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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 1 October 1998
PHYSICAL FITNESS TRAINING
1. Change FM 21-20, 30 September 1992, as follows:
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. I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-I APPENDIX D STATIONARY BICYCLE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References-O . . . . . . . . . .14-1 Over-Forty Cardiovascular Screening Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ndex-O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i4-9 Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20 APPENDIX B POSITIVE PROFILE FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .l4-2 Test Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l4-11 Test Results. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-2 CHAPTER 14 ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST Methods of Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l4-10 Test Sequence. . . . . . . .E-1 APPENDIX F CALCULATION OF V02MAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1 Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . .G-1 APPENDIX H THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary-1 REFERENCES . . . . .) PAGE PAGE CHAPTER 13 INJURIES Typical Injuries Associated with Physical Training . . . .14-19 Temporary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . D-O APPENDIX E SELECTING THE RIGHT RUNNING SHOE . . . . . . . . . . . . .. APPENDIX A PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEXES . . . F-1 APPENDIX G PERCEIVED EXERTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .l4-2 Duties of Test Personnel . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . B-0 APPENDIX C PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG . .14-20 Alternate Events .14-8 Test Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-O GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20 Permanent Profiles . . . . . .. . .l4-18 Scores Above Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-l Overview .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-O ii INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
invigorate training. they left behind wounded comrades and valuable equipment their training had not adequately prepared them to carry heavy loads. i i i . Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Headquarters. as U. The benefits to be derived from a good physical fitness program are many. but well-trained. The costly lessons learned by Task Force Smith in Korea are as important today as ever. US Army Physical Fitness School (ATZB-PF). soldiers were routed by a poorly equipped. It will improve soldiers’ combat readiness. troops. and enhance productivity and mental alertness. It can reduce the number of soldiers on profile and sick call.” Our physical training programs must do more for our soldiers than just get them ready for the semiannual Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT’). This manual can also be used as a source book by all soldiers.S. If we fail to prepare our soldiers for their physically demanding wartime tasks. It provides guidelines for developing programs which will improve and maintain physical fitness levels for all Army personnel. The early days of the Korean war were nothing short of disastrous. These programs will help leaders prepare their soldiers to meet the physical demands of war.Preface On 5 July 1950. Unless this publication states otherwise. A good physical fitness program also promotes team cohesion and combat survivability. As American soldiers withdrew. were sent to battle. who were unprepared for the physical demands of war. Training the Force. we are guilty of paying lip service to the principle of “Train as you fight. US Army Infantry Center. FM 21-20 was written to conform to the principles outlined in FM 25-100.S. FM 21 -20 is directed at leaders who plan and conduct physical fitness training. North Korean People’s Army. GA31905-5000. The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Fort Benning. U. masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
Its purpose is to physically condition all soldiers throughout their careers beginning with initial entry training (IET). They must be visible and active participants in physical training programs. Army Physical Fitness School. A soldier’s level of physical fitness' has a direct impact on his combat readiness. Commanders and leaders can use this information to develop intelligent. Leaders should also continually assess their units to determine which specific components of fitness they lack. diet and nutrition. and spiritual and ethical fitness. Punishment. The renewed nationwide interest in fitness has been accompanied by many research studies on the effects of regular participation in sound physical fitness programs. must understand and practice the new Army doctrine of physical fitness. Once they identify the shortcomings. Commanders and leaders must ensure that all soldiers in their units maintain the highest level of physical 1-1 fitness in accordance with this manual and with AR 350-15 which prescribes policies. It defines physical fitness. Physical fitness. and is competiIt also has tive and progressive. Leadership Responsibilities Effective leadership is critical to the success of a good physical training program. Not only are physically fit soldiers essential to the Army. the sole responsibility for good programs rests with leaders at every level. the emphasis of this manual. This chapter provides an overview of fitness. and spiritual and ethical fitness. stress management. Leaders must emphasize the value of physical training and clearly explain the objectives and benefits of the Master Fitness Trainers program. It also includes soldiers with limiting physical profiles who must also participate in physical fitness training. can help commanders do this. leaders must lead PT! Their example will emphasize the importance of physical fitness training and will highlight it as a key element of the unit’s training mission. graduates of a special course taught by the U. substance abuse. physical fitness programs. and discusses various types of fitness programs and fitness evaluation. command presence at every level with leaders setting the example for their soldiers. and responsibilities for the Army physical fitness program.S. they are also more likely to have enjoyable. especially senior leaders. This includes the USAR and ARNG and encompasses all ages and ranks and both sexes. Leaders should not punish soldiers who fail to perform to standard. Some of the “others are weight control. A good program is well planned and organized. outlines the phases of fitness. (MFTs). The many battles in which American troops have fought underscore the important role physical fitness plays on the battlefield. and bring about positive physical and mental changes. regardless of the level of technical experience MFTs have. and tobacco use. productive lives. as well as the avoidance of hypertension. combatrelated. The Army’s physical fitness training program extends to all branches of the total Army. improve productivity. stress management.Components of physical fitness include weight control. However. they should modify their programs to correct the weaknesses. especially excessive repetitions or additional PT. procedures. nutrition. The overwhelming conclusion is that such programs enhance a person’s quality of life. has reasonable yet challenging requirements. is but one component of total fitness. often does more harm than good. Leaders. dental health. Leaders must . diet. A poorly designed and executed physical fitness program hurts morale. This manual is primarily concerned with issues relating directly to the development and maintenance of the five components of physical fitness. In short.
age. In some instances. Leaders must also make special efforts to provide the correct fitness training for soldiers who are physically substandard. and analyzing individual and unit APFT performance. regardless of rank. • Assignment fo a group which us too large for one leader. Commanders must ensure that leade r s a r e familiar with approved 1-2 Commanders must ensure that the time alloted for physical fitness training is used effectively. They can evaluate its effectiveness by participating in and observing training. but They must recognize demanding. Training times is wasted by the following: • Unprepared or unorganized leaders. • Become familiar with the Army's fitness publications. • Long rest periods which interfere with progress. relating their fitness programs to the unit’s missions. leaders will need to make special efforts to overcome recurring problems which interfere with regular training. • Inadequate facilities which cause long waiting periods between exercises during a workout and/or between workouts. The application of sound leadership techniques is especially important in bringing physically deficient soldiers up to standard. understanding. injury. Important examples include this manual. Commanders should assure that qualified leaders supervise and conduct fitness training and use their MFTs. unit leaders and instructors must be knowledgeable. Leaders can learn about fitness training in the following ways: • Attend the four-week MFT course or one-week Exercise Leaders Course. Commanders must provide adequate facilities and funds to support a program which will improve each soldier’s level of physical fitness. • Insufficient training intensity: it will result in no improvement. and fair. benefit from regular exercise.plan special training to help soldiers who need it. Attaining a high level of physical fitness cannot be done simply by going through the motions. and DA Pamphlets 350-15. ‘COMMAND FUNCTIONS Commanders must evaluate the effectiveness of physical fitness training and ensure that it is focused on the unit’s missions. They must also be sure that everyone participates. since all individuals. for they have received comprehensive training in this area. • Extreme faomality that usually emphasizes form over substance. Leaders should regularly measure the physical fitness level of every soldier to evaluate his progress and determine the success of the unit’s program. AR 350-15. or sex. individual differences and motivate soldiers to put forth their best efforts. To foster a positive attitude. or travel may also need special consideration. Those who have been away from the conditioning process because of leave. However. Commanders must ensure that the time allotted for physical fitness training is used effectively. 350-18. Hard training is essential. sickness. and 350-22. they must also emphasize training to standard. An example would be too many units runs at slow paces or "daily dozen" activities that look impressive but do not result in impovement. • Rates of progression that are too slow or too fast. • Request a fitness workshop from the Army Physical Fitness School. . “Positive profiling” (DA Form 3349) permits and encourages profiled soldiers to do as much as they can within the limits of their profiles.
normal range of motion. Although called “masters. safe physical training. and negatively affects one’s health. Appropriate training can improve these factors within the limits of each soldier’s potential. Factors such as speed. agility. MASTER FITNESS TRAINERS A Master Fitness Trainer (MFT) is a soldier who has completed either the four-week active-component.techniques. 1-3 Components of Fitness Physical fitness is the ability to function effectively in physical work. MFTs can do the following: • Assess the physical fitness levels of individuals and units. muscle power. • Analyze the unit's mission-related tasks and develop sound fitness training programs to support those tasks. Improving the first three components of fitness listed above will have a positive impact on body composition and will result in less fat.the ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended periods of times. eye-hand coordination. or U. and publications and that they use them. training. since the responsibility for physical training is the commander’s. directives.the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. reduces performance. The objective of every commander should be to incorporate the most effective methods of physical training into a balanced program. • Understand the structure and function of the human body. and other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any emergencies which may arise. MFTs can help commanders formulate sound programs that will attain their physical training goals.S. programs must be based on his own training objectives. knee) or any group of joints through an entire. Chapter 10 describes the development of the unit’s program. elbow. but commanders must know and apply the doctrine. twoweek reserve-component. since MFTs are taught to design individual and unit programs. they should be used by commanders as special staff assistants for this purpose. • Muscular endurance . The Army’s fitness program seeks to improve or maintain all the components of physical and motor fitness . Military Academy’s MFT course work.” MFTs are simply soldiers who know about all aspects of physical fitness training and how soldiers’ bodies function. Most importantly. detracts from appearance. • Muscular strength . • Train other trainers to conduct sound. However. These he must develop from his evaluation of the unit’s mission-essential task list (METL). This program should result in the improved physical fitness of their soldiers and an enhanced ability to perform mission-related tasks. • Flexibility-the ability to move the joints (for example. especially as it relates to exercise. and eye-foot coordination are classified as components of “motor” fitness. • Body composition-the amount of body fat a soldier has in comparison to his total body mass. These factors affect a soldier’s survivability on the battlefield. The components of physical fitness are as follows: • Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurancethe efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells. Excessive body fat detracts from the other fitness components.
"FITT". and Type. soldiers should have at least three strength-training sessions per week. Training must be ● Specificity. sleeping. commanders must strive to conduct 5 days of physical training per week. Overload. Wednesday. FITT Factors Certain factors must be part of any fitness training program for it to be These factors are Fresuccessful. soldiers become better runners if their training emphasizes running. These basic principles of exercise must be followed: ● Regularity. hard) and/or duration (how long) of exercise must gradually increase to improve the level of fitness. strength. Principles of Exercise ● Adherence to certain basic exercise principles is important for developing an effective program. Monday. Another way to allow recovery is to alternate the muscle groups exercised every other day. One should strive to exercise each of the first four fitness components at least three times a week. Ideally. for example. muscle endurance. and Type. . to obtain maximum gains in muscular strength. The acronym FITT makes it easier to remember them. a training program for the average soldier can be developed which provides fairly equal emphasis on all the components of physical fitness. They also apply to fitness training for military personnel. the 1-4 Factors for a successful training program are Frequency. muscle strength. at least three exercise sessions for CR fitness. ● Recovery. quency. A hard day of training for a given component of fitness should be followed by an easier training day or rest day for that component and/or muscle group(s) to help permit recovery. and Friday are devoted to CR fitness. Regularity is also important in resting. (See Figure 1. The following training program serves as an example. since overemphasizing any one of them may hurt the others. Thus. Intensity. however. e Balance. and following a good diet. with only one session each of cardiorespiratory.1. especially when training for strength and/or muscle endurance. missionspecific physical training for individuals and units. a person must exercise of ten. With some planning. The work load of each exercise session must exceed the normal demands placed on the body in order to bring about a training effect. ● Variety. The principles of exercise apply to everyone at all levels of physical training. Although swimming is great exercise. a program should include activities that address all the fitness components. To be effective. The intensity (how ● Progression. For example. it does not improve a 2-mile-run time as much as a running program does. and Tuesday and Thursday are devoted to muscle endurance and strength. During the second week. and flexibility should be performed each week to improve fitness levels. Intensity.through sound.) FREQUENCY Army Regulation 350-15 specifies that vigorous physical fitness training will be conducted 3 to 5 times per week. progressive. For optimal results. Providing a variety of activities reduces boredom and increases motivation and progress. In the first week. Time. and flexibility training will not improve any of these three components. Three physical activity periods a week. Infrequent exercise can do more harm than good. from the Olympic-caliber athlete to the weekend jogger. Time. geared toward specific goals. To achieve a training effect.
Stretching exercises are done in every training session to enhance flexibility. If the unit’s mission requires it. and CR fitness is trained on Tuesday and Thursday. and Friday. By training continuously in this manner. Wednesday. some muscular and some CR training can be done during each daily training session as long as a “hard day/recovery . equal emphasis 1-5 can be given to developing muscular endurance and strength and to CR fitness while training five days per week.Figure 1-1 training days are flip-flopped: muscle endurance and strength are trained on Monday.
” For example. The intensity should vary with the type of exercise being done. bending. will help keep soldiers fit to win. However. Conversely. For muscular strength and endurance. Wednesday. the person who wants to concentrate on muscular endurance should use a 12+ RM.) Numerous other approaches can be taken when tailoring a fitness program to meet a unit’s mission as long as the principles of exercise are not violated. it is easier to refer to a “repetition maximum” or “RM. 8 to 12 repetitions with enough resistance to cause muscle failure improves both muscular endurance and strength. but no pain. the weight used should be a 3-7 RM. when coupled with good nutrition. For example. for strength development. For the average soldier. over time. a 1O-RM is the maximum weight that can be correctly lifted 10 times. if a unit has a hard run on Monday. on Tuesday and Thursday the intensity and/or distance/time should be reduced to allow recovery. An 8-12 RM is the weight that can be lifted 8 to 12 times correctly. At least 20 to 30 continuous minutes of intense exercise must be used in order to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.) All exercise sessions should include stretching during the warm-up and cool-down. the time spent exercising depends on the type of exercise being done. the greater the number of repetitions performed. (The calculation of percent HRR is explained in Chapter 2. Exercise for CR development must be strenuous enough to elevate the heart rate to between 60 and 90 percent of the heart rate reserve (HRR). However. Depending on the time available for each session and the way training sessions are conducted. (See Training Program in Chapter 10. the greater will be the improvement in muscular endurance. intensity refers to the percentage of the maximum resistance that is used for a given exercise. it may also choose to run on Tuesday and Thursday. Thus. (See Chapter 4 for information on stretching.) Those with low fitness levels should start exercising at a lower training heart rate (THR) of about 60 percent of HRR. For example. they 1-6 All exercises sessions should include stretching during the warm-up and cooldown. exercise time equates to the number of repetitions done. or twisting the body. For the average person who wants to improve both muscular strength and endurance. when the movement is taken beyond the normal range of motion. As soldiers progress. a person who regularly trains with a weight which lets him do 100 repetitions per exercise (a 1OO-RM) greatly increases his muscular endurance but minimally improves his muscular strength. !NTENSITY Training at the right intensity is the biggest problem in unit programs.day” approach is used. an 8-12 RM is best. a five-day-per-week program is much better than three per week. (See Chapter 3 for information on resistance training. all components of fitness can be developed using a three-day-per-week schedule. When determining intensity in a strength-training program. the more repetitions performed per set. When using a 12+ RM as the training intensity.) TIME Like intensity. Such programs. Doing an exercise “correctly” means moving the weight steadily and with proper form without getting help from other muscle groups by jerking. One should stretch so there is slight discomfort. For muscular endurance and strength. On the other hand. The person who wants to concentrate on muscular strength should use weights which let him do three to seven repetitions before his muscles fatigue. . and Friday. the smaller will be the gains in strength.
while Chapter 4 discusses flexibility. soldiers are ready for a more intense conditioning activity. The chance of getting injured decreases when the heart. The warm-up increases the body’s internal temperature and the heart rate. to be good at push-ups. fitness levels. When choosing the type. the commander should consider the principle of specificity. at least one session per week should be devoted to developing it. regardless of the type of workout. These are discussed in Chapter 2. such as before a run. Soldiers should walk and stretch until their heart rates return to less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) and heavy sweating stops. or vigorous physical activity. with each stretch held for 30 to 60 seconds. It should last five to seven minutes and should occur just before the CR or muscular endurance and strength part of the workout. it is best to do stretching during the cooldown. Ways to train for muscular strength and endurance are addressed in Chapter 3. leave time. one must do pushups. To improve flexibility. For example. different units or individuals vary depending on their age.will make better strength gains by doing two or three sets of each resistance exercise. the muscles relax and no longer do this. he should have them do CR types of exercises. and mainThe starting phases for tenance. After exercise. muscles. and illness can cause soldiers to drop from a maintenance to a conditioning phase. Flexibility exercises or stretches should be held for varying times depending on the objective of the session. No other exercise will improve push-up performance as effectively. healthy persons may be able to start with the conditioning phase. Phases of Fitness Conditioning The physical fitness training program is divided into three phases: preparatory. 1-7 ligaments. The basic rule is that to improve performance. Soldiers should cool down properly after each exercise period. and the blood can accumulate in the legs and feet. This usually happens five to seven minutes after the conditioning session. . stretching. A warm-up should include some running-in-place or slow jogging. the muscles squeeze the blood through the veins. conditioning. one must practice the particular exercise. Young. After a proper warm-up. Factors such as extended field training. This can cause a person to faint. however. and tendons are properly prepared for exertion. Warm-up and Cool-Down One must prepare the body before taking part in organized PT. If flexibility improvement is a major goal. During exercise. activity. A good cool-down will help avoid this possibility. to improve his soldiers’ levels of CR fitness (the major fitness component in the 2-mile run). For warming-up. each stretch should be held for 10 to 15 seconds. This helps return the blood to the heart. and calisthenics. A warm-up may help prevent injuries and maximize performance. For example. and previous physical activity. or skill he wants to improve. The cooldown serves to gradually slow the heart rate and helps prevent pooling of the blood in the legs and feet. TYPE Type refers to the kind of exercise performed. These chapters will help commanders design programs which are tailor-made to their soldiers’ needs. while those who have been exercising regularly may already be in the maintenance phase. unit sports competition.
Light weights will also help minimize muscle soreness and decrease the likelihood of injury to the muscles. By the end of the second week (four to six workouts). Those who feel breathless or whose heart rate rises beyond their training heart rate (THR) while running should resume walking until the heart rate returns to the correct training level. and ligaments. should start with the preparatory phase. They should use only very light weights the first week (that is. as they must first learn the proper form for each exercise. The work load in the beginning must be moderate. poorly conditioned soldiers should run. and time. they should use progressively heavier weights on each resistance exercise. Beginning weight trainers should select about 8 to 12 exercises that work all the body’s major muscle groups. they should increase the 1-8 Soldiers and units should be encouraged to progress beyond minimum requirements. Progression from a lower to a higher level of fitness should be achieved by gradual. During the second week. Soldiers should continue at this or an appropriate level until they have no undue fatigue or muscle soreness the They day following the exercise. They should train at least three times a week and take no more than two days between workouts. preparing the body to handle the conditioning phase. planned increases in frequency. or they may be just out of high school. The preparatory phase for improving muscular endurance and strength through weight training should start easily and progress gradually. that is. the conditioning phase normally begins during the third week. Many soldiers who fall into this category may be recovering from illness or injury. they should know how much weight will let them do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure for each exercise. When they can handle an intensity of 70 percent HRR for 20 to 25 minutes. soldiers must increase the amount of exercise and/or the workout intensity as their strength and/or endurance increases. or walk if need be. for example. the right training level during aerobic training. intensity.Persons who have not been active. They should start with the preparatory phase and gradually increase the running time by one or two minutes each week until they can run continuously for 20 to 30 minutes. PREPARATORY PHASE The preparatory phase helps both the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems get used to exercise. . When they can do more than 12 repetitions of any exercise. they should be ready for the next phase. and training should progress slowly. Chapter 2 shows how to determine the THR. they should run a known distance and try to cover it in less time. especially if they are age 40 or older. Initially. three times a week at a comfortable pace that elevates their heart rate to about 60 percent HRR for 10 to 15 minutes. they can increase the intensity until they reach the desired level of fitness. the first two to three workouts). For weight trainers. They should do one set of 8 to 12 repetitions for each of the selected resistance exercises. Recovery days should be evenly distributed throughout the week. CONDITIONING PHASE To reach the desired level of fitness. Most units will have soldiers in all three phases of training at the same time. To be sure their pace is faster. joints. At this point. To improve cardiorespiratory endurance. they must increase the length of time they run. should then lengthen their exercise session to 16 to 20 minutes and/or elevate their heart rate to about 70 percent HRR by increasing their pace. This is very important. At this point the conditioning phase begins.
strength-related goals and unit-fitness goals have been met. and special programs. 45. To overcome this problem in the case of running. Soldiers and units should always be encouraged to progress beyond minimum requirements. As training progresses.to 60-minute workout (including warm-up and cool-down) at the right intensity three times a week is enough to maintain almost any appropriate level of physical fitness. CR endurance. such as infantry companies. These are summarized in Appendix A. The conditioning phase ends when a soldier is physically mission-capable and all personal. more frequent training may be needed to reach and maintain peak fitness levels. Therefore. Commanders can develop programs for their own unit by following the principles in this chapter. A single unit may require several types of programs. Some units. An effective program uses a variety of activities to develop muscular endurance and strength. it is not necessary for them to do more than one set per exercise. have generally the same types of soldiers and MOSS. (See Chapter 10 for guidance in constructing a unit program. Maintaining an optimal level of fitness should become part of every soldier’s life-style and 1-9 should be continued throughout his life. only broad categories of programs and general considerations are covered here. they may want to increase the sets to three to help promote further increases in strength and/ or muscle mass. It helps to periodically do a different type of exercise for a given muscle or muscle group. they must work harder to perform at the same absolute level of work or exercise. The same holds true for poorly-conditioned soldiers running with wellconditioned soldiers. each with unique needs. It should also promote the development of coordination as well as basic physical skills. Although women are able to participate in the same fitness programs as men.weight used on that exercise by about five percent so they can again do only 8 to 12 repetitions. This process continues throughout the conditioning phase. MFTs know how to help commanders develop programs for their units/soldiers. for example. This adds variety and ensures better strength development. soldiers should do strength training three times a week with 48 hours of rest between workouts for any given muscle group. When they stop making progress with one set. These workouts give soldiers time to stabalize their flexibility.) Types of Fitness Programs The Army has too many types of units with different missions to have one single fitness program for everyone. However. The emphasis here is no longer on progression. individual. They are classified as unit. As long as they continue to progress and get stronger while doing only one set of each exercise. MAINTENANCE PHASE The maintenance phase sustains the high level of fitness achieved in the conditioning phase. and flexibility. certain combat--service-support units have many different types of soldiers. Commanders of units composed of both men and women must also understand the physiological differences between the sexes. A welldesigned. the unit . For maximum benefit. UNIT PROGRAMS Unit programs must support unit missions. they should add another set on those exercises in which progress has slowed. and to achieve good body composition. and muscular endurance and strength. CR endurance. On the other hand.
demanding. 1-10 By the end of AIT. in turn. regular. (See TRADOC Reg. Physical training in AIT requires continued. Chapter 4. Chapter 11 describes how to develop physical training programs in IET units. Three to six groups per company-sized unit are usually enough. soldiers must meet APFT standards. the program requires good cadre leadership to ensure that it is appropriate. 2) it more quickly brings subpar performers up to minimum standards. helps promotion opportunities. It also allows soldiers to train to excel on the APFT which.should use ability group runs rather than unit runs. but they are not enough. Training emphasizes progressive conditioning of the whole body. During basic training they pass through the preparatory into the conditioning phase. each soldier’s heart rate while running should be at his own THR. Commanders should evaluate each basic trainee who falls below standard and give him individualized. However. 350-6. physical fitness must be emphasized throughout. the focus is on learning and developing the basics of physical fitness. and climbing during unit training contribute to physical fitness. exercises must be done properly. Special training should be considered for soldiers who fail to maintain the unit’s or group’s rate of progression. To minimize the risk of injury. special assistance to improve his deficiencies. initial Entry Training (lET) The training program in basic training (BT) brings soldiers up to the level of physical fitness they need to do their jobs as soldiers. During “fill” periods and the first week of training. Within each group. it is time for those soldiers to move up to the next ability group. Holding a fit soldier back by making him run at a slow. Advanced Individual Training (AIT) Although AIT focuses on technical and MOS-oriented subjects. More PT is not necessarily better. and. Soldiers in a given ability group will run at a set pace. unit-run pace (normally less than his minimum pace for the 2mile run on the APFT) hurts his morale and violates the principle of training to challenge. and challenging. AIT unit training should focus on preparing soldiers to meet the physical requirements of their initial duty assignments. vigorous exercise which stresses the whole body and addresses all the components of fitness. soldiers must meet APFT standards. Most soldiers arriving from basic training are already well into the conditioning phase. Ability group running does two things more effectively than unit runs: 1) it lets soldiers improve to their highest attainable fitness level. When the run is not intense enough to bring one or more of the soldiers to THR. Therefore. Trainees report to active duty at various levels of physical fitness and ability. and the intensity must progress at an appropriate rate. Additional training should not be used as punishment for a soldier's inability to perform well. all healthy AIT graduates should easily be able to demonstrate that they. with groups based on each soldier’s most recent 2-mile-run time. running. possess the required level of physical fitness. By the end of AIT. With good programs and special training.) Walking. .
