Ashtanga Yoga - (Eight Limb or Step Yoga)
(Based on Yoga Sutras by Patanjali)

Introduction to Ashtanga Yoga:- In Sanskrit "Ashta + anga" is Ashtanga. "Ashta" means Eight and "Anga" is limbs so it means Eight Limb path, ashtanga yoga is based on Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. The asanas, Pranayamas or the dharana which we have studied earlier or the yam and niyam are based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Hence, we will acquaint ourselves with the fundamentals as stated by Patanjali first. History of Ashtanga Yoga Yoga has its roots about 5000 years BC as described in Vedic Philosophy and Tantras. Patanjali , great sage composed this path into a Darshan(Philosophy) in his Book Patanjal Yoga Sutra. In which he has formulated Yoga as a Eight Limbs or Eight Fold path. Eight Limbs of Ashtanga Yoga -

1. Yama (Principles or moral code)
* Ahimsa - A principle of non-violence * Satya - A principle of Truthfulness * Asteya - A principle of non stealing * Brahmacharya - Continence / celibacy * Aparigah - A principle of non-hoarding or non possessiveness Niyama (Personal Disciplines) * Shoucha - Purity * Santosh - Contentment * Tapa - Endurance * Swadhyaya- Self study * Eshwar Pranidhan- Dedication Asana - (Yoga Postures / positions) A stable and comfortable posture which helps attain mental equilibrium. Pranayama - (Yoga Breathing) Extension and control of breath. Pratyahara - (Withdrawal of Senses) A mental preparation to increase the power of mind. Dharana - (Concentration on Object) Concentration of mind on one object and its field. Dhyan - (Meditation) With drawing mind from all external objects and Focusing it on one point and meditating on it. Samadhi - (Salvation) State of Super bliss, joy and merging individual consciousness in to universal consciousness. Union between Jivatman and Paramatman. Union of Shiva and Shakti in Sahasrar Chakra (the top of the head). Realizing the Bramhan (pure consciousness) or Realization of God is the ultimate achievement of Human Birth.

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YAMA The science of Yoga considers every aspect of human life. While considering an individual, Yoga has thought of both the body as well as the mind. As an individual is a subject belonging to the society, Yoga as a science, has considered the society as well. Though, this science maintains that a seeker has to shun all his requirements and pursue the sadhana in a remote place like a cave in a mountain, to achieve the ultimate goal of Samadhi, it has also admitted that such a seeker is basically a common human being. Like all others, he too has his own requirements. Apart from food, clothing and shelter, he too needs company and wants to live in a society. In fact, he relates and reacts to the society emotionally. The yoga intends to teach sadhana to such a common human being and leads him to the samadhi. Accepting this as a basis, the eight stages of progress are defined in the science of yoga, state Yam and Niyam as the first two stages. Yam and Niyam are the first two aspects of the eightfold Yoga. Rishi Patanjali has mentioned this in the second pada, Sadhana Pada in the following aphorism: Yamniyamsanpranayampratyahardharanadhyansamadhayoshtavangani || P Y S 2.29 The third and the fourth steps in Yoga are Asanas and Pranayam. Yam and Niyam come before that. That also shows that the starting point of Yoga studies is not Asanas and Pranayam, but the study of Yam and Niyam. If one starts the study of Yoga ignoring these Yam and Niyam, he will not be in a position to experience the results of the studies as expected. Hence, to seek the desired results from the Yoga Studies, these Yam and Niyam should be faithfully observed. One cannot negotiate in this aspect. If the Yam and Niyam are not observed fully, the benefits of the studies will also fail to accrue fully. This is true regarding any science. We can take the example of the electricity which is used daily. To use the electric power, one has to install wiring as per the defined rules. One has to use the electricity conductors and the chokes. One has to apply to the electricity board, pay the required amount, install the meter and in general observe the rules and regulations. Failure to observe the rules will result in loss of connection. It may also lead to accidents due to electric shocks. People generally do not say that they should be able to use the electric power without observing the rules. In fact, one will be laughed at if one says like that. And even if one insists on doing that, he will have to suffer the results. However, in the case of Yoga, many ask why the Yam and Niyam are to be observed. What will happen if they are not observed? How the benefits of the asanas and Pranayam study will depend on the observance of Yam and Niyam? Can one not study Yoga without observing Yam and Niyam? However, a simple answer to all these questions is if one studies Yoga and Pranayam without observing Yam and Niyam, one would not get the desired results. Uptill now, it is stated that Yam and Niyam are conditions or restrictions. It is stated in that manner so that the meaning can be easily grasped. However, Yam and Niyam are not actually restrictions, but freedom from restrictions. Ordinary common people do not understand what are restrictions and what is the freedom from the restrictions. Yoga starts with freedom from such restrictions. In our daily life, we ourselves impose certain restrictions. Certain restrictions arise due to our karma. The study of Yam and Niyam is in reality freedom from such restrictions. There are five Yam and five Niyam. Patanjal Yoga has described these Yam and Niyam. However, Hathapradeepika has described ten Yam and ten Niyam. Yam direct about how a common man should behave in the society, whereas Niyam guide regarding the individual behaviour. Niyam follow Yam, which are stated in the beginning. That means the points to be observed while being in society are given first and then the points about the personal behaviour. This also indicates that the Yoga has considered the society first and then the individual. The science of Yoga, which stresses on renunciation and sadhaka staying away from the society, has given a clear-cut guidance about how an individual should behave in the society.

However. but also wiping out the feelings of enmity. himsa does not mean only killing or hitting anyone. . which can be easily avoided. ahimsa is not only elimination of physical. one should constantly keep the definition of ahimsa in mind and try to follow it. This indicates the greatness of the depth of the science of yoga. That is oral himsa. Stating the eight aspects of Yoga in the 29 th aphorism. Hence. ahimsa covers all aspects such as physical. in dayto-day life it should be considered how far such ahimsa is to be observed. Here. The surroundings of such a sadhaka are also changed effectively. When we try to explain something to others. certain activities generate himsa. Mahabharata has analysed and classified the truth as under: Silence is greater than the speech. Killing generates pain. it may be found that at times. physical. That is a limited meaning of the word or only physical aspect. However. oral. speech as per one's dharma is greater than it and the true speech according to dharma and which is pleasurable and useful to others is the greatest. mental. Satya. he may not be able to follow the principle of ahimsa and he is not expected also to follow it. Thus. Also. Yoga also states further that even thinking ill of someone is also a himsa.To start a detailed study of the Yam and Niyam. oral hurt. That means. who observes ahimsa. Initially. Asteya. their basic activity is fishing from the sea and sale of the produce. Yoga demands ahimsa in totality. All the activities should be analysed in the mind to determine what kind of himsa. which results in the destruction of someone or something. not all Yoga Sadhakas aspire for samadhi. From their point of view such great ahimsa may not be able to be observed continuously. the conversation if it generates doubts or if it is not understood correctly by others. Such training is the first step towards following ahimsa entirely. If ahimsa is followed for a long time. Proper understanding of the talk and the mind is the truth. true speech is greater than the silence. hence ahimsa can mean not to cause pain to anyone. It does not only cover speaking the truth. mental. A common man may not be able to follow ahimsa in entirety. Their expectations from the yoga studies are limited.30 Ahimsa. God has created our tongue for the benefit of all and not for destruction. After analysis. So the truth. is also not the truth. for Yoga studies such high degree ahimsa is prescribed. but even his surroundings are affected and enmity is eliminated in the minds of all who come in contact with him. succeeds in eliminating feelings of enmity. To hurt someone mentally is also a himsa. Patanjal Yoga aphorism states the results of following such ahimsa: Ahimsa pratishthayam tatsannidhou vairatyagah || P Y S 2-35 One. If we consider the example of fishermen. However. Hence. then that is not truth. or if it is of no use to others. first we shall consider the Patanjal Yoga Aphorisms and then consider the Hathapradeepika. Brahmacharya and Aparigraha are the five Yam. even if it is true. mental arises from one's activity. the same thing should be followed by our tendency to talk and also by the mind. those who desire to progress further in Yoga should shun all such activities. Ahimsa (Non Violence): Ahimsa means not to kill anyone. proper means exactly what is seen. the next aphorism describes Yam: Tatrahimsasatyasteyabrahmacharyaparigraha yamh || P Y S 2. which is a mental himsa. he will not be able to carry on his daily activity. not only the sadhaka. If he decides to follow the principle. The text does not describe them further. but we will go in detail. understood or heard. Thus. for him. Then the mind and the body can be trained to avoid such activity. oral. one may not be able to observe total ahimsa. Satya (Truthfulness): Satya should also be considered in depth. Hence.

