearly 48% of cul-
tural workers have completed tertiary-level education, compared
with 26% for the workforce in general. In some countries – Italy, the
Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania – the percentage of highly
educated persons in cultural employment is about 2.5 times higher
than in total employment. In many Member States the majority of
people working in the cultural field are university graduates, and this
proportion is as high as 60% in Belgium, Estonia, Lithuania and
Spain.
Cultural employment is oen less secure: 16% of cultural workers
have temporary jobs, compared with 13% in total employment, and
25% have part-time jobs, compared with 17% in the working pop-
ulation as a whole.
A high share of cultural jobs are temporary in Spain, Slovenia,
France, Sweden and Portugal. In some countries, e.g. France and
Estonia, the proportion of temporary jobs is more than twice as high
in cultural employment as in total employment.
e Netherlands, the European leader in part-time working, also
records the highest part-time rate in cultural employment (59%),
followed by Denmark (33%), Austria and Germany (30%). e pro-
portion of part-time jobs in cultural employment is higher than that
in total employment in every Member State except Belgium
(although the difference is small in the United Kingdom, Sweden
and Luxembourg).
II
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Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
In the EU 29% of persons working in the cultural field are non-
employees (i.e. self-employed or family workers), compared with
14% in the total working population. e highest ratios of non-
employees can be found in Italy (53% of cultural employment), the
Netherlands and Greece (35%) and the lowest (under 10%) in Roma-
nia, Lithuania, Estonia and Slovenia.
e proportion of workers with second jobs is nearly twice as high
in cultural employment as in total employment in EU-27. is phe-
nomenon of more people having second jobs in cultural employ-
ment is common to nearly every country.
In EU-27, 29% of cultural workers usually or sometimes work at
home. is is significantly higher than the rate in the total work-
force, which has no more than 13% home-workers. is proportion
among cultural workers ranges from 3% in Cyprus to 41% in Aus-
tria and the United Kingdom (and even 46% in Iceland).
e nature (degree of urbanisation) of the geographical area in
which the respondents work is defined as one of three categories:
densely populated area, intermediate area and sparsely populated
area. Most cultural workers (58%) have their jobs in densely popu-
lated areas. is is 14 percentage points more than for the whole
workforce. In every country the proportion of persons working in
densely populated areas is higher in cultural employment than in
total employment. In some countries – the Czech Republic, Slove-
nia, Hungary, Sweden and Norway – the difference is very high (with
the percentage working in densely populated areas nearly twice as
high for cultural employment).
Nationality is interpreted in the EU LFS as citizenship, as defined
by the national legislation of each country. No significant difference
emerges between cultural employment and total employment when
analysing the nationality of workers: about 95% of workers in EU-
27 are national. In most countries fewer than 10% of workers in cul-
tural employment are non-nationals. In three countries the figure is
over 10%: Luxembourg (36%), Switzerland (14%) and Austria
(10.2%).
Estonia reports a gap of 14 percentage points between non-national
workers in cultural and in total employment (4% against 18%). In
Luxembourg, Greece, Cyprus and Switzerland non-national work-
ers are also relatively less numerous in the cultural domain than in
total employment.
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Chapter
Cultural employment
3 Cultural statistics
II
The Task Force on Cultural Employment, reporting to the European
Working Group on Cultural Statistics, emphasised one statistical source
to use for cultural employment estimates: the EU Labour Force Sur-
vey.
Use of this survey makes it possible to estimate cultural employment
by crossing cultural activities classified by the NACE with cultural occu-
pations classified by the ISCO.
In the EU LFS database run by Eurostat, NACE and ISCO are available
for most countries at -digit and 3-digit levels respectively. A more
detailed level is necessary in order to identify cultural activities and
cultural occupations. Consequently, a statistical method has been
devised to approximate cultural employment by cross-tabulating both
dimensions at -digit (NACE) and 3-digit (ISCO) levels. These two lev-
els are not detailed enough, but combination of the two takes into
account all jobs in cultural activities and all qualified persons engaged
in cultural occupations, when they are employed by enterprises
engaged in other economic activities.
The cultural occupations on which data derived from the LFS are set
out here are: architects, town and traffic planners (ISCO code 4),
archivists and curators (43), librarians and related information pro-
fessionals (43), authors, journalists and other writers (4), sculp-
tors, painters and related artists (4), composers, musicians and
singers (43), choreographers and dancers (44), film, stage and
related actors and directors (4), photographers and image and
sound recording equipment operators (33), decorators and com-
mercial designers (347), radio, television and other announcers
(347), street, night-club and related musicians, singers and dancers
(3473) and clowns, magicians, acrobats and related associate profes-
sionals (3474).
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Chapter
Cultural employment
II
4 Cultural statistics
Cultural employment in total employment, 2005
(1000s)
Employment
Cultural Total %
EU-27 4 940.3 208 945 2.4
BE 88.4 4 212 2.1
BG 53.4 3 008 1.8
CZ 93.7 4 739 2.0
DK 82.4 2 737 3.0
DE 1 003.9 36 179 2.8
EE 19.2 609 3.2
IE 47.9 1 929 2.5
EL 92.4 4 382 2.1
ES 389.8 18 893 2.1
FR 487.9 24 312 2.0
IT 464.4 22 650 2.1
CY 7.8 348 2.2
LV 27.5 1 028 2.7
LT 36.3 1 453 2.5
LU 3.5 193 1.8
HU 79.8 3 891 2.1
MT 3.4 148 2.3
NL 305.8 8 112 3.8
AT 88.6 3 754 2.4
PL 231.3 13 947 1.7
PT 69.8 5 132 1.4
RO 97.8 9 298 1.1
SI 22.2 947 2.3
SK 40.3 2 196 1.8
FI 79.3 2 418 3.3
SE 153.5 4 357 3.5
UK 870.0 28 072 3.1
HR 30.0 1 531 2.0
IS 6.0 157 3.8
NO 48.0 2 212 2.2
CH 104.6 3 945 2.7
Data extraction: March 2007
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
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Chapter
Cultural employment
Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Share of cultural employment
in total employment, 2005 (%)
0% 1% 2% 3% 4%
EU-27: 2.4
MT
CY
EE
PL
HU
BE
LU
UK
LT
CZ
NL
IE
BG
EL
FR
DE
SK
ES
IT
PT
FI
DK
SI
SE
RO
HR
CH
IS
NO
AT
LV
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Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by age group, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Total employment
-4 -49 0+ All -4 -49 0+ All
EU-27 10.2 67.1 22.7 100 10.2 66.8 22.9 100
BE 5.4 73.2 21.4 100 8.0 71.0 20.9 100
BG 8.9 68.8 22.3 100 7.6 69.6 22.8 100
CZ 8.0 65.6 26.5 100 7.9 65.3 26.8 100
DK 15.4 55.0 29.6 100 13.3 59.1 27.6 100
DE 9.0 66.3 24.7 100 10.7 64.5 24.9 100
EE 13.9 47.4 38.7 100 10.1 62.2 27.7 100
IE 12.8 67.4 19.8 100 16.1 64.1 19.9 100
EL 7.9 75.1 17.0 100 7.4 71.2 21.4 100
ES 10.1 77.2 12.7 100 10.5 70.1 19.4 100
FR 7.0 73.6 19.4 100 8.9 67.8 23.3 100
IT 7.4 72.2 20.4 100 7.1 71.2 21.7 100
CY 9.7 70.9 19.4 100 10.2 67.1 22.7 100
LV 20.2 54.2 25.6 100 11.3 64.2 24.5 100
LT 7.6 66.1 26.4 100 7.6 70.3 22.0 100
LU 6.7 74.2 19.1 100 6.5 74.5 18.9 100
HU 5.8 67.7 26.5 100 7.0 68.7 24.2 100
MT 18.0 53.6 28.4 100 18.9 60.4 20.6 100
NL 18.2 55.6 26.2 100 14.8 62.2 23.0 100
AT 11.8 67.2 21.1 100 14.2 68.3 17.5 100
PL 6.0 68.3 25.7 100 9.1 72.0 18.9 100
PT 8.9 72.9 18.2 100 10.0 67.9 22.0 100
RO 7.1 76.9 16.0 100 8.7 74.3 17.0 100
SI 7.7 69.3 23.0 100 8.6 73.1 18.3 100
SK 7.9 69.5 22.6 100 10.7 69.7 19.6 100
FI 11.2 62.9 25.9 100 11.7 60.1 28.2 100
SE 9.4 57.6 33.0 100 10.3 58.2 31.5 100
UK 14.1 61.7 24.2 100 13.7 59.9 26.4 100
HR 8.6 69.2 22.2 100 9.6 67.6 22.8 100
IS 18.3 54.1 27.6 100 18.0 54.9 27.1 100
NO 16.7 60.3 23.1 100 12.7 59.6 27.7 100
CH 10.2 59.0 30.7 100 14.3 59.8 25.9 100
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
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Chapter
Cultural employment
7 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of female workers, 2005
0% 20% 40% 60%
EU-27
MT
CY
EE
PL
HU
BE
LU
UK
LT
CZ
NL
IE
BG
EL
FR
DE
SK
ES
IT
PT
FI
DK
SI
SE
RO
HR
CH
IS
NO
AT
LV
Cultural employment Total employment
45
46
49
54
32
38
40
40
42
42
43
44
44
44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48
50
50
53
54
54
54
57
63
65
66
46
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Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by educational attainment of workers, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Total employment
Low Medium High Low Medium High
EU-27 10.5 41.8 47.7 22.3 51.8 25.9
BE 12.7 24.9 62.5 24.1 38.5 37.4
BG 2.7 41.0 56.3 14.6 58.7 26.7
CZ 1.7 61.4 36.9 5.5 79.6 14.9
DK 15.6 34.2 50.1 18.6 49.0 32.4
DE 10.0 42.2 47.8 16.0 58.3 25.7
EE 3.6 32.3 64.0 8.3 55.0 36.7
IE 12.7 37.3 50.0 25.9 40.5 33.5
EL 8.3 51.2 40.5 28.7 45.3 26.1
ES 16.6 23.5 59.9 43.2 23.6 33.2
FR 13.2 33.3 53.5 27.2 44.0 28.8
IT 15.6 46.9 37.4 39.4 45.8 14.8
CY 6.5 38.2 55.3 27.6 41.3 31.1
LV 4.1 52.9 43.0 10.6 63.2 26.2
LT 1.8 37.1 61.1 5.8 58.4 35.7
LU 5.9 42.5 51.5 24.2 45.7 30.1
HU 3.3 45.9 50.7 13.7 64.8 21.5
MT 46.3 27.6 26.0 59.8 24.0 16.2
NL 18.2 36.6 45.2 25.3 43.3 31.4
AT 7.9 55.9 36.2 15.9 65.0 19.1
PL 1.6 47.9 50.5 6.2 69.4 24.5
PT 40.6 31.5 27.9 69.1 16.1 14.8
RO 3.7 50.8 45.5 10.1 72.5 17.3
SI 1.7 47.1 51.2 12.5 64.9 22.5
SK 0.8 63.4 35.7 4.3 79.3 16.5
FI 13.8 41.3 44.8 17.6 47.4 35.0
SE 9.0 49.7 41.4 14.8 55.5 29.6
UK 5.2 47.1 47.7 9.9 59.3 30.8
HR 1.3 53.7 45.0 11.6 67.0 21.4
IS 25.3 21.0 53.7 34.8 37.2 27.9
NO 9.8 44.6 45.7 10.4 56.9 32.7
CH 7.4 53.5 39.1 15.4 57.5 27.2
Levels of education based on ISCED 1997:
Low (ISCED levels 0-2): Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education.
Medium (ISCED levels 3-4): Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
High (ISCED levels 5-6): Tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat. EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
9 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat. EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of persons with tertiary-level education,
2005
0% 20% 40% 60%
39
46
54
45
26
28
36
36
37
37
41
41
43
45
45
46
48
48
50
50
51
51
51
52
54
55
56
60
61
63
64
48
CH
NO
IS
HR
MT
PT
SK
AT
CZ
IT
EL
SE
LV
FI
NL
RO
EU-27
UK
DE
IE
DK
PL
HU
SI
LU
FR
CY
BG
ES
LT
BE
EE
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
0 Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by occupational status, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Total employment
Employee Non- All Employee Non- All
employee* employee*
EU-27 71.0 29.0 100 86.3 13.7 100
BE 73.4 26.6 100 86.1 13.9 100
BG 87.8 12.2 100 90.2 9.8 100
CZ 69.5 30.5 100 83.9 16.1 100
DK 83.5 16.5 100 92.2 7.8 100
DE 67.3 32.7 100 88.6 11.4 100
EE 93.0 7.0 100 93.7 6.3 100
IE 72.2 27.8 100 86.5 13.5 100
EL 65.0 35.0 100 71.1 28.9 100
ES 78.3 21.7 100 83.4 16.6 100
FR 79.9 20.1 100 91.0 9.0 100
IT 46.6 53.4 100 73.8 26.2 100
CY 76.7 23.3 100 78.6 21.4 100
LV 87.1 12.9 100 93.3 6.7 100
LT 96.5 3.5 100 93.6 6.4 100
LU 72.7 27.3 100 93.1 6.9 100
HU 76.8 23.2 100 86.9 13.1 100
MT 89.3 10.7 100 87.0 13.0 100
NL 64.9 35.1 100 89.1 10.9 100
AT 70.2 29.8 100 90.8 9.2 100
PL 80.9 19.1 100 87.8 12.2 100
PT 77.7 22.3 100 82.0 18.0 100
RO 92.2 7.8 100 92.7 7.3 100
SI 92.6 7.4 100 92.0 8.0 100
SK 75.8 24.2 100 87.1 12.9 100
FI 80.0 20.0 100 90.3 9.7 100
SE 72.9 27.1 100 90.4 9.6 100
UK 70.3 29.7 100 87.5 12.5 100
HR 75.0 25.0 100 87.4 12.6 100
IS 68.0 32.0 100 87.8 12.2 100
NO 76.5 23.5 100 94.1 5.9 100
CH 74.1 25.9 100 87.7 12.3 100
* Self-employed and family workers.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of non-employees, 2005
0% 20% 40% 60%
24
26
32
25
4
7
7
8
11
12
13
17
19
20
20
22
22
23
24
27
27
27
28
23
30
30
31
33
35
35
53
29
NO
CH
IS
HR
LT
EE
SI
RO
MT
BG
LV
DK
PL
FI
FR
ES
PT
HU
CY
SK
BE
SE
LU
IE
EU-27
UK
AT
CZ
DE
EL
NL
IT
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by permanence of job and full-time/part-time work,
2005 (%)
% of workers with temporary jobs % of workers with part-time jobs
Cultural Total Cultural Total
employment employment employment employment
EU-27 16.4 13.3 25.3 17.3
BE 12.0 9.2 17.7 22.3
BG 3.4 5.7 3.2 1.9
CZ 14.6 8.7 12.1 4.8
DK 16.9 9.9 33.0 22.3
DE 15.2 13.1 29.6 24.4
EE 8.8 3.2 19.8 7.5
IE 2.9 2.6 17.0 13.3
EL 15.6 12.0 9.3 4.2
ES 29.8 32.3 20.2 12.9
FR 24.9 12.0 24.2 17.6
IT 20.0 11.5 20.5 13.1
CY 12.1 13.1 14.5 7.9
LV 6.9 7.4 20.3 7.7
LT : 3.6 10.3 4.4
LU 6.0 5.2 18.3 17.6
HU 6.7 7.1 7.7 4.4
MT 6.0 4.0 19.1 9.4
NL 20.0 14.3 58.6 45.5
AT 13.3 8.8 29.7 21.2
PL 20.7 25.5 16.0 7.7
PT 22.4 18.9 11.5 6.8
RO 3.1 2.5 5.0 2.2
SI 27.4 16.6 24.0 6.7
SK 4.1 4.7 3.1 2.5
FI 18.5 17.9 20.9 13.4
SE 24.3 16.1 28.5 25.0
UK 7.4 5.5 28.2 25.9
HR 12.6 13.0 18.1 3.6
IS 8.2 7.1 32.6 19.9
NO 13.1 9.7 33.1 29.0
CH 14.4 13.1 44.4 34.4
Reading note: In EU-27, 16.4% of cultural workers had temporary jobs in 2005.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
3 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of workers with:
part-time jobs, 2005 temporary jobs, 2005
0% 20% 40% 60% 0% 20% 40%
33
33
44
18
3
3
5
8
9
12
12
15
16
17
18
18
19
20
20
21
21
24
24
20
28
29
30
30
33
59
25
8
13
14
13
7
3
3
4
16
22
15
12
21
3
12
6
6
30
7
20
19
27
25
9
7
24
15
13
17
20
16
IS
NO
CH
HR
SK
BG
RO
HU
EL
PT
CZ
CY
PL
IE
BE
LU
MT
EE
ES
LV
IT
FI
SI
FR
EU-27
UK
SE
DE
AT
DK
NL
IS
NO
CH
HR
SK
BG
RO
HU
EL
PT
CZ
CY
PL
IE
BE
LU
MT
EE
ES
LV
IT
FI
SI
FR
EU-27
UK
SE
DE
AT
DK
NL
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
4 Cultural statistics
Second jobs reported in cultural employment/total
employment, 2005 (%)
Percentage of workers having second jobs in
Cultural employment Total employment
EU-27 6.7 3.8
BE 6.8 4.1
BG 1.1 0.8
CZ 6.8 2.4
DK 16.7 11.0
DE 5.9 3.3
EE 6.5 3.2
EL 2.6 2.5
ES 5.6 2.8
FR 5.9 3.0
IE 2.2 1.9
IT 4.3 1.6
CY 7.2 6.3
LV 13.4 6.1
LT 11.9 6.1
LU 1.8 1.8
HU 4.4 1.9
MT 1.3 4.2
NL 13.9 6.1
AT 9.1 3.6
PL 8.4 9.0
PT 6.5 6.7
RO 1.9 4.5
SI 8.3 3.8
SK 4.8 1.5
FI 8.0 3.7
SE 11.3 7.2
UK 6.2 3.8
HR 1.8 3.6
IS 18.2 10.4
NO 8.2 5.9
CH 11.0 6.4
Reading note: In EU-27, 6.7% of cultural workers had at least one sideline job in 2005.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of workers with second jobs, 2005
0% 10% 20%
8
11
18
2
1
2
2
2
3
4
4
5
6
6
6
6
7
8
7
7
7
8
8
7
9
11
12
13
14
17
7
NO
CH
IS
HR
1
BG
MT
LU
RO
IE
EL
IT
HU
SK
ES
FR
DE
UK
PT
EE
EU-27
CZ
BE
CY
FI
SI
PL
AT
SE
LT
LV
NL
DK
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by work at home, 2005 (%)
Work at home Work at home
in cultural employment in total employment
Usually Sometimes Never All Usually Sometimes Never All
EU-27 13.4 15.9 70.7 100 4.3 8.4 87.3 100
BE 17.3 13.2 69.5 100 9.0 8.9 82.1 100
BG : : : 100 : : : 100
CZ 6.7 20.9 72.3 100 3.4 6.8 89.8 100
DK 11.2 26.5 62.3 100 4.5 19.3 76.2 100
DE 13.8 19.0 67.2 100 4.0 9.1 87.0 100
EE 8.2 12.1 79.7 100 3.2 5.2 91.6 100
IE 11.8 10.0 78.2 100 5.8 5.3 88.9 100
EL 4.5 7.3 88.1 100 1.7 2.8 95.6 100
ES : : : 100 : : : 100
FR 18.0 15.8 66.1 100 10.0 7.2 82.8 100
IT 12.5 3.8 83.7 100 3.2 1.6 95.2 100
CY 3.0 - 97.0 100 0.9 0.2 98.9 100
LV 7.0 19.4 73.6 100 1.5 5.7 92.8 100
LT 1.9 3.9 94.2 100 1.1 2.7 96.1 100
LU 19.3 2.5 78.2 100 6.9 1.4 91.7 100
HU 7.3 15.1 77.6 100 2.8 6.0 91.3 100
MT 2.7 7.0 90.4 100 4.4 4.0 91.6 100
NL 24.0 - 76.0 100 5.5 - 94.5 100
AT 14.0 27.4 58.6 100 5.0 16.2 78.7 100
PL 9.9 15.1 75.0 100 2.2 7.8 90.0 100
PT 2.7 7.1 90.2 100 0.9 3.3 95.8 100
RO 2.9 1.0 96.1 100 1.2 0.6 98.2 100
SI 14.7 17.9 67.3 100 6.6 8.2 85.2 100
SK 12.6 8.3 79.1 100 4.1 4.6 91.3 100
FI 18.0 9.4 72.6 100 8.1 7.3 84.7 100
SE 15.5 12.7 71.8 100 3.5 8.4 88.1 100
UK 12.4 28.6 59.0 100 3.0 21.8 75.2 100
HR : : : 100 : : : 100
IS 23.0 22.7 54.3 100 7.2 19.0 73.7 100
NO 21.5 7.5 71.0 100 7.3 3.5 89.2 100
CH 8.9 14.7 76.4 100 3.5 10.3 86.3 100
Reading note: In EU-27, 13.4% of cultural workers were usually working at home in 2005.
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
7 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of employed usually working at home,
2005
0% 10% 20%
9
22
23
2
3
3
3
3
5
7
7
7
8
10
11
12
13
13
12
14
14
15
16
17
18
18
19
24
13
CH
NO
IS
LT
MT
PT
RO
CY
EL
CZ
LV
HU
EE
PL
DK
IE
UK
IT
SK
EU-27
DE
AT
SI
SE
BE
FR
FI
LU
NL
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by degree of urbanisation, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Total employment
Densely Interme- Sparsely All Densely Interme- Sparsely All
populated diate populated populated diate populated
area area area area area area
EU-27 58.1 18.2 23.8 100 44.0 24.2 31.8 100
BE 65.5 30.7 3.8 100 53.3 40.9 5.9 100
BG : : : 100 : : : 100
CZ 48.7 34.2 17.1 100 24.0 48.2 27.7 100
DK 57.3 24.0 18.7 100 33.9 30.3 35.8 100
DE 64.4 24.2 11.4 100 48.2 33.2 18.5 100
EE 74.3 - 25.7 100 53.8 1.4 44.8 100
IE 53.1 - 46.9 100 38.9 - 61.1 100
EL 89.2 6.4 4.4 100 75.2 11.8 13.1 100
ES 67.1 18.4 14.6 100 54.9 22.7 22.4 100
FR 70.0 22.1 8.0 100 47.2 36.7 16.1 100
IT 62.8 29.0 8.3 100 46.4 40.0 13.6 100
CY 73.7 12.6 13.6 100 59.6 15.4 25.0 100
LV 70.5 - 29.5 100 55.1 1.1 43.8 100
LT 62.2 - 37.8 100 50.6 - 49.4 100
LU 43.3 35.4 21.3 100 38.5 40.1 21.3 100
HU 66.8 18.5 14.8 100 37.4 24.3 38.2 100
MT 95.9 4.1 - 100 91.7 8.3 - 100
NL 74.7 23.4 1.8 100 65.5 32.0 2.5 100
AT 61.2 16.3 22.5 100 36.4 24.7 38.9 100
PL : : : 100 : : : 100
PT 69.8 17.4 12.8 100 46.9 33.2 19.9 100
RO : : : 100 : : : 100
SI 36.3 28.8 35.0 100 19.0 31.6 49.4 100
SK : : : 100 : : : 100
FI 51.2 16.9 31.9 100 32.3 17.1 50.6 100
SE 41.6 14.7 43.7 100 22.6 16.3 61.1 100
UK 70.1 14.5 15.4 100 66.8 17.8 15.4 100
HR 87.4 12.6 - 100 62.2 37.7 0.1 100
IS : : : 100 : : : 100
NO 40.4 18.3 41.3 100 20.3 21.3 58.5 100
CH : : : 100 : : : 100
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
9 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of workers in densely populated areas,
2005
0% 40% 80%
40
87
36
42
43
49
51
53
57
70
61
62
63
64
66
67
70
67
70
71
74
74
75
89
96
58
NO
HR
SI
SE
LU
CZ
FI
IE
DK
EU-27
AT
LT
IT
DE
BE
HU
ES
PT
FR
UK
LV
CY
EE
NL
EL
MT
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
II
70 Cultural statistics
Cultural employment/total employment
by nationality, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Total employment
Nationals Non- All Nationals Non- All
nationals nationals
EU-27 94.5 5.5 100 94.2 5.8 100
BE 91.4 8.6 100 92.1 7.9 100
BG 99.9 0.1 100 99.9 0.1 100
CZ 98.7 1.3 100 99.2 0.8 100
DK 96.1 3.9 100 97.0 3.0 100
DE 92.3 7.7 100 91.3 8.7 100
EE 96.5 3.5 100 81.7 18.3 100
IE 92.5 7.5 100 91.9 8.1 100
EL 97.2 2.8 100 92.8 7.2 100
ES 91.5 8.5 100 89.2 10.8 100
FR 95.3 4.7 100 95.1 4.9 100
IT : : 100 : : 100
CY 92.1 7.9 100 86.0 14.0 100
LV 100 - 100 99.3 0.7 100
LT 100 - 100 99.3 0.7 100
LU 64.5 35.5 100 54.8 45.2 100
HU 99.6 0.4 100 99.2 0.8 100
MT 96.9 3.1 100 96.9 3.1 100
NL 95.7 4.3 100 96.8 3.2 100
AT 89.8 10.2 100 89.8 10.2 100
PL 99.6 0.4 100 99.9 0.1 100
PT 96.6 3.4 100 96.5 3.5 100
RO : : 100 : : 100
SI 100 - 100 99.6 0.4 100
SK 100 - 100 99.8 0.2 100
FI 98.7 1.3 100 98.7 1.3 100
SE 95.9 4.1 100 95.5 4.5 100
UK 94.0 6.0 100 94.6 5.4 100
HR 100 - 100 99.7 0.3 100
IS 97.2 2.8 100 97.6 2.4 100
NO 94.8 5.2 100 96.1 3.9 100
CH 85.6 14.4 100 78.5 21.5 100
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
Chapter
Cultural employment
7 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005
Percentage of non-national workers, 2005
0% 20% 40%
2.8
5.2
14.4
21.5
0.1
0.4
0.4
1.3
1.3
2.8
7.2
3.1
3.4
3.5
18.3
3.9
4.1
4.3
4.7
6
7.5
8.1
8.5
8.6
10.2
35.5
45.2
7.9
14
7.7
5.5
IS
NO
CH
BG
HU
PL
CZ
FI
EL
MT
PT
EE
DK
SE
NL
FR
EU-27
UK
IE
DE
CY
ES
BE
AT
LU
Cultural employment Total employment
•pocketbook-pt-cp-epoete e pe e
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
chapter 2
Enterprises in
cultural sectors
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Cultural sectors in economic terms
Economic indicators on cultural sectors can be found using har-
monised SBS (Structural Business Statistics) data collected by Euro-
stat. Unfortunately, practically only one sector of the cultural indus-
tries can be analysed at the moment: publishing. Some broad data
on architectural activities are also presented here.
e audiovisual sector is not covered by the SBS or any other har-
monised source. Some data on the film market are included in this
chapter. ese statistics were published by MEDIA Salles, part of the
EU Media Programme.
The publishing sector
Publishing of books, newspapers and periodicals
In 2004, across the whole of the European Union, nearly 750 000
people were working for 55 000 firms publishing books, newspa-
pers and periodicals (the main activities in NACE group 221). Note
that printing (“technical” reproduction) is not considered part of the
cultural domain.
In 2004 publishing of books, newspapers and periodicals generated
turnover of over EUR 118 000 million, with EUR 44 000 million of
value added at factor cost. In relation to manufacturing as a whole,
this accounts for 2.6% of the number of enterprises, 1.9% of
turnover, 2.1% of jobs but more than 2.7% of value added. e
United Kingdom and Germany are the main contributors to
turnover and value added in EU-27, followed by France and Italy.
Within the publishing sector in EU-27, publishing of newspapers
contributed the most value added: 42%, compared with 33% for peri-
odicals and 25% for books. Newspapers clearly predominate (on over
50%) in most northern European countries and in Germany and
Austria. Poland and the Czech Republic stand out with over 40% of
their value added generated from publishing books.
e newspapers and periodicals market tends to be relatively geo-
graphically confined, owing to the rapid response of supply to
demand (e.g. national dailies), customer proximity (transport) and
language barriers.
Up until 2000, Europe-wide the annual production index of the
newspaper publishing sector was higher than that of the consumer
goods industry and boosted the growth of publishing. Since 2000-
2001 the indices of each publishing sub-activity have all been show-
ing a downward trend, whereas the consumer goods index is con-
Cultural statistics 75
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
tinuing to rise. One reason for this reversal may be changing con-
sumer habits, notably the success of the Internet and the on-line
availability of an abundance of information and publications.
Publishing of sound recordings
Publishing of sound recordings (CDs, DVDs and taped music or
other sound recordings, but excluding reproduction of these record-
ings) is a small subsector of publishing. In 2004 it accounted for 2.1%
of employment in the whole of the publishing sector and 3.6% of
total publishing turnover, but a bigger share of the number of enter-
prises (14.5%).
Concentration in the whole publishing sector
In the publishing sector, the proportion of micro-enterprises
(employing fewer than 10 workers) is higher than in manufacturing
as a whole. Depending on the country, 85% to 95% of publishing
firms employ fewer than 10 workers. In general, these small busi-
nesses account for 5% to 10% of the sector’s turnover.
Publishing is not immune to concentration. For example, in the
United Kingdom in 2004, one hundred firms, each employing over
250 workers, accounted for over 70% of the value added by the sec-
tor. is concentration is also increasing under the influence of the
major media groups. eir subsidiaries in Europe specialise in var-
ious stages of the leading chain or diversify into other activities,
whether or not bound up with publishing.
Architectural activities
Architecture is a cultural sector whose activities are closely related
to engineering and related technical consultancy (all classified in the
same NACE group 74.2).
In 2004, across 20 EU Member States for which data are available,
1.6 million people were employed in more than 600 000 firms in
architecture and engineering. is sector generated turnover of over
EUR 140 000 million, with EUR 73 000 million of value added at
factor cost. A large percentage of the workforce are self-employed,
especially in Italy (nearly 80%). Moreover, Italy accounts for 36% of
the number of enterprises in the EU-20 total for these activities and
nearly 20% of the number of persons employed.
e core architectural enterprises (advisory and pre-design archi-
tectural services plus architectural design services for buildings and
other structures) are oen smaller than engineering firms. In the 14
Cultural statistics 76
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
77 Cultural statistics
II
MS for which data are available, their turnover can be put at 14% of
the total turnover of the architecture and engineering sector.
Enterprises are the main clients of firms operating in the architec-
ture and engineering sector. ey accounted for 80% of its turnover
in 2004, the public sector for 17% and households for only 3%
(shares estimated from the totals for the same 14 MS for which data
are available).
Aer a slowdown between 2001 and 2004, the EU-27 estimated
turnover index in this sector is once again showing a promising
upward trend, with growth of nearly 10% between 2005 and 2006.
Need to improve collection of statistics
on the culture economy
At present, the economlc sltuatlon ln the cultural domaln can be
descrlbed only for the Luropean publlshlng sector for books, news-
papers, ìournals and perlodlcals, for publlshlng of sound recordlngs
and, broadly, for archltectural actlvltles (whlch are lncluded ln“archl-
tectural and englneerlng actlvltles”). These harmonlsed data fromthe
Structural 8uslness Statlstlcs survey are avallable from Lurostat annu-
ally.
Several other sectors cover totally or partly to the cultural domaln, but
are not lncluded ln the S8S survey: llbrary and archlves actlvltles (NACL
92.5l), museum actlvltles and preservatlon of hlstorlcal sltes and
bulldlngs (NACL 92.52), audlovlsual actlvltles (NACL 92.l and 92.2) and,
to some extent, other entertalnment actlvltles (NACL 92.3).
The newverslon of the NACL classlficatlon (NACL Pev. 2) makes a num-
ber of changes to the classlficatlon of cultural actlvltles. |t wlll be nec-
essary to study the lmpact of these changes on data collectlon, bear-
lng ln mlnd that addltlon of other cultural sectors to the Structural
8uslness Statlstlcs would requlre an amendment to the legal frame-
work.
As a strateglc sector ln the cultural domaln, the audlovlsual sector war-
rants better statlstlcal coverage ln future. Por the tlme belng, some fig-
ures on the film market, publlshed by MLD|A Salles, are presented.
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
78 Cultural statistics
II
Employment in the publishing sector
1
, 2004
Publishing
1
Manufacturing
2
%of publishing
Number of Number of Number of
in manufacturing
persons employed employees persons employed
employment
EU-27 748 800e 711 900e 35 261 900e 2.1e
BE 10 025 9 413 623 457 1.6
BG : : 643 793 :
CZ 13 826 11 529 1 363 226 1.0
DK 23 682 23 391 417 285 5.7
DE 181 401 179 692 7 228 207 2.5
EE 3 060 3 012 130 433 2.3
IE 4 426 4 380 220 935 2.0
EL : : : :
ES 46 907 44 047 2 584 251 1.8
FR 80 657 80 264 3 887 901 2.1
IT 40 103 32 582 4 672 760 0.9
CY : : 40 144 :
LV 6 492 6 290 167 936 3.9
LT 6 205 6 050 263 545 2.4
LU : : : :
HU 10 649 9 697 835 079 1.3
MT : : : :
NL 33 197 31 832 785 917 4.2
AT 9 023 8 502 621 087 1.5
PL 36 271 29 634 2 482 445 1.5
PT 10 846 10 450 866 105 1.3
RO 13 693 13 293 1 689 459 0.8
SI : : 239 694 :
SK 4 825 4 816 400 992 1.2
FI 16 142 16 012 409 686 3.9
SE 25 535 22 558 806 881 3.2
UK 146 896 143 033 3 408 919 4.3
NO 19 452 19 277 258 955 7.5
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
2. NACE D.
Data extraction: March 2007
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Number of persons employed
(total and average per enterprise)
in sub-activities of publishing
1
, 2004
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
79 Cultural statistics
II
Number of persons Number of persons
employed employed per enterprise
Publlshlng of Publlshlng of Manufac-
books newspapers ìournals books news- ìournals
turlng
and papers and
perlodlcals perlodlcals
EU-27 186 800e 312 100e 249 900e 6.4e 37.7e 14.3e 15.2e
BE 3 324 3 038 3 663 9.2 20.5 15.5 16.9
BG : : : : : : 22
CZ 7 671 3 770 2 385 u u u 9
DK 3 781 12 472 7 429 7.7 304.2 27.9 22.4
DE 31 182 84 573 65 646 17.5 145.8 52.3 36.2
EE 932 1 355 773 8 44 15 26
IE 777 1 844 1 805 24.3 70.9 30.6 48.9
EL : : : : : : :
ES 17 643 18 677 10 587 5.5 19.3 11.5 11.6
FR 16 918 31 816 31 923 4.8 17.6 7.3 15
IT 14 790 12 367 12 946 4.5 22.9 6.6 8.9
CY c 491 277 c 55 8 6
LV 1 012 2 877 2 603 9 74 16 22
LT 1 393 2 882 1 930 7 27 13 31
LU : : : : : : :
HU 4 264 2 272 4 113 3 12 4 12
MT : : : : : : :
NL 8 447 13 706 11 044 7.2 46.5 14 16.9
AT 2 382 3 998 2 643 5.9 34.5 10 21.7
PL 17 426 12 697 6 148 6 18 8 12
PT 3 056 4 177 3 613 10.4 14.1 7.8 10.8
RO 5 024 6 490 2 179 5 19 8 31
SI c 1 508 464 c 26 5 13
SK 2 248 955 1 622 32 53 22 63
FI 2 353 9 414 4 375 6.7 33.5 16.2 16.2
SE 5 086 14 899 5 550 3.1 35 6.9 13.7
UK 30 293 54 762 61 841 11.1 101.6 29.6 22
NO 3 054 13 824 2 574 7.4 49.7 8.4 12.9
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Number of enterprises, turnover
and value added in the publishing sector
1
, 2004
Share of Value Share
publishing added of publishing
turnover in at factor value added in
Enterprises Turnover manufacturing cost manufacturing
Number LUP mllllon % LUP mllllon %
EU-27 55 051e 118 371e 1.9e 44 065ue 2.7ue
BE 747 2 725 1.4 817 1.8
BG : : : : :
CZ 2 379 831 1.0 247 1.2
DK 795 2 378 3.1 982 3.9
DE 3 619 25 629 1.6 9 273 2.2
EE 194 107 1.9 44 3.1
IE 117 772 0.7 444 1.2
EL : : : : :
ES 5 096 7 730 1.7 2 803 2.4
FR 9 718 18 398 2.0 5 611 2.7
IT 5 742 12 309 1.4 3 938 1.9
CY : : : : :
LV 314 118 2.5 55 4.1
LT 455 152 1.6 57 2.5
LU : : : : :
HU 2 642 925 1.3 223 1.5
MT : : : : :
NL 2 265 6 554 2.7 2 544 4.5
AT 782 1 945 1.6 642 1.6
PL 4 547 1 872 1.3 763 1.8
PT 1 053 1 265 1.7 417 2.2
RO 1 694 291 0.9 88 1.1
SI 310 : : : :
SK 161 222 0.8 67 1.2
FI 902 2 453 2.2 1 040 3.5
SE 2 859 3 872 2.3 1 229 2.4
UK 5 345 25 750 3.8 11 928 5.5
NO 1 000 2 769 4.4 1 302 7.2
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 80
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
0% 2% 4% 8% 6%
RO
UK
DK
EU-27
ES
NL
AT
LT
SE
NO
DE
CZ
SK
IE
FR
HU
FI
PT
EE
IT
PL
BE
LV
Turnover Value added
7.2
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.7ue
3.1
2.7
3.5
3.9
4.1
4.5
5.5
1.8
Share of publishing in manufacturing value added
versus share of publishing in manufacturing turnover,
2004 (%)
Data confidential or not available for BG, EL, CY, LU, MT and SI.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 8l
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Turnover in publishing sub-activities
1
, 2004
(EUR million)
Publishing Publishing Publishing Total
of books of newspapers of journals publishing
and periodicals
EU-27 32 548e 45 483e 40 340e 118 371e
BE 857.6 806.1 1 061.7 2 725.4
BG : : : :
CZ 375.0 257.3 198.5 830.8
DK 637.3 1 051.0 690.0 2 378.3
DE 6 432.5 12 221.5 6 975.3 25 629.3
EE 26.5 52.0 28.9 107.4
IE 177.1 375.4 219.4 771.9
EL : : : :
ES 3 064.6 2 957.1 1 708.5 7 730.2
FR 5 174.9 5 350.2 7 873.0 18 398.1
IT 4 269.9 3 633.7 4 405.3 12 308.9
CY c 38.8 18.2 :
LV 23.1 42.9 51.8 117.8
LT 39.5 72.4 40.1 152.0
LU : : : :
HU 309.6 262.9 352.6 925.1
MT : : : :
NL 1 668.5 2 216.4 2 669.4 6 554.3
AT 349.4 1 029.8 565.6 1 944.8
PL 833.1 621.6 417.1 1 871.8
PT 391.9 447.3 426.1 1 265.3
RO 102.1 101.3 87.7 291.1
SI c 155.8 52.9 :
SK 90.6 48.2 83.2 222.0
FI 379.4 1 291.4 782.2 2 453.0
SE 839.4 2 054.9 977.9 3 872.2
UK 5 942.6 9 612.1 10 195.7 25 750.4
NO 628.5 1 566.5 574.4 2 769.4
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 82
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Breakdown of value added in publishing
1
by sub-activities, 2004 (%)
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
EE
AT
LT
DE
SE
NO
FI
IT
CZ
PT
PL
LV
EU-27
DK
ES
HU
FR
RO
UK
BE
SK
NL
0% 20% 40% 80% 60% 100%
Publishing of books Publishing of newspapers
Publishing of journals and periodicals
60
59
56
55
53
51
50
46
44
42e
41
40
39
38
37
37
34
34
18
23
23
22
27
25
21
28
33e
43
17
31
20
43
26
27
44
22
20
22
26
22
25
33
28
25e
16
43
30
42
21
37
39
22
33
28
24
20
41
33
36
40
26
39
40
40
27 13
IE 61 26 13
Cultural statistics 83
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Labour cost per employee and investment per person
employed in publishing
1
sub-activities, 2004
Journals
and
Books Newspapers periodicals Manufacturing
4
Labour |nvestment
3
Labour |nvestment Labour |nvestment Labour |nvestment
cost
2
cost cost cost
(Unlt (LUP (Unlt (LUP (Unlt (LUP (Unlt (LUP
labour l000s) labour l000s) labour l000s) labour l000s)
cost) cost) cost) cost
EU-27 37.1e 2.4e 42.6e 4.0e 37.7e 2.2e 31.0 6.3
BE 58.9 4.7 56.3 2.8 51.7 5.0 48.5 8.5
BG : : : : : : 2.3 1.6
CZ 10.8 1.2 14.0 1.6 15.0 2.1 8.8 3.7
DK 45.0 6.0 30.2 4.1 26.4 2.7 43.1 9.6
DE 44.3 1.6 44.0 3.1 27.1 0.8 45.2 6.9
EE 9.0 1.2 12.3 1.1 10.8 1.2 6.8 2.6
IE 43.3 16.6 50.0 5.8 41.9 2.3 39.1 14.8
EL : : : : : : : :
ES 32.5 1.6 40.3 4.0 36.2 3.5 28.7 7.5
FR 52.5 2.2 57.3 3.5 57.0 2.3 40.7 7.5
IT 42.5 1.6 83.3 13.2 55.7 1.9 32.2 6.8
CY c c 26.9 6.7 17.1 1.4 17.3 5
LV 4.1 1.5 5.8 0.0 5.6 0.0 4 3
LT 5.3 1.3 6.4 1.2 4.8 0.6 4.7 2.3
LU : : : : : : : :
HU 12.7 1.5 14.9 12.2 11.9 2.5 9.2 5.3
MT : : : : : : : :
NL 48.9 1.8 45.6 3.2 49.3 2.3 44.9 8.1
AT 39.8 1.8 53.9 2.4 47.0 2.2 41.6 9
PL 10.8 1.0 12.0 0.8 12.3 0.9 6.6 3.1
PT 26.4 4.4 31.3 2.3 26.3 3.5 13.9 4.8
RO 2.8 0.9 3.2 1.4 4.6 1.0 2.6 2.4
SI c ci 31.7 7.3 22.5 1.9 16.2 4.9
SK 6.8 2.0 10.5 2.6 9.4 0.9 6.9 4.1
FI 41.6 2.2 41.2 5.5 42.8 2.2 41.8 9.1
SE 44.5 2.0 45.7 2.0 48.3 5.1 47.3 7.9
UK 49.7 4.3 48.2 6.7 44.0 3.1 38.1 6.5
NO 55.3 3.8 44.4 2.4 63.0 2.9 49 8.2
1. In this context, “publishing” means “publishing of books, newspapers, journals and periodicals”
(NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE
group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).
2. Average labour cost per employee (unit labour cost).
3. Average investment per person employed (EUR 1000s).
4. NACE D.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 84
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
85 Cultural statistics
II
Annual production index for publishing sub-activities,
1996-2006 (base index: 1996 = 100)
120
110
100
90
Publishing
Publishing of books
Publishing of newspapers
Publishing of journals and periodicals
Consumer goods industry
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Source: Eurostat, Short-Term Statistics, 1996-2006
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Employment in sound recordings sector, 2004
Number of Number of Number of
persons employed employees persons employed
per enterprise
EU-27 19 000e 15 100e 2.0ue
BE 227 80 1.4
BG : : :
CZ u u u
DK 308 225 2.4
DE 1 993 1 639 4.8
EE 37 9 3.7
IE c c c
EL : : :
ES 543 462 4.2
FR 5 198 5 031 1.7
IT 1 821 930 2.6
CY 0 0 :
LV 81 80 4.5
LT 107 98 5.9
LU : : :
HU 436 367 2.2
MT : : :
NL 808 469 1.8
AT 136 53 1.5
PL 603 295 2.7
PT 190 164 2.2
RO 184 169 1.9
SI 102 80 2.2
SK 3 0 1.0
FI 374 314 1.0
SE 1 416 1 173 0.8
UK 3 821 3 056 3.5
NO 267 187 1.3
Source: Eurostat. Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 86
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Number of enterprises, turnover
and value added in sound recordings sector, 2004
Number Turnover Value added
of enterprises at factor cost
LUP mllllon LUP mllllon
EU-27 9 338e 4 368e 1 173e
BE 164 34.1 4.8
BG : : :
CZ u u u
DK 128 57.6 12.2
DE 416 538.2 128
EE 10 0.5 0.2
IE c c c
EL : : :
ES 129 115.9 23.1
FR 3 010 1 908.4 567.2
IT 709 204.5 58.8
CY 0 0 0
LV 18 c c
LT 18 5.3 1.1
LU : : :
HU 194 43.2 5.6
MT : : :
NL 440 167.7 23.3
AT 90 13.3 4.1
PL 224 20.6 4.4
PT 85 21.7 4.7
RO 99 6.9 0.9
SI 47 13.2 3.2
SK 3 0.1 0
FI 366 73.5 25.9
SE 1 832 252.9 72.2
UK 1 077 840.2 214.6
NO 205 56.8 15.6
Source: Eurostat. Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 87
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Number of enterprises and turnover in the whole
publishing sector by size of enterprise, 2004 (%)
Number of enterprises Turnover
l-9 l0-l9 20-49 50-249 250 l-9 l0-l9 20-49 50-249 250
or more or more
BE c 5.3 c c 0.6 c 8.7 c c 41.8
BG c c c c 0.0 c c c c 0.0
CZ 92.7 4.0 2.2 0.8 0.3 17.4 6.8 14.4 23.0 38.4
DK 82.2 6.0 5.8 4.3 1.7 10.3 4.1 c 24.0 c
DE 65.9 15.1 c 8.2 c 5.0 6.0 c 31.3 c
EE 72.5 12.2 8.0 6.9 0.4 14.4 9.0 15.5 c c
IE 43.6 c c c 3.0 4.1 c c c 55.3
EL : : : : : : : : : :
ES 88.7 5.9 3.0 2.1 0.4 13.6 6.6 15.2 36.5 28.1
FR 92.6 3.1 2.5 1.3 0.4 11.4 5.0 14.0 21.9 47.7
IT 92.8 4.0 1.7 1.1 0.3 13.7 7.9 8.4 18.0 52.0
CY c c 11.5 5.8 0.0 c c 20.0 57.3 0.0
LV 74.8 13.6 6.4 4.7 0.6 c 9.9 c 41.2 c
LT 74.8 c 6.9 3.1 c 20.2 c 17.8 28.6 c
LU : : : : : : : : : :
HU 94.6 2.8 1.9 0.6 0.1 30.7 9.0 16.2 33.1 10.9
MT : : : : : : : : : :
NL 88.6 4.6 3.7 2.0 1.1 c c c c 56.6
AT 84.3 7.4 5.2 2.7 0.4 10.9 10.9 c c c
PL 94.4 2.0 1.9 1.3 0.3 c c 11.1 20.6 46.8
PT 87.4 6.4 2.9 c c 10.1 9.1 7.1 c c
RO 86.4 c 5.1 c c 24.2 c 15.2 c c
SI 89.8 3.5 4.0 2.2 0.4 c c c c c
SK 76.5 15.0 3.7 4.0 0.8 30.4 8.1 7.7 26.5 27.2
FI 85.8 6.0 3.3 3.9 0.9 10.6 5.4 8.3 31.0 44.7
SE 94.8 2.1 1.4 1.4 0.2 c c 9.9 36.4 29.8
UK 87.2 5.5 3.8 2.4 1.1 8.7 3.2 5.5 14.0 68.5
NO 77.4 9.6 6.0 6.0 0.9 9.9 6.3 c 35.3 c
Note: In this context, “publishing” covers the whole of NACE group 221 (including sound recordings
and other publishing activities). The size of enterprises is defined by the number of persons
employed.
Source: Eurostat. Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 88
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
0% 20% 40% 100% 60% 80%
HU
FR
UK
DK
IT
FI
AT
LT
RO
NO
ES
SK
PT
EE
DE
IE
CZ
Turnover Number of entreprises
77
44
73
75
76
82
84
86
86
87
87
89
93
93
93
95
66
Importance of micro-enterprises
1
in the publishing
sector (in number of enterprises and turnover),
2004 (%)
1. 1-9 persons employed.
Data confidential or not available for BE, BG, CY, EL, LU, LV, MT, NL, PL, SE and SI.
In this context, “publishing” covers the whole of NACE group 221 (including sound recordings and
other publishing activities).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 89
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Employment in the architecture
and engineering sector, 2004
Number of Number of Number of % of persons
persons employees persons employed in real
employed employed estate, renting and
per business activities
enterprise (NACE K)
BE
1
41 100 25 711 2.6 9.5
DK 32 474 29 671 6.4 9.7
DE 360 130 273 527 4.2 9.0
EE
1
4 753 4 559 5.9 10.2
IE
1
18 917 15 522 5.0 11.0
EL 64 691 26 352 1.9 :
ES 203 847 118 776 2.2 8.7
IT
1
308 589 66 479 1.4 12.9
LV 5 614 5 360 6.2 7.3
LT 8 987 7 821 5.5 13.8
LU
1
3 202 3 035 8.5 6.4
MT 1 008 657 2.6 :
PL
1
: 49 154 : :
PT 27 428 23 486 4.5 7.6
RO 40 350 39 325 5.3 12.6
SI 11 049 9 504 3.1 17.9
SK 9 785 9 505 8.4 10.7
FI 27 489 25 642 5.6 14.2
SE 61 768 53 078 2.1 12.2
UK 353 981 314 360 6.3 7.8
NO 28 721 25 768 3.2 12.6
1. Data 2003.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics 2003, 2004
Cultural statistics 90
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Number of enterprises, turnover and value added at
factor cost in architectural and engineering activities,
2004
Main Share in real estate,
indicators renting and business activities
Lnterprlses Turnover value Lnterprlses Turnover value
added added
Number LUP mllllon LUP mllllon % % %
BE
1
15 828 5 215.9 2 131.9 15.9 8.6 9.0
DK 5 044 5 095.1 2 122.3 7.9 13.3 8.7
DE 84 765 31 030.3 18 125.6 15.1 8.5 8.4
EE
1
807 98.3 47.9 9.8 6.7 8.1
IE
1
3 750 2 666.1 1 092.9 14.1 12.2 10.4
EL 33 411 2 508.4 1 340.0 : : :
ES 91 475 14 760.9 7 581.6 17.1 7.9 9.2
IT
1
224 357 18 034.3 9 928.0 24.1 9.1 12.0
LV 903 120.6 45.8 4.9 8.4 7.8
LT 1 647 201.2 91.1 19.3 13.1 14.1
LU
1
376 : 168.4 4.6 : 6.2
MT 381 55.3 16.0 : : :
PL
1
40 197 2 408.1 857.9 14.9 9.2 10.0
PT 6 122 2 157.6 292.8 9.9 10.8 3.9
RO 7 619 563.5 259.5 12.4 11.3 14.4
SI 3 589 1 030.7 303.4 18.7 22.3 20.9
SK 1 166 471.8 137.6 12.8 15.2 11.3
FI 4 939 2 800.0 1 470.0 10.6 12.8 13.8
SE 29 403 6 651.1 3 228.6 14.4 9.6 9.5
UK 56 435 44 025.0 23 631.1 9.8 9.8 9.0
NO 9 001 4 352.4 2 092.8 10.1 12.5 11.8
1. Data 2003.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics 2003, 2004
Cultural statistics 9l
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
92 Cultural statistics
II
Other Project Urban Other All
architectural management planning additional
and engineering services services related products
services and services Sum of
(3) (4) (5) (6) (l) to (6)
EU
*
: 7.9 2.1 : 100.0
DE 8.1 6.6 1.4 4.9 100.0
DK 16.0 9.7 3.8 13.4 100.0
ES 21.3 15.7 1.8 4.5 100.0
FI 3.5 0.7 2.4 12.7 100.0
EL 17.7 3.1 2.5 8.0 100.0
LT 14.0 30.2 1.7 6.4 100.0
LV c 9.4 1.4 : 100.0
MT 9.8 7.4 0.2 60.4 100.0
PT 0.0 8.6 2.7 31.9 100.0
RO 21.0 4.7 0.8 16.2 100.0
SE 27.1 4.3 0.2 17.2 100.0
SI 12.1 10.4 2.1 42.4 100.0
SK 5.5 1.1 0.9 36.1 100.0
UK c 7.2 2.9 41.2 100.0
NO 28.6 8.9 0.7 13.9 100.0
* Estimates based on the 14 Member States for which data are available.
(1) Sub-total of the first three columns.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Breakdown of architecture and engineering turnover
by product, 2004 (%)
Architectural Advisory Other Sub-total Engineering
design and architectural core design services
services for pre-design services architectural including
buildings architectural services integrated
and other services engineering
structures services
for turnkey
projects
(l) (2)
EU
*
10.0 2.0 1.9 13.9 :
DE 17.6 1.9 1.6 21.2 57.8
DK 7.5 3.7 1.0 12.3 44.9
ES 18.4 3.8 4.0 26.2 30.5
FI 15.0 2.0 0.7 17.8 63.0
EL 19.8 3.7 2.4 25.9 42.8
LT 14.7 1.3 1.6 17.6 30.2
LV 18.3 4.1 0.5 22.9 c
MT 11.0 1.3 1.8 14.1 8.3
PT 12.3 9.1 2.3 23.6 33.1
RO 15.8 5.4 4.1 25.3 31.9
SE 4.3 2.1 0.8 7.2 43.9
SI 3.5 1.7 0.5 5.6 27.5
SK 0.8 1.7 3.9 6.5 49.9
UK 2.1 0.7 1.7 4.5 c
NO 6.9 1.3 0.9 9.0 38.8
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
93 Cultural statistics
II
Breakdown for each country available,
2004 (%)
37%
20%
79%
17%
3%
22%
Manufacturing
enterprises Enterprises from real estate,
renting and business activities
ENTERPRISES
HOUSEHOLDS
PUBLIC SECTOR
Other
enterprises
Breakdown of EU
1
turnover of the architecture
and engineering sector by client, 2004 (%)
Public Households Manufacturing Enterprises Other
sector enterprises from enterprises
real
estate, renting
and business
activities
EU
1
17.4 3.4 22.1 20.1 37.0
DK 20.4 9.3 50.5 9.0 10.9
DE 18.1 3.6 27.2 28.6 22.5
EL 24.6 14.6 3.8 7.7 49.3
ES 12.2 4.1 26.1 41.4 16.2
LV 27.4 5.0 2.5 33.4 31.7
LT 4.2 2.8 10.3 11.6 71.1
MT 1.8 2.5 6.8 41.8 46.8
PT 11.9 0.5 39.2 29.2 19.1
RO 9.6 11.4 24.3 28.3 26.4
SI 11.2 6.8 40.2 7.3 34.5
SK 7.3 1.1 36.2 24.5 30.9
FI 15.7 3.1 35.9 18.5 26.9
SE 3.4 0.1 22.7 22.9 51.0
UK 20.8 2.1 12.6 8.4 56.1
NO 8.7 1.7 54.7 13.2 21.8
1. Total of 14 Member States for which data are available.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
Breakdown of employment
1
in the architecture
and engineering sector (K742) and in real estate,
renting and business activities (NACE K)
by size of enterprise, 2004 (%)
Size of enterprise by number of persons employed
NACL l-9 l-49 50-249 250 or more
DK K742 24.4 20.3 14.4 41.0
K 24.6 20.5 22.5 32.4
DE K742 49.2 30.0 11.1 9.6
K 26.4 20.1 20.0 33.4
EL K742 79.0 19.8 1.2 0.0
K : : : :
ES K742 63.7 15.5 10.1 10.7
K 38.2 15.8 14.5 31.5
LV K742 49.8 35.2 15.1 0.0
K 40.6 24.0 23.3 12.1
LT K742 37.9 31.5 24.7 5.9
K 32.5 27.5 24.6 15.4
MT K742 57.1 42.9 0.0 0.0
K : : : :
PT K742 54.4 28.8 12.8 3.9
K 35.5 14.1 14.4 36.0
RO K742 36.5 17.3 23.3 22.9
K 32.8 16.2 25.7 25.2
SI K742 53.6 30.4 c c
K 48.6 c c 11.7
SK K742 38.3 c 20.2 c
K 29.2 27.5 30.0 13.3
FI K742 31.7 26.0 25.8 16.5
K 29.0 20.8 20.5 29.7
SE K742 42.5 21.6 21.1 14.8
K 33.6 20.9 18.8 26.7
UK K742 36.0 27.2 23.0 13.8
K 27.3 16.3 16.6 39.8
NO K742 41.8 26.9 11.7 19.6
K 36.5 20.4 16.7 26.4
1. Number of persons employed.
Reading note: In Germany (DE) enterprises employing 9 persons or fewer and specialising in
architecture and engineering account for 49.2% of total employment in this sector.
Source: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics
Cultural statistics 94
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
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150
140
130
120
110
100
90
Architectural and engineering activities;
technical testing and analysis
Business activities
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Index of turnover from architectural and engineering
activities, technical testing and analysis,
EU-27 estimates, 2000-2006 (base index: 2000 = 100)
Data extraction: May 2007
Source: Eurostat, Short-Term Statistics, 2000-2006
Cultural statistics 95
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
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Cinema admissions and gross box office revenues
Admissions Admissions Gross
per box office
inhabitant revenues
Number (l000s) Average LUP l000s
number
2000 2005 2006 2006 2005
EU-27 901 139 898 213 929 225p 1.9p :
BE 23 548 21 902 23 807p 2.3 128 790
BG 2 217 2 422 2 362 0.3 5 961
CZ 8 719 9 479 11 509 1.1 29 466
DK 10 691 12 187 12 600 2.3 84 387
DE
1
152 533 127 318 136 679 1.7 744 989
EE 1 084 1 133 1 587 1.2 4 816
IE 14 886 16 396 17 854 4.2 94 400
EL 12 700e 12 700e 13 000p 1.2e :
ES 135 391 127 651 121 654 2.8 634 951
FR 165 957 175 340 188 673p 3.0 1 024 139
IT
2
97 819 102 464 104 200p 1.8 588 963
CY 1 012 822 813 1.1 5 457
LV 1 457 1 679 2 141 0.9 5 502
LT 2 103 1 189 2 480 0.7 3 601
LU 1 362 1 158 1 252 2.7 7 624e
HU 14 287 12 124 11 665 1.2 38 355
MT 966 988e 948p 2.3 4 437e
NL
3
21 581 20 632 22 518 1.4 135 248e
AT 16 299 15 680 17 344 2.1 104 282
PL 20 892 24 966 32 374p 0.8 91 839e
PT 19 224 17 165 16 367 1.5 70 414
RO 5 112 2 830 2 777 0.1 6 636
SI 2 077 2 444 2 685p 1.3 9 123
SK 2 646 2 184 3 396p 0.6 5 221
FI 7 091 6 059 6 687p 1.3 44 910
SE 16 978 14 609 15 293 1.7 119 538
UK 142 507 164 692 156 560 2.6 1 123 595
HR 2 743 2 174 2 669 0.6 6 704
TR 26 040 27 592 34 861p 0.5 114 545
IS 1 569 1 400 : : 12 822
LI 28 26 25 0.7 219
NO 11 586 11 314 12 012 2.6 98 128
CH 15 564 14 950 16 380 2.2 137 829
1. Including municipal cinemas.
2. Based on SIAE (Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori) data on screens active more than 60 days
per year.
3. Data on some small distributors not included.
Source: MEDIA Salles
Cultural statistics 96
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Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
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Cultural statistics 97
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
Annual cinema admissions
per inhabitant
1
, 2006
Cinema admissions in EU-27
1996: 775 Mio
2006:
930 Mio
0
EU-27:
1.9 admission per inhabitant
PT
NL
LU
EL
PL
UK
AT
CY
IE
IT
LT
SI
FI
CZ
DK
LV
EE
HU
ES
MT
DE
FR
SE
BE
4.2
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.3
2.3
3.0
2.3
2.1
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
BG
NO
CH
LI
SK
TR
HR
RO
0.3
0.1
0.6
0.5
2.6
2.2
0.7
4 2
1. Annual admissions as a proportion of the total population of each country.
Source: MEDIA Salles
Source: MEDIA Salles
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Operational cinema screens, 2005-2006
2005 2006
Operatlonal Operatlonal |ncludlng % screens
screens screens screens ln multlplexes
ln multlplexes
EU-27 29 854 29 437 : 37e
BE 536 512 302 59
BG 98 111 51 46
CZ 667 700p 130 19
DK 374 385 74 19
DE
1
4 889 4 848 1 267 26
EE 69 76 11 14
IE 352 415 164 40
EL 490e 400p 148 37
ES 4 401 4 299 2 542 59
FR 5 393 5 362p 1 742 32
IT
2
3 794 3 600p 987 27
CY 30 29 : :
LV 61 49 14 29
LT 70 77 19 25
LU 24 24 10 42
HU 492 443p 124 28
MT 42 41 17 41
NL
3
614 679 126 19
AT 569 580 242 42
PL 937 931p 364 39
PT
4
624 479p 169 35
RO 120 108 21 19
SI 101 101p 38 38
SK 245 245p 20 8
FI 332 332 51 15
SE 1 174 1 171 168 14
UK 3 356 3 440 2 213 64
HR 123 103 13 13
TR 1 188 1 299p 235 18
IS 45 : : :
LI 3 3 : :
NO 435 426e 56 13e
CH 537 547 75 14
1. Including municipal cinemas.
2. Based on SIAE (Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori) data on screens active more than 60 days
per year.
3. Including professionally equipped municipal cinemas with regular screenings.
4. Instituto Nacional de Estatística data, which include multi-purpose theatres.
Note: In this context, multiplexes are defined as complexes with at least eight screens.
Source: MEDIA Salles
Cultural statistics 98
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Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
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Source: MEDIA Salles
Cultural statistics 99
Chapter 2
Enterprises in cultural sectors
II
0%
EU-27: 37
FR
LV
BG
LT
FI
AT
PL
CZ
UK
SI
EE
HU
IT
DK
MT
NL
DE
RO
BE
LU
PT
ES
EL
IE
64
59
46
42
42
41
59
40
39
38
37
35
32
29
28
27
26
25
19
19
19
19
15
14
14
SK
CH
NO
SE
TR
HR
8
18
13
14
13e
60% 40% 20%
Density of multiplexes screens in the total number
of screens, 2006 (%)
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctectoe e pe e
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
External trade
in cultural goods
chapter 3
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l03 Cultural statistics
II
External and intra-EU trade in cultural goods
In 2006 EU-27’s balance of external trade with the rest of the
world in the main cultural goods (books, newspapers and period-
icals, CDs and DVDs, works of art, collectors’pieces, antiques and
musical instruments) showed a surplus of EUR 3 000 million. Musi-
cal instruments were the only item posting a deficit. Trade in works
of art, collectors’pieces and antiques ranked first by value, with
exports of EUR 4 700 million and imports of EUR 3 000 million,
giving a surplus of EUR 1 700 million. Trade in books came second.
e highest export/import ratio was for newspapers, journals and
periodicals: press exports are 3.6 times higher than imports.
5 000
EUR million
4 000
3 000
2 000
1 000
0
Imports Exports
Books
Newspapers,
journals
and
periodicals
Compact
discs
CD
DVD
Musical
instruments
Works of art,
collectors'
pieces
and antiques
EU-27 external trade in the main cultural goods,
2006
Data extraction: April 2007
Source: Eurostat, Comext
e USA and Switzerland are always among the three top recipi-
ents of cultural exports fromEU-27. ey are also key partners for
imports.
is situation is the same as for traded goods as a whole (cultural
and non-cultural goods). In 2005, the latest year for which figures
are available, the USA was EU-25’s largest trading partner, account-
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l04 Cultural statistics
II
ing for 23.5% of all exports leaving the Union. e USA was also the
largest source of imports entering EU-25, but its share of total
imports (13.9%) was considerably lower and was only just higher
than China’s (13.4%
1
).
e concentration of EU-27 exports is lower for books than for
other products: the top three partners account for only 43% of book
exports. e top eight countries receive 64% and the remaining 36%
are spread across 193 countries. By contrast, the top three partners
take 60% of all exports of press and musical instruments and 85%
of the art market. e countries receiving book exports from EU-27
reflect cultural and linguistic ties, whereas imports may include
books printed outside EU-27 but published in EU-27 countries.
Asian countries are significant suppliers of books and musical instru-
ments. 72% of musical instrument imports come from China, Japan,
Indonesia, Taiwan and South Korea. Electronic musical instruments
account for 37% of these imports, while on the export side wind
instruments take first place (with 21% of exports).
Countries in the
rest of the world
(United States,
Switzerland, China, etc.)
Intra-EUtrade: Extra-EUtrade:
Dispatches
and arrivals
between
Member States
Exports