If this is impossible. it should at least occur at the same time. recruiting. MACOM staffs. RC unit programs must focus on the individual’s fitness responsibilities and efforts. should be conducted with the unit. must still ensure that the unit’s fitness level and individual PT programs are maintained. and ROTC. Commanders. Instead. They must make it clear that standards . Soldiers who lack enough upper body strength to do a given number of push-ups or enough stamina to pass the 2-mile run should not be ridiculed. A company-sized unit may have as many as 20 soldiers who need special attention. The unit’s standards may exceed the Army’s minimums. explaining that special programs are being developed in their best interests. based on mission requirements. SPECIAL PROGRAMS TOE and TDA Units--Reserve Components The considerations for the active component also apply to reserve components (RCS). knowledgeable leaders should develop This training and conduct them. • Those who are overweight/overfat according to AR 600-9 • Those who have either permanent or temporary medical profiles. their shortcomings should be assessed and the information used to develop individualized programs to help them remedy their specific shortcomings. the unit’s standards can be established by the unit’s commander. There are many types of units in the Army. There must be a positive approach to all special fitness training. However. Some of them may not be able to exercise at the intensity or duration best suited to their needs. however.15). INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS There must be a positive approach to all special fitness t r a i n i n g . service school staff and faculty. Leaders must also give special consideration to soldiers who are age 40 or older and to recent arrivals who cannot meet the standards of their new unit. At least three groups of soldiers may need special PT programs. TOE and TDA units must emphasize attaining and maintaining the fitness level required for the mission. and trained. By regulation (AR 350. They are as follows: • Those who fail the APFT and do not have medical profiles. Fitness requirements are the same for these personnel as for others. MFTs can help develop indi vidual fitness programs. hospitals. since members of RC units cannot participate together in collective physical training on a regular basis. Commanders must counsel soldiers. Only smart planning will produce good programs for all of them. programs.TOE and TDA Units–Active Component fitness. commanders must develop leadership environments that encourage and motivate soldiers to accept individual responsibility for their own physical fitness. Special programs must be tailored to each soldier’s needs. Section chiefs and individual soldiers need to use the fundamental principles and techniques outlined in this manual to help them attain and maintain a high level of physical 1-11 The day-to-day unit PT program conducted for most soldiers may not be appropriate for all unit members. Many soldiers are assigned to duty positions that offer little opportunity to participate in collective unit PT Examples are HQDA. In such organizations. MFTs can give valuable assistance to RC commanders and soldiers. and their missions often require different levels of fitness.
tailor-made programs for all of a unit’s special population. can actually increase their muscle mass while losing body fat. they should coordinate closely with medical personnel to develop programs that fit the capabilities of soldiers with medical limitations. overweight soldiers should strive to reduce their fat weight by two pounds per week. They can also develop thorough. Overweight Soldiers Designers of weight loss and physical training programs for overweight soldiers should remember this: even though exercise is the key to sensible weight loss. Soldiers with reasonable levels of overall physical fitness should easily pass the APFT. This may be due to water loss associated with the using up of the body’s carbohydrate stores. These facts help explain why exercise and good dietary practices must be combined. On the other hand. in addition to a total-body strength-training program. The type of exercise the soldier does affects the amount and nature of the weight loss. Those who participate in an exercise program that emphasizes the development of strength and muscular endurance. two very important principles are overload and recovery. Likewise. not just the quantity. When trying to improve APFT performances. A combination of both actions is best. It is structured to assess the muscular endurance of specific muscle groups and the functional capacity of the CR system. reducing the number of calories consumed is equally important. MFTs know how to assess CR endurance. can be counter-productive. One pound of fat contains 3. APFT Failures Although it is not the heart of the Army’s physical fitness program. flexibility. Leaders should analyze their weaknesses and design programs to overcome them. Both running and walking burn about 100 calories per mile. More PT is not always better. a large initial weight loss is not unusual. the APFT is the primary instrument for evaluating the fitness level of each soldier.will be enforced. Generally. Two-a-day sessions. either by diet or exercise or both. individualized plan to arrive at that reduced caloric intake. unless designed extremely well. They can devise a sound. Although these losses may be encouraging to the 1-12 . leaders must ensure that soldiers are not overloaded to the point where the fitness training becomes counterproductive. Each soldier should then begin an individualized program based on his needs. When dealing with special populations. muscular strength and endurance. When a soldier loses weight. of the workout should be emphasized. nutrition and dietary counseling may be needed along with a special exercise program. Soldiers who fail the APFT must receive special attention. Unit MFTs can help a soldier determine the specific caloric requirement he needs to safely and successfully lose excess fat. should include exercises designed for push-up and sit-up improvement. weight lost through dieting alone includes the loss of useful muscle tissue. burning one pound of fat through exercise alone requires a great deal of running or walking. They should use ability groups for their running program and. For example. Thus. DA Pam 350-22 outlines several ways to improve a soldier’s performance on each of the APFT events. however.500 calories. unit MFTs can also develop training programs which will lead to fat loss without the loss of useful muscle tissue. Those whose fitness levels are substandard will fail. The quality. and body composition. Next. if the soldier is overweight.
they should pay special attention to their diets to avoid gaining body fat. The same principle applies to flexibility (Chapter 4). along with substitute activities. “Those personnel identified with medically limiting defects shall be placed in a physical fitness program consistent with their limitations as advised by medical authorities. Chapter 3 shows how to strengthen each body part. Such treatment should use appropriate. This guidance becomes more important as soldiers grow older. MFTs can help profiled soldiers by explaining alternative exercises and how to do them safely under the limitations of their profile. Appropriate activities should be substituted to replace those regular activities in which they cannot participate. Medical treatment and rehabilitation should be aimed at restoring the soldier to a suitable level of physical fitness. To meet this challenge . and the right PT programs. This helps avoid false measurements due to normal fluctuations in their body weight during the day. If there is reasonable doubt. trained to diagnose injuries or prescribe rehabilitative exercise programs. the unit should direct profiled soldiers to participate in the activities they can do. DOD Directive 1308.) All profiled soldiers should take part in as much of the regular fitness 1-13 program as they can. As a result. On this form. This manual stresses what soldiers can do while on medical profile rather than what they cannot do. they must lead other soldiers under conditions of severe stress. caution is advised in assessing his progress. Age as a Factor in Physical Fitness Soldiers who are age 40 and older represent the Army’s senior leadership. progressive physical activities with medical or unit supervision. Soldiers with Profiles All profiled soldiers should do as much of the regular fitness program as they can. In fact. As a soldier develops muscular endurance and strength.soldier. lean muscle mass generally increases. a good fitness program often results in gaining muscle mass while simultaneously losing fat weight. his percentage o f body fat should be determined.” AR 350-15 states. (An example of DA Form 3349 is in Appendix B. soldiers should be able to overcome their physical profiles and quickly return to their normal routines and fitness levels. This is the domain of qualified medical personnel. The activity levels of soldiers usually decrease while they are recovering from sickness or injury. Just because a soldier is not losing weight rapidly does not necessarily mean he is not losing fat. those activities that the profiled soldier can do to maintain his fitness level. MFTs are not. On the battlefield. however.” The Office of the Surgeon General has developed DA Form 3349 to ease the exchange of information between health care personnel and the units. Chapter 2 describes some aerobic activities the soldier can do to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness when he cannot run. little of this initial weight loss is due to the loss of fat. commanders will develop physical fitness programs in cooperation with health care personnel. Soldiers should be weighed under similar circumstances and at the same time each day.1 requires that. Because muscle weighs more per unit of volume than fat. With this information. With medical supervision. “For individuals with limiting profiles. Applying this information should allow some strength training to continue even when body parts are injured. proper diet. along with limitations. health care personnel list.
all military personnel are tested biannually using the APFT in accordance with AR 35015. Women tend to reach their peak in physical capability shortly after puberty and then undergo a progressive decline. it is not necessary or desirable to develop special fitness programs for these soldiers. After 30 there is a gradual decline throughout their lives. CR endurance. The need to be physically fit does not decrease with increased age. Also. Soldiers who are fit at age 40 and continue to exercise show a lesser decrease in many of the physiological functions related to fitness than do those who seldom exercise. Evaluation To evaluate their physical fitness and the effectiveness of their physical fitness training programs. commanders may evaluate their physical fitness programs more frequently than biannually. They must. Since their normal duties may be stressful but nonphysical.) However. A trained 60-year-old. those who stay physically active do not have the same rate of decline as those who do not. and performance suffers. while total muscle mass decreases. Those who have been exercising regularly may continue to exercise at the same level as they did before reaching age 40. (Refer to Chapter 14. regular exercise can help add life to your years and years to your life. The result is that muscular strength and endurance. Only a medical profile will exempt them from taking the biannual record APFT. the percent of body weight composed of fat generally increases. soldiers reaching age 40 are no longer required to get clearance from a cardiovascular screening program before taking the APFT. People undergo many changes as they grow older. these leaders must maintain and demonstrate a high level of physical fitness. Men tend to maintain their peak levels of muscular strength and endurance and CR fitness until age 30. Only those age 40 and over who have not been exercising regularly may need to start their exercise program at a lower level and progress more slowly than younger soldiers. have periodic physical examinations in accordance with AR 40-501 and NGR 40-501. As of 1 January 1989. Although a decline in performance normally occurs with aging. For example. may have the same level of CR fitness as a sedentary 20-year-old. CR endurance.and set a good example. the amount of blood the heart can pump per beat and per minute decreases during maximal exercise. These include screening for cardiovascular risk factors. and flexibility occur to a lesser extent in those who regularly train these fitness components. they must take part regularly in a physical fitness program. However. A decrease in flexibility also occurs. for example. as does the maximum heart rate. The assessment phase of a program is especially important for those age 40 and over. however. In short. A program based on the principles of exercise and the training concepts in this manual will result in a safe. Years of inactivity and possible abuse of the body cannot be corrected in a few weeks or months. Decreases in muscular strength and endurance. and body composition suffer. 1-14 . long-term conditioning program for all soldiers. SCORING CATEGORIES There are two APFT categories of testing for all military personnel Initial Entry Training (IET) and the Army Standard. This lowers a person’s physical ability.
• Soldiers' levels of conditioning ( low/ high/age/sex). •Facilities (availability/instruction/ repair). as a minimum. Safety is a major Army Standard consideration when planning and evaluating All other Army personnel (active physical training and reserve) who are non-IET soldiers programs must attain the minimum Army standard of at least 60 points per event. 1-15 SAFETY Safety is a major consideration when planning and evaluating physical training programs. •Emergency procedures (medical/ communication/transport). complete the 2-mile run or one of the alternate aerobic events. Graduation requirements for AIT and One Station Unit Training (OSUT) require 60 points per event. common sense must prevail. Any physical training which results in numerous injuries or accidents is detrimental to this goal. As in most training. •Traffic (routes/procedures/formations). Commanders must ensure that the programs do not place their soldiers at undue risk of injury or accident. Good. To get credit for a record APFT. . sound physical training should challenge soldiers but should not place them at undue risk nor lead to situations where accidents or injuries are likely to occur.IET Standard The APFT standard for basic training is a minimum of 50 points per event and no less than 150 points overall by the end of basic training. a mediccally profiled soldier must. They should address the following items: •Environmental conditions (heat/ cold/traction). The objective of physical training in the Army is to enhance soldiers’ abilities to meet the physical demands of war.
rhythmic use of the body's large muscle groups. It also brings into play a fairly complex set of physiological events. road marching. the following events occur: • Greater movement of air through the lungs. to ensure that adequate oxygen is supplied to the working muscles to produce energy. Activities such as running. crosscountry skiing. • Regulation of the blood vessel's size to distribute blood away from inactive tissue to working muscle. • Increased movement of oxygen from the lungs into the blood stream. a wide variety of training methods is used to improve cardiorespiratory endurance. . • Increased delivery of oxygen-laden blood to the working muscles by the heart's accelerated pumping action. • Accelerated return of veinous blood to the heart. To provide enough energy-producing oxygen to the muscles.Cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. A high level of CR fitness permits continuous physical activity without a decline in performance and allows for rapid recovery following fatiguing physical activity. is one of the five basic components of physical fitness. 2-0 CR fitness is needed for prolonged. stair climbing. these systems attempt to supply oxygen to the working muscles. or aerobic capacity. Any activity that continuously uses large muscle groups for 20 minutes or longer taxes these systems. bicycling. rhythmic use of the body’s large muscle groups. During exercise. rowing. Because of this. sometimes called CR endurance. Most of this oxygen is used to produce energy for muscular contraction. aerobic fitness. CR fitness is needed for prolonged. swimming. and jumping rope place an extra demand on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. especially during exercise or work. Physiology of Aerobic Training Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to produce most of the body’s energy needs. • Greater movemen t of oxygen from the blood into the muscle tissue. CR fitness is a condition in which the body’s cardiovascular (circulatory) and respiratory systems function together.
A person’s maximum aerobic capacity can be modified through physical training. or use oxygen reduces a person’s ability to perform aerobically. A warm-up and cool-down should also be part of each workout. In the presence of oxygen. However. They are described below as they pertain to cardiorespiratory fitness.the bicycle. Soldiers should do these on alternate days. Smoking can lead to any or all of the above problems and can. It is related to the intensity and duration of the exercise session. walk. fats are only used as an energy source when oxygen is present. Frequency. and step tests . to estimate maximum oxygen uptake by using other methods. Some of this decrease in aerobic fitness 2-1 can be slowed by taking part in a regular exercise program. • Sedentary life-style. Any condition that reduces the body’s ability to bring in. The best way to determine aerobic capacity is to measure it in the laboratory.may also be used to estimate one’s aerobic capacity and evaluate one’s CR fitness level. • Carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke or pollution. By building up gradually. . however. In fact. and disabling heart conditions. It is much easier. (Appendix F explains how to do this. muscle cells produce energy by breaking down carbohydrates and fats. Many factors can negateively affect one's ability to perform well aerobically. Certain medical conditions also impair the transport of oxygen. • Anemia. Conditioning the CR system can best be accomplished by three adequately intense workouts per week. Information on warming up and cooling down is given in Chapters 1 and 4.) Other tests . one must train hard. in the long and short term. • High altitude (reduced oxygen pressure). • Obesity. The best way to improve CR fitness is to participate regularly in a demanding aerobic exercise program. aerobic exercise is the best type of activity for attaining and maintaining a low percentage of body fat. transport. leaders should recognize the need for recovery between hard exercise periods and should adjust the training intensity accordingly.Aerobic exercise is the best type of activity for attaining and maintaining a low percentage of body fat. Another is severe blocking of the arteries which inhibits blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles. They include diseases of the lungs. These factors are summarized by the following words which form the acronym FITT. Time. which interfere with breathing. To reach very high levels of aerobic fitness. Inactivity causes much of the decrease in physical fitness that occurs with increasing age. Hence. It is possible to determine a soldier’s CR fitness level and get an accurate estimate of his aerobic capacity by using his APFT 2-mile-run time. adversely affect one’s ability to do aerobic exercise. They must also be aware of the danger of overtraining and recognize that the risk of injury increases as the intensity and duration of training increases. soldiers can get even greater benefits from working out five times a week. a person must integrate several factors into any successful fitness training program to improve his fitness level. These include the following: • Age. Intensity. and Type. FREQUENCY Frequency refers to how often one exercises. FITT Factors As mentioned in Chapter 1. • Illness (heart disease).
The more energy expended per unit of time. some soldiers in a formation may be training at 50 percent HRR and others at 95 percent HRR. an appropriate THR or intensity can be prescribed. one can be sure that the intensity is enough to improve his CR fitness level. As a result. one must compensate for its built-in weakness. a person who is in poor shape should exercise at 70 percent of his MHR. With this information. Thus. the THR is figured using the estimated maximal heart rate. resting heart rate. Using the THR method lets them find and prescribe the correct level of intensity during CR exercise. and relative conditioning level. the greater the intensity of the exercise. Unfortunately. Changes in CR fitness are directly related to how hard an aerobic exercise is performed. it is the factor many units ignore. if he is in relatively good shape. To compensate for this. Soldiers should gauge the intensity of their workouts for CR fitness by determining and exercising at their training heart rate (THR). One’s ability to monitor the heart rate is the key to success in CR training. if he is in excellent shape. and. and those that exceed 90 percent HRR can be dangerous. at 90 percent MHR. at 80 percent MHR.) The heart rate during work or exercise is an excellent indicator of how much effort a person is exerting. A soldier determines his estimated maximum heart rate by subtracting his age from 220. (Note: Ability-group running is better than unit running because unit running does not accommodate the individual soldier’s THR. It represents the degree of effort with which one trains and is probably the single most important factor for improving performance. the unit run will be too intense for some and not intense enough for others. When using the MHR method. 2-2 . A person using this method may exercise at an intensity which is not high enough to cause a training effect. Keeping track of the heart rate lets one gauge the intensity of the CR exercise being done.INTENSITY Intensity is related to how hard one exercises. For example. Percent MHR Method With this method. By determining one’s maximum heart rate. a 20year-old would have an estimated maximum heart rate (MHR) of 200 beats per minute (220 -20 = 200). Intensities of less than 60 percent HRR are generally inadequate to produce a training effect. Significant changes in CR fitness are brought about by sustaining training heart rates in the range of 60 to 90 percent of the heart rate reserve (HRR).
particularly if they cannot find more than 20 minutes for CR exercise. an adequate level of fitness. Before anyone begins aerobic training. If a soldier knows his general level of CR fitness. he can determine which percentage of HRR is a good starting point for him. For example. Most CR workouts should be conducted with the heart rate between 70 to 75 percent HRR to attain. 2-3 . if he is in excellent physical condition. he should know his THR (the heart rate at which he needs to exercise to get a training effect). Soldiers who have reached a high level of fitness may derive more benefit from working at a higher percentage of HRR. at 60 percent HRR. if he is in poor shape. and. The range from 60 to 90 percent HRR is the THR range in which people should exercise to improve their CR fitness levels. muscles. at 70 percent HRR. or maintain. and lungs an adequate training stimulus. he could start at 85 percent of his HRR. if he is in reasonably good shape.Percent HRR Method A more accurate way to calculate THR is the percent HRR method. Exercising at any lower percentage of HRR does not give the heart.
as in the example. If his pulse rate is below the THR. since one missed beat during the 10-second count. multiplied by six. At this time.83 or 27) if he is exercising at the right intensity.) Yet another way is to place the hand over the heart and count the number of heart beats.7 is added to the RHR of 69. He should count as accurately as possible.70) before it is multiplied by the HRR. he must exercise harder to increase his pulse to the THR. When the calculations produce a fraction of a heart beat. the percentage (70 percent in this example) is converted to the decimal form (0. Thus. and the heart rate will have leveled off.7.70 and 131 is 91. To determine the RHR. In summary. He should count his pulse for 10 seconds. and immediately after exercising. or to see if one is within the THR during and right after exercise. the body will usually have reached a "Steady State" after five minutes of exercise.7 results. 160. In this case. This will let him determine if his training intensity is high enough to improve his CR fitness level. (See Figure 2-lB. gives an error of six BPM. For example. When 91. then multiply this by six to get his heart rate for one minute. I Figure 2-1 2-4 . he should normally exercise at a lower intensity to reduce the pulse rate to the prescribed THR. the soldier should get a count of 27 beats (161/6= 26. a THR of 160.) Another convenient spot from which to monitor the pulse is on the radial artery on the wrist just above the base of the thumb. the value is rounded off to the nearest whole number. If his pulse is above the THR. During the 10second period. the product obtained by multiplying 0. place the tip of the third finger lightly over one of the carotid arteries in the neck.7 BPM is rounded off to give a THR of 161 BPM.) During aerobic exercise. These arteries are located to the left and right of the Adam’s apple. the soldier should monitor his heart rate. (See Figure 2-1 C. a reasonably fit 20-year-old soldier with a resting heart rate of 69 BPM has a training heart rate goal of 161 BPM.As shown. use the THR of 161 BPM figured above. The result is then added to the resting heart rate (RHR) to get the THR. (See Figure 2-1A.
He should check his exercise and postexercise pulse rate at least once each workout. during aerobic Figure 2-2 2-5 exercise. Figure 2-2 is a chart that makes it easy to determine what a soldier’s THR should be during a 10-second count. A soldier who maintains his THR throughout a 20. For example. If he takes only one pulse check.” This method relies on how difficult the exercise seems to be and is described in Appendix G. . those with a low fitness level should work at about 60 percent HRR and those with a good fitness level at 70 percent HRR. a soldier can easily find his own THR just by knowing his age and general fitness level. He can determine this from the table by locating his age and then tracking upward until he reaches the percent HRR for his fitness level. Those with a high level of fitness may benefit most by training at 80 to 90 percent HRR. Another way to gauge exercise intensity is “perceived exertion. he should do it five minutes into the workout. have a THR of 23 beats in 10 seconds. Again.A soldier who maintains his THR throughout a 20-30-minute exercise period is doing well and can expect improvement in his CR fitness level. Using this figure.to 30-minute exercise period is doing well and can expect improvement in his CR fitness level. a 40-year-old soldier with a low fitness level should.
Examples of primary and secondary exercises for improving CR fitness are as follows: PRIMARY • Running. • Skiing (cross-country). •Swimming. or duration. soldiers need information on ways to prevent running injuries. the less intense the activity. Running Running enables the body to improve the transport of blood and oxygen to the working muscles and brings about positive changes in the muscles’ ability to produce energy. The arms swing naturally from front to rear in straight lines. Every activity has its advantages and disadvantages. The more intense the activity. • Rowing. Worthwhile aerobic activities must involve the use of large muscle groups and must be rhythmic. the soldier must train for at least 20 to 30 minutes at his THR. TYPE Only aerobic exercises that require breathing in large volumes of air improve CR fitness.) •Racquetball (singles). To improve CR fitness. SECONDARY (Done with partners or opponents of equal or greater ability. • Bicycling (stationary).TIME Time. Failure to allow recovery between hard bouts of running cannot only lead to overtraining. • Jogging. The secondary activities may briefly elevate the heart rate but may not keep it elevated to the THR throughout the entire workout. but can also be a major 2-6 Important information on safety factors and common running injuries is presented in C hapter 13 and Appendix E . • Bicycling (road/street). Trainers must weigh these and design programs that fit the unit’s needs. the faster the arm action. Every activity has its advantages and disadvantages. The primary exercises are more effective than the secondary exercises in producing positive changes in CR fitness.) The toes point straight ahead. The faster the run. (Cross-body arm movements waste energy. •Tennis (singles). refers to how long one exercises. Trainers must design programs that fit the unit’s needs. • Walking (vigorous). • Road marching. Besides learning running techniques. the longer the required duration. Running fits well into any physical training program ‘because a training effect can be attained with only three 20-minute workouts per week. •Basketball (full court). Important information on safety factors and common running injuries is presented in Chapter 13 and Appendix E. . The following style of running is desired. It is inversely related to intensity. the shorter the time needed to produce or maintain a training effect. knees. and legs. The head is erect with the body in a straight line or slightly bent forward at the waist. along with stretching exercises and wearing appropriate clothing and wellfitting running shoes. Some soldiers may need instruction to improve their running ability. Proper warm-up and cool-down. ankles. • Stair climbing. help prevent injuries. They must also be of sufficient duration and intensity (60 to 90 percent HRR). and the feet strike on the heel and push off at the big toe. • Rope skipping. The most common injuries associated with PT in the Army result from running and occur to the feet. • Exercising to music. •Handball (singles). The elbows are bent so the forearms are relaxed and held loosely at waist level.
