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Supervision 2

Supervision 2

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11/12/2011

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USING SUPERVISION

A Presentation by Bruce D. Hartsell, LCSW Lecturer California State University, Bakersfield

1

Why study supervision?
a.  b.  c.  d. 

To become better supervisees. To facilitate better service. To produce better client outcomes. To reduce risk.

2

Purposes of Supervision
a.  b.  c.  d.  e. 

Protect the public Develop professionals Support professionals Manage the work Promote accountability

3

Functions of supervision (Kadushin)

a. administration  b. education  c. supportive leadership 

4

Definition of Supervision ? ? ?  5 .

 b.Policy Bases of Supervision a.  c.  d.  Ethical Legal Professional Institutional 6 .

resources . b. .Ethical Requirements ± NASW  a. . 1. . . . 3. . 7 . . . to provide appropriate staff supervision . . . supervised experience .07 Administration .04 Competence . within the boundaries of .

Kohlberg Stage 4 ± societal norms  Stage 5 ± universal principles  Stage 6 ± claims of all individuals  Not Stage 1 ± what one can get away with  8 .Ethical Requirements .

CCR Title 16. and control of´ b.aid or abet unlicensed practice .³. Business and Professions Code. . .Legal Requirements a. .permits one under ³supervision or control´ 9 . Article 4 .´ . Chapter 14. supervised course of study . . Division 18 Unprofessional conduct .³responsibility for.

Professional Requirements a. Based in history  10 . Based in ethics  b.

5 hours per week  FOR SUPERVISION  11 . Based in professional norms  c.work must be supervised by MSW  .must meet at least 1. Based in ethics  b.Institutional Requirements a. Based in law  .

 12 .  Decide what ethical principles will guide your supervision.  Evaluate the fit between your purposes and your ethics.Recommendations Decide on your own purposes for supervision.

and collaboration? a. Supervision includes responsibility for the quality of the work and authority over the work.  b.  13 . Supervision involves a fiduciary duty to the supervisee and to the client.What distinguishes supervision. consultation.

Collaboration involves parallel work without authority or responsibility for the work of the other. Consultation does not involve authority although it implies expertise and therefore responsibility. Supervision requires monitoring and evaluation of the work.Distinctions c.  e.  14 .  d.

 community profession organization department supervisor-supervisee 15 .  b.  c.Contexts of Supervision (Kadushin) a.  e.  d.

 c.  b. Financial accountability to the community must be maintained. The work of an organization must be organized.Significance (Kadushin) a. Policy accountability to the community must be maintained.  16 .

 e.Significance -d.  f. The results of what we do are often not easily evident. supervision allows oversight. Management needs information from staff. Because what we do is not directly observable.  17 .

and the clients have little choice.  18 . Professional activity is not controlled by professional organizations. The agency provides the clients.  i.  h.Significance -g. Supervision is part of professional socialization.

Social worker personalities and values do not strongly oppose supervision. The demands of the job require supportive supervision.  l.  k.  19 .Significance -j. Supervision shares responsibility for decisions.

Three Types of Supervision Administrative  Educational  Supportive  20 .

Tasks of Administrative Supervision recruiting and selecting staff  inducting and placing the worker  planning work  delegating work  monitoring. reviewing. and evaluating work  21 .

and laterally  advocating change  buffering change  22 .Administrative Tasks coordinating work  sharing information upwards. downwards.

Six Functions of Leadership (Adair)       planning initiating controlling supporting informing evaluating 23 .

Management Tasks (Drucker)      set objectives organize motivate and communicate measure develop people 24 .

Educational Supervision  Facilitates learning ± ± ± Knowledge Skills Values Connects new to known Connects theory to practice  Applies learning theory ± ± 25 .

Supportive Supervision  Instrumental issues ± ± ± ± ± information skills structures facilities 26 .

Supportive Supervision - Personal issues ± emotional support ± ± ± ± ± ± ± recognition reassurance encouragement approval commendation catharsis desensitization 27 .

Focuses of Supervision - I
People  Problem  Place  Process  Personnel 

28

Focuses of Supervision - II
theory  content  interpersonal process  intrapersonal process 

29

Focuses of Supervision - III

Philosophy  Theory  Technique 

30

Roles and Models
Supervisor as manager, teacher, counselor  Developmental models  Discrimination model  Integrated (eclectic) model  Interactional model  Theory-specific models  Reflection 

31

relationship building. collegial role in response to growing expertise and confidence 4. goal setting. and contracting the conditions of supervision 2.Developmental Model     1. consultant role as the supervisee becomes selfdirected and independent 32 . fluctuation between roles as counselor and teacher as skill deficits and stresses arise 3.