Imports and exports with
EU-27 as a whole
Imports
Intra-EU-27 trade, as measured by dispatches
2
of the five products
within the Union, slightly outweighs exports from EU-27. is is
due to the preponderance of trade in works of art, collectors’ pieces
and antiques, for which dispatches make up only 10% of the value
of EU exports. In other products, intra-EU-27 trade heavily out-
weighs extra-EU-27 trade.
e top item by value is books (EUR 4 100 million), followed by
newspapers/periodicals and DVDs (EUR 2 300 million and EUR
2 200 million respectively).
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l05 Cultural statistics
e United Kingdom is the only country where books account for
the majority of cultural goods imports from and exports to non-EU
countries – 71% of imports and 54% of exports.
For most countries, the pattern of trade for works of art, collectors’
pieces and antiques differs from that for other products: trade with
non-EU countries outweighs trade with the other Member States.
II
The goods produced by cultural lndustrles – books, newspapers, ìour-
nals and perlodlcals, DvDs, compact dlsks, and muslcal lnstruments –
are traded lnternatlonally. The same ls true of works of art, collectors’
pleces and antlques. These are the maln cultural goods llsted ln the
classlficatlon used for complllng external trade statlstlcs (Comblned
Nomenclature, CN).
Note that lmports of books, dlsks or DvDs may lnclude slmple prlnt-
lng or presslng outslde the country of publlcatlon.
|nformatlon about trade ln llcences and copyrlght ls especlally lmpor-
tant ln the llterary, muslcal and audlovlsual fields where lt ls essentlal
to supplement analysls of trade ln tanglble goods, such as dlsks and
vldeos, whlch does not adequately cover trade ln the field of muslc.
8ut the relevant data are not avallable. The balance of payments ltem
whlch mlght supply thls lnformatlon draws no dlstlnctlon between
authors’ copyrlght, llcences, franchlses and lndustrlal patents.
These data are drawn fromexternal trade statlstlcs collected fromcus-
toms and vAT declaratlons on trade ln goods. |nformatlon on lnterna-
tlonal trade for LU-27 ls calculated as the sum of trade wlth countrles
outslde thls area. |n other words, LU-27 ls consldered as a slngle trad-
lng entlty and trade flows lnto and out of the area (but not wlthln lt)
are measured. On the other hand, lnternatlonal trade flows for lndl-
vldual Member States and other countrles are generally presented
wlth the rest of the world as the tradlng partner, lncludlng trade wlth
other Member States (lntra-LU trade).
The transactlon value of the goods ls the C|P (cost, lnsurance, frelght)
value for lmports and the PO8 (free on board) value for exports.
1. Europe in Figures – Eurostat Yearbook 2006-07, Vol. 7 International trade.
2. Arrivals, i.e. imports from other EU countries, are under-estimated. Conse-
quently, Eurostat considers dispatches the most reliable gauge of intra-EU trade
(External and Intra-European Union Trade, Statistical Yearbook, Data 1958-2005,
Eurostat, 2006 edition).
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l06 Cultural statistics
II
Trade can include books printed outside the countries of publication.
Data extraction: April 2007
Source: Eurostat, Comext
Sources of imports
39%
7%
20%
11%
7%
2%
2%
1%
11%
EUR 1 710 million
United States
Total
Switzerland
China
Hong Kong
Singapore
Canada
Israel
Japan
Others
U
Others: l57 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 7 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
20%
17%
5%
5%
4%
5%
3%
4%
37%
EUR 2 654 million
United States
Total
Switzerland
Norway
Australia
Mexico
Canada
South Africa
Japan
Others
Others: l93 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 27 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
EU-27 external trade in books, 2006
(%and amount in EUR million)
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l07 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, Comext
EU-27 external trade in newspapers, journals
and periodicals, 2006
(%and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
59%
EUR 250 million
United States
15%
Switzerland
6%
Croatia
3%
Brazil
8%
Others
2%
Serbia
3%
Russia
2%
Norway
2%
Canada
Total
U
Others: 85 tradlng partners,
none wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
EUR 896 million
Total
18%
Others
2%
Mexico
2%
South Africa
3%
Canada
6%
Norway
8%
Australia
9%
United States
30%
Switzerland
22%
Russia
Others: l56 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 4 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l08 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, Comext
EU-27 external trade in works of art, collectors’ pieces
and antiques, 2006
(%and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
61%
EUR 3 034 million
United States
1%
Russia
6%
Others
2%
Hong Kong
1%
Japan
1%
Canada
2%
China
4%
Mexico
22%
Switzerland
Total
U
Others: l58 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 5 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
EUR 4 720 million
Total
7%
Others
2%
Hong Kong
1%
Japan
2%
Canada
1%
China
1%
Australia
66%
United States
18%
Switzerland
2%
Russia
Others: l63 tradlng partners,
lncludlng l0 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
l09 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, Comext
EU-27 external trade in musical instruments, 2006
(%and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
21%
1%
36%
18%
9%
1%
3%
6%
5%
EUR 925 million
United States
Total
Switzerland
China
Japan
Indonesia
Canada
South Korea
Taiwan
Others
U
Others: ll7 tradlng partners,
none wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
EUR 484 million
Total
21%
Others
3%
Australia
3%
Norway
4%
China
4%
South Korea
4%
Russia
34%
United States
8%
Switzerland
19%
Japan
Others: l66 tradlng partners,
lncludlng l wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll0 Cultural statistics
II
External trade in books for each EU country, 2006
(EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 416 592 90 10 341 546 91 9
BG 11 707 86 14 2 492 74 26
CZ 124 835 92 8 96 786 92 8
DK 125 819 82 18 98 301 61 39
DE 528 287 61 39 1 321 223 61 39
EE 8 680 57 43 9 819 95 5
IE 172 535 89 11 159 813 81 19
EL 81 392 76 24 42 585 72 28
ES 209 907 63 37 598 295 55 45
FR 666 919 78 22 601 682 49 51
IT 223 483 78 22 480 440 77 23
CY 18 077 95 5 1 095 72 28
LV 13 831 68 32 7 481 56 44
LT 11 972 82 18 12 788 79 21
LU 38 156 91 9 12 515 95 5
HU 69 699 79 21 36 127 81 19
MT 4 924 89 11 8 028 93 7
NL 325 223 67 33 382 539 83 17
AT 404 337 98 2 72 918 78 22
PL 97 058 91 9 113 177 85 15
PT 64 041 86 14 28 186 33 67
RO 25 268 72 28 2 601 46 54
SI 13 386 79 21 70 284 65 35
SK 30 266 90 10 55 681 86 14
FI 64 466 85 15 39 881 64 36
SE 146 462 77 23 111 042 38 62
UK 1 256 215 29 71 2 015 890 46 54
Trade can include books printed outside the countries of publication.
Source: Eurostat, Comext
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
lll Cultural statistics
II
External trade in newspapers, journals and
periodicals for each EU country, 2006
(EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 288 553 97 3 170 786 99 1
BG 4 938 96 4 1 791 70 30
CZ 96 797 100 0 112 627 81 19
DK 44 110 54 46 63 219 71 29
DE 324 398 88 12 852 628 74 26
EE 2 179 64 36 14 956 34 66
IE 137 699 100 0 25 681 97 3
EL 17 638 83 17 10 599 96 4
ES 159 572 98 2 139 480 67 33
FR 424 794 91 9 403 967 73 27
IT 183 161 97 3 185 712 75 25
CY 30 522 100 0 4 237 100 0
LV 10 859 69 31 2 394 70 30
LT 1 722 52 48 19 398 17 83
LU 29 539 100 0 10 906 100 0
HU 32 550 97 3 6 934 83 17
MT 6 870 97 3 180 0 100
NL 91 564 79 21 125 562 87 13
AT 179 487 96 4 48 551 90 10
PL 24 529 91 9 165 497 70 30
PT 93 417 91 9 3 702 43 57
RO 11 356 93 7 8 519 70 30
SI 22 421 72 28 18 913 16 84
SK 20 167 98 2 49 128 64 36
FI 56 693 95 5 123 656 42 58
SE 87 420 91 9 26 069 34 66
UK 250 666 73 27 625 902 68 32
Trade can include press printed outside the countries of publication.
Source: Eurostat, Comext
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll2 Cultural statistics
II
External trade in CDs for each EU country, 2006
(EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 54 855 98 2 32 911 95 5
BG 528 69 31 477 57 43
CZ 8 584 96 4 29 544 95 5
DK 15 289 81 19 10 671 76 24
DE 225 422 92 8 339 699 76 24
EE 3 172 85 15 2 252 58 42
IE 18 335 98 2 5 652 37 63
EL 8 608 95 5 10 343 92 8
ES 31 737 92 8 19 847 79 21
FR 181 165 92 8 101 321 74 26
IT 58 193 95 5 9 178 77 23
CY 1 800 96 4 502 100 0
LV 1 360 81 19 56 0 100
LT 909 89 11 1 067 86 14
LU 9 284 89 11 6 230 94 6
HU 2 277 92 8 2 212 40 60
MT 1 152 99 1 185 100 0
NL 46 983 68 32 218 583 79 21
AT 68 523 97 3 89 234 92 8
PL 6 029 96 4 15 112 91 9
PT 11 804 89 11 1 772 62 38
RO 2 311 99 1 164 67 33
SI 4 196 91 9 2 189 49 51
SK 5 576 99 1 1 287 99 1
FI 15 759 96 4 3 380 92 8
SE 45 373 77 23 49 096 38 62
UK 184 153 85 15 150 828 72 28
Trade can include CDs reproduced outside the countries of publication.
Source: Eurostat, Comext
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll3 Cultural statistics
II
External trade in DVDs for each EU country, 2006
(EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 160 725 98 2 66 116 98 2
BG 1 415 96 4 3 490 45 55
CZ 14 334 96 4 31 339 97 3
DK 56 417 96 4 85 122 51 49
DE 343 778 91 9 702 862 83 17
EE 2 198 91 9 1 191 100 0
IE 78 453 99 1 8 078 68 32
EL 8 818 95 5 2 038 82 18
ES 54 316 97 3 16 401 73 27
FR 182 992 93 7 147 332 77 23
IT 110 429 98 2 16 996 73 27
CY 4 190 89 11 543 100 0
LV 1 725 87 13 431 85 15
LT 1 931 89 11 2 269 100 0
LU 27 149 82 18 34 828 91 9
HU 6 379 97 3 2 859 67 33
MT 1 816 33 67 29 87 13
NL 83 726 79 21 396 779 98 2
AT 122 069 91 9 514 045 96 4
PL 33 271 96 4 133 030 96 4
PT 11 515 95 5 3 170 94 6
RO 3 165 96 4 1 306 48 52
SI 3 116 41 59 1 676 53 47
SK 19 244 99 1 8 514 100 0
FI 36 832 98 2 2 105 81 19
SE 98 773 76 24 80 443 51 49
UK 365 577 92 8 212 355 87 13
Trade can include DVDs reproduced outside the countries of publication.
Source: Eurostat, Comext
•pocketbook-pt-cp-etetee e pe e
Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll4 Cultural statistics
II
External trade in works of art, collectors’ pieces
and antiques for each EU country, 2006
(EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 73 232 28 72 61 038 29 71
BG 516 60 40 529 73 27
CZ 62 610 96 4 13 236 61 39
DK 41 112 18 82 36 793 31 69
DE 276 697 17 83 275 528 27 73
EE 528 34 66 3 027 89 11
IE 18 904 18 82 13 618 11 89
EL 9 113 28 72 36 348 5 95
ES 383 072 16 84 53 471 45 55
FR 340 158 11 89 896 525 9 91
IT 80 558 22 78 132 814 22 78
CY 943 42 58 93 4 96
LV 557 52 48 739 48 52
LT 225 73 27 414 30 70
LU 12 397 44 56 1 465 73 27
HU 1 833 57 43 3 805 17 83
MT 554 60 40 129 64 36
NL 157 118 14 86 85 045 13 87
AT 93 893 52 48 319 847 8 92
PL 4 278 39 61 20 608 17 83
PT 54 056 22 78 4 448 48 52
RO : : : : : :
SI 533 17 83 208 13 87
SK 279 46 54 81 0 100
FI 16 974 7 93 23 721 5 95
SE 31 434 20 80 37 792 23 77
UK 1 870 694 8 92 3 153 133 5 95
Source: Eurostat, Comext
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll5 Cultural statistics
II
Extra and intra EU-27 trade in works of art,
collectors’ pieces and antiques, by product, 2006
(EUR million)
Extra-EU-27 Intra-EU-27
|mports Lxports 8alance Dlspatches
Total EU-27 3 033.6 4 719.7 + 1 686.1 454.7
Paintings 1 861.7 2 628.2 + 766.5 195.3
Engravings 71.7 107.8 + 36.2 22.3
Sculptures 254.4 479.6 + 225.2 78.9
Postage stamps 93.1 71.3 – 21.8 58.4
Collections 288.6 208.5 – 80.0 15.2
Antiques* 464.1 1 224.3 + 760.2 65.0
Not broken down
and confidential data - - - 19.6
* Antiques over 100 years old.
RO not available.
Source: Eurostat, Comext
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll6 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, Comext
EU-27 external trade in paintings, engravings
and sculptures, 2006 (%and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
EUR 2 188 million
United States
1%
6%
Others
2%
Hong Kong
1%
1%
2%
China
3%
Mexico
25%
Switzerland
Total
Japan
Russia
Canada
59%
U
Others: l37 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 2 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
62%
EUR 3 215 million
United States
1%
Liechstenstein
6%
Others
2%
Canada
1%
Japan
2%
Australia
2%
Hong Kong
2%
Russia
22%
Switzerland
Total
U
Others: l40 tradlng partners,
lncludlng 6 wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll7 Cultural statistics
II
Source: Eurostat, Comext
EU-27 external trade in antiques, 2006
(%and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
65%
EUR 464 million
United States
1%
Australia
4%
Others
5%
Hong Kong
1%
Russia
1%
China
2%
Japan
10%
Mexico
11%
Switzerland
Total
U
Others: 65 tradlng partners,
none wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
Destinations for exports
EUR 1 224 million
Total
5%
Others
4%
Hong Kong
1%
Canada
2%
Russia
1%
Australia
1%
Japan
77%
United States
6%
Switzerland
3%
China
Others: 84 tradlng partners,
none wlth > LUP l0 mllllon
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll8 Cultural statistics
II
External trade in musical instruments
for each EU country, 2006 (EUR 1000s)
Imports Exports
Total |ntra- Lxtra- Total |ntra- Lxtra-
LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%) LUP l000s LU-27 (%) LU-27 (%)
BE 182 205 21 79 216 827 98 2
BG 1 512 26 74 1 168 70 30
CZ 16 287 65 35 48 042 62 38
DK 38 663 64 36 14 368 66 34
DE 330 253 43 57 386 059 50 50
EE 5 132 90 10 2 911 17 83
IE 19 597 54 46 4 961 86 14
EL 14 937 51 49 1 081 63 37
ES 86 290 58 42 31 905 57 43
FR 191 955 67 33 141 948 36 64
IT 140 783 47 53 140 784 59 41
CY 2 422 51 49 22 12 88
LV 2 700 63 37 714 64 36
LT 2 644 81 19 195 65 35
LU 3 759 100 0 40 81 19
HU 8 991 59 41 7 152 83 17
MT 976 61 39 63 20 80
NL 131 974 23 77 130 411 86 14
AT 41 177 83 17 42 149 50 50
PL 21 304 68 32 12 685 82 18
PT 12 697 84 16 2 331 81 19
RO 6 515 64 36 12 028 58 42
SI 6 298 70 30 2 105 56 44
SK 4 417 73 27 2 343 69 31
FI 20 657 48 52 1 703 19 81
SE 53 348 44 56 26 502 56 44
UK 273 463 23 77 67 001 53 47
Source: Eurostat, Comext
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Chapter 3
External trade in cultural goods
ll9 Cultural statistics
II
Extra and intra EU-27 trade in musical instruments,
by product, 2006 (EUR million)
Extra-EU-27 Intra-EU-27
|mports Lxports 8alance Dlspatches
Total EU-27 925.1 483.8 – 441.3 813.7
Pianos 93.6 90.7 – 2.9 135.5
Guitars, violins, etc. 110.7 57.3 – 53.4 60.8
Keyboard pipe organs,
harmoniums 3.6 11.2 + 7.6 3.4
Accordions 6.3 14.3 + 8.0 20.5
Clarinets, trumpets, etc. 88.4 100.0 + 11.6 115.7
Percussion instruments 91.0 25.7 – 65.3 42.9
Electronic instruments 337.2 50.0 – 287.3 249.6
Musical boxes 21.5 7.1 –14.4 6.2
Parts and accessories 170.4 118.6 – 51.8 122.0
Not broken down
and confidential data 2.5 9.0 - 56.9
Source: Eurostat, Comext
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III
Cultural expenditure
and participation
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Household
cultural expenditure
chapter 1
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Chapter 1
Household cultural expenditure
125 Cultural statistics
Household cultural expenditure
Alongside the three main categories of household expenditure,
namely on housing, food and transport, cultural spending comes
under the heading of leisure and culture expenditure. In the indi-
vidual EU countries, the share of cultural expenditure in household
budgets at the end of the 1990s varied from 2.7% in Greece and
Lithuania to 5.6% in Sweden and 5.8% in Denmark.
Cultural expenditure reflects not only discrepancies in cultural prac-
tices, but also relative price differences. e effect of price differences
can be limited by expressing mean household cultural expenditure
in terms of “purchasing power standard” (PPS).
e activities related to cultural expenditure were divided between
printed matter (books, newspapers, periodicals and graphic arts
goods: 31% of average household cultural spending in EU-15), pic-
ture, sound and computer use (24%), picture, sound and computer
equipment (22%), attending cultural events (cinema, theatre, con-
certs, museums, galleries and others: 13%) and amateur activities
(photography, music, etc.: 10%). Inter-country differences are partly
associated with the level of computer equipment per household, the-
atre or cinema attendance and greater or lesser reading of books,
newspapers and periodicals.
Data on households’ expenditure can be analysed taking into
account the socio-economic situation of households. is informa-
tion confirms the commonly held perception that cultural con-
sumption is influenced by income. Nevertheless, it is interesting to
see to which extent this impact can be observed in different coun-
tries. In some countries, cultural consumption grows steadily as
income increases, while in others a big “jump” is observed for house-
holds with the highest income.
III
The data presented are based on the 1999 EU Household Budget Sur-
veys for the EU-15 Member States. Data for the newMS are taken from
the national HBS conducted at the beginning of the 2000s. In a few
months, new data from the 2006 collection will be available at Euro-
stat and will be subjected to more detailed analysis of the patterns of
cultural consumption (also allowing comparison with the 1999 data).
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Chapter 1
Household cultural expenditure
III
126 Cultural statistics
Average annual cultural expenditure per household,
1999 (EUR, PPS and as %of total expenditure)
Consumption expenditure Share of cultural Cultural
consumption consumption
Total Culture expenditure expenditure
EUR EUR % PPS
EU-15 25 114e 1 124e 4.5e 1 076e
BE 27 188 1 226 4.5 1 236
DK 29 255 1 695 5.8 1 358
DE 25 228 1 374 5.4 1 284
EL 19 147 510 2.7 623
ES 17 076 562 3.3 666
FR 25 876 1 079 4.2 1 025
IE 28 709 1 156 4.0 1 197
IT 24 081 583 2.4 659
LU 44 190 1 563 3.5 1 530
NL 24 607 1 270 5.2 1 324
AT 28 145 1 251 4.4 1 175
PT 13 418 401 3.0 554
FI 21 571 1 106 5.1 934
SE 28 883 1 608 5.6 1 207
UK 29 850 1 475 4.9 1 366
CZ 6 730 292 4.3 578
EE 4 287 184 4.3 336
CY 21 020 542 2.6 689
LV 4 890 195 4.0 427
LT 4 419 119 2.7 271
HU 5 748 268 4.7 507
PL 6 010 243 4.1 461
SI 13 507 609 4.5 884
Source: Eurostat, Household Budget Survey – EU-15: 1999 wave; national data for the new MS
(CY: 1997; SI: 2001; LV, HU and PL: 2002; CZ, EE and LT: 2003)
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Chapter 1
Household cultural expenditure
127 Cultural statistics
III
0% 4% 2%
EU-15: 4.5
6%
PT
EL
NL
SI
LT
FI
FR
PL
DK
IE
CY
IT
EE
BE
LV
HU
CZ
DE
UK
ES
SE
LU
AT
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.2
5.1
4.5
4.4
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.1
4.5
4.3
2.6
2.7
3.3
3.0
2.7
2.4
4.7
4.3
4.2
4.9
Share of cultural expenditure
in total households expenditure, 1999 (%)
Source: Eurostat, Household Budget Survey – EU-15: 1999 wave; national data for the new MS
(CY: 1997; SI: 2001; LV, HU and PL: 2002; CZ, EE and LT: 2003)
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Chapter 1
Household cultural expenditure
128 Cultural statistics
Average annual cultural expenditure per household,
by income group (quintile), 1999 (EUR)
Average total
1st quintile 4th quintile
2nd quintile
3rd quintile
5th quintile
0 1 000 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500
EL
ES
LU
SE
PT
BE
UK
FR
IE
AT
FI
IT
NL
DE
DK
EU-15
Reading note: In EU-15 in 1999 the average cultural expenditure of the 20% of households with the
lowest income was 586 euros, compared with 1 755 euros for the households with the highest
income.
Source: Eurostat, Household Budget Survey, 1999 wave
III
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Chapter 1
Household cultural expenditure
129 Cultural statistics
EU-27 harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICP)
for main cultural goods and services
(base index: 2000 = 100)
120
110
100
80
90
70
60
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction
of sound and pictures
Recording media
Cultural services
Books
Newspapers and periodicals
All-items HICP
Source: Eurostat, HICP
III
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Cultural participation
chapter 2
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l33 Cultural statistics
Cultural participation
On the whole, only a fairly small part of the population use cultural
facilities, which are usually urban and subject to payment, especially
in the case of the performing arts. e only activities in this cate-
gory practised by more than half the population (EU-27) are visit-
ing historical monuments and going to the cinema.
e findings in relation to social status or level of education confirm
that use of cultural facilities tends to increase in line with financial
and, particularly, socio-cultural resources. People at managerial level
have the highest rates for visiting museums or historical monuments
and for attending theatre and ballet, while students are the most
numerous for cinema-going, library use and attendance at concerts.
Ageing oen leads to less use being made of cultural facilities and
more time being spent on home-based leisure activities, such as
reading and television.
In 2007 nearly 30% of the EU-27 population had taken some pho-
tographs or made a film as an amateur artistic activity at least once
in the last 12 months and nearly three quarters (71%) had read at
least one book. Book reading, especially frequent reading, is more
common among women and persons with a high level of education.
In 2006 nearly one household out of every five (18%) possessed a
video game console and six out of every ten had a personal com-
puter (EU-27). e spread of computers clearly has not yet reached
its limit, since wide differences exist from one country to another.
e equipment rate varies by a factor of 1:4 between Bulgaria (21%)
and Denmark (85%). ere are also large differences in Internet con-
nection: from 17% for Bulgaria to 80% for the Netherlands.
III
Data on cultural partlclpatlon are taken from the Lurobarometer sur-
vey conducted ln 2007 across LU-27 countrles. |t should be empha-
slsed that Lurobarometer surveys are not statlstlcal tools but oplnlon
polls based on subìectlve responses. |n a year’s tlme, data from the
speclfic module on soclal and cultural partlclpatlon attached to the
2006 LU Survey on |ncome and Llvlng Condltlons (S|LC) wlll be avall-
able, as wlll data on soclal/cultural partlclpatlon from the Luropean
Adult Lducatlon Survey (ALS, 2006 wave). Slnce 2002 a Communlty
survey on |CT usage ln households and by lndlvlduals has been pro-
vldlng data on |CT equlpment and use of the |nternet ln partlcular.
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l34 Cultural statistics
41
37
51
54
18
35
32
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
All EU-27 population
Participation in cultural activities at least once
in the last 12 months, EU-27, 2007 (%)
Responses are not exclusive.
Reading note: In 2007 in EU-27, 51% of the population (aged 15 years or older) had been to the
cinema at least once in the last 12 months.
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l35 Cultural statistics
III
Men
Women
55
53
41
39
32
29
15
53
50
41
36
37
34
19
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
Participation in cultural activities at least once
in the last 12 months by gender, EU-27, 2007 (%)
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l36 Cultural statistics
68
57
75
78
28
50
58
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
Managers
Self-employed
60
57
47
40
32
34
20
Manual workers
53
57
35
35
28
24
13
Other white collars
63
70
47
44
39
36
22
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
Participation in cultural activities
at least once in the last 12 months
by status of occupation, EU-27, 2007 (%)
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l37 Cultural statistics
III
60
58
88
72
24
72
46
Students
Retired
42
20
31
25 23
25
15
Unemployed
38
43
27
29
30
14
9
House persons
43
38
30
23
29
22
11
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
All EU-27 population
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
Reading note: In 2007, 88% of EU-27 students had been to the cinema at least once in the last
12 months, compared with 51% for the whole EU-27 population.
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l38 Cultural statistics
48
52
82
61
20
55
35
15-24 years old
25-39 years old
59
66
42
43
38
32
17
55 years old
or more
45
24
34
27
24
27
16
40-54 years old
59
53
45
37
33
33
18
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
All EU-27 population
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
Participation in cultural activities at least once
in the last 12 months by age, EU-27, 2007 (%)
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
t
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l39 Cultural statistics
III
Seen a ballet,
a dance performance
or an opera
Visited historical monuments
(palaces, castles, churches,
gardens, etc.)
Been to
the cinema
Visited
museums
or galleries
Been to a concert Visited a public library
Been to
the theatre
59
53
66
72
27
48
47
All EU-27 population
End of education at the age of 15 years
End of education at the age of 16-19 years
End of education at the age of 20 years old or more
Participation in cultural activities at least once
in the last 12 months by level of education,
EU-27, 2007 (%)
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l40 Cultural statistics
Age Age of end
of education
EU-27 l5-24 25-39 40-54 55 l5 l6-l9 20
or years or
more old more
Played a musical
instrument 10 17 12 9 7 5 8 16
Sung 15 21 15 15 12 9 14 19
Acted 3 9 3 2 1 1 2 4
Danced 19 29 21 20 11 11 19 22
Written something
(a text, a poem, etc.) 12 24 11 11 8 4 9 19
Done some photography,
made a film 27 31 34 30 19 14 27 39
Done any other artistic
activities
2
16 28 19 16 9 6 14 25
None (Spontaneous) 38 26 34 37 47 54 37 26
Status of occupation
Self- Mana- Other Manual House Unem- Petl- Stu-
em- gers whlte workers persons ployed red dents
ployed collars
Played a musical
instrument 11 19 10 9 5 8 6 22
Sung 15 21 15 12 14 12 11 23
Acted 3 4 2 2 2 2 1 11
Danced 18 27 21 21 16 17 10 29
Written something
(a text, a poem, etc.) 12 21 11 8 9 10 7 30
Done some
photography,
made a film 34 43 35 28 20 21 17 35
Done any other artistic
activities
2
21 27 16 13 14 15 8 32
None (Spontaneous) 37 21 33 38 47 44 48 23
1. Either on their own or as part of an organised group or classes and not on a professional basis;
multiple answers are possible.
2. Like sculpture, painting, drawing, creative computing such as designing a website, etc.
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
Participation in amateur artistic activities
1
at least
once in the last 12 months by age, age of end
of education and status of occupation, EU-27, 2007 (%)
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l4l Cultural statistics
III
Never
in the
At More last
least 1-2 3-5 than twelve
once times times 5 times months
EU-27 All 71 20 14 37 28
Sex
Men 67 21 14 32 32
Women 74 18 14 42 25
Age
15-24 82 25 18 39 17
25-39 72 22 15 35 27
40-54 74 21 14 39 26
55 or more 63 16 10 37 36
Age of end of education
15 years old 51 19 10 22 48
16-19 71 23 14 34 28
20 or more 86 16 16 54 13
Still studying 91 22 19 50 9
Note: The percentages on each row do not add up to exactly 100, because of a small percentage of
“don’t knows”.
Source: Eurobarometer 67.1, 2007
Percentage of persons having read a book
in the last 12 months, 2007 (%)
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l42 Cultural statistics
Percentage of households having access
to a personal computer, a game console
or the Internet at home, 2006 (%)
Personal Game Internet access
computer
1
console
1
at home
2
EU-27 60 18 49
BE 57 15 54
BG 21 2 17
CZ 39 2 29
DK 85 26 79
DE 77 16 67
EE 52 4 46
IE 59 33 50
EL 37 13 23
ES 57 : 39
FR 56 : 41
IT 48 19 40
CY 52 24 37
LV 41 3 42
LT 40 3 35
LU 77 36 70
HU 50 7 32
MT 61 27 53
NL 80 25 80
AT 67 18 52
PL 45 6 36
PT 45 18 35
RO : : 14
SI 65 7 54
SK 50 8 27
FI 71 26 65
SE 82 24 77
UK 71 36 63
MK : 4 14
IS 84 38 83
NO 75 29 69
Responses are not exclusive.
1. Via one of its members.
2. Includes all devices: personal computer, mobile phone, game console and TV set with specific
Internet device.
Data extraction: July 2007.
Source: Eurostat, Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals, 2006
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctptcptoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l43 Cultural statistics
III
EU-27: 30
0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
IE
EE
LU
SK
ES
FR
HU
DE
SI
PT
NL
RO
CZ
LV
PL
UK
LT
IT
CY
EL
SE
FI
DK
BG
MK
IS
NO
AT
BE
33
34
34
37
44
44
48
51
53
63
66
30
29
24
23
22
22
19
17
16
13
12
11
10
5
4
1
72
57
Percentage of households
using a broadband connexion, 2006 (%)
Source: Eurostat, Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals, 2006
•pocketbook-pt-cp-ctptcptoe e pe e
Chapter 2
Cultural participation
III
l44 Cultural statistics
Frequency of computer use
1
by individuals, 2006 (%)
Every day At least At least Less than
or almost once a week once a month once
(but not (but not a
every day) every week) month
EU-27 71 20 7 2
BE 75 19 4 1
BG 67 26 6 1
CZ 57 29 12 2
DK 82 14 3 0
DE 70 21 7 3
EE 69 24 6 1
IE 63 27 7 4
EL 63 24 10 3
ES 63 24 9 4
FR 70 : : :
IT 87 3 8 1
CY 72 19 8 1
LV 67 25 7 1
LT 64 28 6 2
LU 73 21 4 2
HU 73 22 4 1
MT : : : :
NL 79 16 4 1
AT 75 19 5 2
PL 64 25 8 2
PT 72 18 7 3
RO 55 36 8 1
SI 75 18 6 1
SK 70 23 6 1
FI 76 17 5 2
SE 74 20 5 1
UK 69 21 7 4
MK 63 29 7 1
IS 83 13 3 1
NO 77 18 4 1
1. Average among individuals who used a computer within the last three months.
Source: Eurostat, Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals, 2006
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Chapter 2
Cultural participation
l45 Cultural statistics
III
Use of the Internet for cultural purposes
1
, 2006 (%)
Reading / Listening
downloading Playing / to Web
online downloading radios / Other
newspapers / games for watching Training communication
news and Web and uses (chat
magazines music television education sites, etc.)
EE 82 46 27 13 35
LT 72 58 40 65 38
FI 60 43 26 35 29
CY 59 51 27 39 32
DK 56 32 33 24 20
HU 56 50 27 29 47
LV 53 47 34 25 44
SK 51 37 17 16 40
EL 48 39 19 32 10
SE 48 39 33 9 29
BG 47 48 43 29 59
SI 47 41 29 43 31
NL 45 51 34 29 36
PT 45 46 30 20 42
MT 44 43 26 38 31
CZ 43 28 15 40 29
AT 43 25 11 22 21
LU 41 37 30 30 49
PL 40 40 24 11 44
UK 36 37 23 50 20
EU-27 35 34 22 35 33
IT 35 29 15 32 25
DE 27 26 17 52 38
BE 26 32 18 24 30
FR 20 20 22 : 37
IE 15 22 18 26 13
ES : 48 : 16 42
RO : : : : :
MK 29 51 19 24 37
NO 80 45 42 9 42
IS 76 38 48 17 49
1. Percentage of individuals who used the Internet in the last three months.
Reading note: In EU-27, 35% of individuals who used the Internet in the last three months used it for
reading / downloading online newspapers / magazines.
The rates of “reading / downloading online newspapers / magazines” are sorted in descending order.
Responses are not exclusive.
Source: Eurostat, Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals, 2006
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Time spent
on cultural activities
chapter 3
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•pocketbook-pt-cp-eee e pe e
Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
149 Cultural statistics
Time spent on cultural activities
e general way people organise their day and use their time is sim-
ilar across countries, although some differences can be noted. Lunch
breaks, for example, are longer in the Mediterranean countries, par-
ticularly in France, than elsewhere, with the result that the amount
of leisure time is shorter. e Finnish have an hour more leisure time
than the French and the Italians. Another example is peak television
viewing time, which is in the evening in every country, but begins
at an earlier hour in the UK and Scandinavia.
People in the Mediterranean countries spend less time than people
elsewhere on television and culture as a primary leisure activity (they
also read much less). Figures concerning secondary activities, how-
ever, tend to show that they are more used to watching television or
listening to music while doing other things.
e eight-country classification for time devoted to TV and video is
appreciably the same for the 15-24 as for the 65-85 age group. is
time is longer among the older population everywhere, with nearly
equal difference patterns from one country to another.
Men in every country generally have more leisure time than women
and devote more of their time to television and video than to other
cultural activities.
Young boys, between the ages of 10 and 14, devote more time to
playing video games than young girls. Between 15 and 24 years old,
they are less numerous, but still spend almost the same time on them
as the 10-14s.
III
The Harmonised European Time Use Study (Hetus) launched by Euro-
stat in the early 1990s is designed to facilitate Europe-wide compari-
son between the different Time Use surveys conducted by national
statistical agencies and research institutes from 1998 to 2004.
The Hetus site developed by Statistics Sweden with a grant fromEuro-
stat makes it possible to answer personalised requests on the average
daily time spent on various activities by the inhabitants of eight coun-
tries (DE, ES, FR, IT, FI, SE, UK and NO); it also provides participation
rates. BG, EE and LV joined the site in July 2007. Data also exist for other
European countries (BE, DK, LT, HU, NL, PL and SI) but they are not yet
consultable online, since certain data rectification and harmonisation
of concepts are required.
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
10 Cultural statistics
How is time spent during the day?
Participation rate, 10 minutes by 10 minutes (%)
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
E
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
D
Unless otherwise stated in the tables or graphs, the population concerned is 20- to 74-year-olds, the
common age group for the national surveys.
DE – Germany
ES – Spain
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
11 Cultural statistics
III
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
F
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
I
Unspecied time
TV and video
Freetime
Eating
Sleep
Household work
Work and study
FR – France
IT – Italy
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
12 Cultural statistics
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
S
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
F
How is time spent during the day?
Participation rate, 10 minutes by 10 minutes (%)
FI – Finland
SE – Sweden
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
13 Cultural statistics
III
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
U
100%
40%
60%
80%
20%
0%
4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00
N
Data extraction from Hetus website: June 2007.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys (countries surveyed between 1999 and 2003)
Unspecied time
TV and video
Freetime
Eating
Sleep
Household work
Work and study
UK – United Kingdom
NO – Norway
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
14 Cultural statistics
Mean duration per day by activity (hours:minutes and
% of the day) and participation rate in the activity (%)
The mean duration by those who spent any time on the activity can be calculated in the
following way:
Mean duration by those who spent
=
Mean duration per day
x 100
any time on the activity Participation rate
DE Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2001-2002 h:mm %
TV and video 1:49 7.6 78
Freetime 5:05 21.2 100
Eating 1:45 7.3 99
Sleep 8:12 34.2 100
Household work 3:45 15.6 93
Work and study 3:16 13.6 43
ES Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2002-2003 h:mm %
TV and video 1:53 7.8 82
Freetime 4:12 17.5 100
Eating 1:46 7.4 100
Sleep 8:34 35.7 100
Household work 3:33 14.8 84
Work and study 3:59 16.6 46
FR Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
1998-1999 h:mm %
TV and video 2:01 8.4 78
Freetime 3:06 12.9 :
Eating 2:15 9.4 100
Sleep 8:50 36.8 100
Household work 3:36 15.0 90
Work and study 3:37 15.1 46
IT Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2002-2003 h:mm %
TV and video 1:40 6.9 79
Freetime 4:28 18.6 100
Eating 1:54 7.9 100
Sleep 8:18 34.6 100
Household work 3:51 16.0 83
Work and study 3:40 15.3 44
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Time spent on cultural activities
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III
Note: In the classification, Freetime = Leisure time except TV and video (but including Other
personal care and Travel related to leisure).
Main travel times (work, study, shopping…) have been taken into account in each category of
activity.
Reading note: In Spain, for example, the mean duration spent watching TV or videos is 1: 53 per day
(for the entire population, whether or not they watch). In fact, 82% of them practise this activity.
Consequently, people (20- to 74-year-olds) who watch TV or videos spend on average
1: 53/0.82 = 2: 18 per day doing so.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
FI Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
1999-2000 h:mm %
TV and video 2:13 9.2 86
Freetime 4:38 19.3 99
Eating 1:21 5.6 99
Sleep 8:27 35.2 100
Household work 3:27 14.4 94
Work and study 3:42 15.4 46
SE Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2000-2001 h:mm %
TV and video 1:48 7.5 82
Freetime 4:40 19.4 100
Eating 1:34 6.5 99
Sleep 8:06 33.8 100
Household work 3:30 14.6 95
Work and study 4:11 17.4 52
UK Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2000-2001 h:mm %
TV and video 2:23 9.9 87
Freetime 4:06 17.1 99
Eating 1:25 5.9 98
Sleep 8:23 34.9 100
Household work 3:45 15.6 93
Work and study 3:49 15.9 47
NO Mean duration % in a day Participation rate
2000-2001 h:mm %
TV and video 1:52 7.8 83
Freetime 5:19 22.2 100
Eating 1:22 5.7 99
Sleep 8:03 33.5 100
Household work 3:22 14.0 95
Work and study 3:59 16.6 :
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Mean duration per day DE ES
1
FR IT FI SE UK NO
Leisure total
as main activity
2
5:28 4:51 4:24 4:35 5:36 5:07 5:08 5:46
Cultural time
as main activity 3:01 2:24 2:36 2:12 3:21 2:42 3:12 2:52
Leisure total
as secondary activity 3:59 1:12 5:53 2:55 2:40 2:41 2:29 2:00
Cultural time
as secondary activity 1:52 1:14 2:28 1:49 1:18 1:05 1:12 0:57
Main activities and secondary activities − leisure and
cultural time (h:mm)
Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
1 Cultural statistics
DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
TV and video 1:49 1:53 2:01 1:40 2:13 1:48 2:23 1:52
Entertainment
and culture 0:14 0:06 0:05 0:05 0:06 0:06 0:07 0:07
Total computing 0:15 0:07 0:04 0:06 0:06 0:11 0:10 0:10
Computer
and video games 0:04 0:01 : 0:01 0:02 0:02 0:03 0:02
Other computing 0:11 0:06 0:04 0:05 0:04 0:09 0:07 0:08
Reading 0:38 0:15 0:23 0:18 0:46 0:32 0:26 0:36
Radio and music 0:05 0:03 0:03 0:03 0:10 0:05 0:06 0:07
Mean duration of cultural time as main activity (h:mm)
DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
TV and video 78 82 77 79 86 82 87 83
Entertainment
and culture 9 5 4 4 6 5 6 6
Total computing 16 8 4 6 9 16 11 14
Computer
and video games 4 1 : 1 4 2 3 2
Other computing 13 7 4 5 6 14 9 12
Reading 59 22 34 30 68 55 42 62
Radio and music 10 5 5 8 18 11 13 15
Participation rate in cultural activities
as main activity (%)
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
1. ES: Socialising with family, visits and feasts, other socialising and resting as secondary activities are
not available.
2. Cultural time without “art”. “Art” is included in“Other hobbies and games” and cannot be singled
out. But “art” is taken into account in“Leisure total as main activity”.
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Time spent on cultural activities
17 Cultural statistics
III
Detailed breakdown of cultural activities
as secondary activity
Mean duration
per day, by activity DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(h:mm)
TV and video 0:18 0:39 0:54 1:10 0:16 0:13 0:24 0:12
Reading 0:12 0:04 0:11 0:04 0:10 0:13 0:12 0:08
Radio and music 1:22 0:29 1:23 0:35 0:52 0:39 0:38 0:37
Participation rate DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(%)
TV and video 26 45 51 65 30 27 44 26
Reading 27 8 15 9 33 39 30 24
Radio and music 64 28 62 40 45 43 47 42
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
0:00 2:00 4:00 1:00 3:00
0:46 2:13
2:23 0:26
1:49 0:38
1:48 0:32
1:53 0:15
2:01 0:23
1:40 0:18
IT
ES
FR
SE
DE
UK
FI
Entertainment and culture
Total computing
Reading
TV and video
Radio and music
1:52 0:36
NO
Breakdown of the mean duration of cultural activities
as main activity (h:mm)
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
18 Cultural statistics
1:48
1:40
2:02
1:26
2:12
1:50
2:21
1:54
WatchingTV and video
15-24 years old
NO
UK
SE
1
FI
IT
FR
ES
DE
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
64-85 years old
2:24
3:00
2:59
2:35
3:01
2:45
3:16
2:31
T
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
2
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
ES
DE
Main cultural activities by age group
Mean duration per day (h:mm)
1. SE: respondents are 20-24 years old.
2. NO: respondents are 64-79 years old.
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
19 Cultural statistics
III
01:29
0:50
0:47
0:44
1:20
0:57
0:49
1:13
Other cultural activities
15-24 years old
NO
UK
SE
2
FI
IT
FR
1
ES
DE
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
Entertainment and culture
Computer and video games
Other computing
Reading
Radio and music
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
3
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
1
ES
DE
64-85 years old
1:26
0:30
0:57
0:35
1:45
1:33
1:20
1:38
1. FR: no information is available on“computer and video games”.
2. SE: respondents are 20-24 years old.
3. NO: respondents are 64-79 years old.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
10 Cultural statistics
Mean duration of and participation rate in
the main cultural activities,
15-24 years old (h:mm and %)
Mean duration DE ES FR IT FI SE
1
UK NO
(h:mm)
TV and video 1:48 1:40 2:02 1:26 2:12 1:50 2:21 1:54
Entertainment and culture 0:19 0:10 0:09 0:08 0:10 0:08 0:08 0:16
Computer and video games 0:19 0:08 : 0:07 0:16 0:09 0:10 0:16
Other computing 0:23 0:17 0:15 0:08 0:11 0:24 0:10 0:15
Reading 0:19 0:09 0:15 0:11 0:27 0:12 0:10 0:17
Radio and music 0:09 0:06 0:08 0:10 0:16 0:04 0:11 0:09
Participation rate DE ES FR IT FI SE
1
UK NO
(%)
TV and video 75 80 76 76 83 77 86 81
Entertainment and culture 12 7 6 6 10 8 7 12
Computer and video games 17 8 : 9 18 6 10 12
Other computing 24 18 13 10 14 24 12 19
Reading 32 15 22 20 47 29 20 34
Radio and music 16 11 13 20 27 9 19 21
1. SE: respondents are 20-24 years old.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
11 Cultural statistics
III
Mean duration of and participation rate in
the main cultural activities,
64-85 years old (h:mm and %)
Mean duration DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
1
(h:mm)
TV and video 2:24 3:00 2:59 2:35 3:01 2:45 3:16 2:31
Entertainment and culture 0:11 0:02 0:02 0:02 0:04 0:04 0:05 0:03
Computer and video games 0:02 0:00 : 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00
Other computing 0:05 0:01 0:01 0:01 0:01 0:03 0:04 0:02
Reading 1:01 0:21 0:48 0:28 1:12 1:10 0:58 1:10
Radio and music 0:07 0:06 0:06 0:04 0:28 0:16 0:13 0:23
Participation rate DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
1
(%)
TV and video 87 90 89 89 92 92 92 91
Entertainment and culture 7 2 1 2 5 6 5 3
Computer and video games 2 0 : 0 1 1 1 1
Other computing 6 1 1 1 1 4 4 4
Reading 78 22 55 34 82 83 69 85
Radio and music 17 7 9 8 37 27 24 37
1. NO: respondents are 67-79 years old.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
12 Cultural statistics
Main cultural activities by gender
Mean duration per day (h:mm)
1:58
2:00
2:08
1:52
2:25
1:58
2:37
2:06
WatchingTV and video
Men
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
ES
DE
Women
1:40
1:46
1:55
1:29
2:02
1:40
2:09
1:39
T
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
ES
DE
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
13 Cultural statistics
III
1. FR: no information is available on“computer and video games”.
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
Other cultural activities
Men
1:17
0:40
0:39
0:40
1:12
0:57
0:54
1:01
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
2
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
3
ES
DE
Women
1:04
0:23
0:32
0:26
1:03
0:53
0:41
0:59
0:00 1:00 2:00 2:30 3:00 0:30 1:30
NO
UK
SE
FI
IT
FR
3
ES
DE
Entertainment and culture
Computer and video games
Other computing
Reading
Radio and music
•pocketbook-pt-cp-eee e pe e
Mean duration of and participation rate in
the main cultural activities –
Men (h:mm and %)
Mean duration DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(h:mm)
TV and video 1:58 2:00 2:08 1:52 2:25 1:58 2:37 2:06
Entertainment and culture 0:14 0:07 0:05 0:06 0:06 0:05 0:07 0:07
Computer and video games 0:05 0:02 : 0:02 0:04 0:04 0:04 0:03
Other computing 0:16 0:09 0:07 0:07 0:06 0:13 0:10 0:10