then that is also a theft. it is observed that there are wide changes while being in such a state. Asteya means not stealing anything. which will reduce the disturbance to some extent. It is we who should control the desires and not desires controlling us. there is no concentration in work. such an action is not expected in Yoga science. it can affect the mental and thereby the physical health. Brahmacharya (Sexual Continence): Yoga sadhaka should follow continence. which does not have any owner. If the bad conscience wins. However. their fulfillment and enjoyment do have a place in the family life. If we understand this meaning and behave accordingly.Patanjali Rishi has stated the results of the truth as under: Satyapratishthayam kriyaphalashrayatvam || P Y S 2-36 With constant following of the truth and the commensurate behaviour. When a sadhaka progresses on the path of Yoga. When ultimately it is deposited and one is free. Again while depositing the money in a temple or at some religious place. So we need not stretch the meaning of continence to this level. the body and the mind do not have to undergo such strain. someone else is bound to pick it up. The money is picked up. Controlled enjoyment of desires. Picking up or possessing something. If the desires are not fulfilled. one gets vachasiddhi. However. then the intelligence propels the body to pick it up. The following aphorism states the effects: Asteyapratishthayam sarvratnopasthanam || P Y S 2. But yet the good conscience keeps on advising against it. some one is bound to pick it up. If asteya is observed. but only after losing the calmness of the mind and after increasing the heart beats. we are more restricted. If one finds something lying on the street and picks it up thinking that no one has seen him and since that was lying on the street. one decides to donate the money somewhere. asteya has a comprehensive meaning and is not limited to not stealing something from the other and keeping it in possession. It means not keeping anything with self. This process can be viewed in start of theft. This is an effect of the actual physical process of theft. is also a theft. there is a desire to pick it up. Hence. The pressure generated in the process does have bad effects on the body and the internal glands. The battle of the two minds starts increasing the heartbeats. There is an increasing pressure on the mind even after the money is picked up. then the conscience starts pricking one that the money does not belong to him and hence should not be picked up. . Due to uncontrolled behaviour. if not me. all of us need not follow this path. This is the meaning and conclusion of asteya. However. but this does not mean that he should renounce family life and become a monk. If the electronic impulses generated through the brain are measured with the help of a machine. Desires. Asteya (Honesty): Steya means theft. but there should be some limit. yoga states that one should not even imagine the theft. the mind becomes calm and quiet and the pressure disappears. staying within the limit of dharma and science can be termed as continence. The mind is disturbed.37 A sadhaka is endowed with all jewels (virtues) when he practises asteya. on his own he feels that he should renounce the worldly activities and he will be free from all desires and hence can easily study dhyana and dharana. the results of the karma accrue to him and to others due to his speech and blessings. Once the desires start ruling us. The other mind says that why not pick it up. we lose our freedom. which does not belong to the self. then we lose our mental and physical well being. the heartbeats increase imagining the questions that may be raised by someone else. then why not me. we will be able to progress in Yoga. That means without performing any religious rites. But even if a thought of the theft peeps into the mind. When one sees some money lying on the deserted street. When this becomes unbearable.

Conversing with her alone 7. one may not be able to live. Where it should be kept. how long the water will remain pure. One should deliberately avoid consumption of items. one has to make an effort. just because we like the taste and it satisfies the tongue. when we think deeply about it. yoga sadhaka should try to follow aparigraha with efforts. This example can be applied to other matters too. Making love to her However. which are not required by us. Of course. When we consume such excess. all these problems arise thereby increasing the mental and physical strain. one has to search for so much water as well as for a pot. is known as parigrah. Patanjali Rishi has stated the following aphorism: Brahmacharyapratishthayam viryalabhah || P Y S 2. then all these problems do not arise at all. we go on eating more. in today's world avoiding all these. Even after the thirst is quenched. To avoid this. then we do not have to suffer. The point is illustrated by a common example. it affects the body harmfully. the thirst gets quenched with a glass only. However. If we consume only the necessary amount. Even if one brings a pot full of water. We should enjoy only what is necessary and that too in a controlled manner. instead of literally following the instructions. it is not essential. Touching her 8. Yoga aims at not giving rise to such circles at all. Seeing her 5. Hence. If one quenches his thirst by drinking water using his hands. Storing things. But this gives rise to other problems. Old religious texts have detailed clarification on this point. The results are described as follows: .38 One who observes continence. To bring water also. Hearing stories about her 3. This results in saving all the efforts. we should think about this by using common sense. constipation etc arises. gets illuminated and acquires various siddhis. Thinking about her in the mind 2. If such desires are not controlled and not fulfilled. to satisfy the hunger. it is not so difficult as it seems. one must follow continence. One who has renounced worldly matters. which excites the feelings. should abstain himself from the following matters and one who is following family life should avoid the following with other women excluding his wife: 1. To observe aparigrah. we can quench the thirst after drinking a glass of water. sometimes we tend to eat more. Not to store or hoard the things is aparigrah. But yet we strive to grow food crops. Conversing with her 4. First to bring pot full of water. there remains a question as to what is to be done of the remaining water. Smiling with or at her 6. To make up for all these efforts. Aparigrah (Non possessiveness): Aparigrah means not hoarding anything. and put in a lot of efforts to process them afterwards. which are not necessary. which increase the desire or reading material. efforts to keep it safely. one should not run behind acquiring things. one should try to understand the logic behind it. why do we strive so much? In fact. We have food when we are hungry. The food does not get digested well and then diseases such as non-digestion. One has to run around to get these things. they can prove harmful to the mind and the body. Hence. This circle continues endlessly. We can also say that when we are able to satisfy our hunger by eating the various bulbs and fruits grown by the nature. For example: If we are thirsty.If observing such continence seems difficult initially. one has to put in some efforts. Even when the hunger is satisfied.

Yoga states that these yams should be followed by all castes. To help someone with bodily actions or by giving money is physical action. They repent afterwards. Shoucha is included in Niyama.39 One who learns and follows aparigraha in entirety gets the knowledge of past. Kshama from the point of view of sadhaka is not reacting or not resisting. Then the others react by getting angry. The basic principles are the same. time etc. so we will consider the rest of the Yam. Brahmacharya. Dhruti (Courage): Dhruti means courage. In this process. Rishi Patanjali in the Ashtangyoga has given five yams. however the description is a little bit different. daya is also physical. Many lose courage while doing so and fall prey to these feelings. Hence. whenever such incidents occur. country. Asteya. which arise out of such resistance. If there is no courage. which hurts or proves troublesome for others. Satya. daya is not a reaction but an action itself. great things cannot be achieved. Also. By turning away from such emotions does not solve any problems. the yoga sadhaka should not resist or react against the improper attitude of another or some mistake committed by another. And to think kindly in mind about the poor and . period. Generally. present and future.Aparigrahsthiarye janmakathantasambodhah || P Y S 2. when there is mental as well as physical preparation for not reacting. Arjav. To assist someone with sympathy is daya. To console someone by sympathising with kind words is oral daya. but increases them. Mitahar and Shoucha. but Hathapradeepikkar in their text have stated ten yams. So while leading the life. there are several incidences where one gets attacked by many emotions. the calmness of the body and the mind gets lost. The following ten yams are stated in Hathapradeepika. Common people err quite a few times. He also knows about his past birth. Again the reaction is met with another reaction. when the people realise the magnitude of the mental preparation. the effect of the blow also gets reduced and the mind turns calm. We have already reviewed Ahimsa. one should have the courage to face the emotions and gain victory over them. Daya (Pity): While kshama is a reaction on any action. Kshama (Pardon): Kshama is a big virtue. Daya. they also stay away from affecting any blows on the sadhaka. Asteya and Brahmacharya.31 Yogi should religiously follow the five yams. all over the country in any place and at whatever period and time. it is stated in this aphorism that they are to be followed irrespective of caste. Resistance leads to further disputes and the results are to be faced by everyone. We have to fight such feelings. It is essential for performing or achieving anything. Like ahimsa. Patanjali has stated the following aphorism: Jatideshkalsamayanavachinnah sarvabhouma mahavatrah | P Y S 2. oral and mental. After describing the five niyam in this way. Kshama. When the yams are to be followed. Ahimsa Satyamsteyam brahmacharyam kshama dhrutih || Dayarjavam mitaharh shoucham chaiva yama dash || H P Ahimsa. Satya. In human life. Because of this sadhaka does not have to face the disturbances. Dhruti.

Many problems in our day-to-day life arise out of ego. This is known as mitahar. The intake of such excess food affects the body in a harmful manner. Yoga sadhaka should make it a point to avoid such excess consumption. tongue and mind turn soft and simple. Daya not only leads to peace of the body as well as the mind. The physical health is also affected and the mental health too is lost. One should take the necessary diet at proper times. . there are no problems and one does not have to search for their solutions.wishing them all the best in life is mental daya. but also gives mental satisfaction. or sometimes just out of habit. It is expected that sadhaka should be humble and modest. sadhaka goes nearer to the God. When the ego is forsaken. Mitahar (Restricted diet): The body needs food. That is known as aarjav. Sometimes. just because it tastes good to the tongue. Casting aside of one's ego is important. but many times we tend to consume more than necessary. When there is no ego. sometimes due to the wish in the mind. Aarjav (Humbleness): To behave humbly with everyone after casting aside the ego is aarjav. Due to this humble attitude. the heart.

The specific powder (churna) that should be used for cleaning the teeth is also mentioned under Shuddhikriya in Hatha yoga. this purity is also physical. and the plan to view the self (atma) are achieved. We will study in detail all these six shuddhikriyas. Also.32 We will consider each one separately. sadhaka loses the feeling of the importance of the body and does not wish to interact with the other bodies. There are six types of shuddhikriyas for the internal purity. victory over the organs. Physical purity is again divided into two parts. Santosh (Contentment): Contentment is also an important virtue. he feels that the body is full of impurities and he feels disgusted about it. oral and mental. for purifying the mind. Basti.NIYAMA The rules to be followed by a sadhaka in case of self are given by way of Niyam. each and every yogic process affects the body as well as the mind. However. outer and inner. Hathayoga describes many processes right from brushing the teeth.40 After purity is achieved by this process. For oral purity. Unnecessary use of the tongue is to be avoided and following the yam should purify the tongue. there is a process known as Trataka. But it is stated in detail in Hatha yoga. we realise that all these efforts are to gain mental contentment and peace. mental happiness. Shoucha (Purity): This means the purity.41 From the purification process. Hence. Dhouti. We try to derive the contentment from . Tratak. they are not discussed further over here. Nouli and Kapalbhati. Yoga has considered all types of purity and given directions as to how to achieve it. yoga has given the message that one should not talk too much. Like ahimsa. The following are the five Niyam: Shouchasantoshtapah swadhyaeshwarpranidhanani niyamh | P Y S 2. When we observe the never-ending efforts of all creatures in their day-to-day lives. calm mind. Patanjal Yoga does not give detailed description of this. satvashuddhi. Just the statement that internal purity has been considered in the minutest detail by yoga is enough. The following aphorism states the result of the shoucha: Shouchatswangjugupsa parairsansargh | P Y S 2. Hence. We will consider it in detail afterwards. Yoga has accepted the inseparable relation of the body and the mind. When such feelings arise. and think of the purpose behind it. he tries to avoid even the touch of the other and engages himself in his own mental bliss. Neti. Patanjali has stated in another aphorism that: Satvashuddhisoumansyekagredriyajayatmadarshan yogyatwani cha | P Y S 2. While considering outer purity. When the sadhaka starts purifying the body.