Another Developmental Model (Loganbill) stagnation  confusion  integration  33 .

Some dimensions of development need for structure  need for direct feedback  need for didactic instruction  need for supervisor support  34 .

35 .

Discrimination Model (Bernard & Goodyear)  three foci ± ± ± ± process skills conceptualization skills personalization skills teacher counselor consultant  three supervisor roles ± ± ± ± 36 .

Integrated (Eclectic) Model Variously conceived in the literature  Intensional inclusion of more than one psychological theory  May include one orientation to supervision and another to treatment  37 .

Interactional Model (Shulman) Preliminary Phase ± Tuning In  Beginning Phase  ± ± ± ± Contracting Clarifying Purposes Specifying Roles Establishing Authority 38 .

Interactional - Middle Phase ± Work Phase ± ± ± ± ± Session tuning in Session Contracting Elaboration Empathy Sharing Feelings 39 .

Interactional - Middle Phase ± Continued ± ± ± ± ± Showing Vulnerability Demanding Work Pointing Out Obstacles Sharing Data Session Ending  Ending and Transition Phase 40 .

Theory-specific Models psychodynamic  behavioral  cognitive  technical eclecticism  41 .

Reflection guided questioning  assumes that increased awareness leads to increased skill  42 .

Recommendations Choose models  Discuss models with your supervisor  Agree on one or more models  Use the agreed-on models  Evaluate use of the models  43 .

Steps in the Supervision Process determine what the supervisee needs to learn  determine how the supervisee learns  determine which case will best facilitate that learning  prepare to apply the learning  44 .

Supervision Steps -apply the learning  review the experience  provide feedback  reevaluate learning needs  repeat the process  45 .

Characteristics of a Good Supervision Meeting involves preparation and planning by both parties  has a shared objective  focuses on the work of the supervisee  gives priority to the critical self-analysis of the supervisee  46 .

Meeting Characteristics -provides helpful feedback  occurs in the context of a facilitative learning process  is consistent with good teaching-learning theory and practice  provides follow through and connection to the next meeting  47 .

48 .Recommendation Develop an agenda for a typical supervision meeting.

Content of a Supervision Session Follow up on previous assignments  Identification of learning needs  Review of cases  Interventions within supervision session  Recommendations for action outside of supervision  49 .

 a.Diversity Issues Diversity influences . the description of problems  c. perception of helpers  50 . approaches to solving problems  d. the experience of problems  b. . .

The Diversity Triangle Client Supervisor Supervisee 51 .

 Assure client welfare Assure informed consent for treatment Assure informed consent for supervision Manage confidentiality and its limits Manage availability to clients 52 .  c.  b.  d.Supervisor Duties to Clients (Falvey) a.  e.

 d.  b.  e.  Select supervisee Assess supervisee competence Orient supervisee Develop individualized supervision plan Obtain informed consent for supervision 53 .Supervisor Duties to Supervisee (after Falvey) a.  c.

Document monitoring  i.Duties -f. Monitor cases  h. Document supervision  54 . Assign cases  g. Schedule and meet regularly for supervision  j.

Recommendation Consider what duties you have to your client. Consider what duties you have to your supervisor. Does your client have duties to you? 55 .

 56 .  Failure to meet the duty may constitute negligence.The Duty ± Negligence Issue A supervisor has a fiduciary duty to the supervisee and to the client.  The duty involves meeting the standard of care ± what a reasonably prudent professional would do in the same situation. which is actionable in court.

Duty  b. .Negligence involves a. Breach  c. Damage  . Cause  d. . as shown by preponderance of evidence  57 .

failing to adequately plan the supervisee¶s work  b. giving inappropriate advice to the supervisee  c. failing to get adequate information about a client  d.Examples of Supervisor Negligence (Falvey) a. assigning tasks that the supervisor knew or should have known the trainee was not qualified to perform  58 .

Vicarious Liability  Others may be legally liable for your acts or omissions. ± ± ± ± Your supervisor Your agency administrator Your seminar instructor Other school officials 59 .

Supervisee Relationship Problems unmatched expectations  fear of disclosure  supervision outside expertise  boundary issues with clients  boundary issues in supervisory relationship  60 .Supervisor .