Reading 0:37 0:17 0:23 0:21 0:45 0:30 0:26 0:33
Radio and music 0:05 0:05 0:04 0:04 0:11 0:05 0:07 0:08
Participation rate DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(%)
TV and video 80 83 78 81 85 83 87 84
Entertainment and culture 9 5 4 4 6 5 6 6
Computer and video games 6 2 : 2 5 3 4 3
Other computing 17 9 6 8 8 18 11 16
Reading 56 24 33 32 65 50 41 57
Radio and music 11 7 7 9 19 11 13 15
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
14 Cultural statistics
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Mean duration of and participation rate in
the main cultural activities –
Women (h:mm and %)
Mean duration DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(h:mm)
TV and video 1:40 1:46 1:55 1:29 2:02 1:40 2:09 1:39
Entertainment and culture 0:14 0:06 0:05 0:04 0:05 0:06 0:06 0:06
Computer and video games 0:02 0:00 : 0:00 0:01 0:01 0:01 0:01
Other computing 0:06 0:03 0:02 0:02 0:02 0:06 0:04 0:05
Reading 0:38 0:12 0:23 0:17 0:47 0:35 0:25 0:40
Radio and music 0:04 0:02 0:02 0:03 0:08 0:05 0:05 0:07
Participation rate DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO
(%)
TV and video 76 81 76 77 86 81 86 82
Entertainment and culture 9 5 3 4 6 5 6 6
Computer and video games 3 0 : 0 2 1 2 2
Other computing 9 4 2 3 4 11 6 9
Reading 62 21 35 28 71 61 43 67
Radio and music 9 3 4 7 17 11 12 16
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
1 Cultural statistics
III
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Participation Mean per day
rate for participants
to the doing the activity
activity (%) (h:mm)
Men Women All Men Women All
10-14 years
DE 45 23 34 1:54 1:18 1:42
ES 32 13 23 1:40 1:04 1:30
IT 38 16 27 1:23 1:02 1:17
FI 53 23 38 2:07 1:17 1:51
UK 39 16 28 1:39 1:05 1:29
NO 54 27 41 1:48 1:10 1:35
15-19 years
DE 30 13 22 2:12 1:11 1:55
ES 20 5 13 1:43 1:01 1:35
FR : : : : : :
IT 22 5 14 1:21 1:05 1:18
FI 38 12 24 1:50 0:54 1:35
UK 22 5 14 1:55 1:15 1:48
NO 26 8 17 2:19 : 2:02
20-24 years
DE 18 5 12 1:58 0:54 1:46
ES 8 2 5 1:43 1:31 1:41
FR : : : : : :
IT 7 1 4 1:25 1:10 1:23
FI 19 7 13 1:41 0:36 1:20
SE 9 2 6 : : 2:27
UK 9 3 6 1:45 1:13 1:37
NO 14 3 8 2:51 : 2:36
Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
III
1 Cultural statistics
Average time spent per day on computer
and video games by young people (h:mm and %)
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
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Chapter 3
Time spent on cultural activities
17 Cultural statistics
III
Source: Eurostat, Time Use Surveys
Average time spent per day on computer
and video games by 10- to 14-year-olds (h:mm)
Men
All
Women
NO
UK
FI
IT
ES
DE
0:00 2:30 1:00 0:30 2:00 1:30
2:07
1:02
1:23
1:04
1:40
1:39
1:05
1:17
1:10
1:48
1:54
1:18
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Background information
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Background information
171 Cultural statistics
Cultural field
LEG(European leadership group on cultural statistics) defined the cultural
field by cross-tabulating eight cultural fields and artistic domains:
artistic andmonumental heritage, archives, libraries, books andpress, visual
arts, architecture, performing arts, audio and audiovisual/multimedia,
with six functions:
creation, production, dissemination, trade, preservation, training.
This has made it possible to cross-relate the sixty or so cultural activities
identified with the classification commonly used in the harmonised Euro-
pean surveys: NACE, ISCO, COICOP, etc.
The cultural activities, occupations or goods identified in the European
classifications are listed below. Harmonised data describe only parts of
this cultural field, some more extensively than others, depending on the
theme (employment, enterprises, etc.).
Cultural statistics in the EU, Final report of the LEG.
http://circa.europa.eu/Public/irc/dsis/edtcs/library?l=/public/
culture&vm=detailed&sb=Title
CLASSIFICATIONS
NACE Rev 1.1
NACE Rev. 1.1 is the EU classification of economic activities. It is built on
a four-digit level:
level 1: 17 sections identified by letters A to Q;
intermediate level: 31 sub-sections identified by two-letter alphabetical
codes;
level 2: 62 divisions identified by two-digit numerical codes (01 to 99);
level 3: 224 groups identified by three-digit numerical codes (01.1 to 99.0);
level 4: 514 classes identified by four-digit numerical codes (01.11 to
99.00).
Cultural activities can be found under sections D, G, K and O of the NACE
Rev.1.1 classification.
The detailed list of classes partly or totally including cultural activities is
as follows:
D Manufacturing
DE Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products; publishing and
printing
22 Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media
22.1 Publishing
22.11 Publishing of books
22.12 Publishing of newspapers
22.13 Publishing of journals and periodicals
22.14 Publishing of sound recordings
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and
personal and household goods
GA Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles
and personal and household goods
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Background information
172 Cultural statistics
52 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; repair
of personal and household goods
52.4 Other retail sale of new goods in specialised stores
52.47 Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationery
K Real estate, renting and business activities
KA Real estate, renting and business activities
74 Other business activities
74.2 74.20 Architectural and engineering activities and
related technical consultancy
O Other community, social and personal service activities
OA Other community, social and personal service activities
92 Recreational, cultural and sporting activities
92.1 Motion picture and video activities
92.11 Motion picture and video production
92.12 Motion picture and video distribution
92.13 Motion picture projection
92.2 92.20 Radio and television activities
92.3 Other entertainment activities
92.31 Artistic and literary creation and interpretation
92.32 Operation of arts facilities
92.4 92.40 News agency activities
92.5 Library, archives, museums and other cultural activities
92.51 Library and archives activities
92.52 Museums activities and preservation of historical
sites and buildings
This list does not cover the cultural field exhaustively. Some cultural activ-
ities cannot be identified and measured. Either they are included in or hid-
den under a class at a higher level or they are distributed between several
classes, e.g. the antiques trade. Some cultural activities are not classified
at all in the NACE Rev. 1.1 nomenclature, e.g. multimedia and video games.
The new revised NACE Rev. 2 nomenclature introduces a fuller list of cul-
tural activities, thus offering better coverage of the cultural field.
ISCO 88
The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) is one of
the main international classifications for which the ILO (International
Labour Organisation) is responsible. It belongs to the international fam-
ily of economic and social classifications.
ISCO-88 (COM) is the European Union variant of the International Stan-
dard Classification of Occupations. ISCO-88 (COM) should not be regarded
as a different classification fromISCO-88, but rather as the result of a coor-
dinated effort to implement ISCO-88 for census and survey coding pur-
poses. There are 10 levels in the ISCO-88 (COM) classification and cultural
classes can be found under levels 2“Professionals”and 3“Technicians and
associate professionals”.
ISCO-88 (COM) classes covering cultural occupations
214 Architects, engineers and related professionals
2141 Architects, town and traffic planners
243 Archivists, librarians and related information professionals
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Background information
173 Cultural statistics
2431 Archivists and curators
2432 Librarians and related information professionals
245 Writers and creative or performing artists
2451 Authors, journalists and other writers
2452 Sculptors, painters and related artists
2453 Composers, musicians and singers
2454 Choreographers and dancers
2455 Film, stage and related actors and directors
313 Optical and electronic equipment operators
3131 Photographers and image and sound recording equipment
operators
347 Artistic, entertainment and sports associate professionals
3471 Decorators and commercial designers
3472 Radio, television and other announcers
3473 Street, night-club and related musicians, singers and dancers
3474 Clowns, magicians, acrobats and related associate professionals
This list does not cover the cultural field exhaustively. Some cultural occu-
pations cannot be identified and measured. Either they are distributed
between several classes or they are included in or hidden under a class at
a higher level. Filmproducers, for example, are included in class 1229“Pro-
duction and operations managers not elsewhere classified”. Some cultural
occupations are not classified at all in the ISCO-88 (COM) nomenclature
(e.g. multimedia artists).
ISCED 97
The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) was
designed by Unesco in the early 1970s to serve “as an instrument suitable
for assembling, compiling and presenting statistics of education both
within individual countries and internationally”.
The ISCED system is built up by classifying each educational programme
by field of education and by level.
The ISCED 1997 classification by field contains 25 two-digit fields of edu-
cation. Mainly the first two digits are used for international data collec-
tion.
ISCED 97 Classification of education by field
The ISCED 97 classification by field identifies 9 one-digit fields of educa-
tion. Cultural fields are integrated in fields 2“Humanities and arts”, 3“Social
sciences, business and law” and 5 “Engineering, manufacturing and con-
struction”.
2 Humanities and arts
21 Arts
22 Humanities
3 Social Sciences, Business and Law
31 Social and behaviour science
32 Journalism and information
33 Business and administration
34 Law
5 Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction
58 Architecture and Building
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Background information
174 Cultural statistics
ISCED 97 Classification of education by level
Six major levels of educational attainment are defined:
ISCED level 0 – Pre-primary education
ISCED level 1 – Primary education
ISCED level 2 – Lower secondary education
ISCED level 3 – Upper secondary education
ISCED level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education
ISCED level 5 – First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an
advanced research qualification)
ISCED level 6 – Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced
research qualification)
COICOP
The COICOP-HBS classification is a nomenclature directly derived fromthe
COICOP classification developed in the framework of the United Nations’
System of National Accounts, but, as its full name indicates, specifically
adapted to the needs of household budget surveys.
The HBS methodology uses the four-level COICOP-HBS nomenclature,
which provides the twelve main divisions of consumption expenditure.
Division HE09“Recreation and culture” covers the main cultural expendi-
ture of households.
The COICOP-HBS classes partly or totally including cultural expenditure
are listed below:
HE09 Recreation and culture
HE091 Audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment
HE0911 Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction
of sound and pictures
HE09111 Equipment for the reception, recording and
reproduction of sound
HE09112 Televisions sets, video-cassette players and
recorders
HE0912 Photographic and cinematographic equipment and opti-
cal instruments
HE09121 Photographic and cinematographic equipment
HE0913 HE09131 Data processing equipment
HE0914 HE09141 Recording media for pictures and sound
HE0915 HE09151 Repair of audio-visual, photographic and infor-
mation processing equipment and accessories
HE092 Other major durables for recreation and culture including repair
HE0921 Other major durables for recreation and culture
HE09211 Musical instruments
HE094 Recreational and cultural services
HE0942 Cultural services
HE09421 Cinema, theatres, concerts
HE09422 Museums, zoological gardens, etc.
HE09423 Television and radio taxes and hire of equipment
HE09424 Other services
HE095 Newspapers, books and stationery
HE0951 HE09511 Books
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175 Cultural statistics
HE0952 HE09521 Newspapers and periodicals
HE0954 HE09541 Stationery and drawing materials
ComExt
ComExt (intra- and extra-European trade) is a harmonised comparable sta-
tistical database for trade in goods both between EU Member States and
outside the EU. The database is administered by Eurostat. The data on
trade in services are provided by the IMF which centralises the data col-
lected within the “balance of payments” of the individual EU Member
States.
Cultural goods traded and identified
by the ComExt nomenclature (2006):
4901 Printed books, brochures, leaflets and similar printed
matter, whether or not in single sheets
4902 Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or not
illustrated or containing advertising material
8524 32 90 Disks for laser reading systems, for reproducing sound
only of a diameter exceeding 6,5 cm
8524 39 20 Digital versatile disks (DVD)
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles
9201 Pianos, including automatic pianos; harpsichords and
other keyboard stringed instruments
9202 Other string musical instruments (for example, guitars,
violins, harps)
9203 Keyboard pipe organs, harmoniums and similar key-
board instruments with free metal reeds
9204 Accordions and similar instruments; mouth organs
9205 Other wind musical instruments (for example, clarinets,
trumpets, bagpipes)
9206 Percussion musical instruments (for example, drums,
xylophones, cymbals, castanets, maracas)
9207 Musical instruments, the sound of which is produced, or
must be amplified, electrically (for example, organs, gui-
tars, accordions)
9208 Musical boxes, fairground organs, mechanical street
organs, mechanical singing birds, musical saws and
other musical instruments not falling, within any other
heading of this chapter; decoy calls of all kinds; whistles,
call horns and other mouth-blown sound signalling
instruments
9209 Parts (for example, mechanisms for musical boxes) and
accessories (for example, cards, disks and rolls for
mechanical instruments) of musical instruments;
metronomes, tuning forks and pitch pipes of all kinds
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques
9701 Paintings, drawings and pastels, executed entirely by
hand, other than drawings of heading 4906 and other
than hand-painted or hand-decorated manufactured
articles; collages and similar decorative plaques
9702 Original engravings, prints and lithographs
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176 Cultural statistics
9703 Original sculptures and statuary, in any material
9704 Postage or revenue stamps, stamp-postmarks, first-day
covers, postal stationery (stamped paper), and the like,
used or unused, other than those of heading 4907
9705 Collections and collectors’ pieces of zoological, botanical,
historical, archaeological, palaeontological, ethno-
graphic or numismatic interest
9706 Antiques of an age exceeding 100 years
Hetus coding list
The Time Use Survey does not operate with a harmonised classification
but with an activity coding list. The respondents record their activities in
their own words in diaries. The coding process translates the respondent’s
written descriptions of his/her activities into numeric codes.
The activity coding list is recommended in order to have a lowest com-
mon denominator for coding the harmonised EuropeanTime Use Surveys.
Countries that need more detailed categories can always extend the cod-
ing list to match their needs. The activity code system is hierarchical with
three levels.
For the purpose of this study and taking data availability into account,
daily activities were identified from the Hetus (Harmonised European
Time Use Study) coding list and aggregated into 7 main groups of activ-
ity: Personal care, Work and study, Housework, Free time, TV and Video
and Unspecified time.
Cultural activities can be found under the theme “Leisure time” of Hetus
coding list:
30 Entertainment and culture
34 Computer and video games
35 Other computing
37 Reading books
38 Other reading
39 TV and video
40 Radio and music
https://www.testh2.scb.se/tus/tus/
SOURCES AND DEFINITIONS
Part I CONTEXTUAL DATA
Activity rate shows active persons (employed and unemployed popula-
tion) as a percentage of the total population of the same age.
Employment rate shows employed persons as a percentage of the total
population of the same age.
Unemployment rate is the proportion of unemployed persons in the
total number of active persons in the labour market.
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177 Cultural statistics
Population density is the ratio between (total) population and surface
(land) area. This ratio can be calculated for any territorial unit for any point
in time, depending on the source of the population data.
EDUCATION: UOE
The objective of the UNESCO-UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT (UOE) data collection
on education statistics is to provide internationally comparable data on
key aspects of education systems, specifically on participation in and com-
pletion of education programmes and on the cost and type of resources
allocated to education. The data collection is administered jointly by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation Institute
for Statistics (Unesco-UIS), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD), and the Statistical Office of the European Union
(Eurostat).
Two sets of specific EU tables were introduced by the European Commis-
sion (Eurostat) to collect regional data on enrolment and data on foreign
languages. This EUpart of the UOE data collection is managed by Eurostat.
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,
45323734&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=welcomeref&
open=/&product=EU_MASTER_education_training&depth=2
MUSEUMS: EGMUS
EGMUS stands for the “European Group on Museum Statistics”. Its task
is to collect national museumdata and present themin a way that allows
everyone to draw on the experience of everyone else. To achieve this,
EGMUS necessarily has to collect ideas and conceptions about museums
and the ways they are described. Consequently, statistical descriptions of
museums in Europe, of the situation they are in and of their activities are
the main aims of EGMUS. A harmonised methodology for data produc-
tion does not yet exist and the data are produced at national level by the
national methodologies and then communicated to EGMUS. Data are col-
lected on the numbers and types of museum, types of collection, museum
attendance, exhibitions, educational activities, etc.
CULTURAL SITES ONTHE UNESCO HERITAGE LIST
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
(Unesco) seeks to encourage identification, protection and preservation
of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of out-
standing value to humanity.
The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cul-
tural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee consid-
ers as having outstanding universal value.
In 2007, these included 660 cultural, 166 natural and 25 mixed properties
in 141 States Parties.
Cultural heritage means monuments, groups of buildings and sites with
historical, aesthetic, archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropo-
logical value. The sites on the cultural heritage list include cities, mosques,
temples, churches, palaces, historic centres, granaries and many more.
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Background information
178 Cultural statistics
Part II CULTURAL EMPLOYEMENT, ENTERPRISES
AND EXTERNAL TRADE
EMPLOYMENT: LABOUR FORCE SURVEY (LFS)
The chapter on cultural employment is based mainly on the results of the
European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS). The EU-LFS is a quarterly house-
hold sample survey carried out in the Member States of the European
Union, candidate countries and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein).
It is the main source of information about the situation and trends on the
labour market in the European Union. The survey’s target population are
all persons in private households aged 15 years or older. The definitions
of employment and unemployment, along with other survey character-
istics, follow the definitions and recommendations of the International
Labour Organisation (ILO). Further harmonisation is achieved by adher-
ing to common principles on questionnaire construction and common
definitions of unemployment and of the main variables and reply cate-
gories.
The EU-LFS results are produced in accordance with the international clas-
sification systems. The main classifications used are NACE Rev. 1 (NACE
Rev. 1.1 from2005) for economic activities, ISCO88 (Com) for occupations
and ISCED 1997 for levels of education.
http://europa.eu.int/estatref/info/sdds/fr/lfsi/lfsi_sm.htm
Total employment = Employees + Non-employees
Total employment covers all persons aged 15 years and over (16 and over
in ES and UK; 15-74 years in DK, EE, HU, LV, FI, NO and SE; and 16-74 in IS)
who, during the reference week, performed work, even for just one hour
a week, for pay, profit or family gain or were not at work but had a job or
business from which they were temporarily absent because of, e. g., ill-
ness, holidays, industrial dispute and education and training.
Employees are defined as persons who work for a public or private
employer and who receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries,
fees, gratuities, payment by results or payment in kind; non-conscript
members of the armed forces are also included.
Non-employees = Self-employed + Family workers
• Self-employed persons with employees are defined as persons who
work in their own business, professional practice or farmfor the purpose
of earning a profit and who employ at least one other person.
• Self-employedpersons without employees are defined as persons who
work in their own business, professional practice or farmfor the purpose
of earning a profit and who employ no other person.
• Family workers are persons who help another member of the family to
run an agricultural holding or other business.
Unemployed persons are persons aged 15-74 who were without work
during the reference week, were currently available for work and were
either actively seeking work in the past four weeks or had already found
a job to start within the next three months.
Employees with temporary contracts are those who declare that they
have a fixed-term employment contract or a job which will terminate if
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Background information
179 Cultural statistics
certain objective criteria are met, such as completion of an assignment or
return of the employee who was temporarily replaced.
Full-time/part-time: this variable refers to the main job. The distinction
between full-time and part-time work is based on a spontaneous response
by the respondent. It is impossible to establish a more precise distinction
between full-time and part-time employment since working hours differ
from one Member State to the next and from one branch of activity to
another.
Nationality is interpreted as citizenship, as defined according to national
legislation of each country.
Country of citizenship: citizenship is defined as the particular legal bond
between an individual and his/her State, acquired by birth or naturalisa-
tion, whether by declaration, option, marriage or other means in accor-
dance with the national legislation.
Population density levels
• Densely populated means a contiguous set of local areas, each of which
has a density exceeding 500 inhabitants per square kilometre, and
where the total population for the set is at least 50 000 inhabitants.
• Intermediate means a contiguous set of local areas, not belonging to a
densely populated area, each of which has a density exceeding 100
inhabitants per square kilometre, and either with a total population for
the set of at least 50 000 inhabitants or adjacent to a densely populated
area.
• Sparsely populated means a contiguous set of local areas belonging
neither to a densely populated nor to an intermediate area.
ENTERPRISES: STRUCTURAL BUSINESS STATISTICS
Coverage
Structural business statistics (SBS) describe the structure, conduct andper-
formance of economic activities, down to the most detailed activity level
(several hundred sectors). SBS covers the “business economy”, which
includes industry, construction and market services (NACE Sections C to K).
SBS do not cover agriculture, forestry and fishing, nor public administra-
tion and (largely) non-market services, such as education and health.
SBS describe the economy by observing the units engaged in an eco-
nomic activity, which is generally the enterprise. An enterprise may carry
out one or more activities at one or more locations and may comprise one
or more legal units. Note that enterprises engaged in more than one eco-
nomic activity (and the value added and turnover they generate and the
persons they employ, etc.) will be classified under the NACE (Statistical
Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community) head-
ing for their principal activity, normally the one that generates the largest
value added.
SBS data are collected within the framework of Council Regulation (EC,
Euratom) No 58/97 of 20 December 1996 concerning structural business
statistics (and the later amendments), based on the definitions and break-
downs specified in the Commission Regulations implementing it. A sub-
set of SBS variables are collected with a breakdown depending on the size
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Background information
180 Cultural statistics
of the enterprise and with a regional breakdown (NUTS 2 level). Data on
architecture and engineering have been provided on a voluntary basis by
countries participating in the business services development project.
From the reference year 2008 onwards, the business services data collec-
tion will become part of the annual SBS data collection.
For further information, see the European business section on Eurostat’s
website (under “industry, trade and services”):
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=2293,
59872848,2293_61474721&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
Turnover means the total invoiced by the unit observed during the ref-
erence period and corresponds to market sales of goods or services sup-
plied to third parties. Turnover includes all duties and taxes on the goods
or services invoiced by the unit with the exception of the VAT invoiced by
the unit vis-à-vis its customer and other similar deductible taxes directly
linked to turnover. Income classified as other operating income, financial
income and extraordinary income in company accounts is excluded from
turnover. Operating subsidies received from public authorities or from
European Union institutions are also excluded.
Value added at factor cost is the gross income from operating activities
after adjusting for operating subsidies and indirect taxes. It can be calcu-
lated from turnover, plus capitalised production, plus other operating
income, plus or minus the changes in stocks, minus the purchases of
goods and services, minus other taxes on products which are linked to
turnover but not deductible, minus the duties and taxes linked to pro-
duction. Income and expenditure classified as financial or extraordinary
in company accounts are excluded fromvalue added. Value added at fac-
tor costs is calculated“gross” as value adjustments (such as depreciation)
are not subtracted.
Number of persons employed is the total number of persons who work
in the unit observed, plus persons who work outside the unit but who
belong to it and are paid by it. It includes working proprietors, unpaid
family workers, part-time workers, seasonal workers, etc. The number of
persons employed may be broken down into the number of employees
and of unpaid workers.
Size classes of enterprises
• Micro-enterprises: with 1 to 9 persons employed;
• Small enterprises: with 10-49 persons employed;
• Medium-sized enterprises: with 50-249 persons employed;
• Large enterprises: with 250 or more persons employed.
Unit labour cost is defined as the ratio between the compensation per
employee and the GDP or gross value added per employment. It is meas-
ured as the percentage change from the previous year.
Investment per person employed is defined as gross investment in tan-
gible goods divided by the number of persons employed; the result is
expressed in thousands of euros per person employed.
Publishing sector is defined as the five classes of NACE group DE22.1
“Publishing”: publishing of books (NACE DE22.11), newspapers (NACE
DE22.12), journals and periodicals (NACE DE22.13), sound recordings
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181 Cultural statistics
(NACE DE22.14), studied separately, and other publishing (NACE DE22.15),
excluded fromthe cultural field. NACE 22.11, 22.12 and 22.13 refer to book
and press publishing and have been grouped under the label “Publishing”
in few tables and graphs.
Periodicals and journals cover a wide variety of products, including aca-
demic journals, business and professional magazines, consumer maga-
zines and customer magazines, which include club and society titles pub-
lished exclusively for members. In the industry’s official statistics,
periodicals also include newspapers that appear fewer than four times a
week. The difference between“journal”and“periodical”is that journals are
published neither regularly (in which case they would be a “periodical”)
nor more than four times a week (in which case they would be a “news-
paper”).
Architectural and engineering activities (NACE group 74.2, architec-
tural activities cannot be studied separately)
Architectural activities include primarily designing buildings and struc-
tures together with preparing plans, managing work, consultancy serv-
ices for project managers, consultancy and design for urban and rural
planning, diagnostics, valuation reports, etc.
Engineering and technical design activities include studies relating to a
complete programme, combined with project management, in the field
of industrial engineering and logistics engineering; specialist technical
design services for industry, including production of special machinery,
development of technologies and products, pollution control; engineer-
ing services and specialist technical design services relating to civil engi-
neering and construction and infrastructure; site organisation and man-
agement for major projects and geological prospecting services.
ECONOMIC SITUATION:
SHORT-TERM BUSINESS STATISTICS (STS)
STS cover all market activities in Sections C to K and M to O of the statis-
tical classification of economic activities in the European Community
(NACE Rev.1.1).
STS provide information on a wide range of economic activities.
Data are presented in the formof indices (current base year is 2000 = 100)
or growth rates (calculated with reference to the previous period or to the
same period of a year before). Council Regulation (EC No 1165/98 con-
cerning STS) identifies four main areas of economic activity in different
annexes, namely: Industry, Construction, Retail trade and Other services.
Production index (STS) should show the trend in value added, at con-
stant prices. This index is established for each of the annexes separately
and should take account of:
• variations in the type and quality of the commodities and of the input
materials;
• changes in stocks of finished goods and work in progress;
• changes in technical input-output relations (processing techniques) and;
• services such as the assembling of production units, mounting, instal-
lations, repairs, planning, engineering and creation of software.
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182 Cultural statistics
CINEMA: MEDIA SALLES
The MEDIA Salles project is part of the European Union’s MEDIA Pro-
gramme. The European CinemaYearbook collects the results of a non har-
monised survey carried out annually in 34 European countries in order to
record the main trends throughout the continent, using over 40 statisti-
cal indicators (e.g. market share of European films, cinema admissions,
admission prices, advertising receipts, number of screens, multiplex,
megaplex, screen density, gross box office revenue, etc.).
EXTERNAL TRADE: COMEXT
The ComExt database provides monthly, quarterly and annual statistics
on the European Union’s external trade and trade between Member
States.
There are two underlying data sets: one for intra-EU trade, the other for
trade with non-EU countries (extra EU-trade).
Products are coded and described in accordance with the Combined
Nomenclature. Codes can change from one year to another.
For each product in this classification the statistics indicate the reference
period, the reporting country (in EU-27), the partner country (any coun-
try in the world), the trade flow and the unit (euros or tonnes or some-
times number of items).
Extra-EU trade
Extra-EU trade statistics are collected on the basis of the statistical part of
the single administrative document (SAD) provided by the customs
authorities when transactions are above the extra-EU transaction thresh-
old (1000 EUR or 1000 kg in net mass).
Statistics on extra-EU trade record exports (outward flows of goods from
an EU Member State to a non-EU country) and imports (inward flows of
goods from a non-EU country to an EU Member State).
Intra-EU trade
Intra-EU trade statistics are collected on the basis of the Intrastat decla-
rations provided by traders not exempt fromthe statistical obligation, i.e.
legal or natural persons registered for VAT in the reporting Member State
who have recorded annual intra-Community trade above the Intrastat
exemption threshold during the previous year or reached the threshold
during the current year.
Statistics on intra-EUtrade record outward flows of goods fromone Mem-
ber State to another, which are called “dispatches”, and inward flows of
goods from one Member State to another, which are called “arrivals”.
http://fd.comext.eurostat.ce .eu.int
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c /xtweb
Background information
183 Cultural statistics
Part III CULTURAL EXPENDITURE AND PARTICIPATION
HOUSEHOLD CULTURAL EXPENDITURE:
HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY (HBS)
The Household Budget Surveys (HBS) in the European Union are sample
surveys of private households carried out regularly under the responsi-
bility of the National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) in European countries. Sev-
eral waves of the survey have been conducted so far in 1988, 1994, 1999-
2000 and 2005. Essentially, they provide information about household
expenditures on goods and services, going into considerable detail in the
categories used: information on income, possession of consumer durables
and cars; basic information on housing and many demographic and socio-
economic parameters. Unlike other European statistical domains, the HBS
is voluntary and no EU regulation exists.
In cooperation with the National Statistical Institutes in the Member
States, for many years Eurostat has been working on the quality – mainly
the comparability – of HBS statistics within the EU. The HBS uses the
COICOP classification of expenditure as a standard. In all Household
Budget Surveys, data collection involves a combination of one or more
interviews, plus diaries or logs kept by households and/or individuals, gen-
erally on a daily basis.
The data presented in this report are based on the 1999 EU Household
Budget Surveys for the EU-15 Member States. Data for the new MS are
taken from the national HBS conducted at the beginning of the 2000s. In
a fewmonths, newdata fromthe 2005 collection will be available at Euro-
stat and they will be subjected to more detailed analysis of the patterns
of cultural consumption (also allowing comparison with the 1999 data).
PPS/PPP: Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) are a fictive currency unit that
eliminates differences in purchasing power, i.e. different price levels,
between countries. Thus, the same nominal aggregate in two countries
with different price levels may result in different amounts of purchasing
power. Figures expressed in purchasing power standards are derived from
figures expressed in national currency by using purchasing power pari-
ties (PPP) as conversion factors. These parities are obtained as a weighted
average of relative price ratios in respect of a homogeneous basket of
goods and services, both comparable and representative for each coun-
try. They are set so that the average purchasing power of one euro in the
European Union equals one PPS. Calculation of GDP in PPS is intended to
allow comparison of the levels of economic activity of different sized
economies irrespective of their price levels. It is less suited to comparisons
over time. Eurostat compiles PPP and publishes them on its website
(Data/Economy and Finance/Prices).
PPP and related economic indicators are constructed primarily for spatial
comparison and not for comparison over time. Therefore this may be kept
in mind in any comparison of results for different years. In particular, GDP
in PPS should not be used to calculate growth rates.
Household in the Household Budget Survey means a social unit which
meets one or more of the conditions of “living together” in addition to
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Background information
184 Cultural statistics
having a common residence. This is the household defined as a house-
keeping unit. Of course, in practice there is mostly a one-to-one corre-
spondence between households and dwellings/addresses, but there are
also cases of multiple households per dwelling.
Increasingly restrictive definitions of what constitutes a household can be
achieved by adding the following criteria:
• Co-residence (living together in the same dwelling unit)
• Sharing of expenditures including joint provision of essentials of living
• Pooling of income and resources
• The existence of family or emotional ties
Final consumption expenditure of households corresponds to the
expenditure by households in order to consume goods and services. This
includes, in addition to purchases in monetary form, the estimated value
of certain goods and services, e.g. the value of internal production, ben-
efits in kind and imputed rents for certain categories of households. On
the other hand, investments by households (e.g. purchase of a house,
major work on housing), direct duties and taxes paid to various adminis-
trations and savings are excluded. Similarly, this concept includes only
expenditure intended directly to satisfy the needs of the households, and
not expenditure incurred within an occupational framework.
The components making up consumption expenditure can be summed
up as monetary expenditure intended for consumption (excluding invest-
ments, savings and direct taxes) and non-monetary expenditure (con-
sumption of own production, benefits in kind and imputed rent).
http://europa.eu.int/estatref/info/sdds/en/hbs/hbs_base.htm
CULTURAL TIME: TIME USE SURVEY
The main focus in national Time Use Surveys is on people’s activities:
which are their main activities during the course of a day, when do they
carry them out and how long do people spend on them. Information
about where the activity is performed and with whom can also be
retrieved.
The time diary is a self-administered questionnaire divided into 10-minute
intervals to be filled in during randomly designated days. The respon-
dents record the activities in their own words. However, a set of common
questions are recommended for the questionnaires to make it possible
to break down the national populations into the same domains for time
use analysis.
The Time Use Survey is a harmonised, non-mandatory survey. Launched
by Eurostat in 1990, it reached the level permitting comparability between
countries in the 1999-2000 round, after publication of the Guidelines for
HarmonisedTime Use Surveys. Most National Statistical Institutes around
Europe that have carried out time use surveys since the late 1990s have
taken the Guidelines into account. Some, however, deviate from them to
varying degrees. One major deviation is that the age breakdown and age
groups can vary from one country to another.
Main activity and secondary activity: respondents who are doing more
than one thing at the same time decide which to record as their main and
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Background information
185 Cultural statistics
which as their secondary activity. Secondary activity means the parallel
activity carried out at the same time as the main activity.
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/
KS-CC-04-007/EN/KS-CC-04-007-EN.PDF
CULTURAL PARTICIPATION: EUROBAROMETER
Since 1973 the European Commission has been monitoring trends in pub-
lic opinion in the Member States to help with drafting texts, making deci-
sions and evaluating its work.
The standard Eurobarometer survey is carried out every autumn and
spring. It covers the population aged 15 years and over resident in each
Member State. Surveys are designed to be representative of metropoli-
tan, urban and rural areas.
Several modules repeated at irregular intervals investigate special topics
such as agriculture, biotechnology, the environment, the family, the eld-
erly, health-related issues, working conditions, consumer behaviour, etc.
from a European perspective. A culture-related special topic was first
added in 2001, it covered EU-15. The next survey containing cultural com-
ponents was conducted in 2003 when it was extended to 13 candidate
countries. The 2007 Eurobarometer (No 67.1) also focuses on culture-
related items and covers EU-27 MS.
http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm
USE OF INTERNET AND COMPUTERS: COMMUNITY SURVEY
ON ICT USAGE IN HOUSEHOLDS AND BY INDIVIDUALS
The data given on this domain were collected by the National Statistical
Institutes or Ministries based on Eurostat’s annual model surveys on use
of ICT (information and communication technologies) and e-commerce
in enterprises and ICT usage in households and by individuals. Annual ICT
indicators are available from 2002 onwards.
The aim of the European ICT surveys is to collect and disseminate har-
monised and comparable information on use of information and com-
munication technologies.
MS provide the following details on household ICT usage:
• access to and use of ICT by individuals and/or in households,
• use of the Internet for different purposes by individuals and/or in house-
holds,
• ICT security, e-government and e-commerce,
• ICT skills,
• barriers to use of ICT and the Internet,
• perceived effects of ICT usage on individuals and/or on households.
http://europa.eu.int/estatref/info/sdds/en/isoc/isoc_pi_base.htm
•pocketbook-pt-bcke e pe e
•pocketbook-pt-bcke e pe e
European Commission
Cultural statistics
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2007 — 185 pp. — 10,5 x 21 cm
Theme: Population and social conditions
Collection: Pocketbooks
ISBN 978-92-79-05547-8
•pocketbook-pt-bcke e pe e
How to obtain EU publications
Our priced publications are available from EU Bookshop
(http://bookshop.europa.eu), where you can place an order
with the sales agent of your choice.
The Publications Office has a worldwide network of sales
agents. You can obtain their contact details by sending a
fax to (352) 29 29-42758.
Cultural statistics
2007 edition
EuropEan Commission
Pocketbooks
Cultural statistics
The aim of this pocketbook is to set out the main
cultural statistics comparable at European level.
selected tables and graphs describe diferent areas
of the cultural feld for the 27 Eu member states,
the candidate countries and the EFTa countries:
cultural heritage, cultural employment, enterprises
in some cultural sectors − publishing, architectural
activities and cinema −, external trade of cultural
goods, households cultural expenditure, cultural
participation and time spent on cultural activities.
The book, which is the frst of its kind, is
intentionally modest in scope and does not claim
to be exhaustive. a short commentary on the
data and methodological notes complete this
initial snapshot of cultural statistics, mainly based
on the fndings of existing harmonised surveys
and former work carried out within the European
statistical system.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat
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Pocketbooks