There are three types of tapa: Satwik. And the root cause of suffering is in Trishna (thirst). Tapa done with faith and without hoping for the fruits is Satwik. However. Mahima.whispers which cannot be heard by others. with some trouble to the body and with the intention of creating trouble for the others is tamas tapa. This is tapa.with loud chanting which can be heard by the others and inaudible .43 Ashuddhi is adharma. Mental japa is also of two types without dhyana and with dhyana. That which is done for the expectation of status. audible . the creature stands peacefully. none is aware of the fact that the contentment does not depend upon these outside matters. Swadhyaya (Self Study): Ishwar gita while describing swadhyaya has stated that japa is swadhyaya. after its completion. the creature starts running and when released from it. the perpetual happiness is not far behind. there may be some physical trouble. The seventeenth chapter of Bhagwad Gita has described Tapa. However. In daily life of commoners. Japa is of two types. Hence. Lachima etc are obtained. oral and mental. Again oral japa is of two types. This trishna has been defined in one Sanskrit shloka as under: Asha nam manushyanamkachitdashwaryashrunkhala | Yaya baddha pradhavanti muktastishathatipanguvat || Hope is such a chain that when tied with it. it can be controlled irrespective of the incidents. It is a state of mind. then siddhis such as Anima. japa without dhyana is considered as the best. there should be mental preparation for this. swadhyaya can be said to mean revision of what is taught. It is not a reaction of the mind on any incident. It is a tamas guna. In fact the root of happiness lies in this tendency of the mind. Patanjali has given the following aphorism while describing the results of the contentment: Santoshdanuttamsukhlabhah | P Y S 2. One should bear it happily and should pursue his studies. Even if there is some physical or mental trouble. removes all such impurities. It includes both shrawan and manan (listening and contemplation). one should not discontinue his actions. He gets the maximum happiness and feels that pleasures from heavens or even the place of the God Indra is also nothing as compared to his own bliss. In all these japas. Yoga with the use of this word intends the hidden meaning that one should learn to be happy in what one gets. And tapa arising out of folly. Rajas and Tamas. . The daily practice and study of tapa . While studying Yoga or practising some yogic process. which veils the siddhis such as Anima. all his thirst gets weakened and the satva is heightened. This attitude will reduce pain and suffering in life. It is impurity. This is known as Tapa. When ashuddhi or impurities are removed. felicitation etc is known as rajas tapa. When this tendency to feel contented is adopted by the mind. Running behind the hope will lead to only pain and suffering.outside matters. Patanjali has stated the results of the tapa in the following aphorism: Kayendriyasiddhirashuddhikshayatapas | P Y S 2.42 One who constantly learns to be contented. but should continue them. Tapa (Endurance): Tapa means to bear some trouble with a good intention.

which is beyond our imagination. Santosh. when an anushtan is completed. To identify the divine strength and to surrender one completely to it is ishwarpranidhan. Aastikya (Theism): The firm belief in the existence of God is Aastikya. which is not needed. To donate something. Hathapradeepika states ten niyam. or donate some food item or article to others is dan on a common level. To perceive His all pervasion and existence is aastikya. There are five niyam in Patanjal Yoga. However. There is some divine strength at the root of this universe. But to part with something needed by . if we have compassion of the God.45 With Ishwarpranidhan. the falling waterfalls.44 While doing japa of a particular mantra. To deny His existence is a way of showing one's ignorance. At such a time. Samadhisiddhirishwarpranidhanat | P Y S 2. it is good to give them away instead of throwing them away. Everything in this unlimited universe makes us realise the existence of God. To donate leftovers to a beggar is not a great dan. the problem gets solved. Tapahsantosh aastikyaam danamishwar poojanam | Siddhantavakyashravanam hrimatich japo hutam || Niyama dash samprokta yogashastra vishardai || H P The ten Niyama are Tapa. Ishwarpujan and Japa. The sloping tops of the hills. We have considered Tapa. The sounds of the flowing rivers from the mountains to the sea. Of course. the siddhi of samadhi can be obtained. Ishwarpujan. Aastikya. the goddess for whom the japa is made becomes pleased with the sadhaka and appears before him. The perfect order of this unlimited universe and the regulated motions of the tiniest atoms. (known as darshan) Ishwar pranidhan (Worship with complete faith): It means while believing in the existence of God and having faith in his greatness. Japa and Hom.The results of swadhyaya are as under: Swadhyayadishtadevtasamprayogah | P Y S 2. the thunderous sound of the clouds in the rainy season all try to convey the existence of God with their noise. even after our persistent efforts. Santosh. molecules. He has created the provision of feeding the fetus in the womb and He has also created the provision of milk for the newborn baby. He is all pervading. Dan. Lajja. There are nine types of devotions for God: Shrawanam Kirtanam Vishnoh smaranat padsevanam | Archanam Vandanam dasyam sakhyam atmanivedanam || At times. all these movements remind us of his existence. we are unable to succeed. But the need of the today is to understand this realisation. We will consider the remaining six.Vakya shravan. Siddhanta. Dan (Donation): Dan means to donate a thing owned by self to others on our own and with love and respect. Mati. completely devoting oneself to Him without any expectations in return. the giant trees seemingly point to the God.

the article is going to be useful to someone else. Every article in this universe is made up of panchmahabhutas. not to seek worldly pleasures and to set aside the wavering traits of the mind. This is a higher stage than that of dan. It is a permanent sacrifice. thus sacrificing it totally is havan.us is the excellent dan. Hence. in dan. In yoga. With swadhyay of yoga this can be achieved. If we assure others of no harm. However. Mati (Intelligence): To acquire the state of desirelessness. While studying yogic processes. without having a feeling of ownership towards it. to feed him to the fullest extent possible without having food ourselves is the best dan. then that dan covers all sorts of virtues and that dan is incomparable. Havan means offering to the agni ( fire ). Offering something belonging to us to the fire is havan or home. Hence. Hence. The body moves in abnormal manner or some of the processes are not usual. God is eternal and indestructible. it may not be possible for us. which we have earned with due efforts. sacrifice of sensory perceptions into the sense organs and sacrifice of sense organs into the mind (antakaran) is expected. certain actions are not done. Lajja (Shame): It is expected that sadhaka should not be ashamed of the good things and should be ashamed of the bad things. so that the progress is made. if it is not possible for us to do a certain process. While having food. because. Havan means total sacrifice. To offer something to this agni. to stay in this world. Whenever anything is offered to agni. the studies will end then and there. This of course. In havan. For the advanced studies in Yoga. one must not be ashamed of good things. This is known as siddhanta vakya . One should continue the studies without feeling ashamed. If a guest appears while we are having food. Even when there is a will. and with the feeling that the thing will be turned into panchmahabhuta and will not be seen by us again. younger than us in age can perform it. to face the criticism of the world with courage and to be imaginationless . We have studied Yam and Niyam in detail. we should try to follow Yam and Niyam accordingly. With shravanbhakti (constant listening) this is possible. action is not generated. Yam and Niyam should be . Siddhantavakya Shravan (Listening to the ultimate truth): The body and this world is impermanent and ephemeral. the total sacrifice of the article is expected. we need not be ashamed. is a description of worldly sacrifice. descriptions are made thoroughly so as to lead sadhaka towards samadhi. to give some of our own portion to the guest is good dan. it may not be possible to follow the Yam and Niyam to the fullest possible extent. there are many such incidents. If we try to follow the principle of ahimsa as meant in the texts. agni turns it again into panchmahabhuta. for us common people. An attempt has been made to describe in detail what the Yoga texts state about these Yam and Niyam.this state of intelligence is known as mati. due to the shame. To understand the deep meaning of this sentence is siddhatavakya shravan. Many times. Hom (Sacrifice): The word is generated from havan. even spiritual sacrifice is expected. Such a shame can stop the studies. but if some one else. Also. the aim of the Yoga studies is not samadhi but to live happily and with contentment in our family life. due to the shame felt about good things. In Yoga text. Such a stage can be acquired with the study of aparigraha. If sadhaka is ashamed of these things. While viewing from a common man's angle and after starting the study of yoga. But to donate something without satisfying own need first is the ultimate dan.