AGR is best conducted at the right intensity at least three times a week. make a list. too many soldiers are not challenged enough by the intensity or duration of the unit run. With imagination and planning. AGR lets soldiers train in groups of near-equal ability. each with a leader. As the unit’s fitness level progresses. of the unit’s most recent APFT 2-mile-run times. strength training. Leaders can use additional methods to achieve both goals. The problem comes when units have a limited number of days for PT and there is not enough time for both. be used and should be recognized for what they are -. smaller groups are easier to work with than one large group. AGR will result in more effective training workouts for each soldier. As explained. he should do two things: 1) gradually buildup to running that frequently. and competitive events. Commanders have used unit runs to improve unit cohesion and fitness levels. in order. so should the intensity at which each group exercises.cause of injuries. Each group runs at a pace intense enough to produce a training effect for that group and each soldier in it. soldiers can gain the desired benefits of both unit and ability-group runs. Ability group running (AGR) is the best way to provide enough intensity so each soldier can improve his own level of CR fitness. For example. However. take a company that runs at a nine-minute-per-mile pace for two miles. of the unit’s most recent APFT 2-mile-run times. 2) vary the intensity and/or duration of the running sessions to allow recovery between them. soldiers should move to faster groups when they are ready. Traditionally. and range of 2-mile-run times. This procedure lets more-fit groups run a greater distance than the less-fit groups in the same time period thus enabling every soldier to improve. The best way to assign soldiers to ability groups is to make a list. and they do not receive a training benefit. unit runs should seldom. In this case. Therefore. those who have a hard time keeping up with a group should be placed in a slower group. The run can also begin with soldiers divided into ability groups which join at a link-up point. not miles to be run. The argument that ability-group running detracts from unit cohesion is invalid. Alternately. unit runs at lower intensities are good for recovery days. soldiers have run in unit formations at a pace prescribed by the PT leader.runs to build unit cohesion. If AGR is used on hard CRtraining days. To help them train at their THR and enhance their confidence. number of leaders available to conduct the runs. For activities like circuits. A company-sized unit broken down 2-7 into four to six ability groups. ability groups can be started over the same route in a stagger. Leaders should program these runs for specific lengths of time. to do this safely. Good leadership will prevent a constant shifting of soldiers between groups due to lack of effort. A well-conditioned soldier can run five to six times a week. and. the CR system should not be exercised “hard” on consecutive days. The unit can begin in formation and divide into ability groups at a predetermined release point. in terms of conditioning. Unfortunately. Good leadership and training in all . with the slowest group first. ABILITY GROUP RUNNING The best way to assign soldiers to ability groups is to. most soldiers who can pass the 2-mile-run test are wasting their time and losing the chance to train hard to excel. is best for aerobic training. Because people progress at different rates. Only soldiers who cannot run two miles in a time faster than 18 minutes will receive a significant training effect. Using this rotation. The number of groups depends on the unit size. Link-ups occur as each faster group overtakes slower groups. if ever. in order.
2-8 . each 440-yard lap from Step 3. Each 440-yard by taking one half of his 2-mile-run jog should take twice as much time as time. Interval training also works the car.) his fitness level in a relatively short Step 3. 56 seconds to 1 He does this repeatedly with periods of minute. the energy mile run time. the pace each second of work. the workculated as follows: to-rest ratio is 1:2.periods. his estimated pace for 1 mile is one half of this or 8:00 minutes. seconds long (1:56 + 1:56 = 3:52). run in 1 munute. Using the work-interval time for and road marching. 1. The soldier's spirit. 59 seconds during interval recovery placed between periods of training based on the soldier's 16:00. 56 and recovery times can be calculated seconds (1:56) for each 440-yard run. Using the time from Step 1.find the time each 440-yard lap should cises by running at a pace that is be run during an interval training slightly faster than his race pace for session. 3:52). for interval training so that it can be This can be done on a 440-yard track used to improve a soldier’s 2-mile-run (about 400 meters) as follows: performance. and over substance does not. These recovery peripaced running in a given workout than ods.determine the time it took to run 440 diorespiratory system. a soldier exer. 2fast running. 440-yard lap) depends on his actual 2. Follow each 440-yard run done in race pace for one mile. from the 440-yard time in Step 2 to In interval training.) faster than the pace he wants to mainThus. This type of intermittent training can also be used with activities such as cycling. Thus. (2:00 minutes . rowing. In this way. the The following example illustrates soldier can run six to eight repetitions how the proper work-interval times of 440 yards at a pace of 1 minute. bicycling. INTERVAL TRAINING Step 2. If a soldier’s 1 minute. 52 if he ran continuously without resting.yards by dividing the 1-mile-race pace vanced form of exercise training which by four. 56 secons by an easy jog of actual 1-mile-race time is not known. Run six to eight 440-yard repetiThe work-interval time (the speed tions with each interval run at a 1:56 at which a soldier should run each pace. twice the length of the work-interval and the exerciser can do more fast. Determine (or estimate) the areas promote unit cohesion and team actual 1-mile-race pace.Step 1. It is an ad. Recovery periods. swimming. Subtract one to four seconds time and increase his running speed. For 1600 minutes as an example. therefore. systems used are allowed to recover. (8:00 minutes/4 = 2:00 minhelps a person significantly improve utes per 440 yards. it can be estimated from his last APFT 440 yards for recovery. each 440-yard lap should be tain during the next APFT 2-mile run. will be 3 minutes. there are two for an interval training workout is calseconds of recovery. This may be = 1:59 to 1:56.1 to 4 seconds short periods of time. Using a 2-mile-run time of the work interval (that is. training that emphasizes form 2-mile-run time is 16:00 minutes.
To help determine the correct time intervals for a wide range of fitness levels. Monitoring the heart-rate response during interval training is not as important as making sure that the work intervals are run at the proper speed. At this time he recovers by jogging at an easy pace. This process of alternating fast and recovery running (both of varying distances) gives the same results as interval training. interval training should be introduced into his training program gradually and progressively. running. Because of the intense nature of interval training. with at least one recovery day in between. the heart rate usually falls to around 120 to 140 beats per minute. he should do it once a week. If he responds well. It is recommended that interval training be done two times a week only during the last several weeks before an APFT. during the work interval the heart rate will generally climb to 85 or 90 percent of HRR. Also. the soldier varies the intensity (speed) of the running during the workout. he should be ready for interval training. During the recovery interval. Instead of running at a constant speed. He may also do recovery workouts of easy jogging on off days. As with any workout. . neither the running nor recovery interval is timed. However. As with any other new training method. As the soldier becomes more conditioned. another type of CR training sometimes called speed play. soldiers should start intervaI workouts with a warmup and end them with a cool-down. At first. When ready. FARTLEK TRAINING In Fartlek training. It shows common 1 -mile times and the corresponding 440-yard times. the soldier varies the intensity (speed) of the running throughout the workout. and the running is not done on a track. For these reasons. After a soldier has reached a good CR fitness level using the THR method. he should rest the few days before the test by doing no. or very easy. many runners prefer Fartlek training to interval training. monitoring THR and using it as a training guide is not necessary. Because the heart rate is not the major concern during interval training. he starts with veryslow jogging. As a result. he should either shorten the recovery interval (jogging time) or run the work interval a few seconds faster. refer to Table 2-1.Table 2-1 In Fartlek training. he runs hard for a few minutes until he feels the need to slow down. he may do it twice a 2-9 week at the most. his recovery is quicker.
they produce relatively few injuries. running in the last position. the distance should be one mile or less. During a continuous 2. and supervision and let leaders make first-hand observations of the soldiers’ physical stamina. Road marches offer several benefits when used as part of a fitness program. through woods. when done in an intelligent. immediately sprints to the front. Interest can be stimulated by competitive runs after soldiers attain a reasonable level of fitness. depending on the terrain and fitness level. Soldiers must be able to move quickly. systematic. and be physically able to perform their missions after extended marching. or on any other irregular terrain. who is now at the rear. Each group starts its run at the same time. which includes both sprinting and paced running. The speed and distance can be increased gradually as the soldiers’ conditioning improves. and progressive manner. In addition. This lets the better-conditioned groups run farther and helps ensure that they receive an adequate training stimulus. Road Marches The road or foot march is one of the best ways to improve and maintain fitness. They also help develop endurance in the muscles of the lower body when soldiers carry a heavy load. This type of running is best done by squads and sections. This pattern of sprinting and running is repeated several times during the run. sprints to the front of the line and becomes the leader. preparation. Each squad leader places the squad in an evenly-spaced. BENEFITS OF ROAD MARCHES Road marches are an excellent aerobic activity. These runs may also be combined with other activities such as compass work (orienteering).LAST-MAN-UP RUNNING This type of running. Cross-country runs have several advantages: they provide variety in physical fitness training. The unit is divided into ability groups using 2-mile-run times. commanders should make them a regular part of their unit’s PT program. and they can be conducted in garrison or in the field. They help train leaders to develop skills in planning. It consists of 40to 50-yard sprints at near-maximum effort. single-file line on a track or a smooth. It should then be gradually increased to four miles. Road marches are classified as either administrative or tactical. They are easy to organize. Because road marches are excellent fitnesstraining activities. It can be used as both a physical conditioning activity and a competitive event. This pattern of sprinting by the last person continues until each soldier has resumed his original position in line. The object is to cover the distance in the shortest time. After he reaches the front. carry a load (rucksack) of equipment. Many soldier-related skills can be integrated into road marches. and large numbers of soldiers can participate. the next soldier. and they can accommodate large numbers of soldiers. They can also help troops acclimatize to new environments. flat course. over hills. At first. The rest of the soldiers continue to run at a moderate pace. he resumes the moderate pace of the whole squad. When he reaches the front. improves CR endurance and conditions the legs.to 3-mile run of moderate intensity. . Cross-country runs can accommodate large numbers of soldiers. It consists of running a certain distance on a course laid out across fields. The distance run and number of sprints performed should increase as the soldiers’ conditioning improves. the squad leader. 2-10 Road marches help troops acclimatize to new environments. CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNING Cross-country running conditions the leg muscles and develops CR endurance.
•Time allotted for movement. •Provisions for injuries. are most conducive to developing physical fitness. forced. •Route reconnaissance. Before the march. the length decreases when soldiers march up hills or down steep slopes. This helps morale and gives them time to prepare. and a cadence of 106 steps per minute. Limited visibility marches do have some advantages. Because they move more slowly and are in tighter formations.TYPES OF MARCHES The four types of road marches day. Day Marches Day marches. according to FM 21-18. challenge the ability of NCOS and officers to control their soldiers. they may leave soldiers too fatigued to do other required training tasks. or rough.are described below. Limited Visibility Marches Limited visibility marches require more detailed planning and supervision and are harder to control than day marches. Forced Marches Soldiers should receive advance notcie before going on a march. •Safety precautions. They protect soldiers from the heat of the day. For more information on marches. with all soldiers arriving at 2-11 about the same time.8 kilometers per hour (kph). soldiers may not exercise hard enough to obtain a conditioning effect. Although they are excellent conditioners. For example. •Intensity of the march. gently rolling terrain unless the footing is muddy. They are characterized by dispersed formations and ease of control and reconnaissance. The normal stride for a foot march. a net speed of 4 kph results. soldiers should cut their toenails short and square them . This stride. and provide secrecy and surprise in tactical situations. A shuttle march can be planned to move troops of various fitness levels from one point to another. •Terrain an weather conditions. •Present level of fitness. Soldiers should usually receive advance notice before going on a march. •Discipline and supervision. however. •Rest stops. •Distance to be marched. •Water stops. usually because there are not enough vehicles to carry the entire unit. limited visibility. PLANNING A ROAD MARCH Any plan to conduct a road march to improve physical fitness should consider the following: •Load to be carried. which fit easily into the daily training plan. Personal hygiene is important in preventing unnecessary injuries. and shuttle . see FM 21-18. Forced marches require more than the normal effort in speed and exertion. is 30 inches. The leader should choose an experienced soldier as a pacesetter to lead the march. When a 10minute rest is taken each hour. The pacesetter should keep in mind that ground slope and footing affect stride length. These marches may be modified and used as fitness activities. Soldiers who have high fitness levels can generally march for longer stretches than those who are less fit. Shuttle Marches Shuttle marches alternate riding and marching. Normal stride and cadence are maintained easily on moderate. slippery. results in a speed of 4. to help morale and give them time to prepare. The pacesetter should carry the same load as the other soldiers and should be of medium height to ensure normal strides.
dry socks that fit well and have no holes. Although all of the major muscle groups of the body should be trained. PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE LOAD-CARRYING ABILITY The four generalized programs described below can be used to improve the soldiers’ load-carrying ability.off. Roughly equal emphasis should be given to each of these fitness components. After marches. Two of the days should stress the development of muscular endurance and strength for the whole body. Each program is based on a different number of days per week available for a PT program. wash and dry their feet. To help prevent lower back strain. apply powder. soldiers should help each other reposition the rucksacks and other loads following rest stops. they should be evenly dispersed throughout the week. During halts soldiers should lie down and elevate their feet. and lightly apply foot powder. If only two days are available for PT. soldiers should again care for their feet. If there are only three days available for PT. Each soldier should take one or more extra pair of socks depending on the length of the march. Soldiers can relieve swollen feet by slightly loosening the laces across their arches. and change socks. both should include exercises for improving CR fitness and muscular endurance and strength. Soldiers who have had problems with blisters should apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly over susceptible areas. they should massage their feet. wash and dry their socks. emphasis should be placed 2-12 . with heels that are even and not worn down. Stretching for a few minutes before resuming the march may relieve cramps and soreness and help prepare the muscles to continue exercising. Leaders should check soldiers’ boots before the march to make sure that they fit well. If time permits. are broken in and in good repair. and dry their boots. They should wear clean.
Leaders must train and
march with their units
as much as possible.
Units should do
at least twice a month.
on the leg (hamstrings and quadriceps),
hip (gluteal and hip flexors), low back
(spinal erector), and abdominal (rectus
abdominis) muscles. These two days
should also include brief (2-mile) CR
workouts of light to moderate intensity
(65 to 75 percent HRR). On the one
CR fitness day left, soldiers should
take a long distance run (4 to 6 miles)
at a moderate pace (70 percent HRR),
an interval workout, or an aerobic
circuit. They should also do some
strength work of light volume and
intensity. If four days are available, a
road march should be added to the
three-day program at least twice
monthly. The speed, load, distance,
and type of terrain should be varied.
If there are five days, leaders should
devote two of them to muscular strength
and endurance and two of them to CR
fitness. One CR fitness day will use
long distance runs; the other can stress
more intense workouts including interval work, Fartlek running, or lastman-up running. At least two times
per month, the remaining day should
include a road march.
Soldiers can usually begin roadmarch training by carrying a total load
equal to 20 percent of their body
weight. This includes all clothing and
equipment. However, the gender makeup and/or physical condition of a unit
may require using a different starting
load. Beginning distances should be
between five and six miles, and the
pace should be at 20 minutes per mile
over flat terrain with a hard surface.
Gradual increases should be made in
speed, load, and distance until soldiers
can do the anticipated, worst-case,
mission-related scenarios without excessive difficulty or exhaustion. Units
should take maintenance marches at
least twice a month. Distances should
vary from six to eight miles, with loads
of 30 to 40 percent of body weight.
The pace should be 15 to 20 minutes
A recent Army study showed that
road-march training two times a month
and four times a month produced
similar improvements in road-marching performance. Thus, twice-monthly
road marches appear to produce a
favorable improvement in soldiers’
abilities to road march if they are
supported by a sound PT program
(five days per week)
Commanders must establish realistic goals for road marching based on
assigned missions. They should also
allow newly assigned soldiers and those
coming off extended profiles to gradually build up to the unit’s fitness level
before making them carry maximum
loads. This can be done with ability
Road marching should be integrated
into all other training. Perhaps the best
single way to improve Ioad-earring
capacity is to have a regular training
program which systematically increases
the load and distance. It must also let
the soldier regularly practice carrying
heavy loads over long distances.
As much as possible, leaders at all
levels must train and march with their
This participation enhances
leaders’ fitness levels and improves
team spirit and confidence, both vital
elements in accomplishing difficult
and demanding road marches.
Alternate Forms of
Some soldiers cannot run. In such
cases, they may use other activities as
supplements or alternatives. Swimming, bicycling, and cross-country
skiing are all excellent endurance exercises and are good substitutes for
running. Their drawback is that they
require special equipment and facilities that are not always available. As
with all exercise, soldiers should start
slowly and progress gradually. Those
who use non-running activities to
such training may not improve running ability. To prepare a soldier for
the APFT 2-mile run, there is no substitute for running.
Swimming is a good alternative to
running. Some advantages of swimming include the following:
o Involvement of all the major muscle
o Body position that enhances the
blood’s return to the heart.
o Partial support of body weight by
the water, which minimizes lower
body stress in overweight soldiers.
Swimming may be used to improve
one’s CR fitness level and to maintain
and improve CR fitness during recovery from an injury. It is used to
supplement running and develop upper
body endurance and limited strength.
The swimmer should start slowly with
a restful stroke. After five minutes, he
should stop to check his pulse, compare it with his THR and, if needed,
adjust the intensity.
Compared with all the other modes
of aerobic exercise presented in this
manual (e.g., running, walking, cycling, cross-country skiing, rope
jumping, etc.) in swimming alone,
one’s THR should be lower than while
doing the other forms of aerobic exercise. This is because, in swimming, the
heart does not beat as fast as when
doing the other types of exercise at the
same work rate. Thus, in order to
effectively train the CR system during
swimming, a soldier should set his
THR about 10 bpm lower than while
running. For example, a soldier whose
THR while running is 150 bpm should
have a THR of about 140 bpm while
swimming. By modifying their THRs
in this manner while swimming, soldiers will help to ensure that they are
working at the proper intensity.
Non-swimmers can run in waist-to
chest-deep water, tread water, and do
pool-side kicking for an excellent
aerobic workout. They can also do
calisthenics in the water. Together
these activities combine walking and
running with moderate resistance work
for the upper body.
For injured soldiers, swimming and
aerobic water-training are excellent
for improving CR fitness without placing undue stress on injured weightbearing parts of the body.
Cycling is an excellent exercise for
developing CR fitness. Soldiers can
bicycle outdoors or on a stationary
cycling machine indoors. Road cycling
should be intense enough to allow the
soldier to reach and maintain THR at
least 30 minutes.
Soldiers can alter the cycling intensity by changing gears, adding hill
work, and increasing velocity. Distance can also be increased to enhance
CR fitness, but the distance covered is
not as important as the amount of time
spent training at THR. The intensity
of a workout can be increased by increasing the resistance against the wheel
or increasing the pedaling cadence
(number of RPM), For interval training, the soldier can vary the speed and
resistance and use periods of active
recovery at low speed and/or low
Walking is another way to develop
cardiorespiratory fitness. It is enjoyable, requires no equipment, and causes
few injuries. However, unless walking
is done for a long time at the correct
intensity, it will not produce any significant CR conditioning.
Sedentary soldiers with a low degree
of fitness should begin slowly with 12
minutes of walking at a comfortable
pace. The heart rate should be monitored to determine the intensity. The
soldier should walk at least four times
a week and add two minutes each week
Cycling should be
intense enough to let the
soldier reach and
maintain THR at least
For swimming, a soldier
should set his THR at
about 10 beats per
minute lower then when
to every workout until the duration
reaches 45 to 60 minutes per workout.
He can increase the intensity by adding
hills or stairs.
As the walker’s fitness increases, he
should walk 45 to 60 minutes at a faster
pace. A simple way to increase walking speed is to carry the arms the same
way as in running. With this technique
the soldier has a shorter arm swing and
takes steps at a faster rate. Swinging
the arms faster to increase the pace is
a modified form of race walking (power
walking) which allows for more upperbody work. This method may also be
used during speed marches. After
about three months, even the most
unfit soldiers should reach a level of
conditioning that lets them move into
a running program.
movement of the arms
and legs, developing
muscular and CR
Cross-country or Nordic skiing is
another excellent alternative to the
usual CR activities. It requires vigorous movement of the arms and legs
which develops muscular and CR
endurance and coordination. Some of
the highest levels of aerobic fitness
ever measured have been found in
Although some regions lack snow,
one form or another of cross-country
skiing can be done almost anywhere-on country roads, golf courses, open
fields, and in parks and forests.
Cross-country skiing is easy to learn.
The action is similar to that used in
brisk walking, and the intensity may be
varied as in running. The work load is
determined by the difficulty of terrain, the pace, and the frequency and
duration of rest periods. Equipment is
reasonably priced, with skis, boots,
and poles often obtainable from the
outdoor recreation services.
Rope skipping is also a good exercise for developing CR fitness. It
requires little equipment, is easily
learned, may be done almost anywhere, and is not affected by weather.
Some runners use it as a substitute for
running during bad weather.
A beginner should select a jump
rope that, when doubled and stood on,
reaches to the armpits.
handles or ropes may be used by
better-conditioned soldiers to improve
upper body strength. Rope skippers
should begin with five minutes of
jumping rope and then monitor their
heart rate. They should attain and
maintain their THR to ensure a training effect, and the time spent jumping
should be increased as the fitness level
Rope jumping, however, may be
stressful to the lower extremities and
therefore should be limited to no more
than three times a week. Soldiers
should skip rope on a cushioned surface such as a mat or carpet and should
wear cushioned shoes.
Handball and the racquet sports
(tennis, squash, and racquetball) involve bursts of intense activity for
short periods. They do not provide the
same degree of aerobic training as
exercises of longer duration done at
sports are good supplements and can
provide excellent aerobic benefits
depending on the skill of the players.
If played vigorously each day, they
may be an adequate substitute for lowlevel aerobic training. Because running increases endurance, it helps
improve performance in racket sports,
but the reverse is not necessarily true.
EXERCISE TO MUSIC
Aerobic exercise done to music is
another excellent alternative to running. It is a motivating, challenging
activity that combines exercise and
rhythmic movements. There is no
prerequisite skill, and it can be totally
individualized to every fitness level by
varying the frequency, intensity, and
duration. One can move to various
tempos while jogging or doing
jumping jacks, hops, jumps, or many
Workouts can be done in a small
space by diverse groups of varying
fitness levels. Heart rates should be
taken during the conditioning phase to
be sure the workout is sufficiently
intense. If strengthening exercises are
included, the workout addresses every
component of fitness. Holding relatively light dumbbells during the workout is one way to increase the intensity
for the upper body and improve muscular endurance. Warm-up and cooldown stretches should be included in
the aerobic workout.