Cultural statistics

2007 edition

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printed publication KS-77-07-296-EN-C) Theme: Population and social conditions Collection: Pocketbooks © European Communities. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa. No.Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed. KS-77-07-296-EN-N (Cat.eu). 2007 © Cover photo: RMN / Hervé Lewandowski and Thierry Le Mage . 2007 ISBN 978-92-79-05547-8 Cat. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. No.

(352) 43 01-1 website http://ec. the media and citizens. Eurostat publications can be ordered via the EU Bookshop at http://bookshop.europa. professional organisations. Furthermore. Eurostat's publications programme consists of several collections: • News releases provide recent information on the Euro-Indicators and on social.eu/eurostat Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Communities. • Statistical books are larger A4 publications with statistical data and analysis. Contact details for this support network can be found on Eurostat Internet site. • Pocketbooks are free of charge publications aiming to give users a set of basic figures on a specific topic. agricultural or environmental topics. as are tables with the most frequently used and demanded short. Its statistical products and services are also of great value to Europe’s business community. Eurostat has set up with the members of the ‘European statistical system’ (ESS) a network of user support centres which exist in nearly all Member States as well as in some EFTA countries.EUROSTAT L-2920 Luxembourg — Tel. . NGOs. • Statistics in focus provides updated summaries of the main results of surveys. • Data in focus present the most recent statistics with methodological notes. Eurostat’s databases are freely available there. regional. economic. • Methodologies and working papers are technical publications for statistical experts working in a particular field. All publications are also downloadable free of charge in PDF format from the Eurostat website http://ec.europa. academics.eu. it gathers and analyses figures from the national statistical offices across Europe and provides comparable and harmonised data for the European Union to use in the definition. For that purpose. Their mission is to provide help and guidance to Internet users of European statistical data.europa.and long-term indicators.eu/eurostat. Its mission is to provide the European Union with high-quality statistical information. studies and statistical analysis. implementation and analysis of Community policies. librarians.

Guy Frank (Network Egmus). Luis Del Barrio (Unit F).eu Eurostat . Heidi Seybert (Unit F6). science and culture statistics. Conception. design and desktop publishing French Ministry of Culture and Communication Délégation au développement et aux affaires internationales (DDAI) Département des études.Education. Thanks for their collaboration to: Emmanuel Kailis (Unit F4). Beck-Domzalska@ec. 5 L-71 Luxembourg. Klas Rydenstam (Hetus website). rue A.Social Statistics and Information Society. F-0450 Turriers 4 Cultural statistics . directed by Michel Glaude • Unit F4 . data processing.CULTURAL STATISTICS EUROSTAT POCKETBOOKS This publication has been managed and prepared by Eurostat: • Directorate F . Peter Paul Borg (Unit F). Baudouin Quennery (Unit D). Jacqueline Boucherat Transfaire. science and culture statistics Joseph Bech Building. headed by Jean-Louis Mercy Co-ordinator Marta Beck-Domżalska – Marta. de la prospective et des statistiques (Deps) directed by Philippe Chantepie Jeannine Cardona (Statistics manager) Pierre Berret (Project leader) Chantal Lacroix.Statistical Office of the European Communities Unit F4 . Amedeo Bidoli (Unit F4). Jean-Marie Eschenauer (Unit G). analysis. Weicker.Education. Ulf Johansson (Unit G1).europa.

Next. cross-relating eight “domains” (artistic and monumental heritage. archives. libraries.Introduction e sociological changes triggered by the spread of the information society. etc. the field to culture was broken down into about sixty activities. architecture. performing arts and audiovisual/multimedia) with six “functions” (conservation. e approach adopted here is cross-cutting and thematic. dissemination. drawing on existing data on employment. For this reason.). Cultural statistics 5 . were excluded. Eurobarometer. with better identification of cultural activities in the harmonised data collections and European surveys. occupations or goods are included at the end of this pocketbook. creation. it was decided to restrict the field to activities recognised as cultural by every Member State. household cultural consumption. sports and tourism. is initial snapshot of cultural statistics could be greatly developed and improved. is publication does not claim to be exhaustive. statistics are missing for a number of activities which cannot be singled out and examined from national and European surveys or data collections. visual arts. time use and cultural participation. It includes activities in numerous areas of social and economic life. where possible. second. external trade. Owing to the lack of a robust definition of culture (or to an over-abundance of definitions). first by making a sustained intellectual effort to define the field and. which are not always identifiable in economic classifications. have created a need for a better understanding of the links between culture and social and economic development. trade and training). business. books and press. for example. First. by applying more efficient assessment methods coupled. As a result. plus information from other sources (Unesco. production. the pocketbook relies on the pragmatic definition generally agreed upon during the earlier work by the European Leadership Group (LEG). coupled with the increasingly important and acknowledged role played by culture in social bonding. For the first time Eurostat is publishing a pocketbook containing comparable data relating to culture already available within the European Statistical System. e field of culture defined in this way does not equate to any particular economic sector and therefore is not covered by sectoral surveys. Methodological notes and the classifications used to draw a distinction between cultural activities.

6 Cultural statistics .

2: Cultural heritage II Cultural employment. 2: Cultural participation Chap. journals and periodicals Sound recordings sector Concentration in the publishing sector Architecture and engineering sector Cinema Chap. classifications and definitions 169 Cultural statistics 7 . social data and economics Demography Education Employment Economic indicators Chap. newspapers. enterprises and external trade Chap. countries I Contextual data Chap.Table of contents Cultural statistics Symbols and abbreviations. 3: External trade in cultural goods III Cultural expenditure and participation Chap. 1: Cultural employment Chap. 3: Time spent on cultural activities 12-13 15 17 18-20 21-27 28-29 30-31 33-45 47 49-71 73 78-85 86-87 88-89 90-95 96-99 101-119 121 123-129 131-145 147-167 Background information Data sources. 1: Household cultural expenditure Chap. 2: Enterprises in cultural sectors Publishing of books. 1: Demography.

 Cultural statistics .

Table des matières Statistiques culturelles Signes conventionnels et abréviations. 1 : Emploi culturel Chap. 3 : Commerce extérieur des biens culturels III Dépenses et pratiques culturelles Chap. 1 : Dépenses culturelles des ménages Chap. 3 : Temps consacré aux pratiques culturelles 12-13 15 17 18-20 21-27 28-29 30-31 33-45 47 49-71 73 78-85 86-87 88-89 90-95 96-99 101-119 121 123-129 131-145 147-167 Présentation des sources. données sociales et économiques Démographie Éducation Emploi Indicateurs économiques Chap. journaux. pays I Données de cadrage Chap. 1 : Démographie. 2 : Pratiques culturelles Chap. 2 : Patrimoine culturel II Emploi culturel. 2 : Entreprises des secteurs culturels Édition de livres. nomenclatures et définitions 169 Cultural statistics 9 . revues et périodiques Édition d’enregistrements sonores Concentration dans le secteur de l’édition Activités d’architecture et d’ingénierie Cinéma Chap. entreprises et commerce extérieur Chap.

10 Cultural statistics .

3 : Außenhandel kultureller Waren III Kulturelle Ausgaben und Teilnahme Kap. Länder I Hintergrundinformationen Kap. 1 : Kulturelle Beschäftigung Kap. 2 : Kulturelle Teilnahme Kap.Inhaltsverzeichnis Kulturelle Statistik Symbole und Abkürzungen. 1 : Demografie. 1 : Kulturelle Ausgaben der Haushalte Kap.und Ingenieurbüros Kino Kap. 2 : Kulturelles Erbe II Kulturelle Beschäftigung. 3 : Zeitnutzung in kulturellen Tätigkeiten 12-13 15 17 18-20 21-27 28-29 30-31 33-45 47 49-71 73 78-85 86-87 88-89 90-95 96-99 101-119 121 123-129 131-145 147-167 Angaben zur Methodik. Quelle und Definitionen 169 Cultural statistics 11 . Sozialdaten und Wirtschaft Demografie Ausbildung Beschäftigung Wirtschaft Kap. 2 : Firmen in kulturellen Zweigen Verlegen von Büchern. Firmen und Außenhandel Kap. Zeitungen und Zeitschriften Verlegen von bespielten Tonträgern Konzentration im Verlegenszweig Architektur.

007 the EU consisting of 5 Member States Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Candidate countries HR MK TR Croatia Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey EFTA (European Free Trade Association) countries IS LI NO CH Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland 1 Cultural statistics .1.Country abbreviations (EU) EU-27 EU-25 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK the EU consisting of 7 Member States as from 1.

the date of extraction is indicated in the first table. Totals on the breakdown line do not always add up to 100%.Symbols : b c e f p u Data not available Not applicable or less than half of the unit used Break in series Confidential Estimate Forecast Provisional Unreliable or uncertain Units and abbreviations 1000s EUR h:mm Mio MS PPS Thousands Euros Hours and minutes Million Member State(s) Purchasing power standard Methodological notes For each statistical source (most often NewCronos). either because of a small percentage of “no answers” or because numbers have been rounded off. Cultural statistics 1 . just above the reference to the source.

.

Contextual data I .

.

Demography. social data and economics chapter 1 .

9 37.1 21.2006 and projections for 2010.4 84.1 70.3 78.5 99. 2020 and 2030 (1000s) Population on 1.3 83.9 1 263 480. January (1000s) 2006 EU-27 * BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR ** IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR MK TR IS LI NO CH 491 011 10 511 7 719 10 251 5 427 82 438 1 345 4 209 11 125 43 758 61 045 58 752 766 2 295 3 403 460 10 077 404 16 334 8 266 38 157 10 570 21 610 2 003 5 389 5 256 9 048 60 393 4 443 2 039 72 520 300 35 4 640 7 459 2010 492 838 10 554 7 439 10 122 5 465 82 824 1 314 4 323 11 269 44 603 61 486 58 631 784 2 240 3 345 477 9 982 423 16 672 8 256 37 830 10 686 21 345 2 015 5 347 5 294 9 187 60 924 : : : : : : : Projections (1000s) 2020 496 408 10 790 6 796 9 902 5 526 82 676 1 248 4 756 11 427 45 559 63 571 58 300 866 2 115 3 182 521 9 693 454 17 209 8 441 37 065 10 771 20 342 2 017 5 271 5 405 9 575 62 930 : : : : : : : 2030 494 784 10 984 6 175 9 693 5 577 81 146 1 202 5 066 11 316 45 379 65 118 57 071 921 2 022 3 092 567 9 484 479 17 589 8 520 36 542 10 660 19 244 2 006 5 186 5 443 9 911 64 388 : : : : : : : Density (inhabitants per km2) 2003 113.0 97. Demographics statistics 18 Cultural statistics .7 17.2 126. social data and economics Population on 1.9 195.5 132.6 94.1.5 122. for population and projections.4 342. In 2006.9 183.1 109. Data extraction: August 2007 Source: Eurostat.8 244.2 113.I Chapter 1 Demography.3 98.1 125.3 55.1 174 108.2 31.3 : : 14. EU-27 had 492 852 thousands inhabitants (including the population of the whole of France). ** Metropolitan France.5 : 91.5 * The EU-27 total was calculated here with the population of metropolitan France. because projections for France are available for the metropolitan area only.1 231.2 58.

5 18.6 28.7 14.9 0-24 years old 36.5 19.1 25.2 16.6 27. 2006 and 2020 projection (%) 2006 IE CY SK PL LT MT FR* UK RO EE NL LU LV DK FI SE BE EU-27** HU AT CZ PT SI BG ES EL DE IT MK HR IS NO LI CH 0% 35.7 23.0 26.0 14.0 20.3 25.2 32.6 23.7 14.0 100% 25-64 65 or more * Metroplitan France.0 11.4 20.5 17.5 26.6 29.8 21.7 30.9 27.7 18.7 29.1 27.9 21.8 30.7 13.3 20.6 21.8 20.2 17.6 24.4 21.0 31.2 30.3 15.2 17.9 29.8 16.6 16.2 16.0 22.9 11.7 19.2 27.6 27.7 11.8 20% 40% 60% 80% 11.4 15.7 19.4 32.3 19.1 16.1 18.2 11.6 34.4 24.9 24.4 20.5 32.7 25.7 18.2 31.3 28.3 26.4 16.7 29.7 17.3 100% 35.2 27.3 18.3 14.1 15.8 16.7 0% 24.6 16.8 25.7 24.9 29.4 16.6 17.3 20.7 23.0 17. because projections for France are available for the metropolitan area only.0 29.4 24.2 16.0 23. Demographics statistics Cultural statistics 19 .4 20.0 22.8 25.5 28.1 12.3 13. ** The EU-27 total was calculated here with the population of metropolitan France.2 28.8 16.5 22.2 32.6 31.1 30.7 20% 40% 60% 80% 20.7 29.8 15.0 2020 projection 14.5 19.1 22. social data and economics I Population by age group.1 26.8 27.4 31.0 25.Chapter 1 Demography.5 14.2 30.2 27.4 26.5 28.3 17.2 28.8 27.4 16. Source: Eurostat.2 20.

social data and economics Non-nationals in total population.7 5.2 3.3 5.1 5.4 34. Eurostat estimate distribution of non-nationals (EU and non-EU). 2006 (%) LU1 LV EE1 CY AT ES DE BE1 EL1 IE1 EU-27 FR2 SE UK DK IT NL MT PT CZ SI FI PL1 HU LT SK BG 12.3 Non-nationals: of which non-EU nationals of which other EU nationals RO 0.5 19.3 0.0 39.8 9.0 0.1 8.6 7.5 4. 2. Source: Eurostat 20 Cultural statistics . Includes French overseas departments.2 1.2 TR LI1 CH NO IS 0% 4.5 2.8 3.8 1.4 2.6 5.8 9.7 1.9 7.I Chapter 1 Demography.5 1.6 5.5 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0.0 4.8 8.1 20.9 18.0 2.6 2.

4 42.0 : High 27.1 : Medium 45.7 30.6 66.7 20.6 : : 55.0 : Low 22.3 21.2 40. High (ISCED levels 5-6): Tertiary education.3 57.5 32. primary and lower secondary education.6 16.1 9.4 47.5p 34.6 6.5 10.9 39.4 21.6 61.2 63. Medium (ISCED levels 3-4): Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.8 54.5 25.5 81.0 26.2 20.8 75.9 77.0 30.5 22.5 58.6p 32. EU Labour Force Survey Cultural statistics 21 .2 64.2p 32.2 18.0 12.2 36.6 61.0 46.9 : : 6.5 24.7 57.9 23.5 51.0 18.9 22.5 19.6 15.4 23.7 17.3 8.3p 55.4 12.6 15.0 39.0 40.0 22.3 11.5 31.1 : 25-39 years old Medium 49.5 40.7 20.9 36.9 : High 19.6 25.1 40.8 32.4 18.5p 10.1 25.5 : : 55.7 45.7p 16.8 17.4 20.2 38. social data and economics I Highest level of education attained by age group.8 40.5 18.7 12.6p 36.8p 46.4 31.1 27.4 79.5p 11.6 16.7 19.1 30.5 64.1p 54.2 21.0 16.9 23.9 66.8 23.6 39.2 52.4 41.7 12.5 11.7 13.4 17.5 13.8 40.4 13.7 18.5 21.5 22.2 10.1 : : 29.6 27.3 : : 15.2 28.6 31.8 41.8 42.1 34.7 13.4p 11.8 8.3 51.4 58.9 19.7 : : 38.6 16.3 32.2 69.9 19.5 54.7 20.3 26.8 57.4 40.0 8.1 24.7 37. Source: Eurostat.6 48.9p 56.8 26.7 66.9 41.8 19.0 14.3 37.7 43.6 5.9 81.1 40.2 40.1 20.1 26.4 60.7 56.9 : Levels of education based on ISCED 1997: Low (ISCED levels 0-2): Pre-primary.Chapter 1 Demography.8 71.4 9.3 25.5 18.5 14.2 19. 2006 (%) 40-64 years old Low EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 34.1 15.9 10.1 45.0 60.1 34.8 27.5 59.0 34.8 39.7 24.8 42.7 47.7 68.

1 Men 31.6 16.4 33.9 30.0 16.9 40.2 24. EU Labour Force Survey 22 Cultural statistics .1 14.2 18.7 22.3 31.0 28.5 41.0 16.7 43.7 43.6 33.0 34.5 44.2 12.0 33.3 30.5 40% 25-39 years old 40-64 years old “Tertiary level” of education means levels 5 and 6 in ISCED 1997.3p 20.7 41.3 60% 0% 20% 33.6 20.9 28.3 48.6p 18.9 20.4 19.4 24.I Chapter 1 Demography.9 39.5 40.6 31.0 30.0 23.8 32.4 EU-27 29.1 LV EL HU PT DE MT IT AT SK CZ 23.3 15.5 14.8 43.3 40. Source: Eurostat.8 15.5 NO 0% 20% 40% 44.9 15.3 28.6 35. 2006 (%) Women FI BE IE DK CY SE ES LT EE FR NL UK SI LU BG PL 35.5 35. social data and economics Tertiary level as highest level of education attained by gender and age group.1 HR 14.3p 27.0 33.1p 33.2 19.0 13.9 25.

7 20.9 0.1 0.4 4.2 75.4 63.8 92.2 72.9 1. Latin.3 78.5 1.6 0.5 0.0 0.7 : Percentage of pupils at ISCED level 3 learning 3 or more 2 1 none foreign languages 28.5 : 10.9 : 24.6 : 2. This is the definition applied for data collection.0 27.2 0. Foreign languages: All modern languages taught as “foreign languages”.3 0.4 2.3 40.7 : 12.0 21.3 97.2 43.5 58.5 9.9 88.8 3.9 0.1 88.7 : 17.1 : 67.9 : 21.4 : 85.5 : 0.5 6.1 : 73.6 14.1 2.8 : 60.3 : 9.1 : 90.2 : 59.8 : 28.1 72.3 : 1.6 49.8 1. 2004/2005 (%) Percentage of pupils at ISCED level 2 learning 3 or more 2 1 none foreign languages BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR1 IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR MK TR1 IS NO 0.5 : 28.3 : : 8.2 : 4. Regional languages are included if they are considered as alternatives to foreign languages in the curriculum.9 10.3 : 0.1 6.6 : 16.9 0.1 : 0. The curriculum drawn up by the central education authorities in each country defines which are to be considered “foreign languages” in that country.8 : 5. UOE data collection Cultural statistics 23 .4 : 0.9 5.1 11.6 21.7 97.8 21.2 3.8 28.3 86.4 : 8.8 3. Only foreign languages studied as compulsory subjects or as compulsory curriculum options are included.5 : 44.9 : 18.2 0.1 0.6 39.1 23.4 : 38.4 : 51.8 65.0 8.4 39.1 3.4 12.1 9.2 : 0.5 : : 34.3 : 68.6 73.8 23. Source: Eurostat.7 1.3 1.9 54.2 44.9 90.8 76 91.6 : 18.9 : 0.9 76.7 94.4 : 19.1 7.9 0.3 : 63.4 : 59.6 0. Level 3: 2003/2004.4 2.9 96.0 47.6 5.9 0.9 44.1 72.5 8. Ancient Greek.3 13.7 28.6 6.8 55.6 23.5 : 10.7 0.5 1.7 0.2 22.4 50.1 : 0.6 1.5 39.1 90.0 83.9 87.6 56.8 : 46.2 2.1 : 4.7 50. Esperanto and sign languages are not included.8 0.1 : 67.8 6.4 : 1.0 60.1 : 48.3 0.5 52.2 0. social data and economics I Number of foreign languages learned by pupils in general education.6 12.8 94.9 9.5 : 90.9 33.7 65.2 68.1 : 38.3 : 16.Chapter 1 Demography.3 7.4 4.7 3.8 70.6 : 34.3 66.9 : 13.0 0.4 : 3.3 : : 0.3 : 0.

Music and performing arts.7 1.7 82 477 4. Tertiary students: ISCED levels 5-6.1 4.3 1 151 0.3 LU : : HU 28 577 6.2 2.2 4.2 389 2.6 6 873 3.3 3.5 5.6 2.9 FI 27 945 9.2 3 158 1.6 8 621 2. information and archive.5 5 876 1.9 Journalism and information Number %* 279 704 1.7 8 332 2.1 20 899 1.3 176 1.0 1 430 1.7 1 313 0.0 6 320 2. Mother tongue. Craft skills.4 148 388 6. Building and civil engineering.1 : 5.2 10 942 1.0 3.8 28 145 1.7 PL 149 851 7.0 MK 4 670 9.8 3 049 2.5 3 238 1.1 SK 7 136 3.0 DE EE 4 693 6.9 ES 107 480 5. social data and economics Tertiary students by field of education related to culture. Arts: Fine arts.9 * Students as % of all tertiary students.5 BE 22 993 5.5 26 318 1. Design.1 4.6 : : 112 872 5.1 SE 40 530 9. Audio-visual techniques and media production.1 1 599 0.6 3 212 1.9 17 468 4.5 NL 19 701 3.3 LT 8 404 4.1 4.8 3.8 1.2 18 513 2. History and archaelogy.0 15 977 4.8 : : 11 061 2.0 8 128 1.9 IE 12 538 6. ** Total for all EU MS available.7 8 628 2. Philosophy and ethics.5 AT 23 622 9.3 2 562 1.4 1 678 1.2 CH 17 695 8.6 7 927 3.5 TR 73 831 3.6 15 580 0.8 CZ 23 403 7.4 720 1.1 3.6 761 3.6 MT 240 2. UOE data collection 24 Cultural statistics .8 16 349 5.5 IS 1 781 11.8 4.4 : 2.5 689 0. Source: Eurostat.9 FR : : IT 203 039 10.2 2.9 4.5 6 145 2.2 7 712 3.8 3 124 1.6 3.4 1.7 2 989 4.1 PT 16 681 4.3 14 679 3.9 4.7 7 890 1.8 2.9 24 833 4. Journalism and information: Journalism and reporting.4 84 258 3.1 2.0 Architecture and building Number 625 221 14 900 5 748 16 663 8 140 96 108 2 777 8 524 22 396 91 525 : 116 036 256 4 069 8 640 : 11 033 339 17 756 10 259 56 046 29 154 8 019 4 416 7 614 9 436 11 278 64 089 5 383 1 633 46 691 360 3 969 8 014 %* 3.2 28 703 1.0 2 324 1.4 402 2.1 24 625 1.2 SI 6 881 6.9 LV 5 615 4.0 EU-27** 1 389 406 8.0 DK 26 858 11.3 2.5 3 172 2. Foreign languages.7 381 0.7 NO 17 536 8. Library.6 3.5 334 3. Humanities: Religion.2 3.1 1 122 1.5 4.6 7.6 272 489 12.4 5. 2004/2005 Humanities Number %* Arts Number %* 634 267 3. Architecture and building: Architecture and town planning.4 RO 68 332 9.1 CY 981 4.7 : : 5 527 1.2 10 015 1.9 BG 13 766 5.3 5 270 2.7 EL 63 830 9.3 1 030 10.6 : : 69 187 3.2 3 819 1.I Chapter 1 Demography.8 3 937 2.4 9 964 4.0 3.5 3.9 46 765 2.5 UK 233 821 10.2 HR 9 388 7.4 18 911 10.

