Pathophysiology of the Disease Process

Risk Factor

Etiologic Factor

Destruction of pigmented neuronal cells Host Genes Caucasians Age (60 and above) Male Head trauma Declining estrogen levels Farmer Agent Herbicide Pesticide Fungicide Drug by product Cyanide Carbon monoxide Mercury Copper Decreased levels of Vitamin B Environment Rural area Used of water well for cooking, and drinking Decreased dopamine stores

Degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway

Imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the corpus striatum

Impairment of the extrapyramidal tracts controlling complex body movements


Systems Affected Genitourinary Urinary incontinence Impaired sexuality Bladder control Psychological Dementia Depression Mood alterations Muscular Tremor Rigidity Akinesia Expressionless Slurred speech Postural changes Shuffling gait Dysphagia Choking and ASPIRATION Digestive Constipation

Pathophysiology of the Disease Process Aspiration of secretions

Complications y Respiratory and urinary tract infections Impaired Thinking (Cognitive Impairment) Vision Problems. Impaired Sexuality Worsened Sense of Smell Ataxia

Activation of defense mechanism


Lose effectiveness of defense mechanism

y y

Penetrate the sterile lower respiratory tract (lungs)

y y

Multiplication of bacteria


Release damaging toxins




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