Isotonic contraction causes a joint to move through a range of motion against a constant resistance. There are other resistance-training machines which. while in the eccentric phase (elongation) the muscle returns to its normal length. may produce greater strength gains. they are closely related. Muscular Contractions Isometric. survival on the battlefield may. This is a concentric (positive) contraction. Muscular strength is the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. or do many other strength-related tasks. During the lowering phase of the curl the biceps are lengthening. In a single day they may carry injured comrades. Indeed. and isokinetic muscular endurance and strength are best produced by regularly doing each specific kind of contraction. while not precisely controlling the speed of movement. the muscle may be able to handle more of an overload eccentrically. lift heavy tank or artillery rounds. at 180 degrees per second. To achieve a constant speed of movement. They are described here. the load or resistance must change at different joint angles to counter the varying forces produced by the muscle(s) at different angles. affect it by varying the resistance throughout the Some of these range of motion. based on computer-generated scenarios of an invasion of Western Europe. in large part. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to do repeated contractions against a less-thanmaximum resistance for a given time. devices are classified as pseudo-isokinetic and some as variable-resistance machines. and the lifting of weights. the biceps are shortening. 155mm-howitzer rounds (95-lb rounds) while moving from 6 to 10 times each day over 8 to 12 days. For example. . 3-1 Isometric contraction produces contraction but no movement. on the upward phase of the biceps curl. soldiers need a high level of muscular endurance and strength. Isotonic and isokinetic contractions have two specific phases . Muscular Fitness Muscular fitness has two components: muscular strength and muscular endurance. Although muscular endurance and strength are separate fitness components. Common examples are push-ups. sit-ups. Isokinetic contraction causes the angle at the joint to change at a constant rate. Force is produced with no change in the angle of the joint. As a result. This requires the use of isokinetic machines. isotonic. in addition to cardiorespiratory fitness. Infantrymen may need to carry loads exceeding 100 pounds over great distances. while supporting units will deploy and displace many times. artillerymen may have to load from 300 to 500.On today's battlefield. This greater overload. In the concentric phase (shortening) the muscle contracts. A muscle can control more weight in the eccentric phase of contraction than it can lift concentrically. for example. push stalled vehicles. This is an eccentric (negative) contraction. depend on the muscular endurance and strength of the individual soldier.the concentric or “positive” phase and the eccentric or “negative” phase. Progressively working against resistance will produce gains in both of these components. move equipment. For example. as when pushing against a wall. in return.
to achieve enough overload. • Repetition. • Muscle Failure. or isokinetic contractions. These principles are overload. plete range starting from the prestretched position (stretched past the relaxed position) and ending in a fully contratcted position. To obtain optimal gains. This is crucial to strength development. whether by isometric. applied thoughout the full range of isotonic. and variety. When an exercise has progressed through one complete range of motion and back to the beginning. the muscle must be overloaded. it is important to know the following strength-training terms: When a muscle is • Full range of motion. and each will result in strength gains if done properly. progression. it adapts by becoming stronger.contractions. if a soldier’s 1 -RM is 200 pounds. the workload to which it is subjected during exercise must be increased beyond what it normally experiences. In other words. Each type of contraction has advantages and disadvantages. This is a repetition performed against the greatest possible resistance (the maximum weight a person can lift one time). The minimum resistance needed to obtain strength gains is 50 percent of the 1 -RM. To understand the principle of overload. multiply 200 pounds by 70 percent [200 X 0. the overload must be overloaded by isometric. For a muscle to increase in strength. • Set.The nature of the eccentric contraction. specificity. must be applied to all muscular endurance and strength training. Exercise a joint and its as.70 = 140 pounds] to get 70 percent of the 1 -RM. programs are designed to require sets with 70 to 80 percent of one’s 1 -RM. a properly designed weight training program with free weights or resistance machines will result in improvements in all three of these categories. This is the inability of a person to do another correct repetition in a set. or isokinetic motion. an 8-12 RM is that weight which allows a person to do from 8 to 12 correct repetitions. the seven principles of exercise. • One-repetition maximum (1-RM).) 3-2 . However. balance. When a muscle is overloaded. it adapts by sociated muscles through its combecoming stronger. The intensity for muscular endurance and strength training is often expressed as a percentage of. the 1-RM. one repetition has been completed. Actually. so there is more muscle soreness following eccentric work. makes the muscle and connective tissue more susceptible to damage. This is a series of repetitions done without rest. Principles of Muscular Training To have a good exercise program. The above descriptions are more important to those who assess strength than to average people trying to develop strength and endurance. A 10-RM is the maximum weight one can lift correctly 10 times. Muscles adapt to increased workloads by becoming larger and stronger and by developing greater endurance. regularity. isotonic. however. recovery. (For example. Similarly. described in Chapter 1. OVERLOAD The overload principle is the basis for all exercise training programs.
after doing from 8 to 12 Figure 3-1 3-3 repetitions. However. to develop both muscle endurance and strength. an effective range is a 3-7 RM. (See Figure 3-1. the resistance is too great and should be reduced.A better and easier method is the repetition maximum (RM) method. but the gain in strength will not be as great. the weight selected should be heavier and the RM will also be different. For example. he momentarily cannot correctly do another repetition. when a soldier trains with a 25-RM weight. The weight should be heavy enough so that an eighth repetition would be impossible because of muscle fatigue. the soldier should choose a resistance that lets him do more than 12 repetitions of a given exercise. To develop muscular endurance. the soldier should find that weight for each exercise which lets him do 3 to 7 repetitions correctly. With continued training. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE/ STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT To develop muscle strength. The exerciser finds and uses that weight which lets him do the correct number of repetitions. To optimize a soldier’s performance. Soldiers who are just beginning a resistance-training program should not start with heavy weights. If one cannot do at least three repetitions of an exercise. . the greater the number of repetitions per set. This is his 12+ repetition maximum (12+ RM). a soldier should choose a weight for each exercise which lets him do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure. the greater will be the improvement in muscle endurance and the smaller the gains in strength. gains in muscular endurance will be greater than when using a 15-RM weight. They should first build an adequate foundation by training with an 8-12 RM or a 12+ RM. his RM should be determined from an analysis of the critical tasks of his mission. This weight is the 8-12 RM for that exercise. Although the greatest improvements seem to come from resistances of about 6-RM. For example.) The weight should be heavy enough so that. most soldiers will benefit most from a resistance-training program with an 8-12 RM. This weight is the 3-7 RM for that exercise. For example. The weight should also not be too heavy.
if his plan is to do 12 repetitions in the bench press. When a soldier can correctly do the upper limit of repetitions for the set without reaching muscle failure. the soldier must do resistance movements that are as similar as possible to those of doing the task. REGULARITY Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. the soldier must always strive to overload his muscles. in a given task. Those muscles that are contracting or becoming tense during the movement are the muscle groups involved. A soldier can work out three times a week. if his goal is to do three sets of eight repetitions of an exercise. strength training for the identified muscle(s) will be beneficial. Sporadic exercise may do more harm than good. Soldiers can maintain a moderate level of strength by doing proper strength workouts only once a week. For most soldiers. it adapts by becoming stronger and/or by improving its endurance.) • Using any combination of the above. at the same time. In this way. 3-4 Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. he ensures maximum carryover value to his soldiering tasks. • Increasing the number of sets. Usually significant increases in strength can be made in three to four weeks of proper training depending on the individual. PROGRESSION When an overload is applied to a muscle. it is usually time to increase the resistance. (Good form is more important than the speed of movement. but when different muscle groups are exercised at each workout. These groups can be identified by doing a simple assessment. • Increasing the number of repetitions per set. To improve his muscular endurance and strength. If the workload is not progressively increased to keep pace with newly won strength.12 RM). he feels the muscles on each side of the joints where motion occurs. the principle of regularity is violated and gains in strength are minimal. He continues to work with that weight until he can complete all eight repetitions in each set. then increases the resistance by no more than 10 percent. In a multi-set routine. He then should increase the weight by about 5 percent but no more than 10 percent. . He should continue with that weight until he can do 12 repetitions correctly. For example. The key to overloading a muscle is to make that muscle exercise harder than it normally does. • Reducing the rest time between sets. The soldier slowly does work-related movements he wants to improve and. • Increasing the speed of movement in the concentric phase. the soldier starts with a weight that causes muscle failure at between 8 and 12 repetitions (8. SPECIFICITY A resistance-training program should provide resistance to the specific muscle groups that need to be strengthened. this upper limit should be 12 repetitions. The principle of regularity also applies to the exercises for individual muscle groups. he starts with a weight that causes muscle failure before he com - pletes the eighth repetition in one or more of the sets. An overload may be achieved by any of the following methods: • Increasing the resistance.Whichever RM range is selected. but three workouts per week are best for optimal gains. there will be no further gains. If the soldier’s performance of a task is not adequate or if he wishes to improve.
and altering the volume and intensity are good ways to add variety. For example. for variety or due to necessity (for example. Thursday. improvement will occur. The best sequence to follow for a total-body strength workout is to first exercise the muscles of the hips and legs. If curls are done first. and Friday and the upper body muscles on Tuesday. RECOVERY There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle group. so that the same muscle or muscle group is not exercised on consecutive days. There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle groups.training program can be very boring. Normally. followed by the muscles of the upper back and chest. then the arms. As long as all muscle groups are exercised at the proper intensity. the lat pull-down stresses both the larger latissimus dorsi muscle of the back and the smaller biceps muscles of the arm. the legs can be trained with weights on Monday.Consecutive days of hard resistance training for the same muscle group can be detrimental. Wednesday. reduce the risk of injury. in turn. For example. they may not benefit very much from the workout. or pushing. and neck. then A major challenge for all fitness training programs is maintaining enthusiasm and interest. Most muscles are organized into opposing pairs. the soldier cannot do as many repetitions with as much weight as he normally could in the lat pull-down. in part. For example. When planning a training session. it is important to include exercises that work all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body. Recovery is also important within a workout. on the intensity of the workout. Strength training can be done every day only if the exercised muscle groups are rotated. It is important to include exercises that work all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body. One should not work just the upper body. the smaller muscIes. The latissimus dorsi muscles will not be overloaded and. This technique helps ensure good strength balance between opposing muscle groups which may. when in the field). and Saturday. abdominal. it is best to follow a pushing exercise with a pulling exercise which results in movement at the same joint(s). However. low back. movement. The muscles must be allowed sufficient recovery time to adapt. For example. as a result. Activating one muscle results in a pulling motion. he can do squats with a barbell instead of leg presses on a weight machine. A poorly designed strength. The soldier should periodically substitute different exercises for a given muscle group(s). and they may also produce better results. The recovery time between different exercises and sets depends. while activating the opposing muscle results in the opposite. he can switch to partner-resisted exercises or another form of resistance training. follow an overhead press with a lat pull-down exercise. the smaller muscle group will be exhausted and too weak to handle the resistance needed for the lat pull-down. changing the exercises. Using different equipment. As a result. the recovery time between sets should be 30 to 180 seconds. Sequence the program to exercise the larger muscle groups first. Also. frequent wholesale changes should be avoided as soldiers may become frustrated if they do not have enough time to adapt or to see improvements in strength. BALANCE VARIETY When developing a strength training program. 3-5 . thinking that running will strengthen the legs.
first two to three workouts. For example. as this can cause dizziness and even loss of consciousness. and so forth. This is very important. Correct breathing is another safety factor in strength training. Breathing should be constant during exercise. or spotter. and inhale during the negative (eccentric) phase as the weight returns toward the floor. A natural tendency in strength training is to see how much weight one can lift. conditioning. only involves the elbow joint. They should include those for the muscles of the leg. most of the exercises in the program should be “multi-joint” exercises. safety. All weights should be selected so that proper form can be maintained for the appropriate number of repetitions.Workout Techniques Workouts for improving muscular endurance or strength must follow the principles just described. both should know how to use the equipment and the proper spotting technique for each exercise. namely. For example. The soldier should choose exercises that work several muscle groups and try to avoid those that isolate single muscle groups. and phases of conditioning. however. an exercise like concentration curls for the biceps muscles of the upper arm. the soldier should choose about 8 to 16 exercises that work all of the body’s major muscle groups. On the other hand. Usually eight well-chosen exercises will serve as a good starting point. because the beginner must concentrate at first on learning 3-6 . To ensure safety and the best results. exercise selection. EXERCISE SELECTION When beginning a resistance-training program. Also. preparatory phase) which includes the and maintenance. conditioning. These are also described in Chapter 1. The soldier should never hold his breath. the concentration curl requires twice as much time as lat pulldowns because only one arm is worked at a time. who can observe his performance as he exercises. one should exhale during the positive (concentric) phase of contraction as the weight or weight stack moves away from the floor. There are also other factors to consider. the pull-down exercise produces motion at both the shoulder and elbow joints. Lifting too much weight forces a compromise in form and may lead to injury. PHASES OF CONDITIONING There are three phases of conditioning: preparatory. shoulders. Preparatory Phase The three phases of The soldier should use very light conditioning are weights during the first week (the preparatory. Each soldier must understand how to do each lift correctly before he starts his strength training program. low back. As a general rule. The exercise should provide movement at more than one joint. SAFETY FACTORS Major causes of injury when strength training are improper lifting techniques combined with lifting weights that are too heavy. The concentration curl. doing lat pulldowns on the “lat machine” works the latissimus dorsi of the back and the biceps muscles of the upper arm. The soldier should always do weight training with a partner. and maintenance. For most people. especially beginners. although an effective exercise. This will help him train a greater number of muscles in a given time. Perhaps a simpler way to select an exercise is to determine the number of joints in the body where movement occurs during a repetition. only works the arm flexor muscles.
a second. More frequent training. As time goes on and he progresses. If he stops making progress with one set of 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise. he should increase the weight until he can again do only 8 to 12 repetitions. During this phase.the proper form for each exercise. throughout his life. he should know how much weight on each exercise will allow him to do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure. exercise period. Three sets per exercise is the maximum most soldiers will ever need to do. unlike exercises performed in cadence or for a specific number of repetitions. It does not hold back the more capable . TIMED SETS Timed sets refers to a method of physical training in which as many repetitions as possible of a given exercise are performed in a specified period of time. Although training three times a week for muscle endurance and strength gives the best results. he may benefit from adding another set of 8 to 12 repetitions on those exercises in which progress has slowed. During the second week. set of that exercise is done in an The equal or lesser time period. Using light weights also helps minimize muscle soreness and decreases the likelihood of injury to the muscles. As with aerobic training. he does not need to do more than one set per exercise. As long as he continues to progress and get stronger. the soldier should do strength training three times a week and should allow at least 48 hours of rest from resistance training between workouts for any given muscle group. the soldier should increase the amount of weight used and/or the intensity of the workout as his muscular strength and/or endurance increases. This usually involves an increase in weight of about five percent. if he can do more than 12. and ligaments. the weight should be increased. is required to reach and maintain peak fitness levels. the maintenance phase is used to maintain that level. After an appropriate period of rest. By the end of the second week (4 to 6 workouts). This process continues indefinitely. the weight must be reduced. recovery period. helps to ensure that each soldier does as many repetitions of an exercise as possible within a period of time. The use of timed sets. Conditioning Phase The third week is normally the start of the conditioning phase for the beginning weight trainer. The maintenance phase should be continued throughout his career and. however. and the number of sets done should be selected to make sure that an overload of the involved muscle groups occurs. Maintaining the optimal level of fitness should become part of each soldier’s life-style and training routine. he may increase the number to three sets of an exercise to get even further gains in strength and/ or muscle mass. and so on. joints. The emphasis in this phase is no longer on progression but on retention. third. one can maintain them by training the major muscle groups properly one or two times a week. he should use progressively heavier weights. When he can do more than 12 repetitions of any exercise. 3-7 Maintenance Phase Once the soldier reaches a high level of fitness. If he can do only seven repetitions of an exercise. He should do one set of 8 to 12 repetitions for each of the heavyresistance exercises. ideally.
Thus. It should first be stated that improving sit-up and push-up performance. ) Many different but equally valid approaches can be taken when using timed sets to improve push-up and sit-up performance.performer by restricting the number of repetitions he may do. should not be the main goal of an Army physical training program. several of these will be given. In this way. The following is an example of this type of approach: Figure 3-2 3-8 . the muscle groups used by the push-up can recover while the muscles used in the sit-up are exercised. The manner in which timed sets for push-ups and sit-ups are conducted should occasionally be varied. In this FM. and to be assured that all emergencies can be met. the goal should be to develop sufficient strength and/or muscle endurance in all the muscle groups he will be called upon to use as he performs his mission. it reduces the amount of time and work that must be devoted to push-ups and sit-ups. This ensures continued gains and minimizes boredom. First. as a general rule. For this reason. At the same time. perform a workout to strengthen all of the body’s major muscles. This is because the muscles worked by those two exercises will already be pre-exhausted. soldiers at all levels of fitness can individually do the number of repetitions they are capable of and thereby be sure they obtain an adequate training stimulus. the best procedure to follow when doing a resistance exercise is as follows. a training regimen which exercises all the body’s major muscle groups must be developed and followed. those muscle groups worked by the sit-up or push-up event. This having been said. although important for the APFT. Below. Thus. Instead. Following this sequence ensures that all major muscles are worked. timed sets will be applied to improving soldier’s sit-up and push-up performance. do timed sets to improve push-up and sit-up performance. here is a very time-efficient way of conducting push-up/sit-up improvement. To meet this goal. Alternate timed sets of push-ups and timed sets of sit-ups with little or no time between sets allowed for recovery. a muscle endurance or strength training workout should not be designed to work exclusively. or give priority to. when a soldier performs a workout geared to develop muscle endurance and strength. (See Figures 3-2 and 3-3. Then. and vice versa. It must be to develop an optimal level of physical fitness which will help soldiers carry out their mission during combat.
This applies when doing each timed set and when planning for their next and future APFTs. the above activity can be finished in about 3. by decreasing any rest period between timed sets. abdominal curls. To add variety and increase the overall effectiveness of the activity. When using timed sets for push-up and sit-up improvement. In the same way. soldiers can also perform all sets of one exercise before doing the other.If all soldiers exercise at the same time. or vice versa. wide-hand.5 minutes. With this approach. Figure 3-3 3-9 . Major Muscle Groups In designing a workout it is important to know the major muscle groups. During a timed set of push-ups. and so forth) can be done. close-hand. For example. or by any combination of these. and make adjustments accordingly. soldiers must set goals for themselves. Finally. a soldier may reach temporary muscle failure at any time before the set is If this happens. because of the nature of the situp. (See Figure 3-4. When performing this type of workout. as in any endeavor. pay attention to how the soldiers are responding. balanced workout. he should over. For example. it may become apparent that some soldiers can benefit by taking slightly more time for timed sets of sit-ups than for push-ups. As the soldiers’ levels of fitness improve. rest intervals must be placed between timed sets. the difficulty of the activity can be increased. The following example can be done after the regular strength workout and is reasonable starting routine for most soldiers. feet-elevated. immediately drop to his knees and continue doing modified push-ups on his knees. where they are located. and so forth) and sit-ups (regular. abdominal twists. different types of push-ups (regular. and their primary action. the times listed in the chart above may prove to be too long or too short for some soldiers. by increasing the number of timed sets performed. This is done by lengthening the time period of any or all timed sets. one must do at least one set of exercises for each of the major muscle groups. several timed sets of push-ups can be done followed by several sets of situps.) To ensure a good.
Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 .
It is a good program for beginners and for those whose time is limited. The weight-training program shown at Figure 3-6 is a more comprehensive program that works the major muscle groups even more thoroughly. for the beginner. muscles that are worked. This program also includes exercises to strengthen the neck muscles. Figure 3-6 3-11 lat pull-down. Thus. major muscle groups. The exercises should be done in the order presented. When doing one set of each exercise to muscle failure. . the average soldier should be able to complete this routine and do a warm-up and cool-down within the regular PT time.The beginning weight-training program shown at Figure 3-5 will work most of the important. However. and biceps curl. the quadriceps are worked by the leg press/squat and leg extensions. It has some duplication with respect to the . and the biceps are worked by the seated row. for the more advanced lifter. it will make the muscles work in different ways and from different angles thereby providing a better over-all development of muscle strength. this program may overwork some muscle groups. For example.
● Exercise the large muscle groups first. then the smaller ones. TRAINING WITHOUT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Muscles do not care what is supplying the resistance. ● Perform all exercises through their full range of motion. follow triceps extensions with biceps curls. three times a week. Although many installations have excellent strength-training facilities. to let the body recover and help prevent over training and injury. Using a soldier’s own body weight as the resistive force is another excellent alternative method of strength training. As with all training. to progressively overload his muscles. dips. This helps to increase motivation. relaxed position (prestretched). especially when training large numbers of soldiers at one time. However. They can improve an untrained soldier’s level of strength. Exhale during the concentric (positive] phase of contraction. ammo boxes. and safety. Whether the training uses expensive machines. lunge. When developing strength programs for units. Partner-resisted exercises (PREs) are another good way to develop muscular strength without equipment. 3-12 . ● Always breathe when lifting. The availability of facilities is always a major concern. For example. and end the concentric phase in a fully contracted position. not just specific areas. there are limits to the type of training that can be done. dummy rounds. The weight of the bags can be varied depending on the amount of fill. ● Progress slowly. ● Rest from 30 to 180 seconds between different exercises and sets of a given exercise. Sandbags are convenient for training large numbers of soldiers. the result is largely the same. ● Accelerate the weight through the concentric phase of contraction. situps. ● Alternate pulling and pushing exercises. as they are available in all military units. the intensity of the workout. Concentrating on weak areas is all right. Any regular resistance exercise that makes the muscle work harder than it is used to causes it to adapt and become stronger. Soldiers should warm up. Logs. This can cause serious injury. Train the whole body. Pull-ups. or other equipment that is unique to a unit can also be used to provide resistance for strength training. and inhale during the eccentric (negative) phase. but the rest of the body must also be trained. lurch. sandbags. ● Always use strict form. Sandbag exercises are very effective in strength-training circuits. the development of strength does not require expensive equipment. These motions also detract from the effectiveness of the exercise because they take much of the stress off the targeted muscle groups and place it on other muscles. safety is a critical factor. All that is required is for the soldier. and single-leg squats are examples of exercises which use a person’s body weight. or partners. and follow the principles of exercise previously outlined. cool down. Do not twist. push-ups. Begin from a fully extended. Never increase the resistance used by more than 10 percent at a time. or arch the body. but not more than 96 hours. ● Allow at least 48 hours of recovery between workouts.Key Points to Emphasize Exercise Programs Some key points to emphasize when doing resistance training tire as follows ● Train with a partner if possible. it is unreasonable to expect that all units can use them on a regular basis. and return the weight to the starting position in a controlled manner during the eccentric phase. ● Ensure that every training program is balanced.
The speed of movement for PREs should always be slow and controlled. the second half of each repetition as the exerciser returns to the starting position). Proper exercise form and regularity in performance are key ingredients when using PREs for improving strength. the more effective they should become in providing the proper resistance for each exercise. The longer the partners work together. As a general rule. The resister must apply enough resistance to bring the exerciser to muscle failure in 8 to 12 repetitions. More resistance usual] y can and should be applied during the eccentric (negative) phase of contraction (in other words.PARTNER-RESISTED EXERCISE In partner-resisted exercises (PREs) a person exercises against a partner’s opposing resistance. They must communicate with each other to ensure that neither too much nor too little resistance is applied. They should be done in the order given to ensure that the exercising soldier is working his muscle groups from the largest to the smallest. The PT leader can select exercises which meet the unit’s specific goals while considering individual limitations: A 36-to 48-inch stick or bar one inch in diameter may be used for some of the exercises. More than one exercise per muscle group may be used. . Following are descriptions and illustrations of several PREs. the negative part of each exercise should 3-13 take at least as long to complete as the positive part. This gives the resister a better grip and/or leverage and also provides a feel similar to that of free weights and exercise machines.
Although not shown below for the sake of simplicity. or spotter. The exercises described here require free weights and supporting equipment. Free-Weight Exercises 3-21 . to ensure proper form and the safety of the lifter.TRAINING WITH EQUIPMENT Units in garrison usually have access to weight rooms with basic equipment for resistance-training exercises. all exercises done with free weights require a partner.