Hence. It is a general experience that as the study of Yoga proceeds. to follow Yam and Niyam at least on worldly basis will suffice and be complementary to the study of Yoga. Then one is bound to reach the destination one day. to follow them. the tendency to follow the Yam and Niyam increases. . But.followed remembering the customs of this world and to the extent possible for us. we should at least have an idea of the ideal state of Yam and Niyam. In any journey. one must be aware of the destination and should travel in that direction. but one who starts travelling will definitely reach there one day or the other. The period of the journey may be different for everyone.

spine erect and both hands straight and palms resting on the floor. List of Postures or Asana In Standing Position ? ? ? Veerasana Trikonasana Vrikshasana Sitting Position .Yoga Practices .Positions. Asana (The Best practice to perfect health) Standing Position . toes erect. Hands touching thighs. heels and the big toes touching each other. List Of Postures or Asana In Sitting Position ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Dhyan Mudra Swastikasana Samasana Padmasana Padmasana (Baddha) Padmasana (Utthit) Parvatasana Akarna Dhanurasana (Type 1) Akarna Dhanurasana (Type 2) Padmasana Yogamudra (Type 1) Padmasana Yogamudra (Type 2) Vakrasana (Type 1) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Vakrasana (Type 2) Ardhamatsyendrasana Sharanagata Mudra (Forward Bending) Vajrasana Vajrasana Yogamudra (Type 1) Vajrasana Yogamudra (Type 2) Paschimottanasana (Half) (Forward Bending) Paschimottanasana (Full) (Forward Bending) Januhastasana Hastashirasana Ekpadsahajhasta Bhujangasana (backward Bending) Dwipadsahajhasta Bhujangasana (backward Bending) Dattamudra Supine Position (Yoga Postures in Supine position) Lie down on the back with legs together.Yoga Postures or Asana in Sitting position This is the sitting position with both legs together and stretched. the toes erect and hands straight and palms resting on the floor. List Of Postures or Asana In Supine Position .Yoga Postures or Asana in standing position Stand erect with the feet quite close together. this position helps achieve stability of pulse. Postures. straight extended.

In all one Namaskar includes 10 different positions. and palms resting on the floor. Surya Namaskar consists of important Yogasanas and Pranayama. In all this Surya Namaskar is an appreciated exercise among people of all ages from kids to old age people.Surya Namaskar or Sun Salutation is the best way to burn the calories and reduce weight.? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Uttanpadasana with both legs Uttanpadasana with one leg Vipritakarani Sarwangasana Ashwini Mudra Matsyasana Halasana Noukasana ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Shavasana Tadagasana Pavanamuktasana 2 legs Pavanamuktasana 1 leg Ardhachakrasana 1 Ardhachakrasana 2 Anantasana 1 Anantasana 2 ? ? ? Prone Position (Yoga Postures in Prone position) In this position you lie down in prone on front side of the chest and abdomen with the chin on the floor. The Mantras (Bija Mantras). Both hands lying besides the thighs. they are : Position Description Diagram / Position Graphic Breathing . which are chanted before practicing are also very useful. List Of Postures or Asana In Prone Position Saral Hasta Bhujangasana ? Shalabhasana Complete (backward Bending) ? Dhanurasana (backward Bending) (with straight hands) ? Noukasana (backward Bending) Vakra Hasta Bhujangasana ? Makarasana (backward Bending) ? Adhvasana (with curved hands) Shalabhasana Half Articles related to Asana ? ? ? Yoga Does Not Mean Exercise Types of Asana Sun Salutation ? ? ? Basic Movement Preparatory Movement Sun Salutation Sun Salutation . The Pranayama and thus its advantages are skillfully incorporated in Surya Namaskar.Surya Namaskar Yoga Exercise Surya Namaskar: It is considered as the best exercise for human body. It is often recommended for obesity.

stretch the chest forward and push shoulders backwards.Do not bend the neck forward.Do not bend the knees. Position 3: Inhale and take the left leg back with left toes on the floor. Do’ s .Gaze is upwards. . thumbs at 90 degree angle . Keep the right leg folded.Position 1: Inhale and maintain the position as shown in figure in standing position with hands joined together near chest. press the waist downwards and raise the neck.The knee of the right leg will be bent . Keep the right leg and both the hands in the same position.Do not bend the elbows.Try to touch the forehead to the knees .Drop the waist/ hips towards the floor . .Relax the neck Don’ ts .Take the left leg backwards and touch the knee to the floor. .While exhaling bend forward in the waist .Palms touching the ground.The knee of the left leg should touch the ground . Dos . fingers pointing forward. INHALE Position 2: Exhale and bend forward in the waist till palms touch the ground in line with the toes. both arms are straight Don’ ts . Don't bend knees while performing. At first you may find it difficult to attain the ideal position but try to bend as much as possible without bending in knees. keeping the toes erect.Legs straight . feet together and toes touching each other. EXHALE INHALE .Do not keep the neck tense.

Take care that the neck. both the palms. palms.Do not bend the arms .Gaze forward Don’ ts .Take the right leg back and place it beside the left leg.Do not drop the hips/waist towards the floor .Do not touch the thighs. both the toes.Do not bend the knees HOLD THE BREATH Position 5: Exhaling bend both the hands in elbows and touch forehead on the ground. knees. touch the knees on the ground.Do not let the elbows fall away from the body EXHALE .Do not touch the chin to the floor . Keep the neck straight and site fixed.Keep the elbows pointed to the sky and close in to the body Don’ ts . knees should touch the ground and rest of the body not touching the floor. spine.Keep the body in one straight line – plank position . Take the right leg backwards and keep it close to the left leg. waist or abdomen to the floor . Straighten both the legs and both hands.Position 4: Hold the breath and raise the knee of left leg. chest. thighs and the feet are in a straight line.Do not look towards the floor .Bring the body towards the floor placing the 8 parts on the floor: Toes. Dos . Keep both the toes erect.Do not stick the buttocks into the air . next to the shoulders . Dos .Keep the hands close to the body. Since only eight parts rest on the ground . keeping the toes erect . chest. it is called ' Ashtanga' position. hips. The forehead.Keep the arms straight . keep both the elbows close to chest. and forehead .

Drop the head and neck backwards and gaze upwards towards the sky . Push the neck backwards and site upwards. Dos . legs and knees together .Do not bend the elbows .Keep the heels.Position 6: Inhale and straighten the elbows.Do not let the legs or heels be apart .Do not bend the legs in the knees . pull the shoulders downwards . leaving the body in an Inverted ‘ V’ position . push the body backwards and touch the heels on the ground.Try to touch the heels to the floor Don’ ts . thumbs at 90 degree angle . raise the waist upwards.Do not bend the arms HOLD THE BREATH .Keep the toes erect Don’ ts . stretch the shoulders upwards. Keep the knees and toes on the floor.Keep the fingers pointed forwards. bend the neck downwards and press the chin in the throat. do not move the palms on the floor. press the waist downwards but dont bend the arms.Take the head and chin towards the chest .Push the upper body upwards so that the arms are straight .Do not hunch the shoulders towards the ears INHALE Position 7: Hold the breath. Dos .Open the chest. palms on the ground.Push the body upward so the buttocks and waist are raised into the air.

.Take the left leg forward and place it beside the right . HOLD THE BREATH Position 9: Exhale and bring the left leg forwards as in the position 2 and place it in between both the arms. bring the right leg in the front and place it in between the hands like in position 3 but instead of left leg in the front here take right leg and place left leg in the back with left knee and toes on the ground.Try to touch the forehead to the knees .Drop the waist/ hips towards the floor .Do not bend the knees.Do not bend the neck forward. fingers pointing forward. Do’ s .Legs straight .The knee of the right leg will be bent . thumbs at 90 degree angle . . INHALE . EXHALE Position 10: Inhaling start getting up and attain the position as in position 1.Take the right leg forward and place it between the hands . Dos .Do not keep the neck tense.Gaze is upwards.Position 8: Hold the breath as in position 7. both arms are straight Don’ ts .Palms touching the ground.The knee of the left leg should touch the ground .Relax the neck Don’ ts .Do not bend the elbows.

However. he cannot reach this fourth stage. they are Prana. On the contrary. Deep Breathing . Apana. if it is learnt and practiced under an expert's guidance. The second reason for its unpopularity is the absence of teachers who can teach it scientifically. the indicator of life. it is not enough to have done the Asanas as mentioned here. if it is done wrongly. These two . for doing Pranayama. it may do harm to the person. one learns soon and experiences the wonderful and even unimaginable benefits. Before examining the exercises of breathing it is necessary to understand the process of breathing. Fast Breathing Tribandha and Pranayama Nadi Shuddhi Pranayama Ujjayi Pranayama Bhramari Pranayama Pranayama from Hatha Yoga (Surya Bhedan. Even the Asanas discussed here are presented in their preliminary form. Murchha & Plavini Pranayama) Preparation for Pranayama As people have attraction towards Yogasanas. Of these the former is called "Puraka" and the latter "Rechaka"' in Yogashastra. as the preliminary exercises are discussed and which are to be done before the actual beginning of the Asanas: similarly. Practice of Pranayama achieves the balance in the activities of these pranas. which results in healthy body and mind. Actual Pranayama means the holding up of the process of exhaling and inhaling. and "ayama" means control. Prana is upward flowing and Apana is downward flowing. Bhasrika. The process of Pranayama is concerned with the breathing. This fear dissuades many from taking up Pranayama. one needs some preparation before actually taking up Pranayama. On subtle levels prana represents the pranic energy responsible for life or life force. One can control the rhythms of pranic energy with pranayama and achieve healthy body and mind. In Patanjali's "Ashtanga Yoga".. And an attempt is made to discuss that preparation. And it is not possible to discuss or guide this serious aspect of Yogabhyasa in preliminary discussion. And therefore.Pranayama (Control & Extension of Breath) Pranayama Pranayama "Pranayama is control of Breath". "Prana" is Breath or bio energy in the body.Yoga Practices . Pranayama appears at the fourth stage. This means unless one observes Yama-Niyama and does Asanas well. So Pranayama is "Control of Breath". But it does not mean that it is such a difficult process. Bhramari. Therefore. Five types of prana are responsible for various pranic activities in the body. Out of these Prana and Apana are most important. that it cannot be done by a common man. viz. one certainly suffers. Therefore. Sitkari. Types Of Pranayama? ? ? ? ? ? Quiet Breathing . Ujjayi. Udana & Samana. Even after learning these Asanas and having practiced them. it is true that if one does Pranayama unscientifically. Vyan. similarly they have attraction to Pranayama. the preliminary exercises of breathing are designed and only this part is going to be discussed here. for Pranayama too. Shitali. inhaling and exhaling. without proper guidance. The breathing process chiefly involves two activities.