3 4.4 5.4 3.4 1.5 10.5 4.3 1.4 CH NO IS 0% 2. 2004/2005 MT IE UK IT FI ES BE EE NL PT AT CY DE SE DK LT BG CZ LV SK EL SI RO HU PL 1.2 10.0 2.6 2.3 6.6 4.9 EU-27: 3.9 HR MK TR 1.7 3. social data and economics I Students in arts as % of all tertiary students.2 2.6 5.5 1.2 3.8 3.7 2.5 1.6 2.7 1.4 4.4 4.8 1.1 3.9 6% 9% 12% Source: Eurostat. UOE data collection Cultural statistics 25 .Chapter 1 Demography.6 3% 3.2 4.

0 39.5 64.6 : 75.6 31.6 73.7 32.4 Journalism and information Men 35.3 38.7 : 64.1 35.5 41.6 67.8 59.7 : 33.9 : 28.3 30.7 29.3 59.5 30.1 : 71.1 66.6 30.6 Women 61.7 66.8 31.8 51.2 47. UOE data collection 26 Cultural statistics .1 : 42.2 41.5 71.2 36.4 67.6 61.8 60.6 43.1 66.6 : 38.8 72.3 43.3 66.4 56.5 42.7 64.5 58.4 30.3 33.5 41.1 35.9 32.5 68.6 67.5 55.5 48.9 17.0 75.8 58.9 64.0 59.4 69.2 76.7 63.8 52.7 59.4 33.1 67.6 56.4 : 32.2 27.6 64.7 33.1 66.0 62.3 35.3 38.6 38.9 37.1 60.8 35.4 : 61.9 34.2 58.4 85.9 29.2 67.5 34.1 Arts Men 38.9 33.6 : 67.8 34. 2004/2005 (%) Humanities Men Women EU-27* BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR MK TR IS NO CH 32.6 41.9 : 57.9 28.2 48.5 31.4 35.9 39.8 26.9 33.5 69.0 40.8 32.2 59.7 40.5 36.5 36.9 58.9 44.5 61.3 54.0 48.8 50.5 28.5 57.7 61.7 68.1 55.2 35.7 66.6 62.0 77.1 35.2 56.6 40.3 42.9 27.8 19.8 43.9 : 56.8 30.3 21.6 17.5 58.3 : 35.1 41.6 61.3 40.4 74.3 40.2 69.7 37.1 70.4 38.8 63.3 67.7 45.4 61.4 68.0 37.9 33.8 Women 64. Source: Eurostat.5 51.1 69.5 37.9 81.1 19.4 81.7 72.1 61.4 38.7 56.0 37.5 74.6 14.5 62.1 72.6 39.3 36.2 49. social data and economics Tertiary students in fields of education related to culture by gender.1 66.2 65.2 73.4 67.4 58.2 70.5 35.9 30.4 26.9 64.6 41.5 69.1 : 43.1 75.7 78.8 40.0 62.5 63.5 84.2 47.9 38.4 37.2 68.2 64.6 72.6 69.5 65.0 48.0 60.5 31.4 : 24.3 33.1 82.2 80.5 15.4 82.1 37.8 52.4 58.3 27.1 62.8 29.7 61.6 18.2 Architecture and building Men 64.7 57.4 59.0 24.5 62.4 61.8 19.I Chapter 1 Demography.4 27.0 22.7 * Total for all EU MS available.5 64.3 Women 35.9 33.8 41.2 80.3 : 67.7 69.5 25.4 32.9 24.6 32.5 44.5 25.1 65.3 70.6 32.3 32.9 64.5 37.8 23.4 43.1 71.5 35.8 64.2 39.5 64.5 74.3 62.0 51.6 25.9 62.0 51.9 68.5 38.

2004/2005 (%) % 100 80 55 60 68 62 64 36 40 20 45 32 38 36 64 0 Total tertiary level Humanities Arts Journalism and information Architecture and building Men Women * Percentages based on EU MS available.Chapter 1 Demography. social data and economics I EU-27* tertiary students in fields of education related to culture by gender. Source: Eurostat. UOE data collection Cultural statistics 27 .

6 SI 70.5 7.0 64.3 7.7 CY 73.0 69.3 8.2p 6.7 6.2 66.0 8.1 14.3 6.4 14.3 DK 80.1 13.3 6.1 14.1 CH 81.1p 50.6 9.1 13.6 FI 75.5 3.8 4.8 8.0 LV 71.1 AT 73.0 8.5 38.7 74.4p 3.9 8.2 56.0 8.8 3.6 66.5 8.5 6.6 73.8 7.9 9.7 76.8 68.8 63.5 4.9 4.2 7.7 19.7 79.7 3.3 6.4 74.3u 3.6u 3.5 HR 62.7 64.8 IS 87.1 10.0 5.3 4.5u 7.3 5.4 3.3 12.9 55.7 6.0 4.5 6.3 15.1 4.1 7.6 6.6 7.9 83.8 7.3 4.7 8.4 23.3 87.0p 5.1 7.3 9.4 77.9 90.8 Population: 15-64 years old.2 82.5 6.6 DE 75.3 69.7 83.0 13.8 14.1 8.8 74.6 5.4 8.0 7.4 48.7 9.3 LT 67.0 7.5 BG CZ 70.5 5.6 7.4 7.7 7.8 11.3 76.8 6.2 5.5 8.6 10.9 76.8 4.0 10.4 LU 66.2 13.5 7.3 7.4p 5.3p 6.1 9.9p 8.3 Medium High 8.3u 2.1 Total Unemployment rates (%) by highest level of education attained Low 11.9 80.1 15.4 74.3 5.8 6.9 3.6u 6.0 2.5 4.8 5.4 7.5 81.5p 69.7 5.8 7.0 5.8 EL 67.4 9.4 3.5p 75.5 24.8 8.3 67.6 9.3 4.0 3.0 8.5 70.2 6.2 SE 78.9 73.7 HU 62.0 5.0 12.3 13.4 9.2 10.7 PL 63.4 13. 2006 (%) Activity rates (%) Total by gender Men Women EU-27 70.1 79.2 9.5 3.1 4.6 16.0 20.3 5.5 2.9 RO 63.3 3.7 4.2 70.8 62.2 62.6 11.9 2.8 7.5 75.3 4.2 4.8p 74.9 : 4.6 82.0 ES 70.9 4.4 PT 73.3 70.8 : 2.4 9.0p 6.2 55.6 4.1p 6.1 9.4 56.9 59.4 2.8 FR 69.3 68.8 2.1p 13.7 8.6p 8.0 8.3 61.5 4.4 : 3.8 UK 75.3 77.4 9.9 5.8 81.4 3.5 4.9 SK 68.2 NL 77.1 7.5 4.8 14.7 7.5 2.1 : 1.7 4.2p 6.3 84.3 8.3 8.1 5.3 10.2 4.2 3.6 6.9 10.8 78.0 MT 59.6 6.0 60.1 81.I Chapter 1 Demography.6p EE 72.9 6.4p IT 62.0 56.4 10.2 4.1 68.1 2.8 66.5 BE 64.8 10.5 7.5 60.2 6.6 14.5 70. Source: Eurostat.4 IE 71.5 3.5 79.5 6.1 81.4 4.6 58.1 2.7 5.0 6.3 77.7 8.4 4.5 7. social data and economics Activity rates by gender and unemployment rates by level of education and gender.7 60.3 4.4 68.1 81. EU Labour Force Survey 28 Cultural statistics .1p 5.4 11.1 NO 78.9 3.9 3.5 by gender Men Women 7.

7 70. EU Labour Force Survey Cultural statistics 29 .2 38.7 63.5 62.4 76.7 50.3 73.4 74.7 64.8 63.1p 67.2 61.0 2000 2006 2006 2000 IS NO CH 20% 40% 60% 74. 2000 and 2006 (%) DK FI SE UK LT NL EE PT RO CZ SI DE SK FR AT LV PL 56.3 63. countries where the women activity rate in 2006 was lower than in 2000.9 73.6 56.7 60.9 CY BE BG IE HU ES LU EL IT MT 35.4 77.2 55.8 46.0 58.8 51.5 59.5p 75.6 65.1 63.8 55.5 51. social data and economics I Women activity rates.1 76.7 80% 85.3 EU-27 60.8 64.0 66.8 56.5 66.8 64.6 50.Chapter 1 Demography. Source: Eurostat.9 62.9 60. Population: 15-64 years old.6 62.6 63.2 67.5 61.3 56.3 57.0 60.1 55.6 83.3 68.8 71.5 63. In grey.4 69.1 62.5 62.0 74.7 69.9 100% Activity rate = active persons (employed and unemployed) as a percentage of total population of the same age.6 52.8 60.7 67.3 69.

4 1 688 659.9 5 096.8f 161 613.5 204 465.0 534 324.0 257 897.2 1 906 358.4 14 522.5 190 656.9 79 338.0 46 015.0 113 969.8 34 211.5f 195 213.9 185 082. Annual National Accounts 30 Cultural statistics . social data and economics Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices.1f 503 855.6 40 866.2 301 722.9f 230 658.I Chapter 1 Demography.8 Million of PPS 11 557 853.9 9 526.4 167 062.2 314 084.3 GDP per inhabitant 2000 PPS per inhabitant 19 000 24 000 5 300 13 000 25 100 22 600 8 500 24 900 14 600 18 500 22 000 22 300 16 900 7 000 7 500 46 400 10 700 15 900 25 600 25 400 9 200 14 900 4 900 14 700 9 600 22 300 23 800 22 300 8 200 5 100 5 700 25 000 31 400 27 100 2006 PPS per inhabitant 23 400 28 700 8 700 18 600f 29 700 26 700 15 700 33 700f 20 800f 23 900 26 500 24 300 21 900 13 100 13 600 65 300 15 300 18 000 31 000 30 200 12 400 17 500f 8 800f 20 400 14 700 27 300 28 200 27 900 11 700f 6 400f 6 900f 31 300 43 900 31 100f PPS: Purchasing power standard.3 23 746.5 52 082.9 267 381.2 250 247. Source: Eurostat.0 143 474.7 4 951.6 29 971.3 155 215.1 13 009.9 1 053 600.5f 318 586.5 143 818.8 89 883.4 16 848.6 2 322 200.7 7 288.0 1 791 953.4 13 080.2 302 570.0 305 989.1 1 432 261.3 66 798.8 29 741.4 30 182.2 256 327.1 2 197 005.0 473 773.0 976 189.0 13 073.5 191 079.8 97 117.5 175 794.5 154 357.5 506 840.4 33 054.9 21 170.3 235 144.4 1 673 128. 2000 and 2006 (euro and PPS per inhabitant) GDP at market prices 2006 EUR million EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR MK TR IS NO CH 11 557 853.4f 220 162.2 271 530.0 16 180.1 25 100.8 43 945.0 1 475 401.

6 14.6 1.1 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 4.4 4. social data and economics I Share of each country in EU-27 GDP and in the total population.2 2. Annual National Accounts and Demographic Statistics Cultural statistics 31 .4 1.1 0.6 1.1 12.5 19.3 0. 2006 (%) DE UK FR IT ES NL PL BE AT SE EL CZ PT RO DK HU IE FI SK BG LT SI LV LU EE CY MT 2.7 0.3 0.2 1.4 0.4 14.2 2.6 2.6 0.Chapter 1 Demography.2 0.3 1.1 9.0 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 Share in EU-27 GDP (PPS) Share in EU-27 population Source: Eurostat.

.

Cultural heritage chapter 2 .

1999) Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch (1991) Mines of Rammelsberg and Historic Town of Goslar (1992) Maulbronn Monastery Complex (1993) Town of Bamberg (1993) BG CZ DK DE 34 Cultural statistics . 2005)* 1 Historic Centre of Brugge (2000) Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels) (2000) Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) (2000) Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai (2000) Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex (2005) Boyana Church (1979) Madara Rider (1979) Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo (1979) Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (1979) Ancient City of Nessebar (1983) Rila Monastery (1983) Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari (1985) Historic Centre of Český Krumlov (1992) Historic Centre of Prague (1992) Historic Centre of Telč (1992) Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora (1994) Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec (1995) Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (1996) Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž (1998) Holašovice Historical Village Reservation (1998) Litomyšl Castle (1999) Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc (2000) Tugendhat Villa in Brno (2001) Jewish Quarter and St Procopius’ Basilica in Třebíč (2003) Jelling Mounds. La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainault) (1998) Belfries of Belgium and France (1999. Runic Stones and Church (1994) Roskilde Cathedral (1995) Kronborg Castle (2000) Aachen Cathedral (1978) Speyer Cathedral (1981) Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square (1981) Pilgrimage Church of Wies (1983) Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl (1984) St Mary’s Cathedral and St Michael’s Church at Hildesheim (1985) Roman Monuments.I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage European cultural sites on the Unesco World Heritage List. Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier (1986) Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987. 2005)* 2 Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1987) Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin (1990. Brussels (1998) The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs. 2007 Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties BE Flemish Béguinages (1998) La Grand-Place. 1992.

candidate countries (HR. 2007 BE DE MT LU CY Cultural site Mixed (cultural/natural) property FR * EU-27. MK and TR) and EFTA (IS.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I 318 European* cultural sites on the Unesco World Heritage List. 2007 Cultural sites EU-27 Asia and the Pacific Latin America and the Caribbean Arab states Africa United States and Canada Source: Unesco including transboundary properties 7 1 2 0 1 0 292* 174 117 59 38 14 * including two mixed properties (cultural and natural) Cultural statistics 35 . NO and CH) Source: Unesco Number of worldwilde cultural sites on the Unesco World Heritage List. LI.

2005)5 Altamira Cave (1985) Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias (1985. and Old Town of Quedlinburg (1994) Völklingen Ironworks (1994) Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau (1996) Cologne Cathedral (1996) Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg (1996) Classical Weimar (1998) Museumsinsel (Museum Island). 1994)3 Burgos Cathedral (1984) Historic Centre of Cordoba (1984. Berlin (1999) Wartburg Castle (1999) Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (2000) Monastic Island of Reichenau (2000) Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen (2001) Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar (2002) Upper Middle Rhine Valley (2002) Dresden Elbe Valley (2004) Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)* Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen (2004) Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof (2006) Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn (1997) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne (1993) Skellig Michael (1996) Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae (1986) Acropolis. Athens (1987) Archaeological Site of Delphi (1987) Archaeological Site of Epidaurus (1988) Medieval City of Rhodes (1988) Meteora (1988) µ Mount Athos (1988) µ Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika (1988) Archaeological Site of Olympia (1989) Mystras (1989) Delos (1990) Monasteries of Daphni. 1998)6 Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches (1985) Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct (1985) Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) (1985) Historic City of Toledo (1986) Mudejar Architecture of Aragon (1986. Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios (1990) Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos (1992) Archaeological Site of Vergina (1996) Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns (1999) Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint John “the Theologian” and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos (1999) Old Town of Corfu (2007) Alhambra. Generalife and Albayzín. 1994)4 Monastery and Site of the Escurial.I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties DE Collegiate Church. Castle. Granada (1984. Madrid (1984) Works of Antoni Gaudí (1984. 2001)7 EE IE EL ES 36 Cultural statistics .

Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge (1995) Canal du Midi (1996) Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne (1997) Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997. Biodiversity and Culture (1999) µ San Cristóbal de La Laguna (1999) Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco (2000) Archaeological Site of Atapuerca (2000) Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí (2000) Palmeral of Elche (2000) Roman Walls of Lugo (2000) Aranjuez Cultural Landscape (2001) Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (2003) Vizcaya Bridge (2006) Chartres Cathedral (1979) Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay (1979) Palace and Park of Versailles (1979) Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley (1979) Vézelay. Church and Hill (1979) Amiens Cathedral (1981) Arles. Roman and Romanesque Monuments (1981) Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay (1981) Palace and Park of Fontainebleau (1981) Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the “Triumphal Arch” of Orange (1981) Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans (1982) Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe (1983) Place Stanislas. Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (1987) Old City of Salamanca (1988) Poblet Monastery (1991) Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida (1993) Route of Santiago de Compostela (1993) Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe (1993) Historic Walled Town of Cuenca (1996) La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (1996) Las Médulas (1997) Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau. Barcelona (1997) Pyrénées . Reims (1991) Paris. Former Abbey of Saint-Remi and Palace of Tau. Place de la Carrière and Place d’Alliance in Nancy (1983) Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct) (1985) Strasbourg – Grande île (1988) Cathedral of Notre-Dame. Banks of the Seine (1991) Bourges Cathedral (1992) Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace. 1999)* µ San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries (1997) Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (1998) University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares (1998) Ibiza.Mont Perdu (1997.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties ES Old Town of Cáceres (1986) Cathedral. 1999)* µ Historic Site of Lyons (1998) Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France (1998) Cultural statistics FR 37 .

Port of the Moon (2007) Rock Drawings in Valcamonica (1979) Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci (1980) Historic Centre of Rome. the Basilica of San Francesco and Other Franciscan Sites (2000) City of Verona (2000) Villa d’Este. 2005)* 1 Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion (1999) The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes (2000)8 Provins. 1990)* Historic Centre of Florence (1982) Piazza del Duomo. the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret (2005) Bordeaux. and the Certosa di Padula (1998) Historic Centre of Urbino (1998) Villa Adriana (Tivoli) (1999) Assisi. Modena (1997) Costiera Amalfitana (1997) Portovenere. Town of Medieval Fairs (2001) Le Havre. Torre Civica and Piazza Grande. Tivoli (2001) Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily) (2002) Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy (2003) Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia (2004) Val d’Orcia (2004) Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica (2005) Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the System of the Palazzi dei Rolli (2006) IT 38 Cultural statistics . 1999) Historic Centre of Naples (1995) Historic Centre of Siena (1995) Castel del Monte (1996) Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna (1996) Historic Centre of the City of Pienza (1996) The Trulli of Alberobello (1996) 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park. Tino and Tinetto) (1997) Residences of the Royal House of Savoy (1997) Su Nuraxi di Barumini (1997) Villa Romana del Casale (1997) Archaeological Area and the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia (1998) Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park. with the Archaeological Sites of Paestum and Velia. 1996) Crespi d’Adda (1995) Ferrara. City of the Renaissance. Pisa (1987) Venice and its Lagoon (1987) Historic Centre of San Gimignano (1990) I Sassi di Matera (1993) City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto (1994. Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata (1997) Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico). the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980. the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and the San Leucio Complex (1997) Archaeological Area of Agrigento (1997) Archaeological Areas of Pompeii. Padua (1997) Cathedral. Cinque Terre and the Islands (Palmaria. and its Po Delta (1995.I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties FR Belfries of Belgium and France (1999.

the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue (1987.F. Woudagemaal (D.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties CY Paphos (1980) Painted Churches in the Troodos Region (1985. Netherlands Antilles (1997) Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout (1997) Ir. 2001) Choirokoitia (1998) Historic Centre of Riga (1997) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Vilnius Historic Centre (1994) Curonian Spit (2000)* Kernavė Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernavė) (2004) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications (1994) Budapest.D. including the Banks of the Danube. Wouda Steam Pumping Station) (1998) Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder) (1999) Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) (2000) Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg (1996) Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (1996) Hallstatt-Dachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape (1997) Semmering Railway (1998) City of Graz – Historic Centre (1999) Wachau Cultural Landscape (2000) Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)* Historic Centre of Vienna (2001) Cracow’s Historic Centre (1978) Wieliczka Salt Mine (1978) Auschwitz Concentration Camp (1979) Historic Centre of Warsaw (1980) Old City of Zamość (1992) Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (1997) Medieval Town of Toruń (1997) Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park (1999) Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica (2001) Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland (2003) Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)* Centennial Hall in Wroclaw (2006) Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (1983) LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT Cultural statistics 39 . 1992)9 Schokland and Surroundings (1995) Defence Line of Amsterdam (1996) Historic Area of Willemstad. Inner City and Harbour. 2002) Old Village of Hollókö and its Surroundings (1987) Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment (1996) Hortobágy National Park – the Puszta (1999) Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae) (2000) Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)* Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape (2002) City of Valletta (1980) Hal Saflieni Hypogeum (1980) Megalithic Temples of Malta (1980.F.

Avebury and Associated Sites (1986) Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey (1986) Blenheim Palace (1987) City of Bath (1987) Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987. 2004. Westminster Abbey and Margaret’s Church (1987) RO SK FI SE UK 40 Cultural statistics . 2005) µ Stonehenge. 2005)* 2 Westminster Palace. 1999)10 Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (1999) Historic Centre of Sighişoara (1999) Wooden Churches of Maramureş (1999) Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity (1993) Spišský Hrad and its Associated Cultural Monuments (1993) Vlkolínec (1993) Bardejov Town Conservation Reserve (2000) Fortress of Suomenlinna (1991) Old Rauma (1991) Petäjävesi Old Church (1994) Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (1996) Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (1999) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Royal Domain of Drottningholm (1991) Birka and Hovgården (1993) Engelsberg Ironworks (1993) Rock Carvings in Tanum (1994) Skogskyrkogården (1994) Hanseatic Town of Visby (1995) Church Village of Gammelstad.I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties PT Convent of Christ in Tomar (1983) Monastery of Batalha (1983) Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon (1983) Historic Centre of Évora (1986) Monastery of Alcobaça (1989) Cultural Landscape of Sintra (1995) Historic Centre of Oporto (1996) Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley (1998) Alto Douro Wine Region (2001) Historic Centre of Guimarães (2001) Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture (2004) Churches of Moldavia (1993) Monastery of Horezu (1993) Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (1993. Luleå (1996) Laponian Area (1996) µ Naval Port of Karlskrona (1998) Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland (2000) Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun (2001) Varberg Radio Station (2004) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd (1986) Durham Castle and Cathedral (1986) Ironbridge Gorge (1986) St Kilda (1986.

Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of Bellinzone (2000) Lavaux.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I Country Cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) properties UK Canterbury Cathedral. 1994) Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica in the Historic Centre of Poreč (1997) Historic City of Trogir (1997) The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik (2000) Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region (1979. Vineyard Terraces (2007) HR MK TR IS NO CH Cultural statistics 41 . 1980) µ Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (1985) µ Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği (1985) Historic Areas of Istanbul (1985) Hattusha: the Hittite Capital (1986) Nemrut Dağ (1987) Hierapolis-Pamukkale (1988) µ Xanthos-Letoon (1988) City of Safranbolu (1994) Archaeological Site of Troy (1998) Þingvellir National Park (2004) Bryggen (1979) Urnes Stave Church (1979) Røros Mining Town (1980) Rock Art of Alta (1985) Vegaøyan – The Vega Archipelago (2004) Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair (1983) Convent of St Gall (1983) Old City of Berne (1983) Three Castles. St Augustine’s Abbey. Kew (2003) Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (2004) Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape (2006) Historical Complex of Split with the Palace of Diocletian (1979) Old City of Dubrovnik (1979. Bermuda (2000) Derwent Valley Mills (2001) New Lanark (2001) Saltaire (2001) Royal Botanic Gardens. and St Martin’s Church (1988) Tower of London (1988) Old and New Towns of Edinburgh (1995) Maritime Greenwich (1997) Heart of Neolithic Orkney (1999) Blaenavon Industrial Landscape (2000) Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications.

Extension of the “Mudejar Architecture of Teruel”. “Temple of Ggantija”. 1999)* µ Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997. 2004. is part of the transboundary property “Frontiers of the Roman Empire”. 6. Extension of “Biertan and its Fortified Church”. 2005)* 2 Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987. Palacio Güell and Casa Mila in Barcelona”. 2005)* 2 Historic Centre of Rome. to include the five prehistoric temples on the islands of Malta and Gozo and to rename the property “The Megalithic Temples of Malta”. Extension of the “Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias”. Extension of the “Mosque of Cordoba”. previously on the World Heritage List. Extension of the “Alhambra and the Generalife. 7. previously on the World Heritage List. are part of the transboundary property “The Belfries of Belgium and France”. 2005) µ µ = mixed properties * = transboundary property 1. to include monuments in the city of Oviedo. 1999)* µ Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)* St Kilda (1986. 2. 5. “Hadrian’s Wall”. 4. to include the Albayzin quarter. is part of the “Works of Antoni Gaudí”. The “Chateau and Estate of Chambord”. is part of the “Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes”. The Committee decided to extend the existing cultural property. previously on the World Heritage List. 9. the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980. 2005)* 1 Curonian Spit (2000)* Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)* Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001)* Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1987. 10. 1990)* Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)* Muskauer Park/Park Muzakowski (2004)* Pyrénées – Mont Perdu (1997. 3. Source: Unesco 42 Cultural statistics . The “Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia”. 8. The property “Parque Güell. previously on the World Heritage List.I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage Country Cultural transboundary properties BE FR LT HU AT UK DE IT DE PL FR ES EE FI LV LT NO SE UK Belfries of Belgium and France (1999. Granada”. 2005)* 1 Belfries of Belgium and France (1999.

Florence The Accademia Gallery2. Prinsens Palais. Humlebæk IE National Gallery of Ireland. Cork Gaa Museum. Killarney Lewis Glucksman Gallery. Aarhus Kunstmuseum. Prague Terezín Memorial. Brussels Musée royal de l’Armée et d’Histoire militaire. Rhodes 1 043 351 321 254 241 2006 Musée du Louvre. Paris 8 314 4 742 3 009 1 120 1 100 2006 Archaeological Circuit Colosseum and Palatino2. Brussels CZ Jewish Museum.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I The five most visited museums per country and total admissions (1000s) Country Total admissions (1000s) 2004 Centre belge de la Bande dessinée. Aarhus Den Gamle By. Copenhagen Statens Museum for Kunst. Rožnov pod Radhoštĕm DK Nationalmuseet. Dublin Muckross House. Dublin Chester Beatty of Ireland. University College. Prague National Gallery. Paris Musée de l’Armée. Brussels Muséum des Sciences naturelles de Belgique. Aarhus Louisiana (Museum of Modern Art). Athens Archaeological Museum of Epidaurus Archaeological Museum of Herakleion Archaeological Museum of Mycena Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights. Florence 4 065 2 544 1 664 1 237 FR IT Cultural statistics 43 . Copenhagen ARoS. Paris Château de Versailles Musée d’Orsay. Brussels Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Terezín Wallachian Open-Air Museum. Prague National Museum. Dublin EL 250 246 239 214 212 2006 629 561 554 291 231 2006 463 413 373 362 351 2006 757 206 197 75 61 BE Annual average 1998-2005 Archaeological Museum of Acropolis. Brussels Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire. Paris Musée national d’Art moderne (Centre national d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou). Rome Excavations of Pompeii2 Uffizi Gallery and Corridoio Vasariano.

Dubrovnik 66 49 48 35 27 2006 1 700 1 100 400 386 360 2005 460 361 331 288 284 2006 234 186 142 133 103 2005 1 405 893 794 703 382 2005 4 536 4 202 3 902 3 078 2 020 2005 430 44 Cultural statistics . Stockholm Världskulturmuseet. Stockholm Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Apeldoorn PT3 Mosteiro dos Jerónimos. Luxembourg Musée National d’Histoire et d’Art (MNHA). Luxembourg Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg (MVL).I Chapter 2 Cultural heritage Country Museums IT LV Turaida Museum Reserve. Riga Latvian National Museum of Art. Lisbon Palácio Nacional de Sintra Palácio Nacional da Pena. Göteborg UK British Museum. Arnhem Railway Museum. Stockholm Vasamuseet. Luxembourg Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN). Bauska region Latvian Ethnographical Open-Air Museum. Stockholm Moderna museet. London Natural History Museum. Diekirch NL Van Gogh Museum. Batalha FI Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma. London Science Museum. Amsterdam Netherlands Open-Air Museum. Tampere Ateneum Art Museum. Riga LU Castel Sant’Angelo. Riga region Rundale Palace Museum. London Tate Modern. Utrecht Palace Het Loo. London National Gallery. Rome Total admissions (1000s) 876 2006 202 147 138 118 111 2006 Musée d’Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean (MUDAM). Lisbon Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitória. Luxembourg Musée National d’Histoire Militaire (MNHM). London HR Cultural History Museum. Riga Latvian War Museum. Sintra Torre de Belém. Amsterdam Rijksmuseum. Helsinki Museum Centre Vapriikki. Helsinki Turku Castle and the City of Turku Historical Museum Helsinki City Art Museum SE Skansen.

Oslo Museum of Cultural History. 2. PT: Only State museums. Fažana Technical Museum. Trondheim Norwegian Defence Museums. Oslo Nidaros Cathedral Restoration Workshop. Some countries have included only museums charging an entrance fee. Pula Public Institution Brijuni National Park – Departement for the Protection of Cultural Assets. State museums and/or subsidised museums. Zagreb Archaeological Museum. Oslo Natural History Museums and Botanical Garden. The number of admissions is also established on specific national bases. Architecture and Design.Chapter 2 Cultural heritage I Country Museums Total admissions (1000s) 400 148 103 64 2006 HR Archaeological Museum of Istria. Oslo. Source: European Group on Museum Statistics (Egmus) Cultural statistics 45 . IT: The data refers to the tickets (single or combined) sold by museums charging an entrance fee. Horten. 3. Zadar NO National Museum of Art. Trondheim and Bodø 579 478 413 388 278 1. Names of museums are given in the language used by the countries when they provided data. Each country has its own definition of what is considered a museum (some are actually a group of two or more museums). Others have considered only public museums.

.

Cultural employment. enterprises and external trade II .

.

Cultural employment chapter 1 .

.

Lithuania and Spain. meaning both employment in cultural occupations in the whole economy and any employment in cultural economic activities. specific features of cultural employment can be identified particularly in terms of levels of education and job security. Estonia. Sweden and Portugal. and this proportion is as high as 60% in Belgium.5 times higher than in total employment.1% in Romania to 3. compared with 26% for the workforce in general. e Netherlands. Persons working in the cultural field are generally better educated than those employed in the economy as a whole: nearly 48% of cultural workers have completed tertiary-level education. e. On the other hand. e proportion of part-time jobs in cultural employment is higher than that in total employment in every Member State except Belgium (although the difference is small in the United Kingdom. France and Estonia. followed by Denmark (33%). A high share of cultural jobs are temporary in Spain. In some countries – Italy. is proportion ranges from 1. the proportion of temporary jobs is more than twice as high in cultural employment as in total employment.g.9 million people in EU-27 and accounted for 2.8% in the Netherlands. Cultural employment is oen less secure: 16% of cultural workers have temporary jobs.Chapter  Cultural employment II Cultural employment In 2005 cultural employment. In some countries. Hungary and Romania – the percentage of highly educated persons in cultural employment is about 2. Austria and Germany (30%). Cultural statistics  . Slovenia. the Czech Republic.4% of total employment. also records the highest part-time rate in cultural employment (59%). the European leader in part-time working. In many Member States the majority of people working in the cultural field are university graduates. was estimated at 4. and 25% have part-time jobs. Sweden and Luxembourg). compared with 17% in the working population as a whole. No major differences appear at EU level between cultural employment and total employment with regard to gender or age. when the analysis was conducted for the first time using the specific statistical matrix crossing cultural occupations and cultural sectors of the economy. though some discrepancies can be seen in some countries. In EU-27 cultural employment as a proportion of total employment has remained unchanged since 2002. France. compared with 13% in total employment.

Estonia and Slovenia. compared with 14% in the total working population.  Cultural statistics . 29% of cultural workers usually or sometimes work at home. No significant difference emerges between cultural employment and total employment when analysing the nationality of workers: about 95% of workers in EU27 are national. Greece. is is 14 percentage points more than for the whole workforce.2%). is is significantly higher than the rate in the total workforce. e proportion of workers with second jobs is nearly twice as high in cultural employment as in total employment in EU-27. is phenomenon of more people having second jobs in cultural employment is common to nearly every country. Switzerland (14%) and Austria (10. e nature (degree of urbanisation) of the geographical area in which the respondents work is defined as one of three categories: densely populated area. Sweden and Norway – the difference is very high (with the percentage working in densely populated areas nearly twice as high for cultural employment). which has no more than 13% home-workers. In three countries the figure is over 10%: Luxembourg (36%).e. Hungary. In Luxembourg. as defined by the national legislation of each country. Lithuania.II Chapter  Cultural employment In the EU 29% of persons working in the cultural field are nonemployees (i. In some countries – the Czech Republic. self-employed or family workers). Slovenia. Most cultural workers (58%) have their jobs in densely populated areas. Nationality is interpreted in the EU LFS as citizenship. intermediate area and sparsely populated area. Estonia reports a gap of 14 percentage points between non-national workers in cultural and in total employment (4% against 18%). In every country the proportion of persons working in densely populated areas is higher in cultural employment than in total employment. is proportion among cultural workers ranges from 3% in Cyprus to 41% in Austria and the United Kingdom (and even 46% in Iceland). Cyprus and Switzerland non-national workers are also relatively less numerous in the cultural domain than in total employment. In EU-27. the Netherlands and Greece (35%) and the lowest (under 10%) in Romania. In most countries fewer than 10% of workers in cultural employment are non-nationals. e highest ratios of nonemployees can be found in Italy (53% of cultural employment).

street. stage and related actors and directors (4). but combination of the two takes into account all jobs in cultural activities and all qualified persons engaged in cultural occupations. Cultural statistics 3 . archivists and curators (43). In the EU LFS database run by Eurostat. A more detailed level is necessary in order to identify cultural activities and cultural occupations. authors. singers and dancers (3473) and clowns. These two levels are not detailed enough. acrobats and related associate professionals (3474). magicians. town and traffic planners (ISCO code 4). sculptors. choreographers and dancers (44). painters and related artists (4). television and other announcers (347). composers. film. The cultural occupations on which data derived from the LFS are set out here are: architects. librarians and related information professionals (43). NACE and ISCO are available for most countries at -digit and 3-digit levels respectively. emphasised one statistical source to use for cultural employment estimates: the EU Labour Force Survey. reporting to the European Working Group on Cultural Statistics. journalists and other writers (4). Consequently.Chapter  Cultural employment II The Task Force on Cultural Employment. musicians and singers (43). decorators and commercial designers (347). radio. a statistical method has been devised to approximate cultural employment by cross-tabulating both dimensions at -digit (NACE) and 3-digit (ISCO) levels. Use of this survey makes it possible to estimate cultural employment by crossing cultural activities classified by the NACE with cultural occupations classified by the ISCO. when they are employed by enterprises engaged in other economic activities. photographers and image and sound recording equipment operators (33). night-club and related musicians.

2005 (1000s) Employment Cultural EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 4 940.5 1.4 2.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment in total employment.8 487.5 36.8 3.4 1 003.7 1.3 69.9 464.8 3.0 6.8 2.2 2.8 2.3 3.1 1.7 Data extraction: March 2007 Source: Eurostat.1 2.4 389.0 2.0 3.3 3.2 47. EU Labour Force Survey.5 2.1 2.9 19.8 27.7 2.5 3.9 92.0 3.4 1.5 870.8 22.6 231.8 2.8 2.1 2.1 2.0 48.4 93.7 82.4 1. 2005 4 Cultural statistics .4 7.4 305.0 104.8 88.1 2.3 153.3 1.8 97.1 2.6 Total 208 945 4 212 3 008 4 739 2 737 36 179 609 1 929 4 382 18 893 24 312 22 650 348 1 028 1 453 193 3 891 148 8 112 3 754 13 947 5 132 9 298 947 2 196 2 418 4 357 28 072 1 531 157 2 212 3 945 % 2.2 40.0 2.3 79.8 3.2 2.4 53.0 30.2 2.5 79.3 88.3 3.

EU Labour Force Survey. 2005 (%) NL SE FI EE UK DK DE LV LT IE AT SI MT CY EL BE ES HU IT FR CZ SK LU BG PL PT RO EU-27: 2.4 HR CH IS NO 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% Source: Eurostat. 2005 Cultural statistics  .Chapter  Cultural employment II Share of cultural employment in total employment.

II

Chapter  Cultural employment

Cultural employment/total employment by age group, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment -4 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 10.2 5.4 8.9 8.0 15.4 9.0 13.9 12.8 7.9 10.1 7.0 7.4 9.7 20.2 7.6 6.7 5.8 18.0 18.2 11.8 6.0 8.9 7.1 7.7 7.9 11.2 9.4 14.1 8.6 18.3 16.7 10.2 -49 67.1 73.2 68.8 65.6 55.0 66.3 47.4 67.4 75.1 77.2 73.6 72.2 70.9 54.2 66.1 74.2 67.7 53.6 55.6 67.2 68.3 72.9 76.9 69.3 69.5 62.9 57.6 61.7 69.2 54.1 60.3 59.0 0+ 22.7 21.4 22.3 26.5 29.6 24.7 38.7 19.8 17.0 12.7 19.4 20.4 19.4 25.6 26.4 19.1 26.5 28.4 26.2 21.1 25.7 18.2 16.0 23.0 22.6 25.9 33.0 24.2 22.2 27.6 23.1 30.7 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 -4 10.2 8.0 7.6 7.9 13.3 10.7 10.1 16.1 7.4 10.5 8.9 7.1 10.2 11.3 7.6 6.5 7.0 18.9 14.8 14.2 9.1 10.0 8.7 8.6 10.7 11.7 10.3 13.7 9.6 18.0 12.7 14.3 Total employment -49 66.8 71.0 69.6 65.3 59.1 64.5 62.2 64.1 71.2 70.1 67.8 71.2 67.1 64.2 70.3 74.5 68.7 60.4 62.2 68.3 72.0 67.9 74.3 73.1 69.7 60.1 58.2 59.9 67.6 54.9 59.6 59.8 0+ 22.9 20.9 22.8 26.8 27.6 24.9 27.7 19.9 21.4 19.4 23.3 21.7 22.7 24.5 22.0 18.9 24.2 20.6 23.0 17.5 18.9 22.0 17.0 18.3 19.6 28.2 31.5 26.4 22.8 27.1 27.7 25.9 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005 

Cultural statistics

Chapter  Cultural employment

II

Percentage of female workers, 2005
EE LT LV PL SI RO HU FI IE BG UK SE FR AT EU-27 CZ DK SK ES DE CY NL EL PT BE IT LU MT
32 38 50 50 48 47 47 46 46 46 45 45 44 44 44 43 42 42 40 40 54 54 54 53 57 63 66 65

HR

54

IS CH NO
0% 20% 40% 46 45

49

60%

Cultural employment
Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, 2005

Total employment

Cultural statistics 

7

II

Chapter  Cultural employment

Cultural employment/total employment by educational attainment of workers, 2005 (%)
Cultural employment Low EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 10.5 12.7 2.7 1.7 15.6 10.0 3.6 12.7 8.3 16.6 13.2 15.6 6.5 4.1 1.8 5.9 3.3 46.3 18.2 7.9 1.6 40.6 3.7 1.7 0.8 13.8 9.0 5.2 1.3 25.3 9.8 7.4 Medium 41.8 24.9 41.0 61.4 34.2 42.2 32.3 37.3 51.2 23.5 33.3 46.9 38.2 52.9 37.1 42.5 45.9 27.6 36.6 55.9 47.9 31.5 50.8 47.1 63.4 41.3 49.7 47.1 53.7 21.0 44.6 53.5 High 47.7 62.5 56.3 36.9 50.1 47.8 64.0 50.0 40.5 59.9 53.5 37.4 55.3 43.0 61.1 51.5 50.7 26.0 45.2 36.2 50.5 27.9 45.5 51.2 35.7 44.8 41.4 47.7 45.0 53.7 45.7 39.1 Low 22.3 24.1 14.6 5.5 18.6 16.0 8.3 25.9 28.7 43.2 27.2 39.4 27.6 10.6 5.8 24.2 13.7 59.8 25.3 15.9 6.2 69.1 10.1 12.5 4.3 17.6 14.8 9.9 11.6 34.8 10.4 15.4 Total employment Medium 51.8 38.5 58.7 79.6 49.0 58.3 55.0 40.5 45.3 23.6 44.0 45.8 41.3 63.2 58.4 45.7 64.8 24.0 43.3 65.0 69.4 16.1 72.5 64.9 79.3 47.4 55.5 59.3 67.0 37.2 56.9 57.5 High 25.9 37.4 26.7 14.9 32.4 25.7 36.7 33.5 26.1 33.2 28.8 14.8 31.1 26.2 35.7 30.1 21.5 16.2 31.4 19.1 24.5 14.8 17.3 22.5 16.5 35.0 29.6 30.8 21.4 27.9 32.7 27.2

Levels of education based on ISCED 1997: Low (ISCED levels 0-2): Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education. Medium (ISCED levels 3-4): Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. High (ISCED levels 5-6): Tertiary education. Source: Eurostat. EU Labour Force Survey, 2005 

Cultural statistics

EU Labour Force Survey. 2005 EE BE LT ES BG CY FR LU SI HU PL DK IE DE UK EU-27 RO NL FI LV SE EL IT CZ AT SK PT MT 28 26 37 37 36 36 41 41 43 46 45 45 48 48 48 52 51 51 51 50 50 54 56 55 60 61 64 63 HR 45 IS NO CH 0% 20% 39 40% 46 54 60% Cultural employment Source: Eurostat. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics 9 .Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of persons with tertiary-level education.