Exercises Performed with an Exercise Machine If exercise machines are available. particularly during the eccentric (negative) phase of contraction. All movements. 3-26 . the exercises described below are also good for strength training. should be done in a delibcrate. controlled manner.
The following exercises can be performed to condition the muscles of the mid-section (erector spinae. resistance can be added. . rectus abdominus and external and internal 3-33 obliques). As the soldier becomes more conditioned on these exercises.
For example.Exercise Chart The chart labeled Figure 3-5 will help the soldier select appropriate exercises for use in developing a good muscular endurance and strength workout.or single-leg squat. if the soldier wants to develop his upper leg muscles. doing leg presses. he has several options. doing free weight squats. or. 3) exercises with a machine. 2) exercises with equipment. concentrating on the split. leg curls. and leg extensions. 3-35 . He may choose from the following: 1) PREs.
and ballistic. He should talk with his partner to ensure that each muscle is stretched safely through the entire range of motion. the easier it is for the muscle to adapt to that length. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Static stretching should not be painful. or rubber tubing. passive. it is a signal that he is stretching a muscle or tendon too much and may be causing damage. Stretching during the warm-up and cool-down helps soldiers maintain overall flexibility. Stretching Techniques Using good stretching techniques can improve flexibility. PNF STRETCHING PNF stretching uses the neuromuscular patterns of each muscle group to help improve flexibility. pole. The four categories of Flexibility is a component of physical fitness. Stretching should not be painful. Developing and maintaining it are important parts of a fitness program. STATIC STRETCHING Static stretching involves the gradual lengthening of muscles and tendons as a body part moves around a joint. running. and ballistic. in part. The PNF technique allows for greater muscle relaxation following each contraction and increases the soldier’s ability to stretch through a greater range of motion. The longer a stretch is held. No one test can measure total-body flexibility. The soldier should feel slight discomfort. There are four commonly recognized categories of stretching techniques: static. Because people differ somewhat anatomically.passive. This lets the lengthened muscles adjust to the stretch without causing injury. The soldier assumes each stretching position slowly until he feels tension or tightness. It involves the ability to move a part of the body through the full range of motion allowed by normal. This produces a safe stretch through a range of motion he could not achieve without help. disease-free joints. but it should cause some discomfort because the muscles are being stretched beyond their normal length. However. climbing. Soldiers shouId stand with their legs straight and feet together and bend forward slowly at the waist. to loss of flexibility. These areas are commonly susceptible to injury due. parachuting. field tests can be used to assess flexibility in the hamstring and low-back areas. PASSIVE STRETCHING Passive stretching involves the soldier’s use of a partner or equipment. Good flexibility can help a soldier accomplish such physical tasks as lifting. People with poor flexibility who try to stretch as far as others may injure themselves. The soldier performs a series of intense contractions and relaxations using a partner or equipment to help him stretch. loading. When pain results from stretching. A simple toe-touch test can be used. and rappelling with greater efficiency and less risk of injury. These are 4-1 described here and shown later in this chapter. He should hold each stretch for ten seconds or longer. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). such as a towel.Flexibility refers to the range of movement of a joint. This lengthens the muscles without causing a reflex contraction in the stretched muscles. stretching techniques are static. A soldier who cannot touch his toes without bouncing or bobbing needs work to improve his flexibility in the muscle groups stretched by this test. It is a safe and effective method for improving flexibility. . comparing one person’s flexibility with another’s should not be done. Flexibility is the range of movement of a joint or series of joints and their associated muscles. to help him stretch. but no pain. The unit’s Master Fitness Trainer can help him design a stretching program to improve his flexibility.
. It also increases the joint’s range of motion and positively affects the speed of muscular contraction. static stretching of the muscles to be used during the upcoming activity. as well as passive stretching and/or PNF stretching. Hold each stretch position for 10 to 15 seconds. lift a lighter weight to warm-up before lifting a heavier one. circulation. it often forces a muscle to stretch too far and may result in an injury. Although this method may improve flexibility. Warm-Up and Cool-Down The warm-up and cool-down are very important parts of a physical training session. This causes a gradual increase in the heart rate. This helps prepare the neuromuscular pathways. knee/ankle rotations) to gradually increase the joint's range of motion. and stretching exercises should be a major part of both. 4-2 The warm-up warms the muscIes. • Slow. Do them during the warm-up to help prepare the muscles for vigorous activity and to help reduce injury. • Slow joint rotation exercises (for example. • Slow joggin-in-place or walking for one to two minutes. stretching involves movements such as bouncing or bobbing to attain a greater range of motion and stretch. The warm-up increases the flow of blood to the muscles and tendons. A recommended sequence of warmup activities follows.BALLISTIC STRETCHING Ballistic. as described in Chapter 7. and do not bounce or bob. arm circles. assumed slowly and gradually. • Slowly mimic the activities to be performed. and increases the temperature of the active muscles. This will "loosen up" muscles and tendons so they can achieve greater ranges of motion with less risk of injury. to increase the intensity level before the activity or conditioning period. For example. Work each major joint for 5 to 10 seconds. Do them during the cooldown to help maintain flexibility. one should prepare the body for exercise. thus helping reduce the risk of injury. increasing the flow of blood and reducing the risk of injury. Time: Hold stretches for 10 to 15 seconds for warming up and cooling down and for 30 seconds or longer to improve flexibility. The following FITT factors apply when developing a flexibility program. Individuals and units should not use ballistic stretching. blood pressure. THE WARM-UP Before beginning any vigorous physical activity. Frequency: Do flexibility exercises daily. Intensity: Stretch a muscle beyond its normal length to the point of tension or slight discomfort. • Calisthenic exerciese. or dynamic. Type: Use static stretches. Soldiers should do these for five to seven minutes before vigorous exercise. FITT Factors Commanders should include stretching exercises in all physical fitness programs. not pain.
• Repeat the stretches done in the warm-up to help ease muscle tension and any immediate feeling of muscle soreness.THE COOL-DOWN The following information explains the importance of cooling down and how to do it correctly. The muscles are warm from activity and can possibly be overstretched to the point of injury. This may provide better movement and less friction in the joint. He may also work on it at home. After running. Rotation Exercises Rotation exercises are used to gently stretch the tendons. The following exercises should be performed slowly. Stretching is one form of exercise that takes very little time relative to the benefits gained. and muscles associated with a joint and to stimulate lubrication of the joint with synovial fluid. 4-3 The soldier should not limit flexibility training to just the warm-up and cool-down periods. • Hold stretches 30 seconds or more during the cool-down to improve flexiblity. Use partner-assisted or PNF techniques. as this can be very dangerous. Be careful not to overstretch. Gradually bring the body back to its resting state by slowly decreasing the intensity of the activity. He should sometimes use an entire PT session on a "recovery" or "easy"training day to work on flexibility improvement. . for example. ligments. • Do not stop suddenly after vigorous exercise. if possible. one should walk for one to two minutes. This may cause fainting or abnormal rhythms in the heart which could lead to serious complications. thereby reducing blood flow to the heart and brain. Stopping exercise suddenly can cause blood to pool in the muscles.
CAUTION Some of these exercises may be difficult or too strenuous for unfit or medically limited soldiers.Common Stretching Exercises STATIC STRETCHES The following exercises improve flexibility when performed slowly. regularly. passive and PNF stretches are shown.n selecting stretching exercises. Assume all stretching positions slowly until you feel tension or slight discomfort. Choose the appropriate stretch for the muscle groups which you will be working. Developmental stretching to improve flexibility requires holding each stretch for 30 seconds or longer. 4-5 . Common sense should be used . Hold each position for at least 10 to 15 seconds during the warm-up and cool-down. and with gradual progression. Static.
When stretching alone. The examples in this chapter show passive stretching done with a towel or with a partner.PASSIVE STRETCHES Passive stretching is done with the help of a partner or equipment. 4-14 . using a towel may help the exerciser achieve a greater range of motion.
Assume the stretch position slowly with the partner’s help. Isometrically contract the muscles to be stretched. Both the exerciser and partner should follow these instructions: 1. Obtaining a safe stretch beyond the muscle’s normal length requires a partner’s assistance. Next. Repeat this sequence three times. done against a partner’s resistance. contract the antagonistic muscles for 5 to 10 seconds while the partner helps the exerciser obtain a greater stretch.Soldiers can do PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) stretches for most major muscle groups. and try to stretch a little further each time. (Caution: The exerciser should not hold his breath.) Several examples of PNF stretches are provided below in a stepwise fashion. The numbers given above for each step correspond to the general description listed below. The following four steps provide general guidance as to how PNF stretches are done. PNF stretches use a series of contractions. He should breathe out during each contraction. Hold the contraction for 5 to 10 seconds against the partner’s unyielding resistance. 3. 4. 2. and relaxations. 4-16 . Relax.
For example. by age and sex. diet. Figure 5-1 5-0 Body composition is influenced by age. has a negative effect on appearance. especially obesity. (This is described in AR 600-9. muscles). programs for the overly fat. and negatively influences attitude and morale. The amount of fat on the body. fitness level. . when expressed as a percentage of total body weight. Poor body composition causes problems for the Army. is one of the five components of physical fitness. A soldier whose weight exceeds the standard weight shown on the charts may not necessarily be overfat. which refers to the body’s relative amounts of fat and lean body mass (organs. pages 12 to 21. The Army’s screening charts for height and weight (shown in AR 600-9) make allowances for these differences. Good body composition is best gained through proper diet and exercise. As a soldier gets fat. the lean body mass accounts for a large share of their total body composition. overly fat) is the more common problem. while only a small percentage of the total body mass is composed of fat. In such cases. bones.Body composition. is referred to as the percent body fat. Yet. Being overweight (that is. The Army’s maximum allowable percentages of body fat. gender. some well-muscled athletes have body weights that far exceed the values for weight listed on the charts for their age. The Army’s weight control program is described in AR 600-9. only a small percentage of their total body mass may be fat. Soldiers with inadequate muscle development cannot perform as well as soldiers with good body composition. and related administrative actions. Soldiers with high percentages of body fat often have lower APFT scores than those with lower percentages. Evaluation Methods The Army determines body fat percentage using the girth method. Soldiers who do not meet the weight standards for their height and/or soldiers whose appearance suggests that they have excessive fat are to be evaluated using the circumference (girth measurement) method described in AR 600-9. Examples of poor body composition are underdeveloped musculature or excessive body fat. fitness level. Poor body composition. and his risk of developing disease increases. his ability to perform physically declines. are listed in Figure 5-1. and genetic factors (gender and body type). and genetic factors. self-esteem. and height.) Body composition is influenced by age. It addresses body composition standards.
Exercise alone is not the best way to lose body fat. In response. bicycling. stair climbing. if any. Because there are 3. Dieting alone can cause the body to believe it is being starved. supervised weight (fat) loss programs as stipulated in AR 600-9. walking. and it may also help keep the body’s metabolic rate high during dieting.A more accurate way to determine body composition is by hydrostatic or underwater weighing. bicycling. crosscountry skiing.200 calories. For an average-sized person. Diet and Exercise A combination of exercise and diet is the best way to lose unwanted body fat. Aerobic exercise is best for burning fat. Losing fat safely takes time 5-1 and patience. However. The soldier who diets and does not exercise loses not only fat but muscle tissue as well. As a result. a mixture of both fats and carbohydrates is used. most people would need to run or walk over 50 miles to burn one pound of fat. which uses lots of oxygen. In other words. one should eat less and exercise more. the unit’s MFT can design tailored exercise programs which will help soldiers increase their caloric expenditure and maintain their lean body mass. Aerobic exercise. Not only does exercise burn calories. burn little. walking. In reality. since weight lost through these practices is mostly water and lean muscle tissue. There is no quick and easy way to improve body composition. running or walking one mile burns about 100 calories. this method is very time-consuming and expensive and usually done only at hospitals and universities. A male soldier who is not under medical supervision when dieting requires a caloric intake of at least 1 . In addition. especially in large amounts. women require at least 1. with the calories distributed over all the daily meals including snacks. Such programs include sensible diet and exercise regimens. examples include jogging. Soldiers should avoid diets that fail to meet these criteria. Soldiers who do not meet Army body fat standards are placed on formal. This can negatively affect his physical readiness. fat is seldom the only source of energy used during aerobic exercise. Losing one to two pounds a week is a realistic goal which is best accomplished by reducing caloric intake and increasing energy expenditure. Soldiers must consume a minimum number of calories from all the major food groups. and rowing.500 calories in one pound of fat. Instead. This ensures an adequate consumption of necessary vitamins and minerals. exercise to music. such as sprinting or lifting heavy weights. as a result. he needs to run or walk 35 miles if pure fat were being burned. swimming.500. A combination of proper diet and aerobic exercise is the proven way to lose excessive body fat. is the best type of activity for burning fat. it loses fat at a slower rate. Aerobic exercises include jogging. Anaerobic activities. rowing. and jumping rope. it helps the body maintain its useful muscle mass. cross-country skiing. fat. swimming. Trying to lose weight with fad diets and devices or by skipping meals does not work for long-term fat loss. Fat can only be burned during exercise if oxygen is used. . not fat. Local dietitians and nutritionists can help soldiers who want to lose weight by suggesting safe and sensible diet programs. it tries to conserve its fat reserves by slowing down its metabolic rate and. A combination of exercise and diet is the best way to lose excessive body fat.
good health. A good diet alone. nutrition is not complicated for mainbasic Good those who understand these dietary guidelines. Most healthy adults do not need vitamin or mineral supplements if they eat a proper variety of foods. Even snacking between meals can contribute to good nutrition if the right foods are eaten. will not make up for poor health and exercise habits. Good dietary habits (see Figure 6-1 ) greatly enhance the ability of soldiers to perform at their maximum potential.) A wellbalanced diet provides all the nutrients needed to keep one healthy. and there may be risks in doing so. selecting a variety of foods from within each group. Another dietary guideline is to consume enough calories to meet one’s energy needs. proper nutrition plays a major role in attaining and maintaining total fitness. Figure 6-1 6-0 . This chapter gives basic nutritional guidance for enhancing physical performance. however. Soldiers must know and follow the basic nutrition principles if they hope to maintain weight control as well as achieve maximum physical fitness. There are no known advantages in consuming excessive amounts of any nutrient. For soldiers to get enough fuel from the food they eat and to obtain the variety of foods needed for nutrient balance. Guidelines for Healthy Eating Eating a variety of foods and taining an energy balance are guidelines for a healthy diet. To be properly nourished. they should eat three meals a day. Weight is maintained as long as the body is in energy balance. (See Figure 6-2. and mental alertness. soldiers should regularly eat a wide variety of foods fro-m the major food groups.In addition to exercise.
that is, when the number of calories
used equals the number of calories
The most accurate way to control
caloric intake is to control the size of
food portions and thus the total amount
of food ingested. One can use standard
household measuring utensils and a
small kitchen scale to measure portions
of foods and beverages. Keeping a
daily record of all foods eaten and
physical activity done is also helpful.
Figure 6-3 shows the number of
calories burned during exercise periods
of different types, intensities, and
durations. For example, while participating in archery, a person will burn
0.034 calories per pound per minute.
Thus, a 150-pound person would burn
5.1 calories per minute (150 lbs. x 0.034
calories/minute/lb. = 5.1 calories/
minute) or about 305 calories/hour, as
shown in Figure 6-4. Similarly, a
person running at 6 miles per hour
(MPH) will burn 0.079 cal./min./lb.
and a typical, 150-pound male will
burn 11.85 calories/minute (150 lbs. x
0.079 cal./lb./min. = 11.85) or about
710 calories in one hour, as shown in
To estimate the number of calories
you use in normal daily activity, multiply your body weight by 13 if you are
sedentary, 14 if somewhat active, and
15 if moderately active. The result is
a rough estimate of the number of
calories you need to maintain your
present body weight. You will need
still more calories if you are more than
caloric intake with caloric expenditure, the state of energy balance (positive, balanced, or negative) can be
Avoiding an excessive intake of fats
is another fundamental dietary guideline. A high intake of fats, especially
intake of fats is an
saturated fats and cholesterol, has been
associated with high levels of blood
The blood cholesterol level in most
Americans is too high. Blood cholesterol levels can be lowered by reducing
both body fat and the amount of fat in
the diet. Lowering elevated blood
cholesterol levels reduces the risk of
developing coronary artery disease
(CAD) and of having a heart attack.
CAD, a slow, progressive disease, results from the clogging of blood vessels
in the heart. Good dietary habits help
reduce the likelihood of developing
It is recommended that all persons
over the age of two should reduce their
fat intake to 30 percent or less of their
Carbohydrates are the total caloric intake. The current national average is 38 percent. In addiprimary fuel source for
tion, we should reduce our intake of
muscles during short- saturated fat to less than 10 percent of
term, high-intensity the total calories consumed. We should
increase our intake of polyunsaturated
fat, but to no more than 10 percent of
our total calories. Finally, we should
reduce our daily cholesterol intake to
300 milligrams or less. Figure 6-4 suggests actions commanders can take to
support sound dietary guidelines. Most
of these actions concern dining-facility management.
Avoiding an excessive
Concerns for Optimal
Carbohydrates, in the form of gly cogen (a complex sugar), are the primary fuel source for muscles during
short-term, high-intensity activities.
Repetitive, vigorous activity can use
up most of the carbohydrate stores in
the exercised muscles.
The body uses fat to help provide
energy for extended activities such as
a one-hour run. Initially, the chief
fuel burned is carbohydrates, ‘but as
the duration increases, the contribution from fat gradually increases.
The intensity of the exercise also
influences whether fats or carbohydrates are used to provide energy.
Very intense activities use more carbohydrates. Examples include weight
training and the APFT sit-up and
Eating foods rich in carbohydrates
helps maintain adequate muscle-gly cogen reserves while sparing amino
acids (critical building-blocks needed
for building proteins). At least 50
percent of the calories in the diet
should come from carbohydrates.
Individual caloric requirements vary,
depending on body size, sex, age, and
training mission. Foods rich in complex carbohydrates (for example, pasta,
rice, whole wheat bread, potatoes) are
the best sources of energy for active
and after exercise to prevent dehydration and help enhance performance. are helpful under certain circumstances. as do regular soda pops and most fruit juices. Soldiers on extended road marches can also benefit from drinking these types of glucose-containing beverages. It is also important to avoid simple sugars. these drinks should be used with caution during intense endurance training and other similar activities. such as candy. Therefore.5+ hours) at intensities over 50 percent of heart rate reserve. nausea. up to 60 minutes before exercising. water lost through sweating must be replaced or poor performance. during. Cool. Many people believe that body builders need large quantities of . these beverages can provide a source of carbohydrate for working muscles. There is evidence that solutions containing up to 10 percent carbohydrate will enter the blood fast enough to deliver additional glucose to the active muscles. drinks that exceed levels of 10 percent carbohydrate. Figure 6-5 6-5 Sports drinks. It plays an important role in maintaining normal body temperature. Soldiers often fail to drink enough water. and possibly injury. especially when training in the heat. Water is an essential nutrient that is critical to optimal physical performance. can result. plain water is the best drink to use to replace the fluid lost as sweat. can lead to abdominal cramps. because they can lead to low blood sugar levels during exercise. Sweat consists primarily of water with small quantities of minerals like sodium. and diarrhea. which are usually simple carbohydrates (sugars) and electrolytes dissolved in water. The evaporation of sweat helps cool the body during exercise. As a result.Because foods eaten one to three days before an activity provide part of the fuel for that activity. This can improve endurance. Soldiers should drink water before. On the other hand. it is important to eat foods every day that are rich in complex carbohydrates. Figure 6-5 shows recommendations for fluid intake when exercising. During intense training. During prolonged periods of exercise (1. one can benefit from periodically drinking sports drinks with a concentration of 5 to 10 percent carbohydrate.
one’s need for protein might be somewhat higher (for example.protein to promote better muscle growth. Recent research suggests that weight trainers may need no more protein per kilogram of body weight than average. The primary functions of protein are to build and repair body tissue and to form enzymes. 1. 6-6 .5 grams per kilogram of body weight per day). vitamins. Most Americans routinely consume these levels of protein. The “meal. Because the foods are enriched and fortified with vitamins and minerals. They must also drink plenty of water or other non-alcoholic beverages. Weight lifters. It is a nutritionally adequate ration when all of its components are eaten and adequate amounts of water are consumed. nonathletic people. Protein is believed to contribute little. protein. ready to eat” (MRE) supplies the needed amount of carbohydrates. The body converts protein consumed in excess of caloric needs to fat and stores it in the body. if any. who have a high proportion of lean body mass.0 to 1. Soldiers who are in weight control programs or who are trying to lose weight can eat part of each MRE item. as recommended by dietitians. and minerals. Nutrition in the Field Soldiers in the field must eat enough food to provide them with the energy they need. can easily meet their protein requirement with a well-balanced diet which has 15 to 20 percent of its calories provided by protein. or more. to the total energy requirement of heavyresistance exercises. During periods of intense aerobic training. The recommended dietary allowance of protein for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight. fat. Most people meet this level when about 15 percent of their daily caloric intake comes from protein. each component is a major source of nutrients. Soldiers must eat all the components in order to get the daily military recommended dietary allowances (MRDA) and have an adequate diet in the field.
circuits can be organized to exercise all the fitness components in a short period of time. Each has distinct advantages. Commanders with a good understanding of the principles of circuit training may apply them to a wide variety of training situations and environments. Circuits are designed to provide exercise to groups of soldiers at intensities which suit each person’s fitness level. and no signal is given to move from one station to the next. there is no set time for staying at each station. or any combination of these. a specific length of time is set for each station. the free circuit requires little supervision. Aside from this.This chapter gives commanders and trainers guidance in designing and using exercise circuits. Circuits A circuit is a group of stations or areas where specific tasks or exercises are performed. Almost any area can be used. and any number of soldiers can exercise for various lengths of time. doing a fixed number of repetitions at each station. VARIABLES IN CIRCUIT TRAINING Several variables in circuit training must be considered. Progress is measured by the time needed to complete a circuit. Circuit training is a term associated with specific training routines. Because soldiers may do incomplete or fewer repetitions than called for to reduce this time. A little imagination can make circuit training an excellent addition to a unit’s total physical fitness program. • Increase the number of times soldiers go through the circuit. and soldiers rotate through the stations on command. but increase the number of repetitions. Free Circuit In a free circuit. Circuits can also be designed to concentrate on sports skills. A circuit is a group of stations or areas where specific tasks or exercises are performed. 7-1 TYPES OF CIRCUITS The two basic types of circuits are the free circuit and the fixed circuit. It describes calisthenic exercises for developing strength. endurance. muscular endurance. In addition. and speed. The task or exercise selected for each station and the arrangement of the stations is determined by the objective of the circuit. it can provide both fun and a challenge to soldiers’ physical and mental abilities. number of stations. At the same time. It also describes grass drills and guerilla exercises which are closely related to soldiering skills and should be regularly included in the unit’s physical fitness program. and flexibility. The time is monitored with a stopwatch. These include CR endurance. flexibility. Circuits can promote fitness in a broad range of physical and motor fitness areas. These include the time. number of . Soldiers work at their own pace. strength. There are three basic ways to increase the intensity or difficulty of a fixed circuit: • Keep the time for completion the same. the quality and number of the repetitions done should be monitored. coordination. soldiers’ common tasks. Fixed Circuit In a fixed circuit. • Increase the time per station along with the number of repetitions.