5 This type of breathing is just opposite the previous one. The pressure should be light and on just below the nasal bone. The eyes should be closed and the whole attention should be concentrated on breathing so that it will be possible to acquire it. rechaka. six supplementary types are given. Type . Two more types of Kumbhaka are mentioned. Type . Now by pressing the thumb. and then immediately close left nostril and exhale with the right nostril. place the curved fingers in such a way that they come near the lips. These are actually the types of quick breathing.. i. and inhale with left nostril and also exhale through the same nasal passage. In all these types. It is called "Bahya Kumbhaka". Puraka is called "Abhyantara Kumbhaka" and after exhaling. With this arrangement of the fingers.2 Take up Pranava Mudra and close the right nostril with the help of the thumb of the right hand. Keep the hand from shoulder to elbow glued to the chest.e. But instead of talking of them in detail. In this way try quick breathing by changing the nostrils. Further.4 In this type close the right nostril. one can close any of the two nasal cavities. While practicing these types one should first sit in one of the following Asanas: Padmasana. The halt after inhaling. Type . it is divided into three parts: ? ? ? The smooth breathing that continues naturally without any effort (Quiet Breathing) The protracted breathing which is caused by deliberate slowing down of the breathing (Deep Breathing) The quick breathing which is caused by deliberate increase in the speed of breathing (Fast Breathing) Pranava Mudra for Pranayama(Body Gestures & Mental Attitudes) The first two fingers of the right hand palm are to be curved and last two fingers are to be kept straight and to be held together. Now straighten the thumb and bending the right hand in the elbow. Type . The state when these two activities are made to halt is given the name "Kumbhaka" in Yoga Studies. the left nostril is closed and . where the fleshy part begins. Type .3 In this type left nostril is to be closed and the quick breathing is done with the right nostril. The face should be kept quite gay and relaxed in order to practice breathing more effectively. let us turn to the process of breathing. and inhale with the left nostril. According to the speed of breathing. In brief this type can be described as quick breathing with the left nostril.activities continue non-stop right from the birth to the death of a person. Then. in order to practice the cycle of inhaling and exhaling. Here only the movement of thumb and the last two fingers is expected. the nasal cavity on the right side can be closed and by pressing the last two fingers left side cavity can be closed. Keep the right hand thumb on the right side of the nose and last two fingers on the left side of the nose. One should inhale and exhale with as much speed as possible and for as much time as feasible. Movement of other parts should be avoided.e.1 Keep both the nostrils open and then inhale and exhale with both the nasal passages. the left hand should be kept in Dhyana Mudra and the right hand in Pranava Mudra. i. the speed of breathing is more. that is. Vajrasana or Swastikasana. This type is nothing but quick breathing with both the nasal cavities.

However. Here it is important to note that practicing these types of breathing does not mean doing Pranayama. Type . and be practiced for two to three minutes. later the breathing should be made a part of daily practice of other Asanas. .6 This type of breathing is designed by combining previous two types i. First inhale with left nostril and exhale with right one. exhaling is done with the left nostril. Initially one should start with eleven cycles of breathing.inhaling is done with the right nostril. After sufficient practice the speed of breathing can be increased immensely. then immediately closing the right nostril.e. Further switch to fast breathing by increasing the speed of breathing. All these types can also be practiced with slow inhalation and exhalation. Later continue the same process i. inhaling & exhaling with left and right nostrils alternately. This is simply a preparation of the actual practice of Pranayama. then inhale with right nostril and exhale with left nostril. and it should be increased to one hundred and twenty one without any fear. type 4 and type 5..e.

Hence. Deshbandhas chittasya dharana | P Y S 3-1 Patanjali has stated this definition of Dharana. So the farmer ties a cord of certain length to its neck and then ties the other end of the cord to a hook in the ground. through the five sensory organs. We should also bear in mind while studying that Dharana. It contained Japa (continuous recitation) of Om as the study of the Dhyana Process. certain preliminary preparations are necessary. We had studied this topic generally during the Yoga Pravesh syllabus. to engage it in a particular area is Dharana. We will see the restriction or "Alamban" of Om. Sadhaka automatically enters in the Samadhi stage. The three stages mingle into each other as easily as three colours are mixed into each other on the canvass of an artist. The restriction can be anything. We get various perceptions. When certain progress is made in the studies of Dharana. attention has . Dhyana and Samadhi are progressively advanced stages of concentration. the primary stage of concentration as described by Patanjali. a primary step in the lengthy process of controlling the mind. To control the calf from such wandering in different directions.DHARANA In the syllabus of Yoga Pravesh. the mind is fixed and engaged in a particular area. During this syllabus we will not study all the three stages. The restriction put on the mind is known as "Alamban". The calf can freely move in the circle. This implies that all the three aspects should be considered together. which comes even before Dharana. so we can move further in the same direction. Patanjali states the preliminary process of Dharana. before doing so. which is just like the calf wants to roam around everywhere. one Upasana Program was included. With the help of the "Alamban". Dhyana stage is automatically entered into and with the progress in Dharana stage. The natural meaning of this sutra is " Deshbandh of chitta is Dharana ". Dharana comes before Dhyana process. Now we will study Dharana as an independent process. as it gains a controlled freedom. The mind. Chitta i e the mind is extremely wavering. In fact. it was just a stage. The mind usually runs behind such sensory perceptions. Thus the farmer has a control on the calf and also the calf is not at a disadvantage either. Dhyana and Samadhi as the last three aspects. it is not possible to tie it up to a particular point. The study of Dharana is the study of concentration of mind. Hence. While describing the eight aspects (angas) of Ashtang Yoga. it is seen that Dhyana as a process comes later in the study. To understand this definition an example can be cited: A farmer owns a calf. We will consider only the first stage Dharana. This attitude and the idea is important. but it should not cross the boundary. The calf wants to roam around in different directions. To stabilise the mind. In this syllabus. If we study Ashtang Yoga. Patanjali has stated Dharana. Yoga Pravesh syllabus did not cover a thorough study of Yoga and as such the word Dhyana was used only as a popular term. but it cannot go out of that circle. It is not possible to engage it at a particular point or location. The highest stage of mental concentration described by the modern psychologists is more or less similar to the description of Dharana i. However. This indicates the thoughtfulness of Patanjali while describing the three stages.e. This exercise is known as Dharana. The mind will be free within the periphery of this area. It is also stated by him that all the three aspects are collectively termed as " Sanyam " (Control). though termed as Dhyana. we will study the process of Dharana as described by Patanjali. it is advisable to go through the chapter of Prarthana and Dhyana in the Yoga Pravesh text. Another characteristic of these three stages is that there is no dividing line in between these stages. the radius being the length of the cord. We have earlier studied the japa of Om.

the tongue and the ears. When these are removed. the mind will get diverted towards the signals from various muscles. with the examples of different "Alamban". This discontinues the dharana. Dharana is the stage of high concentration of the mind. then the other organs will choose their own subjects and try to pull the mind towards them. Whenever the eyes try to avert itself beyond the picture. tongue and the ears like Om. The concentration without any disturbances is dharana. the area of the "alamban" or its limits is to be reduced. however with practice. the other moments spent in controlling the wandering mind. different smells. With the reduction of the area. The way with which the sound of Om is emitted through the mouth should be gradual and effective. the mind may sway beyond the experience towards other things. If the "Alamban" is subject of only one sensory organ. Out of five sensory organs. the duration of the pleasurable stage increases and the sadhaka becomes prepared to enter into the next stage. The general chaos. As the tongue is engaged in the japa of Om. the tongue and the ears are concentrating on only one subject of Om. It means that the highest level indicated by the psychologists is the first step of concentration of mind as viewed by Patanjali. which runs after the sensory perceptions. Dhyana and Samadhi should be considered together and not independently. When Dharana is practised for half an hour or so. the disadvantages of such occupied mind also get reduced. However. (the ideal method of the pronunciation should be learnt from the experts). One can select any other alamban other than the dhyana. other sounds. stop the japa. This experience transcends the sensory organs and the engagement of mind in this is the real dharana. Dharana affects and reduces the occupied mind. it is not discussed further over here. so the mind. Patanjali has suggested that Dharana. get reduced. Dhyana and Samadhi are stages after this. There should not be any external disturbances. yet comfortably in a particular pose for a longer duration. In that stage. Hence. It is a soothing. Then the mind has to be brought again into the experience. which seek the attention of the mind.to be paid as to how these perceptions can be reduced. extremely bright light are various disturbances that should be avoided. the mind will be firmly kept onto the Om. while enumerating the results. the eyes. so fixing of the gaze will result in locking the mind too. "Alamban". The vocal cords or the lungs should not feel strained while doing the japa. This will make mind unsteady further. However. There will be several disturbances. One should have the practice of sitting firmly. However. strong breeze. which is similar to that in dharana. the stage is experienced only for a few minutes. the results of dharana are not stated separately. Thus. Swatikasan or Siddhasan. Hence. The picture should be at the eye level and placed under sufficient light. Start the Japa of Om with calm attitude. he has clarified that the effects will depend on the "Alamban" too. Then one should sit on a comfortable seat in a pose conducive to Dhyana such as Padmasan. we can experience the effect of Dharana from the practical angle. The modern psychologists have described the highest stage of concentration of the human mind. As the topic is not covered in this syllabus. is better. Otherwise. After some period. close the eyes and try to concentrate the mind on the memories of Om sensed through the gaze. will also be firmly engaged on Om. The mind is kept firm at one place instead of letting it wander here and . This "Alamban" should be the subject of gaze. the dharana will be more effective and the sadhaka will get nearer to the next stage of dhyana. which can be the subject of these sensory perceptions. The mind generally follows the eyesight. While practising this. All this should be considered while choosing the subject of the "alamban". with continuous practice. they get reduced. there is no other experience than the "Alamban". Here. The japa is automatically heard by the ears and as such again felt by the mind. The pose should be " samkay shirogreevam" and the eyes should be fixed on the picture of Om in the front. the mind will follow the tongue and will restrict its movement towards Om. The surroundings should be pleasurable to the mind and not troublesome. the causes. Om is an "alamban" and the dimension covered by Om is the restricted area in which the mind can move (deshbandh). an effort should be made to lock it on the picture again. pleasurable stage giving intense satisfaction and peace of mind. With further practice. but the result of all the three are given together.