0 68.0 89.3 75.5 28.1 53.8 69.7 76.0 32.2 21.3 13.8 11.6 12.1 90.2 18.2 5.7 7.6 12.8 19.1 87.7 92.2 30.3 64.0 27.7 13.5 67.2 65.0 76.4 24.7 Nonemployee* 13.0 26.9 70.0 7.1 29.0 21.3 93.1 7.9 12. EU Labour Force Survey.1 Nonemployee* 29.8 87.7 92.8 80.2 10.4 87.9 3.2 12.8 94.0 72.0 73.3 23.1 83.7 87.6 76.5 25.6 12.0 72.7 86.0 87.4 23.4 6.4 87.3 93.3 86.1 96.5 72.0 12.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment/total employment by occupational status.9 70.2 92.3 12.1 90.6 93.7 35.5 74.3 8. 2005 (%) Cultural employment Employee EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 71.9 92. Source: Eurostat.6 9.8 82.5 87.8 16.6 75.8 89.1 13.9 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total employment Employee 86.7 6.1 86.6 93. 2005 0 Cultural statistics .4 6.1 29.1 22.9 9.4 6.9 46.0 73.4 87.5 83.9 9.3 79.3 7.8 7.2 20.3 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 * Self-employed and family workers.5 16.8 35.7 20.1 90.5 27.2 88.5 71.4 91.7 25.3 90.0 10.8 78.0 23.0 27.2 83.5 32.9 16.9 77.6 93.0 78.9 13.0 92.9 9.5 12.0 26.2 80.9 87.7 9.

Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of non-employees. 2005 IT NL EL DE CZ AT UK EU-27 IE LU SE BE SK CY HU PT ES FR FI PL DK LV BG MT RO SI EE LT 4 8 7 7 11 13 12 17 20 20 19 24 23 23 22 22 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 27 33 35 35 53 HR 25 IS CH NO 0% 20% 24 26 32 40% 60% Cultural employment Source: Eurostat. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics  . EU Labour Force Survey.

3 20.3 17.3 7.3 9.6 12.1 44.6 4.9 20.5 21.3 1.7 13.3 20.6 5.9 13.1 18.1 14.1 20.9 17.3 4.7 4.2 2.3 22.6 16.1 3.4 14.0 14.0 13.6 19.4 7.4 Total employment 17.3 10.1 58.8 22.6 29.7 2.1 4.7 6. 2005  Cultural statistics .2 13.5 13.0 24.9 7.8 17.2 18.2 6.0 3.7 3.7 6.1 5.2 7.4 12.9 2.9 : 6.4 3.6 4.9 4. EU Labour Force Survey.4 Total employment 13.2 20.0 11.9 15.2 5.9 28.2 7.0 20.4 17.5 5.3 24.9 3.1 9.5 28.1 7.4 45.5 13.8 25.1 32.3 12.0 29.0 11.6 29.2 12.5 18.0 9.3 18. Source: Eurostat.1 27.1 7.6 19.7 19.7 9.0 34.4 25.5 13.7 8.0 25.4 9.9 16.0 32.7 22.4% of cultural workers had temporary jobs in 2005.5 16.8 24.6 8.9 29.2 12.4 4.1 % of workers with part-time jobs Cultural employment 25.8 2. 16.4 3.5 13.0 7.7 16.2 24.6 33.4 12.3 7.8 2.5 14.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment/total employment by permanence of job and full-time/part-time work.5 20.5 24.4 Reading note: In EU-27.7 17.9 15.1 33. 2005 (%) % of workers with temporary jobs Cultural employment EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 16.1 6.6 13.0 6.3 8.0 12.0 3.2 8.

EU Labour Force Survey.Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of workers with: part-time jobs. 2005 NL DK AT DE SE UK EU-27 FR SI FI IT LV ES EE MT LU BE IE PL CY CZ PT EL HU RO BG SK 3 3 4 7 16 12 15 22 3 21 6 6 12 9 7 30 19 20 7 16 25 27 20 17 13 15 24 HR 18 HR 13 CH NO IS 0% 20% 33 33 40% 44 CH NO IS 60% 0% 8 14 13 20% 40% Cultural employment Source: Eurostat. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics 3 . 2005 NL DK AT DE SE UK EU-27 FR SI FI IT LV ES EE MT LU BE IE PL CY CZ PT EL HU RO BG SK 3 3 5 9 8 12 21 20 20 20 19 18 18 17 16 15 12 30 30 29 28 25 24 24 21 33 59 temporary jobs.

3 13.8 16.2 13.0 6.9 2.6 9.5 1.4 Reading note: In EU-27.4 11.8 3.1 0.1 8.6 5.2 11.9 8. EU Labour Force Survey.8 18.0 Total employment 3.0 11.2 8.II Chapter  Cultural employment Second jobs reported in cultural employment/total employment.0 1.8 2.2 1.9 6.3 6.2 4. 6.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.4 11.2 6.8 4.4 6.4 5.8 8. 2005 4 Cultural statistics .8 4.7% of cultural workers had at least one sideline job in 2005.6 5.1 3.7 7.7 6.5 3.5 3.3 6.9 1.9 6.2 2.6 6.8 3.3 7.9 4.7 4.6 10.9 1.8 1.7 5.1 6.2 3.0 3.1 6.9 9.3 3.5 2.5 2. 2005 (%) Percentage of workers having second jobs in Cultural employment EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE EL ES FR IE IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 6. Source: Eurostat.3 4.

Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of workers with second jobs. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics  . 2005 DK NL LV LT SE AT PL SI FI CY BE CZ EU-27 EE PT UK DE FR ES SK HU IT EL IE RO LU MT BG 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 11 12 14 13 17 HR 2 IS CH NO 0% 8 10% 11 18 20% Cultural employment Source: Eurostat. EU Labour Force Survey.

8 8.9 2.7 2.2 : 73.1 6.5 3.6 : 22.0 2.7 : 10.6 90.6 4.3 79.2 7.2 85.3 62.2 : 20.0 27.4 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Work at home in total employment Usually Sometimes Never All 4.0 : 54.0 58.3 9.3 : 15.5 12.6 71.7 90.0 73.2 5.2 78.1 7.0 9.6 7.2 86.9 14.0 15.3 91.5 8.2 11.8 : 19.1 : 66.0 7.0 16.7 2.4 15.3 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Reading note: In EU-27.0 7.6 75. Source: Eurostat.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment/total employment by work at home.5 : 72.0 12.0 4.4 3.5 5.2 98.4 8.1 67.4 6.3 2.4 12.0 3.2 5.9 26.2 96.1 83.4 4.2 88.0 76.5 10.7 89.9 13.0 17.8 98.2 79.0 95.4 5.3 2.2 6.0 91.7 28.0 1. EU Labour Force Survey.6 8.6 18.9 : 6.9 2.6 88.7 11.6 94.7 7. 2005 (%) Work at home in cultural employment Usually Sometimes Never All EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 13.7 97.1 1.7 1.0 21.5 8.2 1.9 2.3 82.2 13.3 9.4 17.7 24.3 67.2 0.2 77.3 71.6 0.9 92.9 19.1 72.8 4.0 : 7.6 : 82.0 12.0 3.1 5.5 14.5 4. 13.2 87.7 12.3 9.8 4.6 94.3 84.1 91.1 3.1 8.3 7.0 : 3.9 15.8 96.3 8.0 14.7 88.1 10.5 3.3 3.1 7.9 1.7 70.8 19.4% of cultural workers were usually working at home in 2005.2 0.1 75.7 91.2 5.8 19.5 : 18.0 3.9 95.2 4.3 : 6.9 8.8 1.2 91.4 : 23.8 3.0 90.7 78.1 : 89.5 78.8 3.3 0.5 15.5 1.5 19.9 1.2 7. 2005  Cultural statistics .8 : 7.3 87.8 76.7 69.8 59.4 76.8 95.4 21.

EU Labour Force Survey. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics 7 . 2005 NL LU FI FR BE SE SI AT DE EU-27 SK IT UK IE DK PL EE HU LV CZ EL CY RO PT MT LT 2 3 3 3 3 5 7 7 7 8 10 14 13 13 13 12 12 11 15 14 16 18 18 17 19 24 IS NO CH 0% 9 10% 20% 22 23 Cultural employment Source: Eurostat.Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of employed usually working at home.

6 70.6 29.8 22.5 36.9 43.8 49.9 : 48.4 1.7 35.0 43.7 15.0 53.1 22.Sparsely populated diate populated area area area EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 58.3 13.0 : 32.0 62.3 53.2 1.4 91.3 : 17.3 : 24.2 43.5 : 12.6 66.2 : 20.8 3.6 25.1 87.7 : 33.6 61.8 95.1 70.3 : 23.4 11.2 30.3 22.8 21.7 40.1 29.2 67.3 33.5 : All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Source: Eurostat.5 38.8 5.2 : 31.8 22.4 : 18.7 65.4 22.4 74. 2005  Cultural statistics .9 75.3 17.7 46.5 44.5 4.2 2.3 : 51.2 30.2 41.9 : 19.8 1.5 : 48.4 21.2 53.7 : 34.1 15.8 73.3 32.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment/total employment by degree of urbanisation.9 74.1 24.9 : 49.8 : 35.7 14.1 16.7 70.1 50.1 13.9 4.7 11.4 : 50.2 : 69. EU Labour Force Survey.4 16.1 23.Sparsely populated diate populated area area area 44.2 40.3 : 31.6 55.0 12.8 37.8 18.3 : All Total employment Densely Interme.8 62.3 38.2 6.4 : 46.4 : 28.2 24.3 : 24.3 8.0 33.4 : 41.7 36.1 : 58.4 0.8 : 16.7 61.9 48.6 35. 2005 (%) Cultural employment Densely Interme.5 37.0 8.4 18.1 13.0 24.1 65.8 61.0 24.4 14.6 8.8 : 36.6 38.6 : 18.6 : 17.9 : 19.4 16.9 : 27.2 46.3 66.8 38.3 64.2 54.5 12.4 18.7 : 21.1 89.7 57.4 : 40.1 40.1 18.0 : 31.5 62.0 15.9 47.5 37.4 59.9 14.4 25.8 : 17.3 14.

2005 MT EL NL EE CY LV UK FR PT ES HU BE DE IT LT AT EU-27 DK IE FI CZ LU SE SI 36 43 42 49 53 51 67 67 66 64 63 62 61 58 57 71 70 70 70 75 74 74 89 96 HR 40 0% 40% 80% 87 NO Cultural employment Source: Eurostat. EU Labour Force Survey.Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of workers in densely populated areas. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics 9 .

2 1.1 7.8 99.6 : 100 100 98.8 99.5 : 0.1 4.7 3.7 0.8 99.7 89.1 : 86.9 96.5 99.7 18.3 4.5 92.2 0.4 3.0 99.4 0.9 : 14.0 0.9 99.9 0.7 95.1 78.3 3.4 3.6 Nonnationals 5.7 45.3 : 92.5 5.3 10.2 91.7 : 7.1 1.2 14.9 92. EU Labour Force Survey.5 95.4 99.2 10.3 8.1 3.6 96.9 96.2 0.5 Nonnationals 5.4 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total employment Nationals 94.0 91.6 0.6 96.8 3.8 89.3 2.3 99.2 96.5 94.9 98.0 100 97.2 0. 2005 (%) Cultural employment Nationals EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR IS NO CH 94.3 81.6 99.7 95.8 89.9 94.1 92.1 99.4 3.8 8.5 8.3 54.3 4.8 7.5 4.II Chapter  Cultural employment Cultural employment/total employment by nationality.9 35.1 0.5 7.7 91.8 3.9 21.4 : 1.0 2.5 : 99.5 97.3 96.2 97.1 100 100 64.1 6.8 98.5 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Source: Eurostat.2 92.7 97.7 96. 2005 70 Cultural statistics .2 95.2 10.8 85.6 96.6 99.9 95.2 94.9 7.0 8.5 0.8 5.5 91.4 0.5 2.1 3.8 4.

5 3.4 0.4 21.Chapter  Cultural employment II Percentage of non-national workers. EU Labour Force Survey.1 7.8 1.7 7.4 3.5 8.5 7.2 CH NO IS 0% 2.3 4.2 18.3 0.5 20% 40% Cultural employment Source: Eurostat.1 2.1 3.2 8.7 4.2 14.4 0. 2005 LU AT BE ES CY DE IE UK EU-27 FR NL SE DK EE PT MT EL FI CZ PL HU BG 6 5.9 7.6 8.5 45. 2005 Total employment Cultural statistics 7 .3 10.9 3.8 5.5 4.3 1.1 14 35.

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Enterprises in cultural sectors chapter 2 .

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whereas the consumer goods index is conCultural statistics  . 1. across the whole of the European Union. compared with 33% for periodicals and 25% for books.g. practically only one sector of the cultural industries can be analysed at the moment: publishing. 2. Some broad data on architectural activities are also presented here. Within the publishing sector in EU-27. In 2004 publishing of books.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Cultural sectors in economic terms Economic indicators on cultural sectors can be found using harmonised SBS (Structural Business Statistics) data collected by Eurostat. e newspapers and periodicals market tends to be relatively geographically confined. followed by France and Italy. Note that printing (“technical” reproduction) is not considered part of the cultural domain. Poland and the Czech Republic stand out with over 40% of their value added generated from publishing books. newspapers and periodicals (the main activities in NACE group 221). Since 20002001 the indices of each publishing sub-activity have all been showing a downward trend. with EUR 44 000 million of value added at factor cost. Some data on the film market are included in this chapter. Unfortunately.6% of the number of enterprises. publishing of newspapers contributed the most value added: 42%.1% of jobs but more than 2. Up until 2000.7% of value added. In relation to manufacturing as a whole. Europe-wide the annual production index of the newspaper publishing sector was higher than that of the consumer goods industry and boosted the growth of publishing. this accounts for 2. Newspapers clearly predominate (on over 50%) in most northern European countries and in Germany and Austria. customer proximity (transport) and language barriers. ese statistics were published by MEDIA Salles. national dailies). nearly 750 000 people were working for 55 000 firms publishing books. owing to the rapid response of supply to demand (e. The publishing sector Publishing of books.9% of turnover. e United Kingdom and Germany are the main contributors to turnover and value added in EU-27. newspapers and periodicals generated turnover of over EUR 118 000 million. part of the EU Media Programme. e audiovisual sector is not covered by the SBS or any other harmonised source. newspapers and periodicals In 2004.

Concentration in the whole publishing sector In the publishing sector. is sector generated turnover of over EUR 140 000 million. whether or not bound up with publishing. In the 14  Cultural statistics . Publishing of sound recordings Publishing of sound recordings (CDs.2). but excluding reproduction of these recordings) is a small subsector of publishing. In general.6% of total publishing turnover. A large percentage of the workforce are self-employed. 1.5%). accounted for over 70% of the value added by the sector.1% of employment in the whole of the publishing sector and 3. one hundred firms. For example. Depending on the country. the proportion of micro-enterprises (employing fewer than 10 workers) is higher than in manufacturing as a whole. One reason for this reversal may be changing consumer habits. but a bigger share of the number of enterprises (14. eir subsidiaries in Europe specialise in various stages of the leading chain or diversify into other activities. is concentration is also increasing under the influence of the major media groups. Architectural activities Architecture is a cultural sector whose activities are closely related to engineering and related technical consultancy (all classified in the same NACE group 74. e core architectural enterprises (advisory and pre-design architectural services plus architectural design services for buildings and other structures) are oen smaller than engineering firms. each employing over 250 workers. In 2004 it accounted for 2. especially in Italy (nearly 80%). In 2004. with EUR 73 000 million of value added at factor cost. notably the success of the Internet and the on-line availability of an abundance of information and publications. these small businesses account for 5% to 10% of the sector’s turnover. Moreover. 85% to 95% of publishing firms employ fewer than 10 workers. in the United Kingdom in 2004. Publishing is not immune to concentration. across 20 EU Member States for which data are available. DVDs and taped music or other sound recordings.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors tinuing to rise. Italy accounts for 36% of the number of enterprises in the EU-20 total for these activities and nearly 20% of the number of persons employed.6 million people were employed in more than 600 000 firms in architecture and engineering.

their turnover can be put at 14% of the total turnover of the architecture and engineering sector. but are not included in the SBS survey: library and archives activities (NACE 92.1 and 92. journals and periodicals. broadly. ey accounted for 80% of its turnover in 2004. published by MEDIA Salles.1).3). As a strategic sector in the cultural domain. the audiovisual sector warrants better statistical coverage in future.2). Need to improve collection of statistics on the culture economy At present. audiovisual activities (NACE 92. For the time being. with growth of nearly 10% between 2005 and 2006. for architectural activities (which are included in “architectural and engineering activities”). the public sector for 17% and households for only 3% (shares estimated from the totals for the same 14 MS for which data are available). some figures on the film market. 2) makes a number of changes to the classification of cultural activities. newspapers. bearing in mind that addition of other cultural sectors to the Structural Business Statistics would require an amendment to the legal framework. These harmonised data from the Structural Business Statistics survey are available from Eurostat annually. The new version of the NACE classification (NACE Rev. Cultural statistics  . museum activities and preservation of historical sites and buildings (NACE 92. for publishing of sound recordings and.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II MS for which data are available. the EU-27 estimated turnover index in this sector is once again showing a promising upward trend. Enterprises are the main clients of firms operating in the architecture and engineering sector. Aer a slowdown between 2001 and 2004. are presented. Several other sectors cover totally or partly to the cultural domain. It will be necessary to study the impact of these changes on data collection. the economic situation in the cultural domain can be described only for the European publishing sector for books. to some extent.2) and. other entertainment activities (NACE 92.

3 0.9 : 3. 2.9 3.8 2. 2004 Publishing1 Number of persons employed EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 748 800e 10 025 : 13 826 23 682 181 401 3 060 4 426 : 46 907 80 657 40 103 : 6 492 6 205 : 10 649 : 33 197 9 023 36 271 10 846 13 693 : 4 825 16 142 25 535 146 896 19 452 Number of employees 711 900e 9 413 : 11 529 23 391 179 692 3 012 4 380 : 44 047 80 264 32 582 : 6 290 6 050 : 9 697 : 31 832 8 502 29 634 10 450 13 293 : 4 816 16 012 22 558 143 033 19 277 Manufacturing2 Number of persons employed 35 261 900e 623 457 643 793 1 363 226 417 285 7 228 207 130 433 220 935 : 2 584 251 3 887 901 4 672 760 40 144 167 936 263 545 : 835 079 : 785 917 621 087 2 482 445 866 105 1 689 459 239 694 400 992 409 686 806 881 3 408 919 258 955 % of publishing in manufacturing employment 2.3 : 4. newspapers.0 5.4 : 1. In this context.3 2.5 1. “publishing” means “publishing of books.2 3.2 4.6 : 1.1 0.1e 1.5 1. Structural Business Statistics  Cultural statistics .5 1.0 : 1.2 1. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213).II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Employment in the publishing sector1.3 7. NACE D. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).8 : 1.7 2.5 2. Data extraction: March 2007 Source: Eurostat.9 2.

3 6.1 7.6 49.9 : 11.6 8.7 12 10.2 5.4 36.5 34.2e 16.7 3.5 35 101. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).2 13.8 4.3 17.5 8 24.3 15 30.5 18 14. In this context.2 6.6 15 8.4e 9.8 8 5 22 16.7 17.5 4. “publishing” means “publishing of books. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics 9 .4 15.7 14.6 22.journals turing papers and periodicals 6.5 7.9 52.9 : 19.9 22 9 22.3e 15. 2004 Number of persons employed Publishing of books newspapers journals and periodicals 312 100e 3 038 : 3 770 12 472 84 573 1 355 1 844 : 18 677 31 816 12 367 491 2 877 2 882 : 2 272 : 13 706 3 998 12 697 4 177 6 490 1 508 955 9 414 14 899 54 762 13 824 249 900e 3 663 : 2 385 7 429 65 646 773 1 805 : 10 587 31 923 12 946 277 2 603 1 930 : 4 113 : 11 044 2 643 6 148 3 613 2 179 464 1 622 4 375 5 550 61 841 2 574 Number of persons employed per enterprise Publishing of Manufacbooks news.2 26 48. newspapers.3 : 5.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Number of persons employed (total and average per enterprise) in sub-activities of publishing1.7e 20.5 c 9 7 : 3 : 7.9 55 74 27 : 12 : 46.4 5 c 32 6.5 : u 304.9 21.5 : u 27. Source: Eurostat.2 145.4 37.9 29.9 6 22 31 : 12 : 16.6 : 11.7 22 12.2 : u 7.1 19 26 53 33.8 44 70.8 31 13 63 16.9 6 10.6 8 16 13 : 4 : 14 10 8 7.1 11.9 EU-27 186 800e BE 3 324 BG : CZ 7 671 DK 3 781 DE 31 182 EE 932 IE 777 EL : ES 17 643 FR 16 918 IT 14 790 CY c LV 1 012 LT 1 393 LU : HU 4 264 MT : NL 8 447 AT 2 382 PL 17 426 PT 3 056 RO 5 024 c SI SK 2 248 FI 2 353 SE 5 086 UK 30 293 NO 3 054 1.

newspapers.5 1.1 : 1.0 3.1 1. “publishing” means “publishing of books.8 2.5 7. 2004 Share of publishing turnover in manufacturing % 1.6 1. Structural Business Statistics  Cultural statistics .8 2.5 : 1.3 : 2. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213).4 : 1.2 3.8 4.5 1. turnover and value added in the publishing sector1.4 5.7 1.0 1.3 3.4 2.9e 1. Source: Eurostat.5 2.4 Value added at factor cost EUR million 44 065ue 817 : 247 982 9 273 44 444 : 2 803 5 611 3 938 : 55 57 : 223 : 2 544 642 763 417 88 : 67 1 040 1 229 11 928 1 302 Share of publishing value added in manufacturing % 2.1 1.7 2.9 : 4.9 : 0.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Number of enterprises.2 : 2.5 : 4.7 : 1.2 2.9 2.2 3.6 1.2 3.4 : 2.7 1. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).2 1.2 Enterprises Number EU-27 55 051e 747 BE : BG CZ 2 379 DK 795 DE 3 619 EE 194 IE 117 EL : ES 5 096 FR 9 718 IT 5 742 CY : LV 314 LT 455 LU : HU 2 642 MT : NL 2 265 AT 782 PL 4 547 PT 1 053 RO 1 694 SI 310 SK 161 FI 902 SE 2 859 UK 5 345 NO 1 000 Turnover EUR million 118 371e 2 725 : 831 2 378 25 629 107 772 : 7 730 18 398 12 309 : 118 152 : 925 : 6 554 1 945 1 872 1 265 291 : 222 2 453 3 872 25 750 2 769 1.7 0.1 2.9 0.6 : 1.3 1.6 1. In this context.8 : 1.7ue 1.

2 1.7ue FR LT SE ES PT DE IT PL BE AT HU SK IE CZ RO 2.8 1.2 1. Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics 1 . LU.2 1.4 2.9 4.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Share of publishing in manufacturing value added versus share of publishing in manufacturing turnover.5 EU-27 2.5 1.8 1.9 1. Source: Eurostat. 2004 (%) UK NL LV DK FI EE 3. MT and SI.5 5. EL.4 2.7 2.1 4.5 2.5 3. CY.6 1.2 2.1 3.2 1.2 8% Value added Turnover Data confidential or not available for BG.1 NO 0% 2% 4% 6% 7.

4 Total publishing 118 371e 2 725.5 26. Structural Business Statistics 2 Cultural statistics .7 574.4 1 029.3 155.2 782.0 4 405.8 1 265.4 839.1 39.8 48.8 42.9 9 612.8 621.4 : 2 957.0 637.0 3 872. In this context.8 2 378.3 18.9 c 23.1 391. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).0 2 453.9 4 269.7 52.8 152.1 426.2 25 750.6 379.2 3 633.9 72. newspapers.2 977.5 7 873.1 : 257.2 1 291.1 : 3 064.4 2 054.3 101.4 565.3 6 432. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213).3 1 944.5 Publishing of journals and periodicals 40 340e 1 061.7 38.2 51.6 628.4 : 1 708.7 : 198.0 12 221.6 5 174.6 : 1 668.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Turnover in publishing sub-activities1.5 52.1 5 350.9 : 117.2 18 398.1 c 90.1 : 352.5 Publishing of newspapers 45 483e 806.3 1 051.9 10 195.3 291.0 375.6 447.1 : 222.1 1 566.9 83.4 5 942.4 833.9 219.8 40.4 1. “publishing” means “publishing of books.6 417.5 349.6 : 375.4 : 262.3 107.8 1 871.5 690.3 25 629.3 28. Source: Eurostat.1 12 308.5 : 309.9 : 2 216.4 771.0 : 925. 2004 (EUR million) Publishing of books EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 32 548e 857.6 : 2 669.9 : 7 730.4 : 830.1 87.5 177.4 2 769.0 6 975.1 : 6 554.9 102.

2004 (%) IE FI SE DE LT AT EE ES DK 56 55 53 51 50 46 44 21 28 23 22 27 25 26 22 25 33 28 61 60 23 26 27 20 22 13 13 EU-27 42e 33e 25e LV PL PT CZ UK IT RO FR NL HU BE SK 34 34 33 28 24 20 41 40 39 38 37 37 27 44 41 33 36 40 26 20 43 17 31 43 43 30 42 21 37 39 22 26 39 40 40 16 NO 0% 20% 59 40% 60% 18 80% 22 100% Publishing of newspapers Publishing of journals and periodicals Publishing of books 1.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Breakdown of value added in publishing1 by sub-activities. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). In this context. “publishing” means “publishing of books. newspapers. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded). Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics 3 . Source: Eurostat.

3 1.3 26.0 55.2 31.7 17.3 83.2 44.3 3.8 : 4.8 47.0 12.2 2.3 2.2 6. 2. 3.9 ci 2.5 2.8 39.1 2.8 6.0 3.2 2.2 2.6 5.9 31.2 44.3 26.6e 56.2 45.3 Investment3 (EUR 1s) 2.0 0.6 6.8 SI c SK 6.4 : 14.8 1.6 16.1 3.9 5.9 12.8 43.9 4.0 31.2 57.3 38.5 UK 49.9 2.9 6.5 7.7 32.0 4.5 8.3 3.4 42.4 RO 2. newspapers.8 FI 41.5 : 1.1 5.9 0.3 44.1 LT 5.8 PT 26.9 : 45.6 14.9 3.3 EE 9.0 6.8 : 11.3 8.4 0.1 1.1 7.3 : 5.3 4.9 2.5 1.2 0.4 0.3 4 4.0 1.3 50.5 2.0 1. Average investment per person employed (EUR 1000s).8 48.3 LU : HU 12.8 1.0 DE 44.2 17.4 27.6 53.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Labour cost per employee and investment per person employed in publishing1 sub-activities.6 2.2 : 12.9 : 36.9 BG : CZ 10.7 9.3 1.3 : 3.8 PL 10.9 1.6 1. 2004 Journals and periodicals Books Labour cost2 (Unit labour cost) EU-27 37.1 5. “publishing” means “publishing of books.6 4.0 12.9 AT 39.3 : 8.1 10.0 2.8 2.5 9.0 : 40.5 2.6 3.4 4.1 9.7 10.2 1.6 13.0 : 2.7 : 1.7 40.2 : 44.2 6.5 1.8 1.7 0.8 Newspapers Manufacturing4 Labour Investment Labour Investment Labour Investment cost cost cost (Unit (EUR (Unit (EUR (Unit (EUR labour 1s) labour 1s) labour 1s) cost) cost) cost 42.6 SE 44.0 30.2 5.0e 2. journals and periodicals” (NACE DE2211 + DE2212 + DE2213). Structural Business Statistics  Cultural statistics .2 1.4 0.1 : 28.9 41.5 : 2.0 63.2 6.5 41.7 MT : NL 48.6 : 1.7e 51.5 6.5 1.1e BE 58.1 4.1 45. Average labour cost per employee (unit labour cost).0 2.9 : 49.7 : 9. These activities account for 93% of the total turnover of NACE group 221 (sound recordings and other publishing activities are excluded).4e 4.4 7. NACE D.6 c 1.7 NO 55. In this context.1 49 6.8 : 1. 4.5 CY c LV 4.3 2.8 2.7 : 15.6 22.6 4.6 : 2.0 48.4 4.3 : 1.6 6.4 37.7 0.5 IT 42.5 13.3 8.5 FR 52.2 : 3.3 47.7 2.9 41.8 5 3 2. Source: Eurostat.1 2.3 : 14.1 3.0 4.3 EL : ES 32.3 57.8 : 7.2e 5.2 16.8 41.1 9 3.8 DK 45.9 2.0 1.0 IE 43.2 6.0 26.7 48.

1996-2006 Cultural statistics  . 1996-2006 (base index: 1996 = 100) 120 110 100 Publishing Publishing of books Publishing of newspapers Publishing of journals and periodicals Consumer goods industry 90 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: Eurostat. Short-Term Statistics.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Annual production index for publishing sub-activities.

0 0.4 4.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Employment in sound recordings sector.6 : 4.5 1.2 : 1.0ue 1.2 1. Structural Business Statistics  Cultural statistics .2 1.8 3.2 1.7 2.9 2.9 : 2.7 c : 4.5 2.8 3.4 : u 2.0 1.7 2. 2004 Number of persons employed EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 19 000e 227 : u 308 1 993 37 c : 543 5 198 1 821 0 81 107 : 436 : 808 136 603 190 184 102 3 374 1 416 3 821 267 Number of employees 15 100e 80 : u 225 1 639 9 c : 462 5 031 930 0 80 98 : 367 : 469 53 295 164 169 80 0 314 1 173 3 056 187 Number of persons employed per enterprise 2.3 Source: Eurostat.8 1.5 5.

3 20.1 : u 57.2 0.1 4.2 214.1 : 5.6 538.2 : 167. 2004 Number of enterprises EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 9 338e 164 : u 128 416 10 c : 129 3 010 709 0 18 18 : 194 : 440 90 224 85 99 47 3 366 1 832 1 077 205 Turnover EUR million 4 368e 34.7 0.6 : 23.1 73.8 : u 12.6 15.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Number of enterprises.5 0 c 5.5 252.2 128 0.1 567.9 1 908. Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics  .9 72.4 4.2 58.9 13.2 0.7 13.3 4.6 21.9 840.4 204.3 : 43.2 56.5 c : 115.2 c : 23.9 3.6 Source: Eurostat.8 Value added at factor cost EUR million 1 173e 4.8 0 c 1.7 6.2 0 25. turnover and value added in sound recordings sector.

7 9.1 5.0 57.3 c c 2.1 c : : 13.0 6.2 77.1 0.9 72.0 4.4 0.2 44.6 7.9 c c 10.0 0.4 87.9 10.9 5.4 0.5 c : 15.3 8.3 0.4 c 3.3 94.5 c Note: In this context.4 20.3 Turnover 2-9 -29 2 or more c c 14.2 : c c 11.4 89.5 1.1 5.4 c c 8.3 c c 0.7 3.0 2.0 2.5 6.3 1.1 5.9 c : 2.0 c c : 10.7 92.0 24.6 92.0 6.6 : 2.0 36.4 3.0 c 13.8 c 8.1 : 1.9 18.7 3.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Number of enterprises and turnover in the whole publishing sector by size of enterprise.1 12.7 7.8 74.6 c c 2.1 24.4 0. “publishing” covers the whole of NACE group 221 (including sound recordings and other publishing activities).4 14.7 52.5 c c c 23.0 c 17.1 : 0.1 1.8 0.7 11.2 9.4 c c c 55.5 85.0 6.0 0.2 1.1 4.4 6.4 5.0 : 0.6 11.8 76.7 82.1 0.7 8.0 3.0 c c 0. 2004 (%) Number of enterprises 1-9 1-19 2-9 -29 2 1-9 1-19 or more BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO c c 92.1 4.9 5.7 c 0.3 41.3 : 28.0 31.2 28.0 15.0 c : 3.2 c 7.3 4.8 : 16.6 6.7 c c 17.2 65.0 35.4 0.2 4.4 c c 15.8 c c c 27.4 6.5 43.6 0.7 29.1 9.1 : c c 20.9 1.0 14.1 7.0 0.0 8.0 0.9 c 8.4 5.9 : 56.5 31.0 38.6 c : 0.8 6.7 5.8 : 94.6 c 46.6 : 33.6 5.8 87.9 : 3.8 94.1 15.0 2.4 3.8 10.6 84.6 c c c 26.5 21.4 2.4 9.0 6.9 0.8 c 74.2 5.9 6.2 c : : 30.4 8.4 2.3 41.6 : 88.1 47.2 1.3 1.0 : : c c 10.2 c c c 30. The size of enterprises is defined by the number of persons employed.6 c : 2.5 9.9 3.3 1.8 4.0 3.3 c 4.1 10.2 c : 5.3 c c : 36.8 0.7 1.9 : 1.4 6.6 : 88.4 86.5 15. Structural Business Statistics  Cultural statistics .3 9.2 14.9 c c c 9.2 6. Source: Eurostat.9 20.8 68.8 4.9 2.0 13.8 : 4.7 3.

LU. BG. “publishing” covers the whole of NACE group 221 (including sound recordings and other publishing activities). PL. EL. SE and SI.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Importance of micro-enterprises1 in the publishing sector (in number of enterprises and turnover). 1-9 persons employed. MT. NL. 2004 (%) HU IT CZ FR ES PT UK RO FI AT DK SK LT EE DE IE 44 66 76 75 73 89 87 87 86 86 84 82 95 93 93 93 NO 0% 20% 40% 60% 77 80% 100% Number of entreprises 1. Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics 9 . Turnover Data confidential or not available for BE. In this context. Source: Eurostat. CY. LV.

0 10. renting and business activities (NACE K) 9.8 6.2 5.7 12.0 1.9 5.5 8.1 6.1 8.6 17.2 % of persons employed in real estate.3 3.6 6.2 1.4 6.6 BE1 DK DE EE1 IE1 EL ES IT1 LV LT LU1 MT PL1 PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 1.7 9.9 10. Structural Business Statistics 2003. Data 2003.5 2.9 7.5 5.4 4.3 3. 2004 Number of persons employed Number of employees Number of persons employed per enterprise 2.6 12.6 2.6 : 4.0 : 8.4 : : 7.2 12.2 7. 2004 9 Cultural statistics .2 11. 41 100 32 474 360 130 4 753 18 917 64 691 203 847 308 589 5 614 8 987 3 202 1 008 : 27 428 40 350 11 049 9 785 27 489 61 768 353 981 28 721 25 711 29 671 273 527 4 559 15 522 26 352 118 776 66 479 5 360 7 821 3 035 657 49 154 23 486 39 325 9 504 9 505 25 642 53 078 314 360 25 768 Source: Eurostat.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Employment in the architecture and engineering sector.8 12.3 13.7 14.9 2.5 9.2 5.4 5.

1 8.3 120.6 9.0 8.0 3 228.1 : 17.9 1 092.0 4 352.0 11.5 Value added % 9.0 7.1 2 157.3 22.1 168.3 8.9 19.0 6 651.3 98.5 303.9 2 122.6 : 14.1 31 030.1 2 508.4 16.4 8.8 91.8 9.9 12.4 : 9.3 2 408.7 12.8 9.4 137.6 14. 2004 Main indicators Enterprises Turnover Value added Number EUR million EUR million 5 215.0 857. Data 2003.9 9.6 23 631.6 13.0 3.1 10.8 Share in real estate.8 11.8 259.7 471.9 5 095.9 7.9 14.5 1 030.9 15.1 9.6 9 928.1 44 025.3 4.4 9. Structural Business Statistics 2003.4 14 760.8 BE1 DK DE EE1 IE1 EL ES IT1 LV LT LU1 MT PL1 PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 15 828 5 044 84 765 807 3 750 33 411 91 475 224 357 903 1 647 376 381 40 197 6 122 7 619 3 589 1 166 4 939 29 403 56 435 9 001 1.2 12.4 20.3 13.5 9.8 10.1 6.6 1 470.4 18.9 292.9 1 340.8 14.1 : : 9.4 2 131.8 14.3 15.9 11.3 18 125.7 12.8 12.2 12.6 47.0 45.1 Turnover % 8.6 201.1 2 092.4 13.2 10.2 : 10.8 2 800. renting and business activities Enterprises % 15.7 8. turnover and value added at factor cost in architectural and engineering activities.9 18 034.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Number of enterprises.9 9.5 6.8 10.0 7 581.1 4. Source: Eurostat.3 2 666.1 24.2 : 7. 2004 Cultural statistics 91 .6 563.2 : 55.

9 13.0 c 9.5 c 28.9 14.6 4.0 100.1 0.4 1.2 17.1 23.9 c 38.7 1. 2004 (%) Other Sub-total Engineering Architectural Advisory design and architectural core design services services architectural including services for pre-design buildings architectural services integrated services engineering and other structures services for turnkey projects (2) (1) EU* DE DK ES FI EL LT LV MT PT RO SE SI SK UK NO 10.0 100.6 7.5 3.5 12.2 2.2 13.7 0.0 100.1 12.3 4.2 17.4 31.9 27.4 7.5 17.0 17.8 0.9 100.0 100.0 42.0 100.9 2.1 5.9 16.7 4.1 5.8 44.1 6.5 0.4 15.0 3.8 2.0 100.3 11.4 : 60.0 * Estimates based on the 14 Member States for which data are available.9 1.8 0.1 30.3 4.3 3.0 100.1 7.4 0.0 4.8 2.9 0.5 63.0 100.5 1.9 6. (1) Sub-total of the first three columns.0 100.8 2.0 100.0 0.5 4.5 9.7 15.7 : 4.0 100.3 33.9 21.9 2.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Breakdown of architecture and engineering turnover by product.3 15.4 3.3 10.6 9.8 Other Project Urban Other All architectural management planning additional and engineering services services related products services and services Sum of (3) () () () (1) to () EU* DE DK ES FI EL LT LV MT PT RO SE SI SK UK NO : 8.6 25.6 0. Structural Business Statistics 92 Cultural statistics .7 8.9 3.4 36.3 26.1 0.9 17.7 0.3 3.0 100.7 18.0 100.0 21.8 25.8 0.1 1.5 49.7 2. Source: Eurostat.6 1.0 27.2 5.0 : 57.4 8.4 4.1 41.0 12.0 6.7 0.4 2.2 2.6 7.3 9.3 1.7 1.0 21.7 3.7 3.5 1.3 7.7 1.8 30.1 1.6 22.0 19.2 9.9 30.5 18.2 8.7 14.8 2.8 14.6 6.1 31.7 1.2 12.1 16.4 2.9 13.8 1.4 1.0 100.2 c 8.2 42.9 2.7 0.8 4.0 100.1 1.9 43.9 1.0 1.

4 34.3 16.1 2.5 30.7 3.1 9.3 6.8 2.4 11.4 18.6 4.2 36.7 12.5 11.2 3.4 4.1 1.1 46.7 1.0 2. Structural Business Statistics Cultural statistics 93 . Source: Eurostat.4 20.5 10.6 7.1 5.0 56.4 33.0 28.6 12.4 6.5 49.9 26.8 1. renting and business activities 20% Manufacturing enterprises 22% Breakdown for each country available.7 22.1 0.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Breakdown of EU1 turnover of the architecture and engineering sector by client.9 8.8 39.6 41.9 51.8 19.1 2.3 40.1 3.0 10. Total of 14 Member States for which data are available.8 11.1 26.1 50.2 24.9 22.1 24.8 8.4 9.2 35.2 27.3 15. 2004 (%) PUBLIC SECTOR 17% Other enterprises 37% HOUSEHOLDS 3% ENTERPRISES 79% Enterprises from real estate.2 31.1 21.4 20.7 20.5 22.3 3. renting and business activities 3.2 37.5 0.2 7.6 14.8 29.9 22.2 28.3 24.9 9.4 13.3 7.7 41.5 18.8 26.7 71. 2004 (%) Public sector Households Manufacturing Enterprises Other enterprises from enterprises real estate.6 54.8 EU1 DK DE EL ES LV LT MT PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO 17.2 1.6 11.5 27.

8 26.8 40.5 29.0 12.2 30.4 c c 27.9 20.5 11.2 49.8 53.3 26.0 20.6 20. Number of persons employed.4 9.5 15.0 : 12.7 14.0 27.2% of total employment in this sector.2 30.1 20.7 31.6 36. Reading note: In Germany (DE) enterprises employing 9 persons or fewer and specialising in architecture and engineering account for 49.5 27.5 36. Source: Eurostat.9 32.3 24.9 15.1 17.4 0.1 5.8 19. Structural Business Statistics 9 Cultural statistics .8 : 15.5 30.7 2 or more 41.4 79.1 18.7 c 13.8 14.6 11.2 26.7 24.0 25.3 16.6 48.3 20.5 15.9 27.5 21.6 49.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Breakdown of employment1 in the architecture and engineering sector (K742) and in real estate.7 16.0 22.5 32.4 23.0 : 10.1 19.8 35.4 -29 14.5 42.2 16.0 : 3.3 25.6 37.2 31.0 : 63.4 1.8 23.4 24.0 32.8 21.0 1.6 26.6 0.4 0.5 33.3 16.7 c c 20.8 14.5 26.8 36.2 24.7 29.9 : 28.3 29.1 : 54.2 : 10.4 35.9 25.7 13.0 20. 2004 (%) Size of enterprise by number of persons employed NACE DK DE EL ES LV LT MT PT RO SI SK FI SE UK NO K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K K742 K 1-9 24.7 38.5 0.6 33.0 42.9 36.5 1-9 20.0 31.0 16. renting and business activities (NACE K) by size of enterprise.8 39.6 38.3 41.1 23.4 22.2 c 11.1 14.8 20.5 57.

technical testing and analysis Business activities 140 130 120 110 100 90 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Data extraction: May 2007 Source: Eurostat. 2000-2006 (base index: 2000 = 100) 150 Architectural and engineering activities. technical testing and analysis. Short-Term Statistics.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Index of turnover from architectural and engineering activities. 2000-2006 Cultural statistics 9 . EU-27 estimates.