Having enough equipment reduces bottlenecks. Consider also the time it takes to move from one station to the next. Each station must then be equipped to handle four soldiers. Further. and sequence of stations. As soldiers become better conditioned. and poor results. a circuit may have ten stations. Difficult exercises can be alternated with less difficult ones. 7-2 The designer must consider the specific parts of the body and the components of fitness on which soldiers need to concentrate. soldiers can start a circuit at any station and still achieve the objective by completing the full circuit. number of stations. respectively. the time at each station should always be the same to avoid confusion and help maintain control. Number of Stations The objective of the circuit and time and equipment available strongly influence the number of stations. while muscular endurance work may be secondary. circuits to develop both strength and CR fitness may have as many as 20 stations. number of times the circuit is completed. Time One of the first things to consider is how long it should take to complete the circuit. Soldiers may run through the circuit three times. Another option is to have four rotations of the circuit. and taking 15 seconds to move between stations. A circuit geared for a limited objective (for example. It is vital in a free circuit that no soldier stand around waiting for equipment. Number of Soldiers If there are 10 stations and 40 soldiers to be trained.time. slowdowns. On the other hand. number of soldiers. For example. developing lower-body strength) needs as few as six to eight stations. The designer must first identify the training objective in order to choose the appropriate exercises. the soldiers should be divided into 10 groups of four each. After the warm-up. For example. . in this instance a rope jumping station must have at least four jump ropes. soldiers may have to repeat the same circuit several times. Determine Objectives The designer must consider the specific parts of the body and the components of fitness on which soldiers need to concentrate. The six steps below cover the most important aspects of circuit development. On the other hand. exercising for 30 seconds at each station. improving cardiorespiratory endurance may be the top priority. DESIGNING A CIRCUIT The designer of a circuit must consider many factors. allow from five to seven minutes both before and after running a circuit for warming up and cooling down. These are discussed below. Sequence of Stations Stations should be arranged in a sequence that allows soldiers some recovery time after exercising at strenuous stations. For example. When a fixed circuit is run. The exercise time at each station may be reduced to 20 seconds the second and third time through. increasing muscular strength may be the primary objective. The whole workout takes less than 45 minutes including warm-up and cool-down. Number of Times a Circuit is Completed To achieve the desired training effect. exercise periods may be increased to 30 seconds or longer for all three rotations.
instructions for the stations are written on the signs. and all other useful information. The sketch should include the activity and length of time at each station. each muscle has 7-3 a chance to recover before it is used in another exercise. In the gymnasium. in a strength training circuit. and guerrilla drills described in this chapter. If the designer wants to include running or jogging a certain distance between stations. Sample Conditioning Circuits Figures 7-1. soldiers may run five laps or for 20 to 40 seconds between stations. The necessary equipment is placed at each station. calisthenics. For example. he should not limit the circuit to only these activities.) Arrange the Stations A circuit usually has 8 to 12 stations. Prepare a Sketch The designer should draw a simple sketch that shows the location of each station in the training area. After deciding how many stations to include. exercisers may follow the pushing motion of a bench press with the pulling motion of the seated row. soldiers can alternate hard exercises with easier ones. and 7-3 show different types of conditioning circuits. The choice of exercises depends on the objectives of the circuit.Select the Activities The circuit designer should list all the exercises or activities that can help meet the objectives. This could be followed by the pushing motion of the overhead press The choice of exercises which could be followed by the pulling for circuit training motion of the lat pull-down. the same muscle group should not be exercised at consecutive stations. However. By not exercising the same muscle group twice in a row. he may do this in several ways. Imagination and field expediency are important elements in developing circuits that hold the interest of soldiers. 7-2. spreading the available. the designer must decide how to arrange them. in a circuit for strength training. Select the Training Sites Circuits may be conducted outdoors or indoors. One approach is to alternate “pushing” exercises with “pulling” exercises which involve movement at the same joint(s). stations too far apart may cause problems with control and supervision. Another depends on the objectives approach might be to alternate between upper and lower body exercises. but it may have as many as 20. conditioning drills. Then he should look at each item on the list and ask the following questions: ● Will equipment be needed? Is it available? ● Will supervision be needed? Is it available? ● Are there safety factors to consider? Answering these questions helps the designer decide which exercises to use. Outdoors. they may run laps or run between spread-out stations if space is However. (See Figures 7-1 through 7-3. He can choose from the exercises. If some exercises are harder than others. of the circuit. grass drills. the number of stations. Soldiers should work at each station 45 seconds and have 15 seconds to rotate to the next station. In some cases. For example. Lay Out the Stations The final step is to lay out the stations which should be numbered and clearly marked by signs or cards. .
Figure 7-1 7-4 .
Figure 7-2 7-5 .
Figure 7-3 7-6 .
horizontal ladder. Calisthenics can be used to exercise most of the major muscle groups of the body. the possibility of straining the lower back increases. because of predisposing conditions or injuries. such as trainees. 7-7 . Using such exercises for unconditioned soldiers increases the risk of injury and accident. Finally. All modifications should be strictly adhered to. flexibility. however. may find certain exercises less safe than others. slow stretching exercises. and strength. use 50 counts per minute unless otherwise directed. This is especially true if someone has had a previous injury to the back. will derive the greatest benefit from many of these exercises Although calisthenics have some value when included in a CR circuit or when exercising to music. with the lower back properly supported. ballistic (that is. With a slow SAFETY FACTORS While injury is always possible in any vigorous physical activity. However. They can help develop coordination. some people. use 80 counts per minute. Calisthenics cadence. The keys to avoiding injury while gaining training benefits are using correct form and intensity. not conditioning drills done to cadence. knee bender. For example. If this type of action is performed. parallel bar dip. soldiers with low fitness levels. However. lunger. and chin-up/pull-up. CR and muscular encurance. Therefore. few calisthenic exercises are really unsafe or dangerous. following the directions written below will produce satisfactory results with a minimum risk of injury. wheelbarrow. shouId not do the advanced exercises highly fit soldiers can do.Calisthenics can be used to help develop coordination. and strength. On the other hand. should be used. quick-moving) exercises that combine rotation and bending of the spine increase the risk of back injury and should be avoided. for the average soldier who is of sound body. flexibility. which were once deleted from FM 2120 because of their potential risk to the exerciser. a certain level of muscular strength is needed to do them safely. and leg spreader. on the other hand. Nonetheless. It is not sensible to have recruits do multiple sets of flutter kicks because they probably are not conditioned for them. When doing exercises at a moderate cadence. CR and muscular endurance. flutter kicks are an excellent way to condition the hip flexor muscles. can effectively be used in the conditioning period to develop muscular endurance or muscular strength. a conditioned Ranger company may use multiple sets of flutter’ kicks with good results. Also. However. without support. Leaders must consider each of their soldier’s physical limitations and use good judgment before letting a soldier perform these exercises. The key to doing calisthenic exercises safely is to use common sense. for the average soldier. soldiers should progressively train to build up to these exercises. These calisthenics are noted. some of the calisthenics listed below may be done in cadence. Poorly-coordinated soldiers. and directions are provided below with respect to the actions and cadence. Few exercises are inherently unsafe. and crab-walk exercises. have been modified and reintroduced in this edition. Also. Please note that exercises such as the bend and reach. progressive manner. calisthenics such as the bend and reach. These exercises are beneficial when the soldier is fit and he does them in a regular. and side-straddle hop can best be used in the warm-up and cooldown periods. lunger. sit-up. Some soldiers complain of shoulder problems resulting from rope climbing. Exercises such as the push-up. squat bender.
• Do not allow the angle formed by the upper and lower legs to become less than 90 degrees when the legs are bearing weight. develops all the fitness components. and follows the seven principles of exercise while. However. For example. The following are key points for ensuring safety during stretching and calisthenic exercises: • Stretch slowly and without pain and unnatural stress to a joint. soldiers can benefit from doing partner-resisted exercises followed by a slow run. it minimizes injuries caused by overuse. The best technique is to train alternate muscle groups and/or fitness components on different days. To ensure balance and regularity in the program.Progression and Recovery Key Points for Safety Other important principles for avoiding injury are progression and recovery. effective training methods and answer questions about training techniques. Doing safe exercises correctly improves a soldier’s fitness with a minimum risk of injury. 7-8 .” They should know how to correctly do all the exercises in their program and teach their soldiers to train using good form to help avoid injuries. ballistic (bouncy or jerky) stretching movements. If the Tuesday-Thursday (T-Th) objective is muscular endurance and strength. unit’s Master Fitness Trainer is schooled to provide safe. Programs that try to do too much too soon invite problems. Such a program has variety. if soldiers are working the same muscle groups and/or fitness components. controlled movements with little or no extra weight. not to conduct “gut checks. they should work them at a reduced intensity to minimize stress and permit recovery. if done. cooling down. • A combination of spinal rotation and bending should generally be avoided. Leaders should plan PT sessions to get a positive training effect. Leaders must be aware of the variety of methods they may use to attain The their physical training goals. use only slow. Use static (slow and sustained) stretching for warming up. the next week should have muscle endurance and strength development on M-W-F and training for CR endurance on TTh. The day after a “hard” training day. at the same time. CALISTHENIC EXERCISES The following are some common calisthenic exercises. if the Monday-WednesdayFriday (M-W-F) training objective is CR fitness. soldiers can do ability group running at THR with some light calisthenics and stretching.
Figure 7-4 shows three calisthenic conditioning drills for both the poorly conditioned and physically fit soldiers. Using timed sets. Soldiers should respond to commands as fast as possible and do all movements at top speed. For timed 7-17 sets. which. However. The following conditioning drills (Figure 7-4) are arranged according to the phase of training. when properly done. soldiers do as many repetitions of an exercise as possible in the allowed time. based on the fitness level of the soldiers being trained.CONDITIONING DRILLS Conditioning drills are intended to supplement muscular strength and endurance training sessions. Some large units prefer to use sets of calisthenic exercises as part of their PT sessions. they should choose and sequence them to alternate the muscle groups being worked. exercise all the major muscle groups. Leaders can mix the exercises to provide greater intensity. They may also do each exercise in cadence unless timed sets are specified. Grass Drills Grass drills are exercise movements that feature rapid changes in body These are vigorous drills position. Soldiers should do each exercise progressively from 15 to 40 or more repetitions (20 to 60 seconds for timed sets) based on their level of conditioning. No cadence is counted. The drills are designed to be done progressively and are intended to supplement muscular strength and endurance training sessions. . both the wellconditioned and less-fit soldiers can work themselves to their limits. They continue to do multiple repetitions of each exercise until the next command is given.
The soldiers should do a warm-up before performing the drills and do a cool-down afterward. The instructor does all the activities so that he can gauge the intensity of the session. and they do each exercise until the 7-18 Grass drills are exercise movements that feature rapid changes in body position. The commands for grass drills are given in rapid succession without the usual preparatory commands.Figure 7-4 Performing grass drills can improve CR endurance. commands are given sharply to distinguish them from comments or words of encouragement. they do all the exercises as vigorously and rapidly as possible. they should last for short periods (30 to 45 seconds per exercise). help develop muscular endurance and strength. Since these drills are extremely strenuous. The two drills described here each have four exercises. Leaders can develop additional drills locally. . To prevent confusion. and speed up reaction time. As soon as the soldiers are familiar with the drill.
To change from the BACK to the FRONT position. ) ● ATTENTION: The position of at tention is described in FM 22-5. For example.) To change from the FRONT to the BACK position (Figure 7-5). 7-19 GO This involves running in place at top speed on the balls of the feet. Once the drills start.to 15-minute workout may be appropriate. pumps his arms.) ● . Lifts his arm on the side toward which his feet move. When his feet are opposite his hands. Sometimes. If he sees that the drill needs to be longer. the soldier changes positions vigorously and rapidly. Progression is made by a gradual increase in the time devoted to the drills. His knuckles are on the ground. The extended-rectangular formation is best for a platoon. soldiers assume a relaxed. and bends forward slightly at the waist. bring the soldiers to a position of ATTENTION.or section-sized groups. standing position. BACK. The second drill is harder than the first. Drill and Ceremonies. As the fitness of the soldiers improves. The instructor uses the command “Up” to halt the drill for instructions or rest. his right arm is straight. After the warm-up. ● STOP The soldier assumes the stance of a football lineman with feet spread and staggered. The soldier raises his knees high. Most movements are done in place. Anything less than a top-speed performance decreases the effectiveness of the drills. The drills begin with the command GO. Other basic commands are FRONT. BACK: The soldier lies flat on his back with his arms extended along his sides and his palms facing down ward. His left arm is across his left thigh. ● Thrusts his legs vigorously to the front. When soldiers are starting an exercise program. The legs are straight and together with the head toward the instructor. At this command. He places both hands on the ground to the right or left of his legs. He takes several short steps to the rear on the side opposite his hands. his head is up. and STOP. STARTING POSITIONS Progression with grass drills is made by a gradual increase in the time devoted to the drills. To assume the FRONT or BACK position from the standing GO or STOP positions.Soldiers should do a warm -up before performing grass drills and do a cooldown afterward. Grass drills can be done in a short time. (See Figure 7-5. he can repeat the exercises or combine the two drills.or company-sized unit. his feet face the instructor. they are a good substitute for running. soldiers do not have to resume the position of attention. as soldiers progress in the first drill. the soldier does the following: ● Takes several short steps to the right or left. next command is given. His legs are straight and to gether. (See Figure 7-5. the instructor should introduce the second. ● FRONT The soldier lies prone with elbows bent and palms directly under the shoulders as in the down position of the push up. (See Figure 7-5 for the positions and actions associated with these commands. he thrusts his legs vigorously to the rear and lowers his body to the ground. the soldier sits up quickly. if time is limited. the times should be gradually lengthened to 20 minutes. a 10. Therefore. The circle formation is more suitable for squad. and his back is roughly parallel to the ground. they may be used when only a few minutes are available for exercise or when combined with another activity.
Figure 7-5 7-20 .
continue to roll in the direction commanded until another command is given. From the STOP position. extend the arms forward. and slightly bend the knees to ease pressure on the lower back. tuck the head. Supine Bicycle Leg Spreader From the BACK position. 7-21 . and interlace the fingers.” “Run on the toes and balls of your feet. flex the hips and knees. raise the legs until the heels are no higher than six inches off the ground. one. From the BACK position. However. Move the right arm and left leg up and down. tucked while rolling. move the left arm and right leg up and down. lean GRASS DRILL TWO Exercises for grass drill two are described below and shown in Figure 7-6. Throughout. while in the air. Bounce up and down in a series of short. clap the hands. start running in place at the GO command by lifting the left foot first. This action requires a more vigorous bounce or spring. four. The curl-up may be substituted for this exercise. place the hands under the upper part of the buttocks. upward springs from the hands. two. Bring the knee of one leg upward toward the chest. Make sure the knees do not bend to an angle less than 90 degrees. Open and close the legs as fast as possible. At the same time. The pushup may be substituted for this exercise. three. four. Continue these movements as opposite legs and arms take turns.” The instructor then gives informal commands such as the following: “Follow me. “One. The procedure is almost the same as for the bouncing ball in grass drill one. push up and support the body on the hands (shoulder-width apart) and feet. two. For example. Bouncing Ball Bounce and Clap Hands From the FRONT position. then put them back together. Keep the head and roll forward. Follow the instructor as he counts two repetitions of cadence. From the position of ATTENTION. return to the FRONT position. Keep the head off the ground. Place the palms directly on top of the head. Continue in an alternating manner. Roll Left and Right Stationary Run From the FRONT position. Keep the back and legs generally in line and the knees straight.” “Increase to a sprint. raise your knees high. Then. Repeat with the other leg and elbow. place both hands on the ground. then. do half-knee bends with the feet in line and the hands at the sides. Spread the legs apart as far as possible. curl the trunk and head upward while touching the opposite elbow to the elevated knee.GRASS DRILL ONE The Swimmer Exercises for grass drill one are described below and shown in Figure 7-6. simultaneous. hips. From the FRONT position.” “Speed it up. and feet. Knee Bender Forward Roll From the position of ATTENTION. three.
” Figure 7-6 7-22 . the instructor counts two repetitions of cadence as the left foot strikes the ground: “One. two.forward at your waist. four. three. HALT. and pump your arms vigorously.” To halt the exercise. three.” and “Slow it down. one. two.
and a cool-down should follow them. they can do these exercises easily and quickly in almost any situation. the Figure 7-7 7-23 instructor steps into the center and issues commands. However. For the double guerrilla exercises (in circle formation) involving two soldiers. If the platoon exceeds 30 soldiers. A warm-up activity should precede these exercises.Guerilla Exercises Soldiers progress with guerilla exercises by shortening the quicktime marching periods between exercises and by doing all the exercises a second time. and to some degree muscular strength. These drills require soldiers to change their positions quickly and do various basic skills while moving forward.” The command “Quick time. Guerrilla exercises. concentric circles may be used. The instructor decides the duration for each exercise by observing its effect on the soldiers. each exercise should be continued for 20 to 40 seconds. The preparatory command is always the name of the exercise. the commands for pairing are as follows: . which can be used to improve agility. CR endurance. Figures 7-7 and 7-8 show these exercises. Many soldiers have not had a chance to do the simple skills involved in guerrilla exercises. combine individual and partner exercises. muscular endurance. After the circle is formed. The group moves in circle formation while doing the exercises. Depending on how vigorously it is done. EXERCISE AND PROGRESSION Soldiers progress by shortening the quick-time marching periods between exercises and by doing all exercises a second time. This produces an overload that improves fitness. and the command of execution is always “March. march” ends each exercise.
feet first. touch the right knee to the right elbow. Be sure to keep the arms parallel to the ground throughout the entire exercise. Swing the arms vigorously to help with the jumps. All-Fours Run Face downward. Bottoms-Up Walk Hobble Hopping Take the front-leaning rest position. count off.) ● “You are now paired up for double guerrillas. The Engine Stand with the arms straight and in front of the body. leaping to the right with the left foot and to the left with the right foot. move up behind odd numbers.● “Platoon halt. walk forward on the hands to the frontleaning-rest position. Double Time Do a double-time run while maintaining the circle formation. While walking forward.” ● “From (soldier is designated). by twos.” (Pairs are adjusted according to height and weight. 1-2. forward as fast as possible by moving the arms and legs forward in a coordinated way. Straddle Run Run forward. Return to the start position. soldiers are designated as number one (odd-numbered) and number two (even-numbered). supporting the body Advance on the hands and feet. The arms should be parallel to the ground with the palms facing downward. Recover to the start position. After the exercises are completed. post. and move the feet toward the hands in short steps while keeping the knees locked. For two-man carries.) ● “Even numbers. “Base man (or platoon guide). When the feet are as close to the hands as possible. On the command “Change. Hold one foot behind the back with the opposite hand and hop forward.” The command “Change” is given to change the soldiers’ positions. the instructor halts the soldiers and positions the base soldier or platoon guide by commanding.” grasp the opposite foot with the opposite hand and hop forward. Two-Man Carry Crab Walk Assume a sitting position with the hips off the ground and hands and feet supporting the body’s weight.” He then commands “Fall out and fall in on the base man (or platoon guide).” EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS Brief explanations of guerrilla exercises follow. A number-one and numbertwo soldier work as partners. 7-24 . 1-2.” (For example: 12. bring the left knee upward to the left elbow. Continuing to walk forward. Broad Jump Jump forward on both feet in a series of broad jumps. Walk forward.
The fireman’s carry can also be done from the other side. reaches around his partner’s legs. Number two soldier. Number-one soldier moves toward his partner. number-two soldier bends at the waist with feet apart in a balanced stance. they move forward until the command for changeover. As number-one soldier climbs on. He places his abdominal area onto his partner’s right or left shoulder and leans over. with feet apart in a balanced stance. number-one soldier moves toward his partner. To assume the piggyback position. Number-one soldier places his arms over his partner’s shoulders and crosses his hands over his partner’s upper chest. being careful not to grab his partner’s neck or head. numbertwo soldier. places his hands on his partner’s shoulders. On command. When in position. holding his partner on his back. number-one soldier moves toward his partner’s left side and leans over his partner’s back. they move forward until the command for changeover. They then change positions. with his left arm. They then change positions. On command. number-two soldier bends over at the waist. He then stands up straight. On command. On command. with his left hand. At the same time. number-two soldier bends at the waist and knees with his hand on his knees and his head up. reaches between his partner’s legs and grasps his left wrist. Saddle-Back (Piggyback) Carry Single-Shoulder Carry Two soldiers do the carry. On command. They then change positions. number-two soldier bends at the waist. number-two soldier grasps his partner’s legs to help support him. they move forward until the command for changeover. he reaches around his partner’s back with his right arm. They move forward until the command for changeover is given. . Cross Carry On command. and climbs carefully onto his partner’s hips. At the same time. slightly to the left with feet spread apart in a balanced position. At the same time. He twists 7-25 On command. They then change positions. He places himself by his partner’s left shoulder and bends himself over his partner’s shoulders and back.Fireman’s Carry Two soldiers do the carry. Number-two soldier puts his arms around the back of his partner’s knees and stands up. number-one soldier moves behind his partner.
Figure 7-8 7-26 .
8-1 When planning and building such facilities. Commanders should use ingenuity in building courses. confidence courses are not run against time. Unlike conditioning courses. consider the following guidance: ● Secure approval from the local installation's commander. They must take every precaution to minimize injuries as soldiers go through obstacle courses. at a minimum. Keep a copy of the approval in the permanent records. hills. ● Monitor and analyze all injuries. agility. They must inspect courses for badly built obstacles. more difficult obstacles than a conditioning course. they should post an instruction board or sign with text and pictures showing how to negotiate it. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Instructors must always be alert to safety. should be filled with loose sand or sawdust. but not forced. and areas under or around obstacles where soldiers may fall from a height. NONSTANDARD COURSES AND OBSTACLES Commanders may build obstacles and courses that are nonstandard (that is. coordination. and demonstrate leadership. For this reason. not covered in this manual) in order to create training situations based on t h e i r u n i t ' s M E T L . making good use of streams. and related skills and abilities. unsafe landing pits.This chapter describes obstacle courses as well as rifle drills. ● Prepare a safety and health-risk assessment to support construction o f e a c h o b s t a c l e . There are steps which designers can take to reduce injuries. After soldiers receive instruction and practice the skills. obstacle courses are valuable for physical training. and other natural obstacles. Landing pits for jumps or vaults. rocks. Soldiers must do warm-up exercises before they begin. rotten logs. ● Inspect all existing safety precautions on-site to verify their effectiveness. This prepares them for the physically demanding tasks ahead and helps minimize the chance of injury. Soldiers are encouraged. Many of these activities also give soldiers the chance to plan strategy. ● Coordinate approval for each obstacle with the local or supporting safety office. learn teamwork. A confidence course has higher. to go through it. Commanders should use them to add variety to their PT programs and to help soldiers develop motor fitness including speed. A cool-down after the obstacle course is also necessary. It gives soldiers confidence in their mental and physical abilities and cultivates their spirit of daring. and because they help develop and test basic motor skills. For example. There are two types of obstacle courses--conditioning and confidence. and other safety hazards. they run the course against time. These are not designed to develop specific components of physical fitness. at the approach to each obstacle. designers should. as it helps the body recover from strenuous exercise. The conditioning course has low obstacles that must be negotiated quickly. protruding nails. and aquatic exercises. Running the course can be a test of the soldier’s basic motor skills and physical condition. make split-second decisions. ● Review each obstacle to determine the need for renewing its approval. log drills. trees. Obstacle Courses There are two types of obstacle coursesconditioning and confidence. Physical performance and success in combat may depend on a soldier’s ability to perform skills like those required on the obstacle course. All .