The study and progress depends on the individual strength of each sadhaka. With such habitual concentration. A daily study and practice is not expected of them. those who want to progress in the matter. This reduces strain on the mind. This information cannot cover all these aspects. the guidance can be given individually depending upon the disturbances faced. this much guidance is enough. After one tries to study and practise. An effort is made over here to suggest the direction of the studies of dharana. The description does not cover the study of dharana in entirety. A common education cannot be imparted of such advanced study. the work is done effectively and efficiently. the experiences observed and after judging the progress. . However. The mental strength increases. for the students. The daily practice of dharana reduces the wavering attitude of mind and a different kind of peace can be observed throughout the day. However. should start practising daily under the guidance of an expert guru.there. wherein they study different aspects of yoga alongwith dharana. Practice once a week is enough for them.

Think about all the above factors. the picture of the deity. our mind stays (appeases) upon it for a specific amount of time. How do we achieve that? In the fundamental stages of meditation one has to decide some target upon which one can concentrate.Meditation We are going to discuss about Meditation based on "Pantajali Yoga Sutra (Ashtanga Yoga)". In this case the photo frame is the target . But the speed of our mind is far more than the butterfly or it may be greater than the speed of light. 'Dhyan'(meditation) is the study of deep concentration. In his sutras the "Sage Patanjali" has explained 8 limbs of yoga (Ashtanga Yoga). Niyama. What is a target? A target would be anything. For instance it would be a photograph of ones deity. which ones mind would like to concentrate upon.Yama. The initial four stage are the basic stages which help the person to attain "Sthiram" (stability of mind) which is the prior necessity for practicing the further stages of meditation. but one has to see to it that ones mind does not run away beyond the target decided. It is the study of attaining complete control over ones mind.Dhyan . Ears. Pranayama. Mind can recollect past experiences. which will give tranquility and serenity to ones mind. We all know that our mind is fickle. the background of the picture. He has to concentrate with the help of his sensors like ' Eyes. Meditation takes the consciousness beyond conscious. reciting and listening the mantra. This stage is truly a very fundamental stage and needs a lot of practice because we are never used to control our minds. calmness and tranquility of the mind. Once you have achieved this for specific period of time you can try for the 'Dhyan'. Now let us see in detail what exactly he means to say about Dhyan(meditation). we have been looking at it. recite or hear a mantra of that deity. Those are :. Pratyahara. which always flies from here and there and does not wait at one place for long. Now further we close our eyes and recollect the picture of the OM. sub conscious & unconscious states to super consciousness. According to him meditation (Dhyan) means "Full concentration of the mind focused on one of those experiences" In simple terms the spontaneous concentration of the mind on the object is Meditation. and Dhyan Samadhi. Nose. In the fundamental stage one can look at the frame. It would be anything. . Dharana. keeps thinking about the future and experiences the present with all its might and we do not have any control over our minds journey. like a butterfly. except the target. But once the mind thinks of some other factors your meditation comes to an end . To explain with Omkar as the target. Asana. Mouth and Touch' that means he can ? ? ? Look at the target whichever he wants He can recite a small mantra with the help of mouth And he can listen to the mantra with his ears Further more he is not permitted to think anything else. One can develop his capacity of sitting in this stage from 5-10 minutes to any amount of time.

The mind has tremendous speed. The mind interconnects the 'Self' with the physical body. 3. as many of our problems physical. We can summarise seven functions of the mind as follows. For example when you are listening to a speaker in lecture. now we concentrate on only a part of our target and in the next samadhi stage the person experiencing the target tends to be nobody. It can travel from one point to another point at infinite distance within fraction of a second. So to learn what the speaker is . Existence of the mind can't be denied. Then again with closed eyes we are only hearing the reciting of the mantra on the cassette without reciting by our mouth. which it has experienced in the initial stages. inseparable but still distinct from each other. nose tongue or skin) and there is mind and the 'Knower' or 'self'. an organ of perception (ears. But if your mind is not concentrating on the lecture then you won't understand anything there. Mind is also distinct from the spiritual self. Intelligence and Judgment. Perception of any event is not possible without the presence of mind. The mind thinks of all the factors. Perceptions. The nature of the mind is to move from one point to another continuously. The person can't work if he is mentally not prepared for the work but a person can work with extra energy if he has mentally decided to work. ears and mouth. Mind runs after the objects it likes but runs away from the objects that it dislikes. Consciousness. you learn through your ears. you cannot concentrate on lecture. 2. and Endocrine Gland System. The Knower perceives the external objects through sense organs but with the help of the mind. Mind has no physical existence. All these are connected very closely. The mind can multiply or divide the strength of the Body. Properties & Functions Of Mind It is very difficult to understand the nature of the mind because it has no physical existence. As the mind is unstable. But the existence of the mind can't be denied. 4. mental and psychological are the outcome of our mental condition. The Condition Of Mind You have already seen that 1. Only the experience remains. The mind controls the physical organs through Brain. Controlling The Mind You have already studied that the mind is essential in the process of acquiring knowledge. So in every event of perception there is an external object. Mind exists in the body but it is distinct from the body and organs. Autonomous Nervous System. It keeps moving all the time. Emotions. Mind doesn't remain stable at any particular point or any object. Memory. Meaning. Further our minds only recollects the experiences taken by our eyes. It is very subtle as well as hidden. It is clear from the points that the mind is very unstable. eyes.At the same time we are reciting or listening to the omkar. The actual Dhyan stage has only one dimension. The mind has tremendous speed. 'the Knower' as he just observes the mind and its functions. Thoughts. At this stage the minds target as a number of dimensions.

Different Links To Access Mind You have already studied that the mind is an inseparable part of the human being. sex and physical condition. which can be followed by anyone irrespective of age. The result is experience of calm and quite Mind and body. 2. you must establish control over your mind and force it to listen to the lecture. 3. . But controlling mind is the most difficult task. Even patients can follow this. Mind is very difficult to access directly but all these systems are relatively easier to access. it is distinct from Pranic Force behind body activities. Efforts are being continuously made to find out the ways and means to establish control over mind. nervous system. Body Movement Sense Organs Breathing The Self Control Easy Meditation Technique Introduction As the name suggests this is a very simple and easy technique of meditation. 1. as per your requirements. Only then. we will discuss some of these links. The mind is distinct from all these systems but at the same time. 4. If you want to remember a particular event. This control can't be achieved in short period. But this is the most difficult part because of unstable nature of mind. 3. it is closely associated with all these systems of the body. Meditation is one of the very effective ways to control the mind. Then only you'll be able to acquire knowledge.telling. 4. one can get what he wants. This process of making mind stable is called concentration. Hence you have to control movements of mind and make it stable whenever you want. you will have to concentrate your mind till you remember that event. So mind can be accessed through these systems. it is distinct from all other physical organs. 2. It is clear from the above discussion that it is essential to control the mind. It is distinct from brain. This is true for any function of mind. Body Movement and Mind Sense Organs and Mind Breathing Process and Mind The Self and Mind Techniques To Control The Mind 1. Meditation is a systematically designed technique to achieve this step by step.

The laziness of the body is not considered here as it is separately stated under the head Alasya. it serves as an important hindrance against starting the thing. The study of yoga can be continued when these diseases are cured. To achieve something. Samshay (Doubt): If there is a doubt in the mind whether it will be possible to undertake something and succeed in it.1 That means the anushasan of yoga (description) is stated henceforth. To remove these changes. vata. which covers all states conscious. or the drowsiness of the mind. first we must have self-confidence regarding our abilities. the mental and logical refrain towards the actions is aimed at. While trying to control the vrittis (thoughts. which should be controlled. The broader perspective is expected and the word Chitta here means Individual consciousness. the diseases vanish. The thoughts.30 The aphorism describes nine Disturbances in all. introduces yoga as: Atha Yoganushasanam | 1.2 This means that yoga means controlling the thought waves of the mind. which means that doubt leads to destruction or eradication. The main reason behind such diseases is the imbalance in the seven dhatus in the body. " Samshayatma Vinashyati " is known to all. Certain undesirable changes are observed in the body or the mind. That is to be understood and followed. When the balance is restored. Due to this. which are harmful. the five organs of action and the mind. pitta. Here. Styan (Languor): Styan means the laziness of the chitta. These are described as under: Vyadhistyan sanshay pramad alasya virati bhranti darshanalabdha bhoomi katvanavsthitatvani chittavikshepasteantarayah | 1. The next aphorism states the purpose of the yoga: Yogas chitta vritti nirodhah | 1. it continues to increase and then the efforts are . But if we have doubts in our mind. emotions. We will consider them one by one. the studies of yoga are stopped or not undertaken.kapha. The mind does not believe in karma or action and then there is a tendency not to do anything. the asanas cannot be performed properly. When the doubt arises. it leads to destruction of the self-confidence.Background Of Ashtanga Yoga (Eight Limb Yoga by Patanjali) The yoga as stated by Patanjali is enumerated through Sanskrit and hence contains only the main and the important thoughts. The first aphorism of the first Pada(part). certain disturbances are created which stop or divert the growth. This in turn leads to inadequate mental strength behind the efforts. the entire strength is to be concentrated which can hinder the progress of yoga. Vyadhi (Disease): This stage is different from the naturally healthy body or mind. This is called yoga. Patanjali has addressed them as " Antaray(Disturbances) creating chitta vikshepa". Many procedures in yoga are useful for retaining the balance. feelings). the five sensory organs. Such confidence gives the required mental strength to succeed in the endeavor. sub conscious and unconscious. It is experienced by all that if there are diseases or any ailments of the body. feelings. emotions arising in the mind are vrittis (nature). the controlling doshas .