6 0.6 0.9p 2.9 0. 2.2 Gross box office revenues EUR 1s 2 : 128 790 5 961 29 466 84 387 744 989 4 816 94 400 : 634 951 1 024 139 588 963 5 457 5 502 3 601 7 624e 38 355 4 437e 135 248e 104 282 91 839e 70 414 6 636 9 123 5 221 44 910 119 538 1 123 595 6 704 114 545 12 822 219 98 128 137 829 Number (1s) 2 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE1 EE IE EL ES FR IT2 CY LV LT LU HU MT NL3 AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK HR TR IS LI NO CH 901 139 23 548 2 217 8 719 10 691 152 533 1 084 14 886 12 700e 135 391 165 957 97 819 1 012 1 457 2 103 1 362 14 287 966 21 581 16 299 20 892 19 224 5 112 2 077 2 646 7 091 16 978 142 507 2 743 26 040 1 569 28 11 586 15 564 2 898 213 21 902 2 422 9 479 12 187 127 318 1 133 16 396 12 700e 127 651 175 340 102 464 822 1 679 1 189 1 158 12 124 988e 20 632 15 680 24 966 17 165 2 830 2 444 2 184 6 059 14 609 164 692 2 174 27 592 1 400 26 11 314 14 950 2 929 225p 23 807p 2 362 11 509 12 600 136 679 1 587 17 854 13 000p 121 654 188 673p 104 200p 813 2 141 2 480 1 252 11 665 948p 22 518 17 344 32 374p 16 367 2 777 2 685p 3 396p 6 687p 15 293 156 560 2 669 34 861p : 25 12 012 16 380 1.3 1.5 : 0.7 2. Based on SIAE (Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori) data on screens active more than 60 days per year.1 1.8 1.1 0.3 0.7 2. Source: MEDIA Salles 9 Cultural statistics .7 1. Including municipal cinemas.8 3.2 2.3 1. Data on some small distributors not included.8 1.3 1.5 0.7 1.3 1.2 1.4 2.2 4. 3.0 1.2e 2.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Cinema admissions and gross box office revenues Admissions Admissions per inhabitant Average number 2 1.6 1.6 2.1 2.1 0.7 2.3 0.

1 Source: MEDIA Salles 0.2 2.4 1.6 0.0 4.7 2 2.8 1.5 1.9 0.2 EU-27: 1.7 2.7 2.2 1.7 1.3 2.3 1.2 1.9 admission per inhabitant Cinema admissions in EU-27 HR TR 0. Source: MEDIA Salles Cultural statistics 9 .1 1.5 NO CH LI 0 0. Annual admissions as a proportion of the total population of each country.3 2.2 1.Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Annual cinema admissions per inhabitant1.8 2.1 0.6 3. 2006 IE FR ES LU UK MT DK BE AT IT SE DE PT NL SI FI EE EL HU CZ CY LV PL LT SK BG RO 0.1 2.3 2.6 1996: 775 Mio 2006: 930 Mio 1.3 1.7 0.6 4 1.8 0.3 1.

Including professionally equipped municipal cinemas with regular screenings.II Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors Operational cinema screens. Instituto Nacional de Estatística data. Based on SIAE (Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori) data on screens active more than 60 days per year. 2005-2006 2005 Operational screens EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE1 EE IE EL ES FR IT2 CY LV LT LU HU MT NL3 AT PL PT4 RO SI SK FI SE UK HR TR IS LI NO CH 29 854 536 98 667 374 4 889 69 352 490e 4 401 5 393 3 794 30 61 70 24 492 42 614 569 937 624 120 101 245 332 1 174 3 356 123 1 188 45 3 435 537 Operational screens 29 437 512 111 700p 385 4 848 76 415 400p 4 299 5 362p 3 600p 29 49 77 24 443p 41 679 580 931p 479p 108 101p 245p 332 1 171 3 440 103 1 299p : 3 426e 547 2006 Including screens in multiplexes : 302 51 130 74 1 267 11 164 148 2 542 1 742 987 : 14 19 10 124 17 126 242 364 169 21 38 20 51 168 2 213 13 235 : : 56 75 % screens in multiplexes 37e 59 46 19 19 26 14 40 37 59 32 27 : 29 25 42 28 41 19 42 39 35 19 38 8 15 14 64 13 18 : : 13e 14 1. Including municipal cinemas. Source: MEDIA Salles 9 Cultural statistics . which include multi-purpose theatres. 4. multiplexes are defined as complexes with at least eight screens. 3. 2. Note: In this context.

2006 (%) UK ES BE BG AT LU MT IE PL SI EL PT FR LV HU IT DE LT RO DK CZ NL FI EE SE SK 8 15 14 14 19 19 19 19 29 28 27 26 25 32 40 39 38 37 35 42 42 41 46 59 59 64 EU-27: 37 TR HR 13 18 CH NO 0% 14 13e 20% 40% 60% Source: MEDIA Salles Cultural statistics 99 .Chapter 2 Enterprises in cultural sectors II Density of multiplexes screens in the total number of screens.

External trade in cultural goods

chapter

3

antiques and musical instruments) showed a surplus of EUR 3 000 million. accountCultural statistics  . with exports of EUR 4 700 million and imports of EUR 3 000 million. newspapers and periodicals. 2006 EUR million 5 000 Imports 4 000 Exports 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 Books Newspapers. journals and periodicals: press exports are 3. In 2005. is situation is the same as for traded goods as a whole (cultural and non-cultural goods). giving a surplus of EUR 1 700 million. journals and periodicals Compact discs CD DVD Works of art. Trade in works of art. collectors’pieces. Trade in books came second. Musical instruments were the only item posting a deficit.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II External and intra-EU trade in cultural goods In 2006 EU-27’s balance of external trade with the rest of the world in the main cultural goods (books. collectors’pieces and antiques ranked first by value. EU-27 external trade in the main cultural goods. ey are also key partners for imports.6 times higher than imports. e highest export/import ratio was for newspapers. Musical collectors' instruments pieces and antiques Data extraction: April 2007 Source: Eurostat. works of art. Comext e USA and Switzerland are always among the three top recipients of cultural exports from EU-27. the USA was EU-25’s largest trading partner. CDs and DVDs. the latest year for which figures are available.

whereas imports may include books printed outside EU-27 but published in EU-27 countries. is is due to the preponderance of trade in works of art. 72% of musical instrument imports come from China.4%1). followed by newspapers/periodicals and DVDs (EUR 2 300 million and EUR 2 200 million respectively).  Cultural statistics . e countries receiving book exports from EU-27 reflect cultural and linguistic ties. intra-EU-27 trade heavily outweighs extra-EU-27 trade. e USA was also the largest source of imports entering EU-25. By contrast. e top eight countries receive 64% and the remaining 36% are spread across 193 countries. Indonesia. slightly outweighs exports from EU-27. e concentration of EU-27 exports is lower for books than for other products: the top three partners account for only 43% of book exports. e top item by value is books (EUR 4 100 million).II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods ing for 23. Extra-EU trade: Imports and exports with EU-27 as a whole Intra-EU trade: Dispatches and arrivals between Member States Countries in the rest of the world (United States. China. Taiwan and South Korea. for which dispatches make up only 10% of the value of EU exports.5% of all exports leaving the Union. In other products. the top three partners take 60% of all exports of press and musical instruments and 85% of the art market.9%) was considerably lower and was only just higher than China’s (13. while on the export side wind instruments take first place (with 21% of exports). Asian countries are significant suppliers of books and musical instruments.) Imports Exports Intra-EU-27 trade. Switzerland. Japan. collectors’ pieces and antiques. but its share of total imports (13. etc. Electronic musical instruments account for 37% of these imports. as measured by dispatches2 of the five products within the Union.

These data are drawn from external trade statistics collected from customs and VAT declarations on trade in goods. These are the main cultural goods listed in the classification used for compiling external trade statistics (Combined Nomenclature. EU-27 is considered as a single trading entity and trade flows into and out of the area (but not within it) are measured. such as disks and videos. licences. The balance of payments item which might supply this information draws no distinction between authors’ copyright. DVDs. Information about trade in licences and copyright is especially important in the literary.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II e United Kingdom is the only country where books account for the majority of cultural goods imports from and exports to non-EU countries – 71% of imports and 54% of exports. 1. insurance. Vol. which does not adequately cover trade in the field of music. collectors’ pieces and antiques. journals and periodicals. Information on international trade for EU-27 is calculated as the sum of trade with countries outside this area. and musical instruments – are traded internationally. Note that imports of books. freight) value for imports and the fOB (free on board) value for exports. disks or DVDs may include simple printing or pressing outside the country of publication. In other words. newspapers. The transaction value of the goods is the CIf (cost. the pattern of trade for works of art. The same is true of works of art. are under-estimated. imports from other EU countries. musical and audiovisual fields where it is essential to supplement analysis of trade in tangible goods. Eurostat. CN). Cultural statistics  . Europe in Figures – Eurostat Yearbook 2006-07. franchises and industrial patents. The goods produced by cultural industries – books. international trade flows for individual Member States and other countries are generally presented with the rest of the world as the trading partner. 2. Arrivals. compact disks. 2006 edition). For most countries. including trade with other Member States (intra-EU trade). collectors’ pieces and antiques differs from that for other products: trade with non-EU countries outweighs trade with the other Member States. 7 International trade. i. Data 1958-2005. Eurostat considers dispatches the most reliable gauge of intra-EU trade (External and Intra-European Union Trade. But the relevant data are not available.e. On the other hand. Statistical Yearbook. Consequently.

II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods EU-27 external trade in books. Data extraction: April 2007 Source: Eurostat. including 7 with > EUR  million Switzerland 7% Destinations for exports United States 20% Others 37% Total EUR 2 654 million Switzerland 17% South Africa 3% Mexico Canada 4% Japan 5% 4% Australia 5% Others: 9 trading partners. Comext Norway 5%  Cultural statistics . 2006 (% and amount in EUR million) Sources of imports Israel 2% Others 11% Japan 1% Canada 2% Singapore 7% Total EUR 1 710 million Hong Kong 11% United States 39% China 20% Others: 7 trading partners. including 27 with > EUR  million Trade can include books printed outside the countries of publication.

2006 (% and amount in EUR million) Sources of imports Canada Norway 2% Serbia 2% 2% Russia 3% Brazil 3% Croatia 6% Total EUR 250 million Others 8% Switzerland 15% United States 59% Others: 8 trading partners. including  with > EUR  million Source: Eurostat. journals and periodicals. Comext Cultural statistics 7 . none with > EUR  million Destinations for exports Others 18% United States 9% South Africa 2% Mexico 2% Total EUR 896 million Switzerland 30% Canada 3% Norway 6% Australia 8% Russia 22% Others:  trading partners.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II EU-27 external trade in newspapers.

2006 (% and amount in EUR million) Sources of imports Canada 1% China 2% Hong Kong 2% Mexico 4% Japan 1% Russia 1% Others 6% Total Switzerland 22% EUR 3 034 million United States 61% Others: 8 trading partners. collectors’ pieces and antiques.II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods EU-27 external trade in works of art. including  with > EUR  million Source: Eurostat. Comext 8 Cultural statistics . including  with > EUR  million Destinations for exports China Japan Australia 1% 1% 1% Canada 2% Russia 2% Hong Kong 2% Others 7% Total Switzerland 18% EUR 4 720 million United States 66% Others:  trading partners.

Chapter  External trade in cultural goods

II

EU-27 external trade in musical instruments, 2006 (% and amount in EUR million)
Sources of imports
Canada 1% South Korea 3% Taiwan 6% Indonesia 9% Total EUR 925 million Others 5% United States 21%

Switzerland 1%

Japan 18% China 36%

Others: 7 trading partners, none with > EUR  million

Destinations for exports
Others 21% United States 34% Australia 3% Norway 3% China 4% South Korea 4% Russia 4% Japan 19%
Others:  trading partners, including  with > EUR  million

Total EUR 484 million

Switzerland 8%

Source: Eurostat, Comext

Cultural statistics 

9

II

Chapter  External trade in cultural goods

External trade in books for each EU country, 2006 (EUR 1000s)
Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 416 592 11 707 124 835 125 819 528 287 8 680 172 535 81 392 209 907 666 919 223 483 18 077 13 831 11 972 38 156 69 699 4 924 325 223 404 337 97 058 64 041 25 268 13 386 30 266 64 466 146 462 1 256 215 90 86 92 82 61 57 89 76 63 78 78 95 68 82 91 79 89 67 98 91 86 72 79 90 85 77 29 ExtraEU-27 (%) 10 14 8 18 39 43 11 24 37 22 22 5 32 18 9 21 11 33 2 9 14 28 21 10 15 23 71 Total EUR s 341 546 2 492 96 786 98 301 1 321 223 9 819 159 813 42 585 598 295 601 682 480 440 1 095 7 481 12 788 12 515 36 127 8 028 382 539 72 918 113 177 28 186 2 601 70 284 55 681 39 881 111 042 2 015 890 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 91 74 92 61 61 95 81 72 55 49 77 72 56 79 95 81 93 83 78 85 33 46 65 86 64 38 46 ExtraEU-27 (%) 9 26 8 39 39 5 19 28 45 51 23 28 44 21 5 19 7 17 22 15 67 54 35 14 36 62 54

Trade can include books printed outside the countries of publication. Source: Eurostat, Comext 

Cultural statistics

Chapter  External trade in cultural goods

II

External trade in newspapers, journals and periodicals for each EU country, 2006 (EUR 1000s)
Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 288 553 4 938 96 797 44 110 324 398 2 179 137 699 17 638 159 572 424 794 183 161 30 522 10 859 1 722 29 539 32 550 6 870 91 564 179 487 24 529 93 417 11 356 22 421 20 167 56 693 87 420 250 666 97 96 100 54 88 64 100 83 98 91 97 100 69 52 100 97 97 79 96 91 91 93 72 98 95 91 73 ExtraEU-27 (%) 3 4 0 46 12 36 0 17 2 9 3 0 31 48 0 3 3 21 4 9 9 7 28 2 5 9 27 Total EUR s 170 786 1 791 112 627 63 219 852 628 14 956 25 681 10 599 139 480 403 967 185 712 4 237 2 394 19 398 10 906 6 934 180 125 562 48 551 165 497 3 702 8 519 18 913 49 128 123 656 26 069 625 902 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 99 70 81 71 74 34 97 96 67 73 75 100 70 17 100 83 0 87 90 70 43 70 16 64 42 34 68 ExtraEU-27 (%) 1 30 19 29 26 66 3 4 33 27 25 0 30 83 0 17 100 13 10 30 57 30 84 36 58 66 32

Trade can include press printed outside the countries of publication. Source: Eurostat, Comext

Cultural statistics 

Source: Eurostat.II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods External trade in CDs for each EU country. Comext 2 Cultural statistics . 2006 (EUR 1000s) Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 54 855 528 8 584 15 289 225 422 3 172 18 335 8 608 31 737 181 165 58 193 1 800 1 360 909 9 284 2 277 1 152 46 983 68 523 6 029 11 804 2 311 4 196 5 576 15 759 45 373 184 153 98 69 96 81 92 85 98 95 92 92 95 96 81 89 89 92 99 68 97 96 89 99 91 99 96 77 85 ExtraEU-27 (%) 2 31 4 19 8 15 2 5 8 8 5 4 19 11 11 8 1 32 3 4 11 1 9 1 4 23 15 Total EUR s 32 911 477 29 544 10 671 339 699 2 252 5 652 10 343 19 847 101 321 9 178 502 56 1 067 6 230 2 212 185 218 583 89 234 15 112 1 772 164 2 189 1 287 3 380 49 096 150 828 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 95 57 95 76 76 58 37 92 79 74 77 100 0 86 94 40 100 79 92 91 62 67 49 99 92 38 72 ExtraEU-27 (%) 5 43 5 24 24 42 63 8 21 26 23 0 100 14 6 60 0 21 8 9 38 33 51 1 8 62 28 Trade can include CDs reproduced outside the countries of publication.

Source: Eurostat. Comext Cultural statistics  . 2006 (EUR 1000s) Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 160 725 1 415 14 334 56 417 343 778 2 198 78 453 8 818 54 316 182 992 110 429 4 190 1 725 1 931 27 149 6 379 1 816 83 726 122 069 33 271 11 515 3 165 3 116 19 244 36 832 98 773 365 577 98 96 96 96 91 91 99 95 97 93 98 89 87 89 82 97 33 79 91 96 95 96 41 99 98 76 92 ExtraEU-27 (%) 2 4 4 4 9 9 1 5 3 7 2 11 13 11 18 3 67 21 9 4 5 4 59 1 2 24 8 Total EUR s 66 116 3 490 31 339 85 122 702 862 1 191 8 078 2 038 16 401 147 332 16 996 543 431 2 269 34 828 2 859 29 396 779 514 045 133 030 3 170 1 306 1 676 8 514 2 105 80 443 212 355 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 98 45 97 51 83 100 68 82 73 77 73 100 85 100 91 67 87 98 96 96 94 48 53 100 81 51 87 ExtraEU-27 (%) 2 55 3 49 17 0 32 18 27 23 27 0 15 0 9 33 13 2 4 4 6 52 47 0 19 49 13 Trade can include DVDs reproduced outside the countries of publication.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II External trade in DVDs for each EU country.

II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods External trade in works of art. Comext  Cultural statistics . 2006 (EUR 1000s) Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 73 232 516 62 610 41 112 276 697 528 18 904 9 113 383 072 340 158 80 558 943 557 225 12 397 1 833 554 157 118 93 893 4 278 54 056 : 533 279 16 974 31 434 1 870 694 28 60 96 18 17 34 18 28 16 11 22 42 52 73 44 57 60 14 52 39 22 : 17 46 7 20 8 ExtraEU-27 (%) 72 40 4 82 83 66 82 72 84 89 78 58 48 27 56 43 40 86 48 61 78 : 83 54 93 80 92 Total EUR s 61 038 529 13 236 36 793 275 528 3 027 13 618 36 348 53 471 896 525 132 814 93 739 414 1 465 3 805 129 85 045 319 847 20 608 4 448 : 208 81 23 721 37 792 3 153 133 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 29 73 61 31 27 89 11 5 45 9 22 4 48 30 73 17 64 13 8 17 48 : 13 0 5 23 5 ExtraEU-27 (%) 71 27 39 69 73 11 89 95 55 91 78 96 52 70 27 83 36 87 92 83 52 : 87 100 95 77 95 Source: Eurostat. collectors’ pieces and antiques for each EU country.

8 479.6 Exports 4 719. RO not available.6 71. collectors’ pieces and antiques.7 2 628.7 Engravings 71.2 65.3 208.7 Sculptures 254.2 + 225.1 + 766.4 Postage stamps 93.0 + 760.1 288. Comext Intra-EU-27 Balance + 1 686.2 Dispatches 454. 2006 (EUR million) Extra-EU-27 Imports 3 033. by product.1 Not broken down and confidential data * Antiques over 100 years old.3 78.6 Collections Antiques* 464.4 15.2 – 21.2 107.3 22.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II Extra and intra EU-27 trade in works of art.3 - Cultural statistics  .5 1 224.9 58.0 19.8 – 80.6 Total EU-27 Paintings 1 861. Source: Eurostat.5 + 36.7 195.

including  with > EUR  million Source: Eurostat.II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods EU-27 external trade in paintings. including 2 with > EUR  million Destinations for exports Australia 2% Hong Kong 2% Canada 2% Russia 2% Japan 1% Liechstenstein 1% Others 6% Total Switzerland 22% EUR 3 215 million United States 62% Others:  trading partners. engravings and sculptures. Comext  Cultural statistics . 2006 (% and amount in EUR million) Sources of imports Canada 1% China 2% Hong Kong 2% Mexico 3% Russia 1% Japan 1% Others 6% Total Switzerland 25% EUR 2 188 million United States 59% Others: 7 trading partners.

none with > EUR  million Source: Eurostat. Comext Cultural statistics 7 . none with > EUR  million Destinations for exports Australia Japan 1% Canada 1% 1% Russia 2% China 3% Hong Kong 4% Switzerland 6% Others 5% Total EUR 1 224 million United States 77% Others: 8 trading partners.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II EU-27 external trade in antiques. 2006 (% and amount in EUR million) Sources of imports Russia Australia China 1% 1% 1% Others Japan 4% 2% Hong Kong 5% Mexico 10% Total EUR 464 million Switzerland 11% United States 65% Others:  trading partners.

Comext 8 Cultural statistics .II Chapter  External trade in cultural goods External trade in musical instruments for each EU country. 2006 (EUR 1000s) Imports Total IntraEUR s EU-27 (%) BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 182 205 1 512 16 287 38 663 330 253 5 132 19 597 14 937 86 290 191 955 140 783 2 422 2 700 2 644 3 759 8 991 976 131 974 41 177 21 304 12 697 6 515 6 298 4 417 20 657 53 348 273 463 21 26 65 64 43 90 54 51 58 67 47 51 63 81 100 59 61 23 83 68 84 64 70 73 48 44 23 ExtraEU-27 (%) 79 74 35 36 57 10 46 49 42 33 53 49 37 19 0 41 39 77 17 32 16 36 30 27 52 56 77 Total EUR s 216 827 1 168 48 042 14 368 386 059 2 911 4 961 1 081 31 905 141 948 140 784 22 714 195 40 7 152 63 130 411 42 149 12 685 2 331 12 028 2 105 2 343 1 703 26 502 67 001 Exports IntraEU-27 (%) 98 70 62 66 50 17 86 63 57 36 59 12 64 65 81 83 20 86 50 82 81 58 56 69 19 56 53 ExtraEU-27 (%) 2 30 38 34 50 83 14 37 43 64 41 88 36 35 19 17 80 14 50 18 19 42 44 31 81 44 47 Source: Eurostat.

etc.0 25.3 11.0 337.6 110.5 115.7 50.1 118. violins.5 Cultural statistics 9 .8 Dispatches 813.5 170. by product.3 – 2. Comext Intra-EU-27 Balance – 441.3 100.6 9.7 57. harmoniums Accordions Clarinets.8 3.2 14.6 – 65.4 91.8 90. Percussion instruments Electronic instruments Musical boxes Parts and accessories Not broken down and confidential data Source: Eurostat.2 122.2 21.1 93.0 925.6 + 8. trumpets.3 –14.0 + 11.4 20.0 7.3 88.9 – 53.4 2. 2006 (EUR million) Extra-EU-27 Imports Total EU-27 Pianos Guitars.5 60. etc.4 – 51.3 – 287.6 6.6 6.4 + 7.7 42.0 56.9 Exports 483.7 135.7 3.Chapter  External trade in cultural goods II Extra and intra EU-27 trade in musical instruments. Keyboard pipe organs.9 249.

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Cultural expenditure and participation III .

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Household cultural expenditure

chapter

1

Chapter 1 Household cultural expenditure

III

Household cultural expenditure
Alongside the three main categories of household expenditure, namely on housing, food and transport, cultural spending comes under the heading of leisure and culture expenditure. In the individual EU countries, the share of cultural expenditure in household budgets at the end of the 1990s varied from 2.7% in Greece and Lithuania to 5.6% in Sweden and 5.8% in Denmark. Cultural expenditure reflects not only discrepancies in cultural practices, but also relative price differences. e effect of price differences can be limited by expressing mean household cultural expenditure in terms of “purchasing power standard” (PPS). e activities related to cultural expenditure were divided between printed matter (books, newspapers, periodicals and graphic arts goods: 31% of average household cultural spending in EU-15), picture, sound and computer use (24%), picture, sound and computer equipment (22%), attending cultural events (cinema, theatre, concerts, museums, galleries and others: 13%) and amateur activities (photography, music, etc.: 10%). Inter-country differences are partly associated with the level of computer equipment per household, theatre or cinema attendance and greater or lesser reading of books, newspapers and periodicals. Data on households’ expenditure can be analysed taking into account the socio-economic situation of households. is information confirms the commonly held perception that cultural consumption is influenced by income. Nevertheless, it is interesting to see to which extent this impact can be observed in different countries. In some countries, cultural consumption grows steadily as income increases, while in others a big “jump” is observed for households with the highest income.

The data presented are based on the 1999 EU Household Budget Surveys for the EU-15 Member States. Data for the new MS are taken from the national HBS conducted at the beginning of the 2000s. In a few months, new data from the 2006 collection will be available at Eurostat and will be subjected to more detailed analysis of the patterns of cultural consumption (also allowing comparison with the 1999 data).

Cultural statistics

125

5 PPS 1 076e 1 236 1 358 1 284 623 666 1 025 1 197 659 1 530 1 324 1 175 554 934 1 207 1 366 578 336 689 427 271 507 461 884 Source: Eurostat.1 5.2 4. EE and LT: 2003) 126 Cultural statistics .4 3. LV.0 2.0 2. CZ.7 3.5 5. PPS and as % of total expenditure) Consumption expenditure Total EUR EU-15 BE DK DE EL ES FR IE IT LU NL AT PT FI SE UK CZ EE CY LV LT HU PL SI 25 114e 27 188 29 255 25 228 19 147 17 076 25 876 28 709 24 081 44 190 24 607 28 145 13 418 21 571 28 883 29 850 6 730 4 287 21 020 4 890 4 419 5 748 6 010 13 507 Culture EUR 1 124e 1 226 1 695 1 374 510 562 1 079 1 156 583 1 563 1 270 1 251 401 1 106 1 608 1 475 292 184 542 195 119 268 243 609 Share of cultural Cultural consumption consumption expenditure expenditure % 4.4 3.5 5. HU and PL: 2002.5e 4.III Chapter 1 Household cultural expenditure Average annual cultural expenditure per household. national data for the new MS (CY: 1997.3 4.6 4. 1999 (EUR.8 5.4 2. SI: 2001.3 4.6 4.9 4.3 2.2 4.7 4.1 4.7 4.0 5. Household Budget Survey – EU-15: 1999 wave.

CZ.7 2.4 2.5 HU SI CZ EE PL LV LT CY 0% 2% 2.7 4.1 4.3 6% Source: Eurostat.4 5.5 4.2 4. EE and LT: 2003) Cultural statistics 127 .3 4.3 3.4 5.8 EU-15: 4.6 4% 4.5 4.7 3.2 5.1 4. LV. national data for the new MS (CY: 1997.5 4. 1999 (%) DK SE DE NL FI UK BE AT FR IE LU ES PT EL IT 2.0 4.6 5. HU and PL: 2002.9 5.0 3.0 4. SI: 2001. Household Budget Survey – EU-15: 1999 wave.Chapter 1 Household cultural expenditure III Share of cultural expenditure in total households expenditure.

III Chapter 1 Household cultural expenditure Average annual cultural expenditure per household. compared with 1 755 euros for the households with the highest income. 1999 (EUR) EU-15 BE DK DE EL ES FR IE IT LU NL AT PT FI SE UK 0 500 1 500 1 000 2 000 2 500 3 000 Average total 1st quintile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 5th quintile Reading note: In EU-15 in 1999 the average cultural expenditure of the 20% of households with the lowest income was 586 euros. 1999 wave 128 Cultural statistics . Source: Eurostat. Household Budget Survey. by income group (quintile).

Chapter 1 Household cultural expenditure III EU-27 harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICP) for main cultural goods and services (base index: 2000 = 100) 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 All-items HICP Newspapers and periodicals Books Cultural services Recording media Equipment for the reception. HICP Cultural statistics 129 . recording and reproduction of sound and pictures Source: Eurostat.

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Cultural participation chapter 2 .

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while students are the most numerous for cinema-going. In 2007 nearly 30% of the EU-27 population had taken some photographs or made a film as an amateur artistic activity at least once in the last 12 months and nearly three quarters (71%) had read at least one book. It should be emphasised that Eurobarometer surveys are not statistical tools but opinion polls based on subjective responses. e only activities in this category practised by more than half the population (EU-27) are visiting historical monuments and going to the cinema. socio-cultural resources. Data on cultural participation are taken from the Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2007 across EU-27 countries. Book reading. especially in the case of the performing arts. especially frequent reading. 2006 wave). is more common among women and persons with a high level of education. particularly. People at managerial level have the highest rates for visiting museums or historical monuments and for attending theatre and ballet. library use and attendance at concerts. e findings in relation to social status or level of education confirm that use of cultural facilities tends to increase in line with financial and. data from the specific module on social and cultural participation attached to the 2006 EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) will be available. Ageing oen leads to less use being made of cultural facilities and more time being spent on home-based leisure activities. such as reading and television. only a fairly small part of the population use cultural facilities. which are usually urban and subject to payment. as will data on social/cultural participation from the European Adult Education Survey (AES. ere are also large differences in Internet connection: from 17% for Bulgaria to 80% for the Netherlands. since wide differences exist from one country to another. In a year’s time. e spread of computers clearly has not yet reached its limit. Cultural statistics  . Since 2002 a Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals has been providing data on ICT equipment and use of the Internet in particular. In 2006 nearly one household out of every five (18%) possessed a video game console and six out of every ten had a personal computer (EU-27).Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Cultural participation On the whole. e equipment rate varies by a factor of 1:4 between Bulgaria (21%) and Denmark (85%).

gardens. etc. Reading note: In 2007 in EU-27. castles. 2007 (%) Visited historical monuments (palaces. Source: Eurobarometer 67. churches.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Participation in cultural activities at least once in the last 12 months.) Seen a ballet.1. 2007  Cultural statistics . EU-27. a dance performance or an opera 54 51 18 32 Been to the cinema 41 Visited museums or galleries Been to the theatre 35 37 Visited a public library Been to a concert All EU-27 population Responses are not exclusive. 51% of the population (aged 15 years or older) had been to the cinema at least once in the last 12 months.

1. etc. EU-27. 2007 Cultural statistics  . churches. castles. a dance performance or an opera 55 53 53 50 19 15 34 29 32 Been to the theatre 37 36 39 41 41 Been to the cinema Visited museums or galleries Visited a public library Been to a concert Women Men Source: Eurobarometer 67. 2007 (%) Visited historical monuments (palaces.Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Participation in cultural activities at least once in the last 12 months by gender. gardens.) Seen a ballet.

) Seen a ballet. 2007 (%) Managers Visited historical monuments (palaces. castles. gardens.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Participation in cultural activities at least once in the last 12 months by status of occupation. churches. etc. a dance performance or an opera 78 Been to the cinema 75 28 58 68 Visited museums or galleries 50 57 Been to the theatre Visited a public library Been to a concert Self-employed 60 57 20 34 32 40 47 Other white collars 63 70 22 36 39 44 47 Manual workers 53 57 13 24 28 35 35 6 Cultural statistics . EU-27.

1. a dance performance or an opera 72 88 Been to the cinema 24 46 60 Visited museums or galleries 58 72 Been to the theatre Visited a public library Been to a concert Retired House persons 43 42 15 25 23 25 29 20 11 31 22 38 30 23 Unemployed 38 43 9 14 30 27 29 All EU-27 population Reading note: In 2007. etc. castles. churches.) Seen a ballet. compared with 51% for the whole EU-27 population. Source: Eurobarometer 67. 88% of EU-27 students had been to the cinema at least once in the last 12 months. 2007 Cultural statistics 7 . gardens.Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Students Visited historical monuments (palaces.

castles. gardens. 2007  Cultural statistics . a dance performance or an opera 61 82 Been to the cinema 20 35 48 Visited museums or galleries 55 52 Been to the theatre Visited a public library Been to a concert 25-39 years old 59 66 17 32 38 43 42 40-54 years old 59 53 18 33 33 37 45 55 years old or more 45 16 27 24 27 24 34 All EU-27 population Source: Eurobarometer 67. EU-27. etc.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Participation in cultural activities at least once in the last 12 months by age.) Seen a ballet. 2007 (%) 15-24 years old Visited historical monuments (palaces. churches.1.

a dance performance or an opera 72 Been to the cinema 66 27 47 59 Been to the theatre 48 53 Visited museums or galleries Visited a public library Been to a concert All EU-27 population End of education at the age of 15 years End of education at the age of 16-19 years End of education at the age of 20 years old or more Source: Eurobarometer 67. 2007 Cultural statistics  .) Seen a ballet. EU-27. gardens.Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Participation in cultural activities at least once in the last 12 months by level of education. 2007 (%) Visited historical monuments (palaces. churches.1. etc. castles.

a poem. Either on their own or as part of an organised group or classes and not on a professional basis. made a film 34 Done any other artistic 21 activities2 None (Spontaneous) 37 19 21 4 27 21 10 15 2 21 11 9 12 2 21 8 5 14 2 16 9 8 12 2 17 10 6 11 1 10 7 22 23 11 29 30 43 27 21 35 16 33 28 13 38 20 14 47 21 15 44 17 8 48 35 32 23 1.Mana. 2007 0 Cultural statistics . Source: Eurobarometer 67.Other Manual House Unem. creative computing such as designing a website.1.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Participation in amateur artistic activities1 at least once in the last 12 months by age. 2.Stuem. multiple answers are possible.gers white workers persons ployed red dents ployed collars Played a musical instrument 11 Sung 15 3 Acted Danced 18 Written something (a text. 2007 (%) Age EU-27 -2 2- 0-  or more 7 12 1 11 8 19 9 47 Age of end of education  6- 20 years or old more 5 9 1 11 4 14 6 54 8 14 2 19 9 27 14 37 16 19 4 22 19 39 25 26 Played a musical instrument Sung Acted Danced Written something (a text. drawing. EU-27. Like sculpture.) Done some photography. a poem. painting. etc.Reti.) 12 Done some photography. etc. etc. made a film Done any other artistic activities2 None (Spontaneous) 10 15 3 19 12 27 16 38 17 21 9 29 24 31 28 26 12 15 3 21 11 34 19 34 9 15 2 20 11 30 16 37 Status of occupation Self. age of end of education and status of occupation.

Source: Eurobarometer 67. 2007 Cultural statistics  .1.Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Percentage of persons having read a book in the last 12 months. 2007 (%) Never in the last twelve months 28 32 25 17 27 26 36 48 28 13 9 At least once EU-27 Sex Men Women Age 15-24 25-39 40-54 55 or more Age of end of education 15 years old 16-19 20 or more Still studying 82 72 74 63 51 71 86 91 67 74 All 71 1-2 times 20 21 18 25 22 21 16 19 23 16 22 3-5 times 14 14 14 18 15 14 10 10 14 16 19 More than 5 times 37 32 42 39 35 39 37 22 34 54 50 Note: The percentages on each row do not add up to exactly 100. because of a small percentage of “don’t knows”.

Data extraction: July 2007.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Percentage of households having access to a personal computer. game console and TV set with specific Internet device. a game console or the Internet at home. Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals. Via one of its members. 2. mobile phone. 2006 (%) Personal computer1 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK MK IS NO 60 57 21 39 85 77 52 59 37 57 56 48 52 41 40 77 50 61 80 67 45 45 : 65 50 71 82 71 : 84 75 Game console1 18 15 2 2 26 16 4 33 13 : : 19 24 3 3 36 7 27 25 18 6 18 : 7 8 26 24 36 4 38 29 Internet access at home2 49 54 17 29 79 67 46 50 23 39 41 40 37 42 35 70 32 53 80 52 36 35 14 54 27 65 77 63 14 83 69 Responses are not exclusive. Source: Eurostat. Includes all devices: personal computer. 2006 2 Cultural statistics . 1.

Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals. 2006 (%) NL DK FI SE BE LU UK EE DE SI AT FR ES PT LV HU PL LT CZ IT IE CY SK BG RO EL 5 4 13 12 11 10 19 17 16 24 23 22 22 30 29 34 34 33 37 44 44 48 53 51 63 66 EU-27: 30 MK 1 IS NO 0% 20% 40% 57 60% 72 80% Source: Eurostat.Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Percentage of households using a broadband connexion. 2006 Cultural statistics  .

Source: Eurostat. 2006  Cultural statistics . 2006 (%) Every day or almost At least once a week (but not every day) 20 19 26 29 14 21 24 27 24 24 : 3 19 25 28 21 22 : 16 19 25 18 36 18 23 17 20 21 29 13 18 At least once a month (but not every week) 7 4 6 12 3 7 6 7 10 9 : 8 8 7 6 4 4 : 4 5 8 7 8 6 6 5 5 7 7 3 4 Less than once a month 2 1 1 2 0 3 1 4 3 4 : 1 1 1 2 2 1 : 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK MK IS NO 71 75 67 57 82 70 69 63 63 63 70 87 72 67 64 73 73 : 79 75 64 72 55 75 70 76 74 69 63 83 77 1. Average among individuals who used a computer within the last three months.III Chapter 2 Cultural participation Frequency of computer use1 by individuals. Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals.

Chapter 2 Cultural participation III Use of the Internet for cultural purposes1. Reading note: In EU-27. Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals. Source: Eurostat. Responses are not exclusive. 35% of individuals who used the Internet in the last three months used it for reading / downloading online newspapers / magazines. 2006 (%) Reading / Listening Playing / to Web downloading online downloading radios / Other games for watching Training communication newspapers / news and Web and uses (chat magazines music television education sites.) EE LT FI CY DK HU LV SK EL SE BG SI NL PT MT CZ AT LU PL UK EU-27 IT DE BE FR IE ES RO MK NO IS 82 72 60 59 56 56 53 51 48 48 47 47 45 45 44 43 43 41 40 36 35 35 27 26 20 15 : : 29 80 76 46 58 43 51 32 50 47 37 39 39 48 41 51 46 43 28 25 37 40 37 34 29 26 32 20 22 48 : 51 45 38 27 40 26 27 33 27 34 17 19 33 43 29 34 30 26 15 11 30 24 23 22 15 17 18 22 18 : : 19 42 48 13 65 35 39 24 29 25 16 32 9 29 43 29 20 38 40 22 30 11 50 35 32 52 24 : 26 16 : 24 9 17 35 38 29 32 20 47 44 40 10 29 59 31 36 42 31 29 21 49 44 20 33 25 38 30 37 13 42 : 37 42 49 1. etc. 2006 Cultural statistics  . Percentage of individuals who used the Internet in the last three months. The rates of “reading / downloading online newspapers / magazines” are sorted in descending order.

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Time spent on cultural activities chapter 3 .

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DK.Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Time spent on cultural activities e general way people organise their day and use their time is similar across countries. Data also exist for other European countries (BE. Between 15 and 24 years old. UK and NO). Young boys. The Harmonised European Time Use Study (Hetus) launched by Eurostat in the early 1990s is designed to facilitate Europe-wide comparison between the different Time Use surveys conducted by national statistical agencies and research institutes from 1998 to 2004. between the ages of 10 and 14. People in the Mediterranean countries spend less time than people elsewhere on television and culture as a primary leisure activity (they also read much less). NL. but begins at an earlier hour in the UK and Scandinavia. it also provides participation rates. which is in the evening in every country. than elsewhere. e Finnish have an hour more leisure time than the French and the Italians. particularly in France. The Hetus site developed by Statistics Sweden with a grant from Eurostat makes it possible to answer personalised requests on the average daily time spent on various activities by the inhabitants of eight countries (DE. are longer in the Mediterranean countries. FR. with the result that the amount of leisure time is shorter. since certain data rectification and harmonisation of concepts are required. HU. PL and SI) but they are not yet consultable online. Men in every country generally have more leisure time than women and devote more of their time to television and video than to other cultural activities. Lunch breaks. BG. IT. Figures concerning secondary activities. SE. ES. is time is longer among the older population everywhere. for example. although some differences can be noted. Another example is peak television viewing time. with nearly equal difference patterns from one country to another. e eight-country classification for time devoted to TV and video is appreciably the same for the 15-24 as for the 65-85 age group. tend to show that they are more used to watching television or listening to music while doing other things. LT. but still spend almost the same time on them as the 10-14s. devote more time to playing video games than young girls. they are less numerous. EE and LV joined the site in July 2007. Cultural statistics 149 . however. FI.

the common age group for the national surveys.to 74-year-olds. the population concerned is 20. 10 Cultural statistics .III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities How is time spent during the day? Participation rate. 10 minutes by 10 minutes (%) DE – Germany 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 D 100% ES – Spain 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 E Unless otherwise stated in the tables or graphs.

Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III FR – France 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 F 100% IT – Italy 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 I Unspeci ed time TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Cultural statistics 11 .

10 minutes by 10 minutes (%) FI – Finland 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 F 100% SE – Sweden 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 S 12 Cultural statistics .III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities How is time spent during the day? Participation rate.

Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III UK – United Kingdom 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 U 100% NO – Norway 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 2:00 4:00 N Unspeci ed time TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Data extraction from Hetus website: June 2007. Time Use Surveys (countries surveyed between 1999 and 2003) Cultural statistics 13 . Source: Eurostat.

6 16.3 Participation rate % 79 100 100 100 83 44 The mean duration by those who spent any time on the activity can be calculated in the following way: Mean duration by those who spent = Mean duration per day x 100 any time on the activity Participation rate 14 Cultural statistics .2 7.4 35.III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Mean duration per day by activity (hours:minutes and % of the day) and participation rate in the activity (%) DE 2001-2002 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 1:49 5:05 1:45 8:12 3:45 3:16 % in a day 7.1 Participation rate % 78 : 100 100 90 46 IT 2002-2003 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 1:40 4:28 1:54 8:18 3:51 3:40 % in a day 6.2 15.6 Participation rate % 82 100 100 100 84 46 FR 1998-1999 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 2:01 3:06 2:15 8:50 3:36 3:37 % in a day 8.9 18.6 21.6 Participation rate % 78 100 99 100 93 43 ES 2002-2003 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 1:53 4:12 1:46 8:34 3:33 3:59 % in a day 7.8 15.6 13.9 9.7 14.4 36.5 7.8 17.9 34.3 34.0 15.4 12.6 7.0 15.8 16.