Supervisee Relationship Problems -games  supervisee discomfort with power differential  supervisor discomfort with power differential  organizational/structural barriers  61 .Supervisor .

Problems in Client-Helper Relationships inadequate understanding  inadequate rapport  unclear contract  unrealistic expectations  lack of progress  boundary problems  62 .

Boundary Problems Strong feelings  Extended sessions  Inappropriate communication  Off-hours phone calls  Inappropriate gift giving  63 .

Boundary Problems -     Inappropriate home visits Overidentifying Loans. barter. and sale of goods or services Inappropriate self disclosure Touching 64 .

 Evaluate strategies.  Define the problem.  Implement strategies.  65 .  Define appropriate behavior.Responses to Client-Helper Relationship Problems Identify the problem.  Develop strategies to implement appropriate behavior.

institutional consent to comply with supervision standards  66 . client consent to treatment by the supervisee  b.Levels of Informed Consent (Falvey) a. supervisee consent to supervision  e. supervisor consent to assume responsibility  d. client consent to supervision  c.

(Altamonte v New  York Medical College)  c. The training institution must warn field agencies of known risks. 67 .Special issues with students (Falvey) a. Responsible people must share known risks.  b. Those involved in selection must exercise due diligence.

 f.Issues with Students -d.  68 .  e. The school may have vicarious liability. Faculty members supervising academic seminars have a duty to exercise authority and control over students. Status as a trainee does not provide an exemption from the duty to meet the standard of care.

competencies and limitations of the supervisee  b. complexity of the case  c.Considerations in assigning clients (Falvey) a. supervisor time for supervision  69 . supervisee caseload numbers and complexity  d. supervisor competencies and limitations  e.

 f.Documents to Demonstrate Proper Supervision (after Falvey) a.  e.  d.  b.  g.  h.  emergency contact information supervisee profile plan for supervision supervision agreement caseload supervision log sheet supervision progress notes initial clinical summary termination summary 70 .  c.

Meet with each client during the screening and assignment process.  71 .  c.Recommendations to Reduce Risk (after Falvey) a. dual relationship. Orient supervisees to informed consent. Require audio recordings on a structured basis.  b. and other ethical issues.

 e.  72 . Document and follow up recommendations. Regularly ask about personal reactions to clients.  f.  g. Review recordings.To Reduce Risk -d. Do not allow client contact or supervision after hours.

Do not supervise current or former family members. Do not supervise current or former clients.  c. sexual partners. or business associates.  73 .  b. friends.Recommendations to Avoid Dual Relationships (Falvey) a. Avoid social activities with supervisees that may blur roles or impair objectivity.

Avoid behavior or comments that could be interpreted as romantic or sexual.  e.  f. Limit self-disclosure to that necessary for supervision.To Avoid Dual Relationships -d.  74 . Identify personal feelings and obtain consultation.

you probably shouldn¶t do it. don¶t do it.Two more hints for self protection a.  b. If most people wouldn¶t understand.  75 . If you can¶t make yourself look good when you explain your actions on the evening news.

Responses to Client-Helper Relationship Problems Identify the problem.  Evaluate strategies.  Develop strategies to implement appropriate behavior.  Define the problem.  Define appropriate behavior.  76 .  Implement strategies.

May a supervisor supervise outside of expertise?  What is expertise? 77 .

sound use of knowledge.Elements of Expertise (after Oliver) a. and principles  e. familiarity with and rational basis for rejecting alternative views  78 . appropriate licensure  c. skills. acceptable training in the field  b. substantial relevant experience  d.

opinions consider contradictory and absent data  h. logical reasoning process  i. adherence to professional values and ethics  79 .Expertise -f. opinions based on evidence  g.

A Basic Evaluation Scheme 1. Minimally recognizes relevant information.  2.  3.  4.  80 . With coaching. Does not recognize or ignores relevant information. Can identify and apply relevant information in simple situations. can begin to apply relevant information to situations.

Can identify and apply relevant information from several perspectives to complex situations. Can identify and apply relevant information from more than one perspective to complex situations. Can identify and apply relevant information in complex situations.  81 .  6.Evaluation Scheme -5.  7.

Evaluation Scheme - 8. and can clearly explain the merits of each perspective in relation to the field of knowledge. 82 . Can identify and apply relevant information from several perspectives to complex situations.

 Prioritize learning needs.Recommendation Complete a needs assessment.  Incorporate those priorities in the learning agreement.  83 .

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