Before they run the course against time. Soldiers should attain an adequate level of conditioning before they run the confidence course. a previously determined penalty is imposed. These could result in improper landing techniques and serious injuries. Puddles of water under obstacles can cause a false sense of security.landing areas should be raked and refilled before each use. Soldiers may run the course with or without individual equipment. The best way for the timer to time the runners is to stand at the finish and call out the minutes and seconds as each soldier finishes. The obstacles are arranged so that those which exercise the same groups of muscles are separated from one another. Soldiers must be in proper physical condition.) 8-2 Instructors must explain and demonstrate the correct ways to negotiate all obstacles before allowing soldiers to run them. closely supervised. and landing pits for jumps or vaults must be filled with sand or sawdust. and a unit roster are needed. Soldiers should never be allowed to run the course against time until they have practiced on all the obstacles. trenches to jump into. the last two or three obstacles should not be too difficult or involve high climbing. The emphasis is on avoiding injury. Instructors must explain and demonstrate the correct ways to negotiate all obstacles before allowing soldiers to run them. The obstacles must be solidly built. and adequately instructed. or hurdles. If only one watch is available. the waves are started at regular intervals such as every 30 seconds. they should make several slow runs while the instructor watches and makes needed corrections. Sometimes. Soldiers should practice each obstacle until they are able to negotiate it. Soldiers who have not practiced the basic skills or run the conditioning course should not be allowed to use the confidence course. Courses should be built and marked so that soldiers cannot sidestep obstacles or detour around them. Each course should be wide enough for six to eight soldiers to use at the same time. If a soldier fails to negotiate an obstacle. (See Figure 8-l. however. Leaders should postpone training on obstacle courses when wet weather makes them slippery. Trainers must always be aware that falls from the high obstacles could cause serious injury. more dangerous obstacles. A course usually ranges from 300 to 450 yards and has 15 to 25 obstacles that are 20 to 30 yards apart. stopwatches. . an obstacle course should be shaped like a horseshoe or figure eight so that the finish is close to the start. congestion is avoided and soldiers can spread out on the course. each wave of soldiers is timed separately. courses can provide alternate obstacles that vary in difficulty. signs should be placed to show the route. Also. thus encouraging competition. heights to jump from. If several watches are available. To minimize the possibility of falls and injuries due to fatigue. CONDITIONING OBSTACLE COURSES If possible. Assistant instructors should supervise the negotiation of higher. pens. Sharp points and corners should be eliminated. In this way. Obstacles for Jumping These obstacles are ditches to clear with one leap. When the course is run against time. Units should prepare their soldiers to negotiate obstacle courses by doing conditioning exercises beforehand. Peeled logs that are six to eight inches wide are ideal for most of them. The lanes for the first few obstacles should be wider and the obstacles easier than those that follow.
3 between the posts are narrow so that soldiers must pick their way carefully through and around them. Lane guides are built to guide soldiers in dodging and changing direction.Obstacles for Dodging These obstacles are usually mazes of posts set in the ground at irregular intervals. (See Figure 8-2. .) The spaces Figure 8-1 Figure 8-2 8 .
(See Figure 8-4. ● Walls 7 or 8 feet high.) Figure 8-3 Figure 8-4 8-4 . ● Vertical poles 15 feet high and 6 to 8 inches wide. Obstacles for Horizontal Traversing Horizontal obstacles may be ropes. ● Cargo nets.Obstacles for Vertical Climbing and Surmounting These obstacles are shown at Figure 8-3 and include the following: ● Climbing ropes that are 1 1/2 inches wide and either straight or knotted. pipes. or beams.
(See Figure 8-5.) Figure 8-5 Figure 8-6 8-5 .) These obstacles should be 3 to 3 1/2 feet high.Obstacles for Crawling Obstacles for Vaulting These obstacles may be built of large pipe sections. or wire. (See Figure 8-6. low rails. Examples are fences and low walls.
In the example below.) Figure 8-7 CONFIDENCE OBSTACLE COURSES Confidence obstacle courses must be built in accordance with Folio No. Soldiers are separated into groups of 8 to 12 at each obstacle. safety nets are provided.” Corps of Engineers Drawing Number 28-13-95. Soldiers do not negotiate these obstacles at high speed or against time. Confidence courses can develop confidence and strength by using obstacles that train and test balance and muscular strength. You can obtain this publication from the Directorate of Facilities Engineering at most Army installations. one at each group of six obstacles. they proceed through the course. Instructors should encourage fearful soldiers to try the easier obstacles first. Soldiers may skip any obstacle they are unwilling to try. Each platoon begins at a different starting point. For these. and planks may be used. as their confidence improves. Soldiers progress through the course without individual equipment.Obstacles for Balancing Beams. The obstacles vary from fairly easy to difficult. Confidence courses should accommodate four platoons. At the starting signal. Gradually. and some are high. 1. Any similar method may be used to spread a group over the course. colors are used to group the obstacles. These may span water obstacles and dry ditches. or they may be raised off the ground to simulate natural depressions. they can 8-6 . Only one soldier at a time negotiates an obstacle unless it is designed for use by more than one. logs. “Training Facilities. (See Figure 8-7.
Soldiers who have not run the course before should receive a brief orientation at each obstacle. they should not roll or rock the log while others are negotiating it. Soldiers jump from one log to another until the obstacle is negotiated. Soldiers climb the reverse incline and go down the other side to the ground. Island Hopper. but not force. Rules for the Course Supervisors should encourage. they either alternate legs or use the same lead leg each time. soldiers to try every obstacle. Instructors should help those who have problems. Reverse Climb. Soldiers proceed from one obstacle to the next until time is called. Close supervision and common sense must be constantly used to enhance safety and prevent injuries. Soldiers move from one end of the obstacle to the other by weaving their bodies under one bar and over the next. Therefore. Soldiers vault. Balancing Logs. These are described below and numbered 1 through 6 in Figure 8-8. but there is a uniformity in the general approach. Recommended ways to negotiate obstacles are described below. Figure 8-8 8-7 Red Group This group contains the first six obstacles. They then assemble and move to the next group of obstacles. Soldiers step over each bar. or climb over the log. Soldiers need not conform to any one method of negotiating obstacles. Hip-Hip. rolling logs. Weaver.take their places in the normal rotation. Belly Buster. including an explanation and demonstration of the best way to negotiate it. Soldiers step up on a log and walk or run along it while keeping their balance. They must be warned that it is not stationary. Trainers and soldiers should not try to make obstacles more difficult by shaking ropes. jump. and so forth. .
White Group This group contains the second six obstacles. Easy Balancer. grasp the rope firmly. Tarzan. Only one soldier at a time is allowed on the rope. Soldiers mount the lowest log. Low Belly-Over. They hold the rope with their legs to distribute the weight between their legs and arms. Tough Nut. To reduce the tendency to push the crawling surface. keeping the belly area in contact with it. Soldiers must be warned that they may get rope burns on their hands. Soldiers step over each X in the lane. and swing their legs upward. Soldiers should not shake or bounce the ropes. This obstacle requires two instructors--one on the platform and the other at the base. walk the length of it. Inverted Rope Descent. it is filled with sand or sawdust to the far end of the obstacle. Braking the slide with their feet and legs. This obstacle can be dangerous when the rope is slippery. They grasp two rungs of the ladder and swing themselves into the air. Soldiers move forward under the wire on their bellies to the end of the obstacle. Belly Crawl. grasping a more distant rung each time. they proceed down the rope. These are described below and numbered 7 through 12 in Figure 8-9. They swing their legs over the log and lower themselves to the ground. They grasp over the top of the log with both arms. Soldiers leave the rope at a clearly marked point of release. Soldiers climb the tower. Figure 8-9 8-8 . Soldiers mount the low log and jump onto the high log. They negotiate the length of the ladder by releasing one hand at a time and swinging forward. then each higher log until they reach the horizontal ladder. Soldiers walk up one inclined log and down the one on the other side to the ground. The direction of negotiating the crawl is reversed from time to time.
they grasp the bar and go hand-over-hand to the rope on the opposite end. and Jump. Soldiers gain momentum with a short run. Stop. Low Wire. Wall Hanger. Soldiers walk up the wall using the rope. it is filled with sand or sawdust to the far end of the Figure 8-10 8-9 obstacle. These are described below and numbered 13 through 18 in Figure 8-10. The direction of negotiating the obstacle is alternated. Six Vaults. To reduce the tendency to push the crawling surface. Swing. . From the top of the wall. They use the rope to descend. Soldiers step over each log while alternating their lead foot or using the same one. They release the rope while standing on the wall and jump to the ground. High Step-over. Soldiers climb over the swing log to the ground on the opposite side.Blue Group This group contains the third six obstacles. grasp the rope. and swing their bodies forward to the top of the wall. Soldiers move under the wire on their backs while raising the wire with their hands to clear their bodies. Swinger. Soldiers vault over the logs using one or both hands.
Figure 8-11 8-10 . They move across the log walkway. Jump and Land. Inclining Wall. then climb down the cargo net to the ground.Black Group This group contains the last six obstacles. Soldiers climb the inclined ladder to the vertical ladder. and the obstacle should not be overloaded. Soldiers should not jump to the ground from above the first level. they go to the top of the vertical ladder. The top level or roof is off limits. They crawl over the logs to the opposite end of the obstacle. Soldiers step on the lower log and take a prone position on the horizontal logs. The Tough One. Soldiers approach the underside of the wall. and pull themselves up and over. then down the other side to the ground. A floor must not become so crowded that soldiers are bumped off. These are described below and numbered 19 through 24 in Figure 811. climb the ladder to the high end. Soldiers climb the ladder to the platform and jump to the ground. They slide or jump down the incline to the ground. jump up and grasp the top. Rope gaskets must be tied to the ends of each log to keep the hands from being pinched and the logs from falling. Confidence Climb. Skyscraper. They go over or between the logs at the top of the rope. Soldiers jump or climb to the first floor and either climb the corner posts or help one another to the higher floors. Soldiers climb the rope or pole on the lowest end of the obstacle. They descend to the ground individually or help one another down. Belly Robber.
) Fore-Up.” In exercises that end in other than the rifle-downward position. However. At the end of the exercise. Effective rifle exercises are strenuous enough to tire the arms. Squat EXERCISE PROGRESSION The rifle-drill exercise normally begins with six repetitions and increases by one repetition for each three periods of exercise. moving them with precision is difficult.” soldiers execute port arms and assume the starting position. RIFLE DRILL EXERCISES The following exercises are for use in rifle drills. These movements are done without command and need not be precise. (See Figure 8-12. the number of repetitions can be adjusted as the soldiers improve.) Fore-Up. (See Figure 8. on the command “Move. There are four rifle-drill exercises that develop the upper body. soldiers assume that position before executing port arms and order arms. the time consumed in drawing weapons makes this activity cumbersome for garrison use. (See Figure 8-13.) Fore-Up. Rifle drill is a fast-moving method of exercising that soldiers can do in as little as 15 minutes. the command to Figure 8-12 8-11 This is a four-count exercise done at a moderate cadence. move. Up and Forward This is a four-count exercise done at a fast cadence. and back. the number of steps and/or rifle exercises can be expanded beyond those described here. In most situations. In exercises that start from the rifledownward position. return soldiers to attention is “Position of attention. Back Bend This is a four-count exercise done at moderate cadence. it is a good conditioning activity. This rate continues until soldiers can do 12 repetitions. However.) .15. shoulders. With imagination. Behind Back This is a four-count exercise done at a moderate cadence.Rifle Drills Rifle drills are suitable activities for fitness training while bivouacking or during extended time in the field. They are numbered in a set pattern. and the use of individual weapons in training fosters a warrior’s spirit. (See Figure 814. The main muscle groups strengthened by rifle drills are those of the arms. When the arms are tired.
Figure 8-13 Figure 8-14 Figure 8-15 8-12 .
and arms between the legs. respectively. the left hand is under the log. They take their positions in the column according to shoulder height. and lead the drill. If more than one column is used.” move the left foot 12 inches to the left. If the group is larger than a platoon. Encircle the far side of the log with the left hand. This level is maintained until another drill is used. an instructor’s stand may be needed. (See 2. The logs should be from six to eight inches thick. smoothed. demonstrate. FORMATION All soldiers assigned to a log team should be about the same height at the shoulders. count off. they are divided into teams of six or eight. and they may vary from 14 to 18 feet long for six and eight soldiers. They are excellent for deLog drills are excellent veloping strength and muscular endurfor developing strength ance because they require the muscles and muscular endurance. and the right hand encircles its far side. The teams have six to eight soldiers per team. exercises numbered in a set pattern. Rings should be painted on the logs to show each soldier’s position. Soldiers continue this rate until they do 12 repetitions with no rest between exercises. with toes about four inches away. to contract under heavy loads. Ten yards should separate log teams within the columns. The teams form columns in front of the instructor. and teams should complete them in 15 minutes. 8-13 The command is “Count off by sixes (or eights). AREA AND EQUIPMENT Any level area is good for doing log drills. muscles to contract Log drills consist of six different under heavy loads. (See 1. the logs are stored on a rack above the ground. All exercises are done from a standing position. The 14-foot logs weigh about 300 pounds. and carries it to the exercise area.) Left-Hand Start Position. When not in use.) . Move On the command “Move.” Each team. STARTING DOSAGE AND PROGRESSION The starting session is six repetitions of each exercise.Log Drills Log drills are team-conditioning exercises. shoulders a log. Figure 8-16. Figure 8-16 shows the basic starting positions and commands. not head height. Keep the back straight. The best way to divide a platoon is to have them form a single file or column with short soldiers in front and tall soldiers at the rear. He must be familiar with leadership techniques for conditioning exercises and techniques peculiar to log drills. They because they require the also develop teamwork and add variety to the PT program. A principal instructor is required to teach. Holding the logs in chest position. Place the right hand under the log. goes to the log rack. The drills are intense. head up. The progression rate is an increase of one repetition for each three periods of exercise. START POSITIONS The soldiers fall in facing their log. When they are in position. Move This command is done the same way as the preceding command. they face the instructor and ground the log. and dried. the 18-foot logs about 400 pounds. in turn. 10 yards should separate columns. The logs should be stripped. Right-Hand Start Position. Figure 8-16. and lower the body into a flatfooted squat. However.
At the same time.” pull the log upward in one continuous motion to the right shoulder. Move This command is given from the right-hand-start position. Balance the log on the right shoulder with both hands. (See 3. move the left foot to the rear and stand up. Figure 8-16. Figure 8-16 8-14 . On the command “Move. facing left.) This movement cannot be done from the left-hand-start position because of the position of the hands.Right-Shoulder Position.
move the right foot to the rear.” At the command “Move.) This movement cannot be done from the right-hand-start position.) Keep the upper arms parallel to the ground. At the same time. pull the log waist high. figure 8-17. and stand up facing right. ” pull the log upward to the left shoulder in one continuous motion. To return the log to the ground from any of the above positions. Move From the right-hand-start position. Waist Position. This command is given after taking the waist position. (See 6. Position the hands and fingers so they are not under the log. Figure 8-17. the command is “Left-shoulder position. Move This command is given from the left-hand-start position. the command is “Start position. move. (See 5. Move Chest Position. On the command “Move. To move the log from the right to the left shoulder. move. Balance the log on the left shoulder with both hands.) Figure 8-17 8-15 . Figure 8-17. On the command “Move.” shift the log to a position high on the chest. bring the left arm under the log. Keep the arms straight and fingers laced under the log. (See 4. and the chest is lifted and arched.” slowly lower the log to the ground. and lower it to the opposite shoulder. and hold the log in the bend of the arms.Left-Shoulder Position. The body is inclined slightly to the rear.” Push the log overhead.
“Two’’-Recover to the start position.LOG-DRILL EXERCISES The following are log-drill exercises. with feet about shoulder-width apart. at the count of -“One’’-Push the log overhead until the elbows lock. “Four’’-Recover to the start position. Figure 8-18. Two-Arm Push-Up Start Position: Right. (See 2. Forward Bender Start Position: Chest position. Exercise 1. at the count of -“One’’-Bend forward at the waist while keeping the back straight and the knees slightly bent. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. “Two’’-Lower the log to the opposite shoulder.) Cadence: Moderate. “Four’’-Recover to the start position. Movement A four-count exercise. ‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. Movement: A four-count exercise. (See 1. Exercise 2.or leftshoulder position. Figure 8-18. Figure 8-18 8-16 . with feet about shoulder-width apart.) Cadence: Moderate.
) Cadence Moderate.Exercise 3. Figure 8-19 8-17 Exercise 4. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. “Two’’-Recover to the start position. Figure 8. .) Cadence: Moderate. change shoulders and do an equal number to the right side. “Four’’-Recover to the start position. Pull the log down with both hands to keep it from bouncing on the shoulder. Movement A four-count exercise. “Two’’-Recover to the start position. with feet together.19.or left-shoulder position. and fingers locked on top of the log. “Four’’-Recover to the start position. Figure 8-19. Side Bender Start Position: Right-shoulder position with the feet about shoulder-width apart. ‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. NOTE: After doing the required number of repetitions. (See 3. (See 4. at the count of-“One’’-Jump to a side straddle. at the count of-“One’’-Bend sideward to the left as far as possible. bending the left knee. Movement: A four-count exercise. Straddle Jump Start Position Right.
at the count of -“One’’-Straighten the knees and toss the log about 12 inches overhead. return it to the original shoulder. Catch the log with both hands. when caught.) Cadence: Slow. at the count of -“One’’-Flex the knees to a halfknee bend. Figure 8-20 8-18 . “Four’’-Recover to the start position.) Cadence: Moderate. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. lower the body into a quarter bend. “Four’’-Recover to the start position. “Two’’-Again. (NOTE: Pull forward and downward on the log throughout the exercise. toss the log into the air and.or leftshoulder position. and lower it toward the opposite shoulder.Exercise 5.) Start Position: Right-shoulder position with the feet about shoulder-width part. Movement: A four-count exercise. Figure 8-20. ) Exercise 6. with feet about shoulder-width apart. and fingers locked on top of the log. Half-Knee Bend Start Position: Right. (See 5. Overhead Toss (NOTE: Introduce this exercise only after soldiers have gained experience and strength by doing the other exercises for several sessions. As the log is caught. (See 6. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. Figure 8-20. Movement: A four-count exercise. “Two’’-Recover to the start position. The knees are at a quarter bend.
Next. It is sometimes called slimnastics. The body’s buoyancy helps minimize injuries to the joints of the lower legs and feet. Not only is it fun. and move it sideward toward the other leg as far as it can go. but they can wear boots and fatigues to increase the intensity of the activities. Then. an aquatic exercise program is ideal for soldiers who are overweight and those who are limited due to painful joints. Raise the outside leg sideward and upward from the hip. pull the leg back to the starting position. Aquatic training can improve muscular endurance. Most Army installations have swimming pools for conducting aquatic. and point the foot. ● Fins. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water. ● Hand paddles. a warm-up is required. pull the leg down to the starting position. EQUIPMENT Soldiers normally wear swim suits for aquatics. DURATION: 30 seconds ( 15 seconds per leg). back facing the wall of the pool. Leg-Over. DURATION: 20 seconds (10 seconds each leg). It exercises the whole body without jarring the bones and muscles. Leaders can tailor the variety and intensity of the exercises to the needs of all the soldiers in the unit.) Side Leg-Raises. Aquatic training is a good supplement to a unit’s PT program. turn the other side of the body to the wall. The following equipment is optional for training: ● Goggles. The following are some exercises that can be used in an aquatic workout. Allow five to seven minutes for the warm-up. (See Figure 8-21. Raise one leg back and up from the hip. ‘Warm-Up SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS One qualified lifeguard is needed for every 40 soldiers at all aquatic training sessions. Energetic music may be used to keep up the tempo of the workout. extend it. ● Kickboard. . it exposes soldiers to water and can make them more comfortable around it. 8-19 As in any PT session. and grasp the edge with the nearest hand. Next. weak muscles.Aquatic Exercise SAMPLE TRAINING PROGRAM Aquatics is a mode of physical training which helps one attain and maintain physical fitness through exercises in the water. ● Pull buoy. Rear Leg Lift. physical training sessions. They should never exercise in the deep end with or without flotation devices. raise one leg in front of the body away from the wall. Reach backward with the arms extended. Then. CR endurance. Repeat these actions with the other leg. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water with hands on the pool’s edge. Repeat these actions. Nonswimmers must remain in the shallow end of the pool. Alternate these actions back and forth with each leg. chest to the wall. Stand in chest to shoulder-deep water with either side of the body at arm’s length to the wall of the pool. flexibility. and perform the exercise with the other leg. ● Ear/nose plugs. It can be done in the water or on the deck. and lower it to the starting position. DURATION: 30 seconds (15 seconds per leg). and grasp the pool’s edge. coordination. or profiles. Because of its very low impact to the body. Then. Conditioning Phase Soldiers should exercise vigorously to get a training effect. and continue to alternate legs. and muscular strength. return the leg to the front-extended position.
Figure 8-21 8-20 .
extend the legs in front of the torso. Stride Hop. Next. Repeat the action with the right hand.to shoulder. simulate the action of the crawl stroke by pulling down and through the water with the hand. With feet together. Alternate bouncing on the left and right foot. rotate the head toward the left shoulder. and assume a supine position.to chest-deep water. Stretch the right arm far forward when the left knee is high and the left arm is stretched backward. Extend the arms backward. extend the legs in front of the torso. Then. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water. Stand in waist-deep water with the left arm at the side and the right arm extended straight overhead. back against the wall of the pool. Walk in waist. Then. moving the left leg forward and right leg backward. use a bouncing motion. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water. Repeat this twisting action. Alter8-21 nate left and right arm action. twist the legs slowly to the left. Brace the bottom hand against the pool’s wall with feet below the water’s surface. Side Straddle Hop. Twisting Legs.Alternate Toe Touch. DURATION 2 minutes. Repeat these actions. Simulate the overhand crawl stroke by reaching out with the left hand cupped and pressing the water downward to the thigh. Alternate these actions back and forth with each leg and opposite hand. Extend the arms backward. bending to the left. Repeat the stretching action to the right side. When the position of the arm is reversed. Forward. Bouncing. Stand in waist-deep water with hands on hips and feet together. DURATION: 1 minute. Then. 30 seconds each). return to the starting position. Stand in waistdeep water with hands on hips and feet together. The Bounce. Float in chest. Raise the left leg as in kicking while touching the elevated toe with the right hand. Upon landing. and push the left arm backward through the water. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water with arms at sides and feet together. At the same time. raise the knees to the chin. DURATION: 1 minute. DURATION 2 minutes. reverse to the right arm at the side and the left arm extended straight overhead. Side Bender. Poolside Knees Up. return to the starting position. and grasp the pool’s edge. Supine. and grasp the pool’s edge. DURATION 2 minutes. Walking Crawl. DURATION: 1 minute. Stand in waist-deep water with hands on hips and feet together. Bound in place in waist-deep water using high knee action. With feet together. and repeat the action. Jump. Repeat the action with the right foot. Stretch slowly. Return to the starting position. Stand in waist-deep water. Next. and repeat the jumping action. DURATION: 2 minutes. DURATION: 2 minutes. Rise on Toes. Repeat the action. and twist the legs slowly to the right. Then with the legs together. DURATION 1 minute. DURATION: 1 minute (2 sets. Bounce on the left foot while pushing down vigorously with both hands. hand holding the pool’s edge. jump again moving the right leg forward and left leg backward. Jump sideward and land with feet about two feet apart.deep water on either side of the body with the top arm extended. assume a crouching position by gringing the heels toward the hips by . Scissor Kick. Supine. DURATION: 2 minutes (maximum effort). Recover to the starting position. and repeat the action. back against the wall of the pool. Rise up using the toes. Bounding in Place with Alternate Arm Stretch. Jump high with feet together. and assume a supine position. lower the body to the starting position. and repeat the action. Then. arms at sides. Stand in chest-deep water.
maximum effort). repeat this action. Repeat these actions. Pull with the top hand. pull the upper body back to the wall. Grasp the pool’s edge. then return to the starting position.bending the knees. squeeze them back together (scissoring). DURATION: 2 minutes (maximum effort). arms straight and in front of the body and parallel to the water with the palms facing downward. DURATION 10 to 20 minutes. Push Away. Vigorously push the chest back from the wall by straightening the arms. 30 seconds each. 30 seconds each with 5-second rests between sets). 30 seconds each). DURATION 1 to 2 minutes (2 sets). with equal vigor. toes pointed. Then. This activity can be stationary. Front Flutter Kick. Move in a running gait in chest-to shoulder-deep water with arms and hands under the water’s surface. raise the left knee to the left elbow. Then. DURATION 1 minute (2 sets. Continuing to walk forward. Stand in chestto shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s wall. Stand in chestto shoulder. The Engine. It should last from five to seven minutes. straighten and spread the legs with the top leg extending backward. The Iegs should simulate a whip’s action.deep water facing the pool’s wall. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s wall and at arm’s length from it. DURATION: 2 minutes (4 sets. Running. and bend the arms so that the body is leaning toward the wall of the pool. raise the body up and out of the water while extending the arms. knee joint loose but straight. Be sure to keep the arms parallel to the water throughout the exercise. The propulsive force of the kick will tend to cause the body to rise to the water’s surface. 8-22 . Runners must concentrate on high knee action and good arm movement. Place the hands on the edge or gutter of the pool. DURATION 1 minute (2 sets. ankles flexible. Grasp the pool’s edge or gutter and assume a prone position with legs extended just below the water’s surface. kick flutter style. Then. When the legs are extended and spread. While walking forward. and push with the bottom hand. or the exerciser may run from poolside to poolside. Stand in chest-to shoulder-deep water. Gutter Push-Ups. Cool-Down This is required to gradually bring the body back to its pre-exercise state. touch the right knee to the right elbow. Then. and return to the starting position.
activities help in the
assets that are vital to
Physical fitness is one of the foundations of combat readiness, and maintaining it must be an integral part of
every soldier’s life. This chapter discusses competitive fitness activities
and athletic events that commanders
can use to add variety to a unit’s
physical fitness program. There is also
a section on developing a unit intramural program. Athletic and competitive fitness activities are sports events
which should only be used to supplement the unit’s PT program. They
should never replace physical training
and conditioning sessions but, rather,
should exist to give soldiers a chance
for healthy competition. Only through
consistent, systematic physical conditioning can the fitness components be
developed and maintained.