In fact.2 19.4 Participation rate % 86 99 99 100 94 46 SE 2000-2001 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 1:48 4:40 1:34 8:06 3:30 4:11 % in a day 7.3 5.6 17. study. Consequently. for example.9 17. the mean duration spent watching TV or videos is 1: 53 per day (for the entire population.8 14.2 14. shopping…) have been taken into account in each category of activity. Reading note: In Spain. Source: Eurostat.6 Participation rate % 83 100 99 100 95 : Note: In the classification.9 Participation rate % 87 99 98 100 93 47 NO 2000-2001 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 1:52 5:19 1:22 8:03 3:22 3:59 % in a day 7. whether or not they watch).5 33.0 16.7 33. 82% of them practise this activity.8 22.5 14. Freetime = Leisure time except TV and video (but including Other personal care and Travel related to leisure).2 5. people (20.5 19.to 74-year-olds) who watch TV or videos spend on average 1: 53/0. Time Use Surveys Cultural statistics 1 . Main travel times (work.6 35.6 15.9 34.82 = 2: 18 per day doing so.9 15.4 Participation rate % 82 100 99 100 95 52 UK 2000-2001 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 2:23 4:06 1:25 8:23 3:45 3:49 % in a day 9.4 6.4 15.Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III FI 1999-2000 TV and video Freetime Eating Sleep Household work Work and study Mean duration h:mm 2:13 4:38 1:21 8:27 3:27 3:42 % in a day 9.1 5.

visits and feasts. other socialising and resting as secondary activities are not available. But “art” is taken into account in “Leisure total as main activity”. Time Use Surveys 1 Cultural statistics .III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Main activities and secondary activities − leisure and cultural time (h:mm) Mean duration per day Leisure total as main activity2 Cultural time as main activity Leisure total as secondary activity Cultural time as secondary activity DE 5:28 3:01 3:59 1:52 ES1 4:51 2:24 1:12 1:14 FR 4:24 2:36 5:53 2:28 IT 4:35 2:12 2:55 1:49 FI 5:36 3:21 2:40 1:18 SE 5:07 2:42 2:41 1:05 UK 5:08 3:12 2:29 1:12 NO 5:46 2:52 2:00 0:57 1. Mean duration of cultural time as main activity (h:mm) DE TV and video Entertainment and culture Total computing Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music 1:49 0:14 0:15 0:04 0:11 0:38 0:05 ES 1:53 0:06 0:07 0:01 0:06 0:15 0:03 FR 2:01 0:05 0:04 : 0:04 0:23 0:03 IT 1:40 0:05 0:06 0:01 0:05 0:18 0:03 FI 2:13 0:06 0:06 0:02 0:04 0:46 0:10 SE 1:48 0:06 0:11 0:02 0:09 0:32 0:05 UK 2:23 0:07 0:10 0:03 0:07 0:26 0:06 NO 1:52 0:07 0:10 0:02 0:08 0:36 0:07 Participation rate in cultural activities as main activity (%) DE TV and video Entertainment and culture Total computing Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music 78 9 16 4 13 59 10 ES 82 5 8 1 7 22 5 FR 77 4 4 : 4 34 5 IT 79 4 6 1 5 30 8 FI 86 6 9 4 6 68 18 SE 82 5 16 2 14 55 11 UK 87 6 11 3 9 42 13 NO 83 6 14 2 12 62 15 Source: Eurostat. 2. Cultural time without “art”. “Art” is included in “Other hobbies and games” and cannot be singled out. ES: Socialising with family.

Time Use Surveys Cultural statistics 17 .Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Breakdown of the mean duration of cultural activities as main activity (h:mm) FI UK DE SE FR ES IT 0:23 0:15 0:18 0:32 2:01 1:53 1:40 0:46 0:26 0:38 2:13 2:23 1:49 1:48 NO 0:00 0:36 1:00 1:52 2:00 3:00 4:00 Entertainment and culture Total computing Reading TV and video Radio and music Detailed breakdown of cultural activities as secondary activity Mean duration per day. by activity (h:mm) TV and video Reading Radio and music Participation rate (%) TV and video Reading Radio and music DE 0:18 0:12 1:22 DE 26 27 64 ES 0:39 0:04 0:29 ES 45 8 28 FR 0:54 0:11 1:23 FR 51 15 62 IT 1:10 0:04 0:35 IT 65 9 40 FI 0:16 0:10 0:52 FI 30 33 45 SE 0:13 0:13 0:39 SE 27 39 43 UK 0:24 0:12 0:38 UK 44 30 47 NO 0:12 0:08 0:37 NO 26 24 42 Source: Eurostat.

SE: respondents are 20-24 years old. NO: respondents are 64-79 years old. 18 Cultural statistics . 2.III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Main cultural activities by age group Mean duration per day (h:mm) Watching TV and video 15-24 years old DE ES FR IT FI SE1 UK 1:50 2:21 1:26 2:12 1:48 1:40 2:02 NO 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 1:54 2:00 2:30 3:00 64-85 years old DE ES FR IT FI SE UK 2:45 3:16 2:35 3:01 2:24 3:00 2:59 NO2 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 2:31 3:00 T 1.

2. 3.Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Other cultural activities 15-24 years old DE ES FR1 IT FI SE2 UK 0:57 0:49 0:50 0:47 0:44 1:20 01:29 NO 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:13 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 64-85 years old DE ES FR1 IT FI SE UK 1:20 1:33 0:35 1:45 0:30 0:57 1:26 NO3 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 1:38 2:00 2:30 3:00 Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music 1. FR: no information is available on “computer and video games”. Time Use Surveys Cultural statistics 19 . Source: Eurostat. SE: respondents are 20-24 years old. NO: respondents are 64-79 years old.

Time Use Surveys DE 75 12 17 24 32 16 ES 80 7 8 18 15 11 FR 76 6 : 13 22 13 IT 76 6 9 10 20 20 FI 83 10 18 14 47 27 SE1 77 8 6 24 29 9 UK 86 7 10 12 20 19 NO 81 12 12 19 34 21 1. 10 Cultural statistics . 15-24 years old (h:mm and %) Mean duration (h:mm) TV and video Entertainment and culture Other computing Reading Radio and music DE 1:48 0:19 0:23 0:19 0:09 ES 1:40 0:10 0:08 0:17 0:09 0:06 FR 2:02 0:09 : 0:15 0:15 0:08 IT 1:26 0:08 0:07 0:08 0:11 0:10 FI 2:12 0:10 0:16 0:11 0:27 0:16 SE1 1:50 0:08 0:09 0:24 0:12 0:04 UK 2:21 0:08 0:10 0:10 0:10 0:11 NO 1:54 0:16 0:16 0:15 0:17 0:09 Computer and video games 0:19 Participation rate (%) TV and video Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music Source: Eurostat.III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Mean duration of and participation rate in the main cultural activities. SE: respondents are 20-24 years old.

64-85 years old (h:mm and %) Mean duration (h:mm) TV and video Entertainment and culture Other computing Reading Radio and music DE 2:24 0:11 0:05 1:01 0:07 ES 3:00 0:02 0:00 0:01 0:21 0:06 FR 2:59 0:02 : 0:01 0:48 0:06 IT 2:35 0:02 0:00 0:01 0:28 0:04 FI 3:01 0:04 0:00 0:01 1:12 0:28 SE 2:45 0:04 0:00 0:03 1:10 0:16 UK 3:16 0:05 0:00 0:04 0:58 0:13 NO1 2:31 0:03 0:00 0:02 1:10 0:23 Computer and video games 0:02 Participation rate (%) TV and video Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music Source: Eurostat. Time Use Surveys DE 87 7 2 6 78 17 ES 90 2 0 1 22 7 FR 89 1 : 1 55 9 IT 89 2 0 1 34 8 FI 92 5 1 1 82 37 SE 92 6 1 4 83 27 UK 92 5 1 4 69 24 NO1 91 3 1 4 85 37 1.Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Mean duration of and participation rate in the main cultural activities. NO: respondents are 67-79 years old. Cultural statistics 11 .

III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Main cultural activities by gender Mean duration per day (h:mm) Watching TV and video Men DE ES FR IT FI SE UK 1:58 2:37 1:52 2:25 1:58 2:00 2:08 NO 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:06 2:30 3:00 Women DE ES FR IT FI SE UK 1:40 2:09 1:29 2:02 1:40 1:46 1:55 NO 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 1:39 2:00 2:30 3:00 T 12 Cultural statistics .

Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Other cultural activities Men DE ES FR3 IT FI SE UK 0:57 0:54 0:40 0:39 0:40 1:12 1:17 NO2 0:00 0:30 1:01 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 Women DE ES FR3 IT FI SE UK 0:41 0:23 0:32 0:26 1:03 0:53 1:04 NO 0:00 0:30 0:59 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music 1. FR: no information is available on “computer and video games”. Source: Eurostat. Time Use Surveys Cultural statistics 13 .

Time Use Surveys DE 80 9 6 17 56 11 ES 83 5 2 9 24 7 FR 78 4 : 6 33 7 IT 81 4 2 8 32 9 FI 85 6 5 8 65 19 SE 83 5 3 18 50 11 UK 87 6 4 11 41 13 NO 84 6 3 16 57 15 14 Cultural statistics .III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Mean duration of and participation rate in the main cultural activities – Men (h:mm and %) Mean duration (h:mm) TV and video Entertainment and culture Other computing Reading Radio and music DE 1:58 0:14 0:16 0:37 0:05 ES 2:00 0:07 0:02 0:09 0:17 0:05 FR 2:08 0:05 : 0:07 0:23 0:04 IT 1:52 0:06 0:02 0:07 0:21 0:04 FI 2:25 0:06 0:04 0:06 0:45 0:11 SE 1:58 0:05 0:04 0:13 0:30 0:05 UK 2:37 0:07 0:04 0:10 0:26 0:07 NO 2:06 0:07 0:03 0:10 0:33 0:08 Computer and video games 0:05 Participation rate (%) TV and video Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music Source: Eurostat.

Time Use Surveys DE 76 9 3 9 62 9 ES 81 5 0 4 21 3 FR 76 3 : 2 35 4 IT 77 4 0 3 28 7 FI 86 6 2 4 71 17 SE 81 5 1 11 61 11 UK 86 6 2 6 43 12 NO 82 6 2 9 67 16 Cultural statistics 1 .Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Mean duration of and participation rate in the main cultural activities – Women (h:mm and %) Mean duration (h:mm) TV and video Entertainment and culture Other computing Reading Radio and music DE 1:40 0:14 0:06 0:38 0:04 ES 1:46 0:06 0:00 0:03 0:12 0:02 FR 1:55 0:05 : 0:02 0:23 0:02 IT 1:29 0:04 0:00 0:02 0:17 0:03 FI 2:02 0:05 0:01 0:02 0:47 0:08 SE 1:40 0:06 0:01 0:06 0:35 0:05 UK 2:09 0:06 0:01 0:04 0:25 0:05 NO 1:39 0:06 0:01 0:05 0:40 0:07 Computer and video games 0:02 Participation rate (%) TV and video Entertainment and culture Computer and video games Other computing Reading Radio and music Source: Eurostat.

III Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities Average time spent per day on computer and video games by young people (h:mm and %) Participation rate to the activity (%) Men 10-14 years DE ES IT FI UK NO 15-19 years DE ES FR IT FI UK NO 20-24 years DE ES FR IT FI SE UK NO 18 8 : 7 19 9 9 14 5 2 : 1 7 2 3 3 12 5 : 4 13 6 6 8 1:58 1:43 : 1:25 1:41 : 1:45 2:51 0:54 1:31 : 1:10 0:36 : 1:13 : 1:46 1:41 : 1:23 1:20 2:27 1:37 2:36 30 20 : 22 38 22 26 13 5 : 5 12 5 8 22 13 : 14 24 14 17 2:12 1:43 : 1:21 1:50 1:55 2:19 1:11 1:01 : 1:05 0:54 1:15 : 1:55 1:35 : 1:18 1:35 1:48 2:02 45 32 38 53 39 54 23 13 16 23 16 27 34 23 27 38 28 41 1:54 1:40 1:23 2:07 1:39 1:48 1:18 1:04 1:02 1:17 1:05 1:10 1:42 1:30 1:17 1:51 1:29 1:35 Women All Mean per day for participants doing the activity (h:mm) Men Women All Source: Eurostat. Time Use Surveys 1 Cultural statistics .

Chapter 3 Time spent on cultural activities III Average time spent per day on computer and video games by 10.to 14-year-olds (h:mm) 1:54 DE 1:18 1:40 ES 1:04 1:23 IT 1:02 2:07 FI 1:17 1:39 UK 1:05 1:48 NO 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:10 1:30 2:00 2:30 Men Women All Source: Eurostat. Time Use Surveys Cultural statistics 17 .

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Background information .

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audio and audiovisual/multimedia. K and O of the NACE Rev. level 4: 514 classes identified by four-digit numerical codes (01.europa.0).1 to 99. some more extensively than others.Background information Cultural field LEG (European leadership group on cultural statistics) defined the cultural field by cross-tabulating eight cultural fields and artistic domains: artistic and monumental heritage.eu/Public/irc/dsis/edtcs/library?l=/public/ culture&vm=detailed&sb=Title CLASSIFICATIONS NACE Rev 1. dissemination. libraries. etc.). This has made it possible to cross-relate the sixty or so cultural activities identified with the classification commonly used in the harmonised European surveys: NACE. Harmonised data describe only parts of this cultural field. repair of motor vehicles. The detailed list of classes partly or totally including cultural activities is as follows: D Manufacturing DE Manufacture of pulp.1. 1. Final report of the LEG. Cultural activities can be found under sections D.1 Publishing 22. depending on the theme (employment.11 Publishing of books 22. Cultural statistics in the EU. repair of motor vehicles. ISCO. level 3: 224 groups identified by three-digit numerical codes (01.13 Publishing of journals and periodicals 22.1 classification. books and press. COICOP. preservation. visual arts.12 Publishing of newspapers 22. printing and reproduction of recorded media 22.11 to 99. motorcycles and personal and household goods GA Wholesale and retail trade. It is built on a four-digit level: level 1: 17 sections identified by letters A to Q. production. performing arts.1 is the EU classification of economic activities. enterprises. training. G.14 Publishing of sound recordings G Wholesale and retail trade. architecture.1 NACE Rev. occupations or goods identified in the European classifications are listed below. level 2: 62 divisions identified by two-digit numerical codes (01 to 99). The cultural activities. intermediate level: 31 sub-sections identified by two-letter alphabetical codes. etc. with six functions: creation.00). http://circa. motorcycles and personal and household goods Cultural statistics 171 . archives. trade. paper and paper products. publishing and printing 22 Publishing.

Background information 52 Retail trade. It belongs to the international family of economic and social classifications.2 92. engineers and related professionals 2141 Architects.32 Operation of arts facilities 92. town and traffic planners 243 Archivists. ISCO-88 (COM) should not be regarded as a different classification from ISCO-88.g.52 Museums activities and preservation of historical sites and buildings This list does not cover the cultural field exhaustively. archives. but rather as the result of a coordinated effort to implement ISCO-88 for census and survey coding purposes. renting and business activities KA Real estate. thus offering better coverage of the cultural field. repair of personal and household goods 52. 2 nomenclature introduces a fuller list of cultural activities.31 Artistic and literary creation and interpretation 92.1 nomenclature. Some cultural activities cannot be identified and measured. newspapers and stationery K Real estate. except of motor vehicles and motorcycles. e. ISCO-88 (COM) classes covering cultural occupations 214 Architects.47 Retail sale of books. multimedia and video games. ISCO 88 The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) is one of the main international classifications for which the ILO (International Labour Organisation) is responsible. There are 10 levels in the ISCO-88 (COM) classification and cultural classes can be found under levels 2 “Professionals”and 3 “Technicians and associate professionals”. Some cultural activities are not classified at all in the NACE Rev. 1.5 Library.13 Motion picture projection 92.g. renting and business activities 74 Other business activities 74.12 Motion picture and video distribution 92. librarians and related information professionals 172 Cultural statistics . social and personal service activities 92 Recreational. social and personal service activities OA Other community. The new revised NACE Rev. museums and other cultural activities 92. ISCO-88 (COM) is the European Union variant of the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Either they are included in or hidden under a class at a higher level or they are distributed between several classes.1 Motion picture and video activities 92.3 Other entertainment activities 92.40 News agency activities 92. the antiques trade.11 Motion picture and video production 92.4 Other retail sale of new goods in specialised stores 52.20 Radio and television activities 92. cultural and sporting activities 92.4 92.51 Library and archives activities 92. e.2 74.20 Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy O Other community.

painters and related artists 2453 Composers. acrobats and related associate professionals This list does not cover the cultural field exhaustively. are included in class 1229 “Production and operations managers not elsewhere classified”. multimedia artists). Manufacturing and Construction 58 Architecture and Building Cultural statistics 173 . The ISCED 1997 classification by field contains 25 two-digit fields of education. entertainment and sports associate professionals 3471 Decorators and commercial designers 3472 Radio. television and other announcers 3473 Street. manufacturing and construction”.Background information 2431 Archivists and curators 2432 Librarians and related information professionals 245 Writers and creative or performing artists 2451 Authors. business and law” and 5 “Engineering. for example. Some cultural occupations cannot be identified and measured. musicians and singers 2454 Choreographers and dancers 2455 Film. Either they are distributed between several classes or they are included in or hidden under a class at a higher level. singers and dancers 3474 Clowns. Business and Law 31 Social and behaviour science 32 Journalism and information 33 Business and administration 34 Law 5 Engineering. ISCED 97 The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) was designed by Unesco in the early 1970s to serve “as an instrument suitable for assembling. Film producers. stage and related actors and directors 313 Optical and electronic equipment operators 3131 Photographers and image and sound recording equipment operators 347 Artistic.g. night-club and related musicians. The ISCED system is built up by classifying each educational programme by field of education and by level. compiling and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally”. Some cultural occupations are not classified at all in the ISCO-88 (COM) nomenclature (e. ISCED 97 Classification of education by field The ISCED 97 classification by field identifies 9 one-digit fields of education. 3“Social sciences. Mainly the first two digits are used for international data collection. magicians. journalists and other writers 2452 Sculptors. 2 Humanities and arts 21 Arts 22 Humanities 3 Social Sciences. Cultural fields are integrated in fields 2“Humanities and arts”.

Background information ISCED 97 Classification of education by level Six major levels of educational attainment are defined: ISCED level 0 – Pre-primary education ISCED level 1 – Primary education ISCED level 2 – Lower secondary education ISCED level 3 – Upper secondary education ISCED level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education ISCED level 5 – First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research qualification) ISCED level 6 – Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification) COICOP The COICOP-HBS classification is a nomenclature directly derived from the COICOP classification developed in the framework of the United Nations’ System of National Accounts. books and stationery HE0951 HE09511 Books 174 Cultural statistics . photographic and information processing equipment and accessories HE092 Other major durables for recreation and culture including repair HE0921 Other major durables for recreation and culture HE09211 Musical instruments HE094 Recreational and cultural services HE0942 Cultural services HE09421 Cinema. which provides the twelve main divisions of consumption expenditure. concerts HE09422 Museums. but. HE09423 Television and radio taxes and hire of equipment HE09424 Other services HE095 Newspapers. The COICOP-HBS classes partly or totally including cultural expenditure are listed below: HE09 Recreation and culture HE091 Audio-visual. video-cassette players and recorders HE0912 Photographic and cinematographic equipment and optical instruments HE09121 Photographic and cinematographic equipment HE0913 HE09131 Data processing equipment HE0914 HE09141 Recording media for pictures and sound HE0915 HE09151 Repair of audio-visual. photographic and information processing equipment HE0911 Equipment for the reception. etc. theatres. The HBS methodology uses the four-level COICOP-HBS nomenclature. zoological gardens. specifically adapted to the needs of household budget surveys. Division HE09 “Recreation and culture” covers the main cultural expenditure of households. as its full name indicates. recording and reproduction of sound and pictures HE09111 Equipment for the reception. recording and reproduction of sound HE09112 Televisions sets.

metronomes. executed entirely by hand. disks and rolls for mechanical instruments) of musical instruments. drawings and pastels. The data on trade in services are provided by the IMF which centralises the data collected within the “balance of payments” of the individual EU Member States. trumpets. harps) 9203 Keyboard pipe organs. mechanical street organs. guitars. within any other heading of this chapter. guitars. musical saws and other musical instruments not falling. whistles. cards. brochures.and extra-European trade) is a harmonised comparable statistical database for trade in goods both between EU Member States and outside the EU. electrically (for example. fairground organs. or must be amplified. castanets. whether or not illustrated or containing advertising material 8524 32 90 Disks for laser reading systems. harmoniums and similar keyboard instruments with free metal reeds 9204 Accordions and similar instruments. mechanisms for musical boxes) and accessories (for example. xylophones. the sound of which is produced. Cultural goods traded and identified by the ComExt nomenclature (2006): 4901 Printed books. call horns and other mouth-blown sound signalling instruments 9209 Parts (for example. whether or not in single sheets 4902 Newspapers. The database is administered by Eurostat.Background information HE0952 HE09521 Newspapers and periodicals HE0954 HE09541 Stationery and drawing materials ComExt ComExt (intra.5 cm 8524 39 20 Digital versatile disks (DVD) 92 Musical instruments. journals and periodicals. for reproducing sound only of a diameter exceeding 6. drums. decoy calls of all kinds. mouth organs 9205 Other wind musical instruments (for example. other than drawings of heading 4906 and other than hand-painted or hand-decorated manufactured articles. collages and similar decorative plaques 9702 Original engravings. prints and lithographs Cultural statistics 175 . cymbals. tuning forks and pitch pipes of all kinds 97 Works of art. accordions) 9208 Musical boxes. collectors’ pieces and antiques 9701 Paintings. clarinets. leaflets and similar printed matter. bagpipes) 9206 Percussion musical instruments (for example. mechanical singing birds. maracas) 9207 Musical instruments. including automatic pianos. parts and accessories of such articles 9201 Pianos. harpsichords and other keyboard stringed instruments 9202 Other string musical instruments (for example. violins. organs.

and the like. archaeological. Employment rate shows employed persons as a percentage of the total population of the same age. 176 Cultural statistics . Cultural activities can be found under the theme “Leisure time” of Hetus coding list: 30 Entertainment and culture 34 Computer and video games 35 Other computing 37 Reading books 38 Other reading 39 TV and video 40 Radio and music https://www. For the purpose of this study and taking data availability into account. historical.se/tus/tus/ SOURCES AND DEFINITIONS Part I CONTEXTUAL DATA Activity rate shows active persons (employed and unemployed population) as a percentage of the total population of the same age. Unemployment rate is the proportion of unemployed persons in the total number of active persons in the labour market. daily activities were identified from the Hetus (Harmonised European Time Use Study) coding list and aggregated into 7 main groups of activity: Personal care. The respondents record their activities in their own words in diaries. Work and study. palaeontological.testh2.Background information 9703 9704 9705 9706 Original sculptures and statuary. The activity code system is hierarchical with three levels. TV and Video and Unspecified time. The activity coding list is recommended in order to have a lowest common denominator for coding the harmonised European Time Use Surveys. botanical. stamp-postmarks.scb. The coding process translates the respondent’s written descriptions of his/her activities into numeric codes. Countries that need more detailed categories can always extend the coding list to match their needs. first-day covers. postal stationery (stamped paper). other than those of heading 4907 Collections and collectors’pieces of zoological. Free time. used or unused. ethnographic or numismatic interest Antiques of an age exceeding 100 years Hetus coding list The Time Use Survey does not operate with a harmonised classification but with an activity coding list. Housework. in any material Postage or revenue stamps.

groups of buildings and sites with historical. palaces. the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). and the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat). Data are collected on the numbers and types of museum. CULTURAL SITES ON THE UNESCO HERITAGE LIST The United Nations Educational. The sites on the cultural heritage list include cities. temples. This ratio can be calculated for any territorial unit for any point in time. Scientific. exhibitions. these included 660 cultural. protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. scientific. aesthetic.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996. depending on the source of the population data. archaeological. ethnological or anthropological value. statistical descriptions of museums in Europe. To achieve this. This EU part of the UOE data collection is managed by Eurostat. EDUCATION: UOE The objective of the UNESCO-UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT (UOE) data collection on education statistics is to provide internationally comparable data on key aspects of education systems. historic centres. Its task is to collect national museum data and present them in a way that allows everyone to draw on the experience of everyone else. churches. http://epp. A harmonised methodology for data production does not yet exist and the data are produced at national level by the national methodologies and then communicated to EGMUS. etc. and Cultural Organisation Institute for Statistics (Unesco-UIS). of the situation they are in and of their activities are the main aims of EGMUS. granaries and many more. museum attendance.Background information Population density is the ratio between (total) population and surface (land) area. Cultural heritage means monuments. The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value. 166 natural and 25 mixed properties in 141 States Parties. Two sets of specific EU tables were introduced by the European Commission (Eurostat) to collect regional data on enrolment and data on foreign languages. In 2007. mosques. 45323734&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=welcomeref& open=/&product=EU_MASTER_education_training&depth=2 MUSEUMS: EGMUS EGMUS stands for the “European Group on Museum Statistics”. EGMUS necessarily has to collect ideas and conceptions about museums and the ways they are described. types of collection.ec.europa. Cultural statistics 177 .eurostat. specifically on participation in and completion of education programmes and on the cost and type of resources allocated to education. Consequently. The data collection is administered jointly by the United Nations Educational. educational activities. Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) seeks to encourage identification.

holidays. professional practice or farm for the purpose of earning a profit and who employ no other person. g.1 from 2005) for economic activities.eu. fees. gratuities. ENTERPRISES AND EXTERNAL TRADE EMPLOYMENT: LABOUR FORCE SURVEY (LFS) The chapter on cultural employment is based mainly on the results of the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS). The EU-LFS results are produced in accordance with the international classification systems. performed work. Further harmonisation is achieved by adhering to common principles on questionnaire construction and common definitions of unemployment and of the main variables and reply categories. payment by results or payment in kind. HU. LV. illness. candidate countries and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein). professional practice or farm for the purpose of earning a profit and who employ at least one other person. 15-74 years in DK. http://europa. Employees are defined as persons who work for a public or private employer and who receive compensation in the form of wages. Non-employees = Self-employed + Family workers • Self-employed persons with employees are defined as persons who work in their own business. along with other survey characteristics. NO and SE. during the reference week. non-conscript members of the armed forces are also included. even for just one hour a week. FI. salaries. were currently available for work and were either actively seeking work in the past four weeks or had already found a job to start within the next three months. The EU-LFS is a quarterly household sample survey carried out in the Member States of the European Union.htm Total employment = Employees + Non-employees Total employment covers all persons aged 15 years and over (16 and over in ES and UK. industrial dispute and education and training. • Family workers are persons who help another member of the family to run an agricultural holding or other business. profit or family gain or were not at work but had a job or business from which they were temporarily absent because of. ISCO 88 (Com) for occupations and ISCED 1997 for levels of education.Background information Part II CULTURAL EMPLOYEMENT. for pay. e. Unemployed persons are persons aged 15-74 who were without work during the reference week. Employees with temporary contracts are those who declare that they have a fixed-term employment contract or a job which will terminate if 178 Cultural statistics . • Self-employed persons without employees are defined as persons who work in their own business.int/estatref/info/sdds/fr/lfsi/lfsi_sm. The main classifications used are NACE Rev. 1. The definitions of employment and unemployment.. follow the definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation (ILO). It is the main source of information about the situation and trends on the labour market in the European Union. The survey’s target population are all persons in private households aged 15 years or older. and 16-74 in IS) who. EE. 1 (NACE Rev.

Euratom) No 58/97 of 20 December 1996 concerning structural business statistics (and the later amendments). SBS data are collected within the framework of Council Regulation (EC. Nationality is interpreted as citizenship. SBS covers the “business economy”. A subset of SBS variables are collected with a breakdown depending on the size Cultural statistics 179 . whether by declaration. It is impossible to establish a more precise distinction between full-time and part-time employment since working hours differ from one Member State to the next and from one branch of activity to another. option. nor public administration and (largely) non-market services. Full-time/part-time: this variable refers to the main job. An enterprise may carry out one or more activities at one or more locations and may comprise one or more legal units. • Intermediate means a contiguous set of local areas. which is generally the enterprise. each of which has a density exceeding 100 inhabitants per square kilometre. The distinction between full-time and part-time work is based on a spontaneous response by the respondent.Background information certain objective criteria are met. SBS do not cover agriculture. and where the total population for the set is at least 50 000 inhabitants.) will be classified under the NACE (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community) heading for their principal activity. etc. marriage or other means in accordance with the national legislation. ENTERPRISES: STRUCTURAL BUSINESS STATISTICS Coverage Structural business statistics (SBS) describe the structure. as defined according to national legislation of each country. SBS describe the economy by observing the units engaged in an economic activity. Note that enterprises engaged in more than one economic activity (and the value added and turnover they generate and the persons they employ. such as education and health. which includes industry. conduct and performance of economic activities. based on the definitions and breakdowns specified in the Commission Regulations implementing it. Population density levels • Densely populated means a contiguous set of local areas. and either with a total population for the set of at least 50 000 inhabitants or adjacent to a densely populated area. such as completion of an assignment or return of the employee who was temporarily replaced. not belonging to a densely populated area. acquired by birth or naturalisation. construction and market services (NACE Sections C to K). normally the one that generates the largest value added. forestry and fishing. each of which has a density exceeding 500 inhabitants per square kilometre. down to the most detailed activity level (several hundred sectors). Country of citizenship: citizenship is defined as the particular legal bond between an individual and his/her State. • Sparsely populated means a contiguous set of local areas belonging neither to a densely populated nor to an intermediate area.

plus other operating income. financial income and extraordinary income in company accounts is excluded from turnover. unpaid family workers. Income classified as other operating income. The number of persons employed may be broken down into the number of employees and of unpaid workers. • Medium-sized enterprises: with 50-249 persons employed. sound recordings 180 Cultural statistics . Value added at factor cost is the gross income from operating activities after adjusting for operating subsidies and indirect taxes. • Small enterprises: with 10-49 persons employed. trade and services”): http://epp. Operating subsidies received from public authorities or from European Union institutions are also excluded. the result is expressed in thousands of euros per person employed. It is measured as the percentage change from the previous year. Investment per person employed is defined as gross investment in tangible goods divided by the number of persons employed. 59872848. • Large enterprises: with 250 or more persons employed. From the reference year 2008 onwards.11). plus or minus the changes in stocks.2293_61474721&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL Turnover means the total invoiced by the unit observed during the reference period and corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. It can be calculated from turnover.1 “Publishing”: publishing of books (NACE DE22. journals and periodicals (NACE DE22.12). Value added at factor costs is calculated “gross” as value adjustments (such as depreciation) are not subtracted.13). Income and expenditure classified as financial or extraordinary in company accounts are excluded from value added. Publishing sector is defined as the five classes of NACE group DE22. plus persons who work outside the unit but who belong to it and are paid by it. minus the purchases of goods and services. see the European business section on Eurostat’s website (under “industry. plus capitalised production.ec. part-time workers. For further information. etc. the business services data collection will become part of the annual SBS data collection.eurostat. minus the duties and taxes linked to production.eu/portal/page?_pageid=2293. seasonal workers. Unit labour cost is defined as the ratio between the compensation per employee and the GDP or gross value added per employment.europa. minus other taxes on products which are linked to turnover but not deductible. Turnover includes all duties and taxes on the goods or services invoiced by the unit with the exception of the VAT invoiced by the unit vis-à-vis its customer and other similar deductible taxes directly linked to turnover. newspapers (NACE DE22.Background information of the enterprise and with a regional breakdown (NUTS 2 level). Number of persons employed is the total number of persons who work in the unit observed. Data on architecture and engineering have been provided on a voluntary basis by countries participating in the business services development project. It includes working proprietors. Size classes of enterprises • Micro-enterprises: with 1 to 9 persons employed.

repairs. • changes in stocks of finished goods and work in progress. Engineering and technical design activities include studies relating to a complete programme. development of technologies and products. managing work. periodicals also include newspapers that appear fewer than four times a week.14).12 and 22. Production index (STS) should show the trend in value added. In the industry’s official statistics. planning. This index is established for each of the annexes separately and should take account of: • variations in the type and quality of the commodities and of the input materials. business and professional magazines. etc. Periodicals and journals cover a wide variety of products. namely: Industry. Architectural and engineering activities (NACE group 74. in the field of industrial engineering and logistics engineering. studied separately. installations. consumer magazines and customer magazines. Data are presented in the form of indices (current base year is 2000 = 100) or growth rates (calculated with reference to the previous period or to the same period of a year before). engineering and creation of software.2. engineering services and specialist technical design services relating to civil engineering and construction and infrastructure. site organisation and management for major projects and geological prospecting services.11. pollution control. specialist technical design services for industry. architectural activities cannot be studied separately) Architectural activities include primarily designing buildings and structures together with preparing plans. Construction. Cultural statistics 181 . including production of special machinery.13 refer to book and press publishing and have been grouped under the label “Publishing” in few tables and graphs. at constant prices. The difference between “journal”and “periodical”is that journals are published neither regularly (in which case they would be a “periodical”) nor more than four times a week (in which case they would be a “newspaper”). consultancy services for project managers. which include club and society titles published exclusively for members. consultancy and design for urban and rural planning. Council Regulation (EC No 1165/98 concerning STS) identifies four main areas of economic activity in different annexes.1).Background information (NACE DE22. NACE 22. • changes in technical input-output relations (processing techniques) and. mounting. valuation reports. STS provide information on a wide range of economic activities.1. and other publishing (NACE DE22.15). Retail trade and Other services. including academic journals. excluded from the cultural field. ECONOMIC SITUATION: SHORT-TERM BUSINESS STATISTICS (STS) STS cover all market activities in Sections C to K and M to O of the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. • services such as the assembling of production units. combined with project management. 22. diagnostics.

etc.g. the other for trade with non-EU countries (extra EU-trade). There are two underlying data sets: one for intra-EU trade. number of screens.cec. i. For each product in this classification the statistics indicate the reference period. legal or natural persons registered for VAT in the reporting Member State who have recorded annual intra-Community trade above the Intrastat exemption threshold during the previous year or reached the threshold during the current year.eu. Codes can change from one year to another. Statistics on intra-EU trade record outward flows of goods from one Member State to another.). market share of European films. quarterly and annual statistics on the European Union’s external trade and trade between Member States. Statistics on extra-EU trade record exports (outward flows of goods from an EU Member State to a non-EU country) and imports (inward flows of goods from a non-EU country to an EU Member State). Intra-EU trade Intra-EU trade statistics are collected on the basis of the Intrastat declarations provided by traders not exempt from the statistical obligation. http://fd. which are called “dispatches”. and inward flows of goods from one Member State to another. advertising receipts. screen density.comext.int/xtweb 182 Cultural statistics . The European Cinema Yearbook collects the results of a non harmonised survey carried out annually in 34 European countries in order to record the main trends throughout the continent.Background information CINEMA: MEDIA SALLES The MEDIA Salles project is part of the European Union’s MEDIA Programme. cinema admissions. which are called “arrivals”. Extra-EU trade Extra-EU trade statistics are collected on the basis of the statistical part of the single administrative document (SAD) provided by the customs authorities when transactions are above the extra-EU transaction threshold (1000 EUR or 1000 kg in net mass). Products are coded and described in accordance with the Combined Nomenclature. the partner country (any country in the world). gross box office revenue. admission prices.e. using over 40 statistical indicators (e. the reporting country (in EU-27).eurostat. multiplex. the trade flow and the unit (euros or tonnes or sometimes number of items). EXTERNAL TRADE: COMEXT The ComExt database provides monthly. megaplex.

both comparable and representative for each country. In all Household Budget Surveys. the same nominal aggregate in two countries with different price levels may result in different amounts of purchasing power. basic information on housing and many demographic and socioeconomic parameters. Data for the new MS are taken from the national HBS conducted at the beginning of the 2000s. the HBS is voluntary and no EU regulation exists. generally on a daily basis. In cooperation with the National Statistical Institutes in the Member States. Therefore this may be kept in mind in any comparison of results for different years.Background information Part III CULTURAL EXPENDITURE AND PARTICIPATION HOUSEHOLD CULTURAL EXPENDITURE: HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEY (HBS) The Household Budget Surveys (HBS) in the European Union are sample surveys of private households carried out regularly under the responsibility of the National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) in European countries. Figures expressed in purchasing power standards are derived from figures expressed in national currency by using purchasing power parities (PPP) as conversion factors. Essentially. Several waves of the survey have been conducted so far in 1988. PPP and related economic indicators are constructed primarily for spatial comparison and not for comparison over time. going into considerable detail in the categories used: information on income. Unlike other European statistical domains. different price levels. they provide information about household expenditures on goods and services. for many years Eurostat has been working on the quality – mainly the comparability – of HBS statistics within the EU. These parities are obtained as a weighted average of relative price ratios in respect of a homogeneous basket of goods and services. In a few months. between countries. The data presented in this report are based on the 1999 EU Household Budget Surveys for the EU-15 Member States. new data from the 2005 collection will be available at Eurostat and they will be subjected to more detailed analysis of the patterns of cultural consumption (also allowing comparison with the 1999 data). plus diaries or logs kept by households and/or individuals.e. 19992000 and 2005. data collection involves a combination of one or more interviews. GDP in PPS should not be used to calculate growth rates. It is less suited to comparisons over time. They are set so that the average purchasing power of one euro in the European Union equals one PPS. Thus. In particular. Eurostat compiles PPP and publishes them on its website (Data/Economy and Finance/Prices). Household in the Household Budget Survey means a social unit which meets one or more of the conditions of “living together” in addition to Cultural statistics 183 . possession of consumer durables and cars. The HBS uses the COICOP classification of expenditure as a standard. i. PPS/PPP: Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) are a fictive currency unit that eliminates differences in purchasing power. Calculation of GDP in PPS is intended to allow comparison of the levels of economic activity of different sized economies irrespective of their price levels. 1994.

savings and direct taxes) and non-monetary expenditure (consumption of own production. Launched by Eurostat in 1990.g.htm CULTURAL TIME: TIME USE SURVEY The main focus in national Time Use Surveys is on people’s activities: which are their main activities during the course of a day.Background information having a common residence. direct duties and taxes paid to various administrations and savings are excluded. purchase of a house. The components making up consumption expenditure can be summed up as monetary expenditure intended for consumption (excluding investments. Main activity and secondary activity: respondents who are doing more than one thing at the same time decide which to record as their main and 184 Cultural statistics . this concept includes only expenditure intended directly to satisfy the needs of the households. Some. One major deviation is that the age breakdown and age groups can vary from one country to another. The respondents record the activities in their own words. major work on housing). benefits in kind and imputed rent).g. the value of internal production. however. Of course.eu. benefits in kind and imputed rents for certain categories of households. a set of common questions are recommended for the questionnaires to make it possible to break down the national populations into the same domains for time use analysis. in practice there is mostly a one-to-one correspondence between households and dwellings/addresses. Information about where the activity is performed and with whom can also be retrieved. deviate from them to varying degrees. the estimated value of certain goods and services. The Time Use Survey is a harmonised. in addition to purchases in monetary form. On the other hand. Most National Statistical Institutes around Europe that have carried out time use surveys since the late 1990s have taken the Guidelines into account. and not expenditure incurred within an occupational framework. when do they carry them out and how long do people spend on them. However. but there are also cases of multiple households per dwelling.int/estatref/info/sdds/en/hbs/hbs_base. e. after publication of the Guidelines for Harmonised Time Use Surveys. This is the household defined as a housekeeping unit. http://europa. non-mandatory survey. Increasingly restrictive definitions of what constitutes a household can be achieved by adding the following criteria: • Co-residence (living together in the same dwelling unit) • Sharing of expenditures including joint provision of essentials of living • Pooling of income and resources • The existence of family or emotional ties Final consumption expenditure of households corresponds to the expenditure by households in order to consume goods and services. Similarly. The time diary is a self-administered questionnaire divided into 10-minute intervals to be filled in during randomly designated days. investments by households (e. This includes. it reached the level permitting comparability between countries in the 1999-2000 round.

europa. Annual ICT indicators are available from 2002 onwards.eu. • barriers to use of ICT and the Internet. • use of the Internet for different purposes by individuals and/or in households.Background information which as their secondary activity. The next survey containing cultural components was conducted in 2003 when it was extended to 13 candidate countries. biotechnology. http://europa. etc. it covered EU-15. Secondary activity means the parallel activity carried out at the same time as the main activity.ec.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/ KS-CC-04-007/EN/KS-CC-04-007-EN. making decisions and evaluating its work. the environment. The aim of the European ICT surveys is to collect and disseminate harmonised and comparable information on use of information and communication technologies.1) also focuses on culturerelated items and covers EU-27 MS. working conditions.htm USE OF INTERNET AND COMPUTERS: COMMUNITY SURVEY ON ICT USAGE IN HOUSEHOLDS AND BY INDIVIDUALS The data given on this domain were collected by the National Statistical Institutes or Ministries based on Eurostat’s annual model surveys on use of ICT (information and communication technologies) and e-commerce in enterprises and ICT usage in households and by individuals. It covers the population aged 15 years and over resident in each Member State. consumer behaviour. The standard Eurobarometer survey is carried out every autumn and spring. health-related issues. A culture-related special topic was first added in 2001. urban and rural areas. the family.eu/public_opinion/index_en.eurostat. http://ec. the elderly. The 2007 Eurobarometer (No 67.europa. • ICT skills. • perceived effects of ICT usage on individuals and/or on households.int/estatref/info/sdds/en/isoc/isoc_pi_base. from a European perspective. e-government and e-commerce.htm Cultural statistics 185 . MS provide the following details on household ICT usage: • access to and use of ICT by individuals and/or in households. http://epp. Several modules repeated at irregular intervals investigate special topics such as agriculture. • ICT security.PDF CULTURAL PARTICIPATION: EUROBAROMETER Since 1973 the European Commission has been monitoring trends in public opinion in the Member States to help with drafting texts. Surveys are designed to be representative of metropolitan.

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European Commission Cultural statistics Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2007 — 185 pp.5 x 21 cm Theme: Population and social conditions Collection: Pocketbooks ISBN 978-92-79-05547-8 . — 10.

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How to obtain EU publications Our priced publications are available from EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.eu). The Publications Office has a worldwide network of sales agents. where you can place an order with the sales agent of your choice. You can obtain their contact details by sending a fax to (352) 29 29-42758.europa. .

The book. which is the first of its kind.europa. external trade of cultural goods. is intentionally modest in scope and does not claim to be exhaustive. architectural activities and cinema −. http://ec.Ks-77-07-296-En-n Cultural statistics The aim of this pocketbook is to set out the main cultural statistics comparable at European level. enterprises in some cultural sectors − publishing. mainly based on the findings of existing harmonised surveys and former work carried out within the European statistical system. cultural employment. a short commentary on the data and methodological notes complete this initial snapshot of cultural statistics. households cultural expenditure. the candidate countries and the EFTa countries: cultural heritage. selected tables and graphs describe different areas of the cultural field for the 27 Eu member states.eu/eurostat ISBN 978-92-79-05547-8 9 789279 055478 . cultural participation and time spent on cultural activities.

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