but there is no action to achieve it. The experiencing of the results is relasted to the duration and this comparison leads to this hindrance. they may lead him onto the wrong path. which may lead to its stoppage. So in spite of other conducive elements. Such mistake is pramad. the duration of the practice required to get the results is different for each sadhaka. inability to remain firmly in that stage is anavasthitattva. Sadhaka may think that this is awakening of the Kundalini shakti. but still no action is undertaken to pursue the study.totally wasted. is thoroughly understood. Many such hallucinations may be experienced. If they are not interpreted by the sadhaka thoughtfully with the help from his guru. stopping his progress. Even if all the abovementioned hindrances are removed. a hindrance in the progress. However. This leads to inaction and no achievement. these experiences are not of awakening Kundalini Shakti. which is essential. the necessary procedures are to be repeated again and again. Pramad (Carelessness): A mistake made deliberately even after understanding its implications is carelessness. This is pramad. Mental strength and the firmness is essential to remove laziness. then there will be no karma or action and hence no progress. Virati means to control the organs from running behind such perceptions and not to let them immerse themselves in things. To allow them to engage in such perceptions is rati. which stops us from doing something. control should be exercised and gained on the organs. Some may experience the results immediately. the sadhaka can experience the results. the doubt is a major hindrance in the studies of the yoga. certain sounds are heard or some scenes are visualized. In all the yoga procedures. The faith of the sadhaka and the intensity of the . The opposite of this is virati that means virakti. The studies of yoga do guarantee favorable returns and hence the desired results. and if there is laziness. This attitude is alabdhabhoomikatva. the study is stopped. sadhaka experiences various things. If there is no virati. the organs will continuously run behind different matters. Bhranti (Hallucinations): While studying yoga. some may take a long time. Due to laziness. Avirati (Worldly-mindedness): Rati means to enjoy. If to experience the results at any stage. For progress in yoga. Absence of virati is avirati. the results are not experienced. wrong interpretation of such experiences leads the sadhaka to the wrong path. Alabdhabhoomikatva (Non achievement of a stage): At every stage and procedure of the yoga. The organs desire to have pleasurable perceptions. it is essential to remain firmly in a particular stage for some time after achieving that stage. then it is not possible to progress further. a longer duration is required or if in a particular duration. Anavasthitattva (Instability): Even after achieving a particular stage. To believe such a thing is misinterpretation. Thus. However. The mind understands the strategy to be followed for achieving something. right from the physical procedures such as asana to the mental procedures such as samadhi. this becomes impossible and the progress is stopped. i e laziness. which yield the perceptions. If there is a doubt in the mind regarding the path of the yoga. However. Alasya (Laziness): The body and the mind is turned towards inaction. To overcome this. then the sadhaka starts doubting the studies. During the study of dhyana. Mind runs behind the organs and this causes hindrance in the yoga.

All these hindrances cause disturbances in the mind (vikshepa of chitta) and cause certain effects. The first experience or the result is pain. The disappointment is termed as Dourmanasya. This is aangmejaytva. Sadhaka should have doubtless faith on the path of the yoga and he should try to follow it religiously to overcome the hindrances. While describing the details of this ektattvabhyas Patanjali has clarified the ashtang yoga path with the Yam and Niyama. Thus. The pain may be physical or mental. concentration. If it is not possible to stay firmly in the stage. at times control over the organs cannot be gained and the body does not cooperate in the studies of the yoga. To remove the hindrances and their accompanying results Patanjali has given the guidance in the following aphorism: Tatpratishedharthamekatatvabhyash | 1. One should familiarise oneself with such hindrances and try to overcome them so as to ensure the progress. We experience the hindrances even in daily practice of yoga. Patanjali has stated such effects in the following sutra : Dukkhadormanasyaangmejaytvashwasprashwasa vikshepsahbhuvh | 1. Hence. special efforts should be made to stay in the stages firmly. there should be Ektattvabhyas i. The unwavering faith of the sadhaka can easily remove this hindrance.31 All these are termed as experiences due to vikshepas. Patanjali has suggested that with such unwavering faith and concentration only. If it is not possible to overcome the hindrances in following the path of yoga or if it is not possible to achieve the target.e.32 That means to remove the hindrances.practice determine this. all the hindrances can be overcome and the ultimate aim can be achieved. it causes disappointment. This results in loss of control over breathing too and stops the progress. Concentration also means indomitable and doubtless faith on the path of yoga. . This description is representative of his views. Due to the hindrances. doubts arise about the sadhana which disturb the yoga studies and may stop them altogether too. Patanjali has described nine types of the hindrances.

We will consider the different aspects of yoga while remaining under the guiding principles of Patanjali's Yoga (Ashtanga Yoga). Fine tuning of the human personality at increasingly subtle levels leads to higher states of awareness and meditation. Methods of Chanting.Eight limb / step yoga) The basis of ashtanga yoga is the Yoga sutras (Sanskrit Verses) of Patanjali. Yogasana (Yoga Positions) Six shatkarmas (physical and mental detox techniques) Mudras and Bandhas (psycho-physiological energy release techniques) Pranayama (pranic awakening practices) Mantra Yoga Japa Yoga. The Asana. mudras and bandhas (psycho-physiological energy release techniques) and Pranayama (pranic awakening practices). Effects of Mantra. 5.Yoga Styles or Yoga Paths or Types Of Yoga Ashtanga Yoga (Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga . 2. 6. which is the aim Mantra Yoga . Dhyan & Samadhi or the Yama and Niyama are systematically described by Patanjali in his Sanskrit Sutras (verses). 1. Yama (Principles) Niyama (Personal Disciplines) Asana (Yoga Positions or Yogic Postures) Pranayama (Yogic Breathing) Pratyahara (Withdrawal of Senses) Dharana (Concentration on Object) Dhyan (Meditation) Samadhi (Salvation) Hatha Yoga The term Hatha Yoga has been commonly used to describe the practice of asana (postures). infact all the verses in Vedas are called mantras. The Hatha Yoga system includes asana along with the six shatkarmas (physical and mental detox techniques). 4. How to Practice & Rules of Mantra Chanting) Mantra Yoga Mantra Yoga has its origin in Vedic Sciences and also in Tantra. The syllable 'ha' denotes the pranic (vital) force governing the physical body and 'tha' denotes the chitta (mental) force thus making Hatha Yoga a catalyst to an awakening of the two energies that govern our lives. 4. Pranayama. State of Consciousness in Matra Yoga. 8. 2. 7. Requirements. More correctly the techniques described in Hatha Yoga harmonise and purify the body systems and focus the mind in preparation for more advanced chakra and kundalini practices. it is said that any person who can chant or sing Vedas can achieve the ultimate salvation or union with supreme consciousness only by chanting the mantras. 3. Dharana. 1. 3.

Generally some rewards or incentives or outcome follows the work and one is attached to this reward or incentive. but in the context of yoga it means the process of meditative awareness which leads to illuminative wisdom. He achieves stability of mind in all conditions. Jnana Yoga Jnana Yoga is the process of converting intellectual knowledge into practical wisdom. he is not disturbed or excited or happy in any of the situations. rather it is a part of meditation leading to selfenquiry and self-realisation. This is not the Karma Yoga. Some of the components of Jnana Yoga are: 1. Slowly the practitioner looses the self identity and becomes one with the object of faith. 6. 4. Mostly people suppress their emotions and that often reflects in the form of physical and mental disorders. Not believing but realising Self-awareness leading to self-analysis Experiencing knowledge Realising the personal nature Developing intuitive wisdom Experiencing inner unity . Christ. Non-attachment with the work and becoming the perfect instrument of the super consciousness in this manifested universe is the ultimate aim of Karma Yoga. it becomes spiritual. One looses his identity while working. only selfless work remains. 5. It is a discovery of human dharma in relation to nature and the universe. one can surely disassociate himself from the ego and his own personality. It is not a method by which we try to find rational answers to eternal questions.Bhakti Yoga Bhakti is a Yoga of devotion or complete faith. individual possesses strong sense of ego and consciously or unconsciously he is attached to the fruits of his efforts or at least praise or recognition but by continuous involvement in the work and change in mental attitude. 2. Continuous meditation of God or object of faith gradually decrease the ego of the practitioner. Mohammed. Important thing is the person interested in following this path should have very strong emotional bond with the object of faith. He becomes divine & his actions represent God's will. This state is very difficult to achieve. The flow of emotional energy is directed to this object. It may be Lord Rama. Jnana Yoga is described by tradition as a means to obtain the highest meditative state and inner knowledge. Krishna. fickleness or even pain and induces strong bonds of love. this is a state of self realization. which further prevents new distractions. Buddha etc. Jnana literally means 'knowledge'. 3. It may be a Guru for his disciples. skilled and Yogi. Karma Yoga Karma Yoga is a path of devotion to the work. Therefore one must perform every action sacramentally and be free of your attachments to the results. This faith is generally in the God or supreme consciousness in any of the forms. This Bhakti Yoga releases those suppressed emotions and brings the purification of inner self. also the individual becomes expert. In this state the work becomes worship to the God. In the initial stages of Karma Yoga. The essence of Karma Yoga as extracted from 'Bhagvad Gita' says: The world confined in its own activity except when actions are performed as worship of God.

the final result of practice. The kriya practices are inscribed in numerous tantric texts written in Sanskrit.Kundalini Yoga (From the Tantras) This system of Yoga is concerned with awakening of the psychic centers or chakras. In this way all faculties are harmonised and flower into their fullest potential. The basic method of awakening involves deep concentration on these chakras and forcing their arousal. mudra and bandha and other forms of Yoga such as Mantra Yoga are also used to stimulate the awakening. Kriya Yoga The word kriya means 'activity' or 'movement' and refers to the activity or movement of consciousness. Kriya also refers to a type of practical or preliminary practice leading to total union. which exists in every individual. The kriyas. as taught by Satyananda Yoga™ . to the instinctive realms of being or to the sublime heights of consciousness. The full form of Kriya Yoga consists of over 70 kriyas out of which only 20 or so are commonly known. . which are associated with planes below the human level. Each of these layers progressively are associated with the higher levels of consciousness. In Kundalini Yoga. The practices of Kriya Yoga were propagated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati from secret teachings described in the Yoga and Tantra Shastras. There are no of other chakras apart from the six main. In all we have chakras that connect us to animal levels of mind. The mind is made up of different subtle layers. Kriya Yoga originated in antiquity and evolved over time through practise and experience. pranayama. Asanas. The most authoritative magna opus on the subject of Kriya. (Please refer to the figure) There are six main chakras in the human beings. Each of these levels are related to the different chakra or psychic center located throughout the psychic body. Kriya Yoga does not curb mental fluctuations but purposely creates activity and awakening in consciousness. higher-level chakras are awakened and also the activities associated with these higher psychic centers. the other being that of Paramahamsa Yogananda. To date only a few of these have been translated into other languages. are one of only two systems of Kriya Yoga recognized the world over.

management of mental and emotional conflicts and development of awareness and concentration through pratyahara (sensory withdrawal) and dharana (concentration). . so Swara yoga is a science which is realization of cosmic consciousness through control and manipulation of breath.Raja Yoga Raja Yoga usually refers to the system of yoga that is described in the Yoga Sutras of Sage Patanjali. physical and mental conditions of individuals etc. moon. meaning sound or note. So Swara Yoga is more comprehensive in theory and practices related to breath. and developing the creative aspect of consciousness for transcendental awareness through dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (absorption in the universal identity). In this ancient text Sage Patanjali describes eight stages of yoga which are known collectively as Raja Yoga. It is also a continuous flow of air through one nostril. you will find association of breath in relation to activities of sun. attainment of physical health and vitality through asanas (postures) and pranayamas (pranic breathing techniques). Swara Yoga Swara is Sanskrit word. various seasons. observations. Swara Yoga is science which is a complete study. control and manipulation of breath or Swara. Raja Yoga is a comprehensive yoga system which deals with the refinement of human behaviour and personality through the practice of the yamas (restraint) and niyamas (disciplines). In swara yoga. Pranayama is only related to control of breath in various ways. Yoga means union.

(start with) the discipline of yoga If you are given a book. The language used for these sutras is Sanskrit. answers this question in first sutra. This is an ancient but basic text on Yoga as written by Sage Patanjali 400 years B. The constructions can be very concise and precise meaning.Yoga Sutras By Patanjali (Ashtanga Yoga) Samadhi Pada Sutra 1 Yoga Sutras by Patanjali were written to explain the process and systematic analysis of practical methods for awakening and expanding the higher faculties of mind. Patanjali . the reader has studied many philosophies and now he is starting to study the philosophy of Yoga. next question is there in the mind of every reader and that is What is Yoga? Patanjali explains this in next sutra which we will discuss in the next session. basic definition of yoga. He says.C. As the printing technology was not available at that time. Anushasanam – Discipline or set of instructions Now.. 1st chapter is Samadhi Pada which consists of 51 Sutras. then the first question in your mind will be “ What is this book?” Knowing the question of the reader or starter in yoga. quality of consciousness. . this text has been transferred through generations by oral recitations (Shruti). Patanjali starts with the first Sutra Atha Yoganushasanam || (1-1) Atha – now. There are 3 words in the first sutra. That is why the whole knowledge of yoga is very concisely packed in total 196 lines or Sanskrit Sutras by Patanjali so that students can easily remember these sutras. a sure way eventually going beyond the mind. Atha. The literary meaning of Atha is “ Now”or “ Hereafter” Patanjali expects that . Yoga – science of Yoga. Hence Patanjali wants to mention that he is starting the explanation of Yoga. grammar is very accurately maintained in Sanskrit. It explores the true potential of human mind beyond the limits of time and space. importance of yoga and different types of states of Samadhi are described in this Sutras and ways to achieve states of Samadhi. intellect. Yoga and Anushasanam. The total 196 Sutras are divided in 4 chapters. it is little difficult to understand. But still it is interesting journey in understanding these Sutras and to know the basic principles of science of yoga. After the meaning of first sutra. Sanskrit is called the language of Gods. now I am explaining the discipline / instructions of science of yoga. It is a very old tradition in Indian scriptures to use word Atha in the beginning of every text or every important process.

” This is the 2nd verse. emotions on conscious. Patanjali answers this in next sutra. sub conscious and unconscious mind. it is taken from rodha which means to block. After knowing the meaning of this sutra. it stores the experiences in form of memories. It is derived from a Sanskrit word Yuj which means to join. Now as per Indian stream of thought. and to understand the process leading to this goal needs to be studied. is part of this divine but separated from it and confined to Body & Mind. The process of unification of atman with paramatman is Yoga. it is the highest join between individual soul or “ Atman” and universal consciousness or “ Paramatman” Paramatman is the divine reality and atman . The second word is “ Chitta” which is derived from word ‘ chit’which means to experience. Chitta is past tense meaning “ Experienced” so it can be regarded as store of experiences and that is mind. Vritti is derived from Sanskrit word Vrut which means to function. ‘ what will happen when the functioning or modifications of mind is blocked?’ and . Thus Patanjali explains the central theme of yoga in this sutra. thoughts. and Patanjali defines Yoga for the yoga practitioners. and nirodhah is to block with planned efforts and controlled actions. More specifically it can be taken as sub conscious mind as most of the experiences are stored there. next question will be. Nirodhah is the 4th word.Samadhi Pada – Sutra 2 Yogah Chitta Vritti Norodhah || (1 – 2) Yoga = Union Chitta = Mind Vritti = Functioning / Modifications Nirodhah = Block with Efforts / restraint “ Yoga is to block the modifications of the mind. . let us understand the meaning of each word. so Vritti is functioning or modifications. The first word “ Yoga” has no of meanings but the basic is join or process leading to joining.

Otherwise the Atman is confined by this Body – Mind complex and has no way to unfold its true nature or original state. Now if the functioning is blocked or totally controlled the the Chitta or mind will also stop interacting with seer or Atman and Atman / soul will be free of the body – mind complex. Patanjali firmly reiterates in this sutra that the practioner of Yoga can achieve the ultimate goal of Yoga trough “ control of Vrittis” or control of modifications / functions of the mind. In the next sutra.Samadhi Pada – Sutra 3 || Tada Drastu Swaroope Awasthanam || Tada – then Drastu – Seer Swaroope – True state of self (Real nature of Soul) Awasthanam –restored or established So the 3rd Sutra in 1st chapter of Patanjal Yoga Sutras is “ Then the seer is established in his real or true (original) state or nature. This question of how to tackle with the Vrittis is tackled by Patanjali in the remaining sutras. This is like a person who does not have any job or responsibility and peacefully resting in his house without any attachments. question is how to control this functions of the mind or Vrittis which normally stimulates the Chitta or Mind to act on the Atman. Patanjali is explaining different ways to achieve this goal. Patanjali is explaining the starting point of this journey. Patanjali talks about a final state of achievement as “ Kaivalya” But now the . hence he mentions many ways but in the sutras. the real self. he has mostly focused on Ashtanga Yoga. One way may not be suitable to all Yoga Sadhakas / practitioners.” In the earlier sutra Patanjali has explained that Yoga is blocking the functions of the mind. . This state is the aim or ultimate goal of Yoga.

” Patanjali explains the final stage of seer or Atman and before starting the explanation of the detailed technique for attaining the same.Mr.K. Purusha gets involved with these activities of mind and experiences all the emotions. We forget our own identity. he can remain away from the emotions and their effects.K. We even forget that we are watching a movie and we are not a part of the movie. This is a long and difficult path. we get lost in to it and we experience the joy and sorrow and other emotion in this movie.Original Sanskrit Text *********** . The seer or ‘ Purusha’or ‘ Atman’is to be released from all other ties and he is helped to merge with its real state that is ‘ Swaroop’ ‘ . References – * Science of Yoga – I. He explains the present state of the seer or Atman. Purusha’or ‘ Atman’has lost his own identity & is always assimilated with the Vrittis or modifications of the mind that is functioning of mind. Taimini * Four Chapters on Freedom – Swami Satyananda Saraswati * Yoga Sutra .Functioning / Modifications Sarupyam – assimilation Itaratra – other state The complete meaning of this sutra is “ The Atman or purusha is assimilated with the functioning /modifications of mind in other state. An appropriate illustration is given by Swami Satyananda Saraswati.K. He says when we are watching a movie on the screen. Similarly the Atman or real self has forgotten its reality and has assimilated with the different patterns or modifications of mind. and feels good and bad effects of the same. If he realizes that he is the mere spectator for this play.Kolhatkar * Yoga Sutra .Samadhi Pada – Sutra 4 || Vritti Sarupyam Itaratra || 1-4 Patanjal Yoga Sutras Vritti . Hence Patanjali explains the techniques in details in fourth sutra. This is very difficult to achieve but it can be achieved by controlling the Vrittis or modifications of the mind and developing the impartial attitude of Purusha towards these activities of chitta or mind.

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