Crucial to the success of any program is the presence and enthusiasm of
the leaders who direct and participate
in it. The creativity of the physical
training planners also plays a large role.
Competitive fitness and athletic activities must be challenging. They must be
presented in the spirit of fair play and
It is generally accepted that competitive sports have a tremendous positive influence on the physical and
emotional development of the participants. Sports competition can enhance
a soldier’s combat readiness by promoting the development of coordination, agility, balance, and speed. Competitive fitness activities also help develop assets that are vital to combat effectiveness. These include team spirit,
the will to win, confidence, toughness,
aggressiveness, and teamwork.
The Army’s sports mission is to give
all soldiers a chance to participate in
sports activities. A unit-level intramural program can help achieve this
important goal. DA Pam 28-6 describes how to organize various unitlevel intramural programs.
Factors that affect the content of
the sports program differ at every
Army installation and unit. Initiative
and ingenuity in planning are the most
vital assets. They are encouraged in
the conduct of every program.
A well-organized and executed
intramural program yields the following:
• Team spirit, the will to win, confidence, aggressiveness, and teamwork. All are vital to combat effectiveness.
• A change from the routine PT program.
• The chance for all soldiers to take
part in organized athletics.
The command level best suited to
organize and administer a broad intramural program varies according to a
unit’s situation. If the objective of
maximum participation is to be
achieved, organization should start at
company level and then provide competition up through higher unit levels.
Each command level should have its
own program and support the next
higher program level.
To successfully organize and conduct an intramural program, developers should consider the following factors and elements.
The unit commander should publish and endorse a directive giving authorization and guidance for a sports
program. A detailed SOP should also
Leaders at all levels of the intramural program should plan, organize, and
Appointments at all
echelons should be made for at least
one year to provide continuity. The
commander must appoint a qualified
person to be the director, regardless of
the local situation, type, and size of the
unit. The director must be a good organizer and administrator and must
have time to do the job correctly. He
should also have a sense of impartiality and some athletic experience.
Commanders should form an intramural sports council in units of battalion size or larger and should appoint
members or require designated unit
The council should
meet at least once a month or as often
as the situation requires. The council
serves as an advisory body to the unit
commander and intramural director. It
gives guidance about the organization
and conduct of the program.
Facilities and Equipment
Adequate facilities and equipment
must be available. When facilities are
limited, leaders must plan activities to
ensure their maximum use.
cases, activities must be planned to
ensure the safety of participants and
Funds and Budget
Adequate funds are essential to
successfully organize and operate a
sports program. Therefore, beforehand, organizers must determine how
much money is available to support it.
To justify requests for funds they must
prepare a budget in which they justify
each sports activity separately. The
budget must include special equipment, supplies, awards, pay for officials, and other items and services.
Units can reduce many of their costs
by being resourceful.
Commanders can stimulate units
and soldiers to participate in competitive athletics by using an award system. One type is a point-award system
where teams get points based on their
win/loss records and/or final league
This reflects the unit’s
standings in the overall intramural
sports program. The recognition will
help make units and individuals participate throughout the year. Trophies
can then be given for overall performance and individual activities.
A successful program depends on
sound plans and close coordination
between the units involved.
intramural director should meet with
subordinate commanders or a sports
representative to determine what program of activities is compatible with
the mission and training activities of
each unit. Unless they resolve this
issue, they may not get command
support which, in turn, could result in
forfeitures or lack of participation.
The less-popular activities may not be
supported because of a lack of interest.
stimulate soldiers to
competitive athletics by
using an award system.
Before the program is developed,
leaders must study the training and
availability situation at each unit level.
They should include the following
items in a survey to help them determine the scope of the program and to
● General. Evaluate the commander’s
attitude, philosophy, and policy
about the sports program. Under
stand the types of units to be
served, their location, the climate,
and military responsibilities.
● Troops. Determine the following:
1) number and types of personnel;
2) training status and general duty
assignment; 3) special needs, interests, and attitudes.
● Time available. Coordinate the
time available for the sports program with the military mission.
Determine both the on-duty and
off-duty time soldiers have for taking
part in sports activities.
● Equipment. Consider the equipment that will be needed for each
● Facilities. Determine the number,
type, and location of recreational
facilities both within the unit and in
those controlled by units at higher
• Funds. Determine how much each
unit can spend on the intramural
• Personnel. Assess how many people
are needed to run the program. The
list should include a director and as
sistants, sports council, officials,
and team captains, as well as volun
teers for such tasks as setting up a
• Coordination. Coordinate with the
units’ operations sections to avoid
conflict with military training sched
• Activities. The intramural director
should plan a tentative program of
activities based on the season, local
situation, and needs and interests of
the units. Both team and individual
sports should be included.
team sports are popular at all levels
and need little promotional effort
for success. Among these are volleyball, touch football, basketball,
and softball. Some individual competitive sports have direct military
value. They include boxing, wrestling, track and field, cross country,
triathlon, biathlon, and swimming.
While very popular, these sports are
harder to organize than team sports.
See Figures 9-1 and 9-2 for a list of
Unless the competition must take place in a short time. date. This type of competition is adaptable to both team and individual play. ● Choose the type of competition.Table 9-1 Functions Once the evaluations have been made. Unit Activities The following games and activities may be included in the unit’s PT program. NINE-BALL SOCCER The object of this game is for each of a team’s five goalies to have one ball. It is appropriate for small numbers of entries and league play in any sport. Players There are 25 to 50 players on each team. a way can be found to provide a scheduled program for every season of the year. and home or visiting team. The round-robin tournament has the greatest advantage because individuals and teams are never eliminated. time. The form should include game number. 9-5 ● Make a printed schedule. The goalies play between the goal line and 5-yard line of . An intramural handbook should be published at each level of command from installation to company to serve as a standing operating procedure (SOP). They should also know how to draw up tournaments. elimination tournaments should not be used. They are large-scale activities which can combine many components of physical and motor fitness. they are excellent activities for adding variety to the program. ● Plan the calendar. Using scheduling forms makes this job easier. This handbook should include the essential elements listed in Table 9-1 above. In addition. court or field. five of whom are goalies. Intramural directors should be able to choose the type of competition best suited for the sport and local circumstances. Local situations and normal obstacles may conflict with the intramural program. The other players are divided into four equal groups. they require quick thinking and the use of strategy. Championship games or matches should be scheduled to take place at the best facility. the following functions should be performed: ● Make a handbook. How ever. Space for scores and officials is also helpful. When played vigorously.
For a set to officially end. The Game The game starts with all players inside their own areas and midfielder on their own 40-yard line. The other four groups start the game between the designated 10-yard segments of the field. Rules A ball is played along the ground or over any group or groups of players. Players must pass the balls through the opposing team’s defenses into the goal area using only their feet or heads. If Figure 9-3 9-6 . The nine balls are placed as follows. and the balls are placed for the start of a new set.a standard football field. which is signaled by two sharp whistle blasts. If a goalie steps on or over a boundary or sideline. The only exceptions are midfielder who stand between the 35. the referee removes them from the game for the rest of the set and one additional set. The ball may travel any distance if it is played legally. Four are on each 45-yard line with at least five yards between balls.) The goalies and all other players must stay in their assigned areas throughout the game. the referee takes the ball being played plus another ball from the goalie’s team and gives these balls to the nearest opposing player. The first team to score five points wins. If players engage in unnecessary roughness or dangerous play. (See Figure 9-3.and 45yard lines. Team members move to different zones after the set. The game then stops. One is centered on the 50-yard line. Goalies may use their hands in playing the ball and may give a ball to other goalies on their team. These players may occupy both their assigned areas and the 10yard free space at the center of the field. each goalie must have a ball. He also removes players for the rest of the set if they step on or over a boundary or sideline or use their hands outside the goal area. The signal to start play is one long whistle blast. The first team whose goalies have five balls wins a point. There are no time-outs except in case of injury. The teams change positions on the field after each set.
the ball is placed on the opposing team’s 5-yard line. The referee puts the ball back into play by rolling it to the nearest opposing player. the captains immediately play the ball. At quarter time. The team that scores a goal may then try for an extra point.the team has no other ball in the goal area. carrying. the referee limits the penalty to the ball that is being played. At the referee’s starting whistle. Two more lines are marked 15 feet from and parallel to the end lines and extending across the entire field. At halftime. A goal counts five points. the teams exchange goals. and their teams come to their aid. The length of the field is divided equally by a center line. For the extra point. passing. and the teams line . PUSHBALL This game requires a large pushball that is five to six feet in diameter. the ball stays dead for two minutes where it was when the quarter ended. The other players line up 45 feet from the ball on their half of the field. If a ball goes out of bounds. It also requires a level playing surface that is 240 to 300 feet long and 120 to 150 feet wide. the referee retrieves it. The team that caused it to go out of bounds or over the goal line loses possession. The game begins when the ball is placed on the centerline with the opposing captains three feet away from it. rolling. (See Figure 9-4. A team scores a goal when it sends the ball across the opposing team’s end line. and play resumes as if the game were beginning.) Players There are 10 to 50 soldiers on each of two teams. Figure 9-4 9-7 The Game The object of the game is to send the ball over the opponent’s goal line by pushing. or using any method other than kicking the ball.
the offense scores one point. The referee tosses the ball between the teams. 9-8 . Team commanders assess the situation on the fields and distribute their soldiers accordingly. Soldiers wearing illegal equipment may not play until the problem has been corrected. Pull-over vests or jerseys of two different colors are used by each team for a total of four different colors. while the team commander and reserves wear vests of the second color. At the referee’s signal. Combat boots may be worn. and opposing teams supply soldiers to the games on both fields. Each team occupies the third of the team space that immediately adjoins its initial playing field. If any part of the ball is driven across the goal line in this period. Players may wear any type of athletic shoes except those with metal cleats. They should be six feet apart at the point where the ball went out. The defense may not score during the extra point attempt. The game continues until four 10minute quarters have been played. The lines extend across both fields. Dimensions may be determined locally based on available space and the number of players. Only one player may place his hands on the ball. When any part of the ball goes out of bounds. At the end of play. When. the ball is tied up in one spot for more than 10 seconds. The length of each field is divided equally by a centerline that is parallel to the goal lines. These are 240 to 300 feet long by 120 to 150 feet wide. the referee declares it dead. STRATEGY PUSHBALL Strategy pushball is similar to pushball except that it is played on two adjacent fields. and his team is penalized half the distance to its goal. Lines are also marked 45 feet from each side of the centerline and parallel to it.up across the field separated by the width of the ball. The playing area is two lined-off fields. He returns the ball into play the same way he does after it goes out of bounds. The player who just scored is directly in front of the ball. The commander decides the number of soldiers used. a team’s points from both fields are added together to determine the overall winner. Clipping is throwing one’s body across the back of an opponent’s legs as he is running or standing. The space between the fields is the team area. The teams line up at right angles to the sidelines. it is dead. within limits imposed by the rules. for any reason. Play on both fields occurs at the same time. but each game progresses independently. This game requires two pushballs that are five to six feet in diameter. Force may legally be applied to all opponents whether they are playing the ball or not. A player who strikes or clips an opponent is removed from the game. Starters and substitutes should wear vests of one color. Time periods should be adjusted to suit weather conditions and soldiers’ fitness levels. They are separated lengthwise by a 20-footwide divider strip. Starters and reserves should be easily distinguishable. Rules Players may use any means of interfering with the opponents’ progress except striking and clipping. Rest periods are allowed for two minutes between quarters and five minutes at halftime. but extra caution must be used to prevent injuries caused by kicking or stepping on other players. This number may be adjusted throughout the game. the ball is put into play for one minute.
Players There are 25 to 40 soldiers on each team. game organizers must coordinate with participating units and agree on the number on each team. A reserve may become a starter by switching vests with an original starter. Reserves. 25-member team has the following: One team commander. One runner. Players must not question an official’s . A typical. The proportion of soldiers in each category stays constant regardless of the total number on a team. He is designated to convey messages from the team commander to field captains. Four reserve members. who then becomes a reserve. senior NCOS and officers from higher headquarters or other units should be used as officials. Team commanders may enter the game as reserves if they see the need for such action. Reserves are used at any point in the game on either field and are committed as individuals or groups. they may not play during that period. They are allowed on the field only during breaks in play after a dead ball or goal. These are replacements for starters or reserves. substitutes.and halftime breaks. and starting members may be redesignated into any of the other components on a one-forone basis only during dead balls. or quarter. He is responsible for overall game strategy and for determining the number and positions of players on the field. These are players the team commander designates as reinforcements. Eight are on each field at all times. Sixteen starting members. Before the event. They may enter or leave the playing field at any time whether the ball is in play or not. injury time-outs. one is appointed field captain. Figure 9-5 9-9 Runners serve at least one period. When possible. Three substitutes.
Time does not stop for dead balls or goals. When the ball gets tied up in one spot for more than 10 seconds for any reason. The scorekeeper. If there is a tie. Starters may be exchanged between the fields if the minimum number of starters or substitutes per field is maintained. At each quarter break. Play resumes when the referee blows the whistle. A substitute may not start to play until the player being replaced leaves the field. The chief umpire monitors the use of substitutes and reserves and ensures smooth progress of the games on both fields. starts and ends each quarter and stops play for injuries with some noisemaker other than a whistle. Play continues on one field while dead balls are restarted on the other. At the end of the fourth quarter. starts as it does after a ball goes out of bounds. The game continues until four 10minute quarters have been played. At halftime the teams exchange goals. except that he puts the ball on the spot where it was stopped. The game is officiated by two referees on each field. no more than 15 players per team are allowed on the field at once. but only one field is used. Referees use their whistles to stop and start play except at the start and end of each quarter. The teams line up at right angles to the sidelines. (See Figure 9-5. the ball stays on the spot where it was when the quarter ended. the referee declares it dead. field captains immediately play the ball. a three-minute overtime is played.) At the scorekeeper’s signal. He may use such devices as a starter’s pistol. the points of each team from both fields are added together to determine the winner. and a scorekeeper. and play resumes as if the game were beginning. He restarts play as with an out-of-bounds dead ball. passing. or time-out for injury. The game begins after the ball is placed on each field’s center mark. The referee places the ball between the teams at a point 15 feet inside the sideline. There is a 10-minute halftime between 9-10 . If the game is still tied when time expires. The number of officials may be increased if teams have more than 25 players. and their teams come to their aid. who times the game with a stopwatch. For control purposes. A goal is scored when any part of the ball breaks the plane of the goal line between the sidelines. the winner is the team that has gained more territory. or air horn. Referees concentrate on player actions so that they can quickly detect fouls and assess penalties. The team with more points at the end of the overtime wins the game. it is dead. Opposing field captains are three feet from the ball (six feet from the centerline). they are 10 feet apart at the point where the ball went out of bounds. goal. Substitutes may enter the game only during breaks in play after a dead ball. Otherwise. Chain-of-command personnel should act as team commanders and field captains whenever possible. signaled by the scorekeeper. rolling. a chief umpire. The next quarter. or using any means other than kicking. The chief umpire and scorekeeper occupy any area where they can best officiate the games. A goal counts one point. klaxon.authority during play. The Game The object is to propel the ball over the opponent’s goal line by pushing. with starting squads from both teams opposing each other. When any part of the ball goes out of bounds. The rest of the starters are lined up 45 feet from the ball on their half of the field. It is played the same as in regulation play. the game can quickly get out of control. carrying.
● Grasping an opponent’s neck or head. Once ejected. Broom ball provides a good cardiorespiratory workout. They enter on the field from which the players were ejected. players pass the ball through the opposing team to reach its goal. The first team to score five points wins. Using only brooms. ● Striking or punching with closed fist(s). The goalie plays in the goal area of a standard soccer or hockey field or along the goal line if the two opposing goals are the same size. One soccer ball.the second and third quarters. quarterand halftime breaks. Penalties may also be called for infractions committed on the field or sidelines during playing time. Players wear boots with normal soles and carry broom-shaped sticks with which they hit the ball into the goals. ● Kicking. at their discretion. ● Spearing. and time-outs. It is also called against a player on the sidelines who interferes with the ball or with his opponents on the field. or piling on an opponent who is already on the ground. Force maybe legally applied to any opponent whether or not they are playing the ball. The object of this game is for teams to score goals through the opponent’s defenses. One is a goalie and the others are divided into three equal groups. Personal fouls are called for the following: ● Illegal blocking (below an opponent’s waist). ● Butting heads. Tackling opposing soldiers who are playing the ball is allowed. Unsportsmanlike conduct is called for abusive or insulting language that 9-11 the referee judges to be excessive and blatant. Time-out is allowed only for serious injury. Substitutes for ejected players may enter during the next break in play that follows a goal scored by either team. Players There are 15 to 20 players on each team. but they are penalized for striking or clipping opponents or throwing them to the ground. tackling. These penalties are enforced by the referees. or some other type of inflated . lifting and dropping or slamming a player to the ground in stead of tackling cleanly). ● Throwing an opponent to the ground (that is. The penalized player or a substitute then enters the game. Referees and the chief umpire may. The clock stops at quarter breaks and halftime. eject any player who is a chronic violator or who is judged to be dangerous to other players. Blocking is allowed if blockers stay on their feet and limit contact to the space between waist and shoulders. player leaves the team shorthanded until he completes the penalty lap and the next break in play occurs on the field from which he was removed. A player who violates these rules should be removed from the game and made to run one lap around A penalized both playing fields. Rules Players may use any means of interfering with their opponents’ progress. throw. or flip their elbows or forearms. the player must leave both the field of play and team area. Play is then stopped on both fields. Blockers may not swing. The chief umpire or any referee may call infractions and impose penalties for unsportsmanlike conduct or personal fouls on either field. ● Clipping (throwing the body across the back of the opponent’s legs as he is running or standing). BROOM-BALL HOCKEY This game is played on ice or a frozen field using hockey rules.
The referee calls infractions and imposes penalties. each player is on his own half of the field. It may travel any distance as long as it is legally played. except the two centers. Each half lasts 15 minutes.) Figure 9-6 9-12 . Rules All players. The players need no padding. Basic penalties are those called for the following: ● Unnecessary roughness or dangerous play. (The player must stay in the penalty box one minute. Only goalies may use their hands to play the ball. is used.) ● Ball out-of-bounds. Centerfield). The signal to begin play is one long blast on the whistle. possession will be awarded to the other team. All players. A diagram of the field is shown at Figure 9-6. but they must always keep control of their sticks. All players must stay in their designated space throughout the game. are outside the center circle. The referee places the ball in the center of the circle between the two centers. and the restart of play after goals. Defense. and the opposing team puts the ball back into play by hitting it to the nearest player. The three groups begin the game in center field. the second half. including goalies. (When a member of the team in possession of the ball crosses the bound ary line of his zone of play. The ball must travel forward and cross the center circle before being played by another player. The ball is played along the ground or over one or more groups of players. (The player is removed from the game. There are no time-outs except for injury. The Game The face-off marks the start of the game.) ● Use of hands by a player other than a goalie.) ● Improper crossing of boundaries. The time-out signal is two sharp whistle blasts. he stays in the penalty box for two minutes. must stay inside their legal boundaries at all times.ball. (The team that caused it to go out loses possession. For the face-off. Other players must stay in their respective zones of play (Attack.
A competitor selects the check-points to find based on point value and location. compass use. Competitors in this event carry flashlights and navigate with map and compass. but a compass. The winner is determined by the time taken to run the course and the accuracy of marking the control points when they are found. Courses can be short and simple for training beginners or longer and more difficult to challenge the advanced competitors. This makes it an excellent activity for any training schedule. The best terrain for an orienteering course is woodland that offers varied terrain. Soldiers run within this area looking .000 scale or larger.000 to 4. and terrain study with strategy. LINE ORIENTEERING Line orienteering is excellent for training new orienteers. Several different courses can be setup in an area 2.Orienteering Orienteering combines map reading. The base of the compass is transparent plastic. Open. Control points are marked with reflective material or dim lights. but checkpoints are not shown. Whoever collects the most points within a designated time is the winner. The orienteer or navigator uses a detailed topographical map and a compass to negotiate the course. A course can be set up on any installation by using a map of the main post or cantonment area. rolling terrain. While negotiating the course. The standard military. and exercise. NIGHT ORIENTEERING CROSS-COUNTRY ORIENTEERING This popular type of orienteering is used in all international and championship events. Participants navigate to a set number of check or control points in a designated order. competition. and exercise. he looks for checkpoints or control-marker signs. and terrain study with strategy. lensatic compass will work even though it is not specifically designed for the sport. URBAN ORIENTEERING SCORE ORIENTEERING Quick thinking and strategy are major factors in score orienteering. The navagator tries to walk or run the exact map route. Speed and accuracy of marking the route determine the winner. Point values throughout the course are high or low depending on how hard the 9-13 Urban orienteering is very similar to traditional types. is much more challenging at night. compass use. Orienteering is a competitive form of land navigation. markers are to reach. he records on the map the route being taken. While negotiating the course.000 yards square. topographical map. competition. The map should be 1:25. and navigation skills are not needed. The night course for crosscountry orienteering is usually shorter than the day course. The navigator follows a route that is clearly marked with signs or streamers. It combines map reading. The various types of orienteering are described below. The route is premarked on the map. ROUTE ORIENTEERING This variation is also excellent for beginners. A liquid-filled orienteering compass works best. which is poor for day courses. An orienteering course is set up by placing control points or marker signs over a variety of terrain. and it gives accurate readings on the run. Points are deducted for returning late to the finish area. Speed is important since the winner is the one who reaches all the control points in the right order and returns to the finish area in the least time.
This eliminates the need for a compass. Team members should have similar running ability. Soldiers only need a combination map-scorecard. Soldiers form twoman teams based on their APFT 2mile-run times.for coded location markers. each team gets identical maps that show the Figure 9-7 9-14 . a watch. Participants and Rules Urban orienteering is conducted during daylight hours to ensure safety and make the identification of checkpoint markers easy. (See Figure 9-8.) At the assembly area. A handicap is given to slower teams.) Urban orienteering adds variety and competition to a unit’s PT program and is well suited for an intramural program. and a pencil. It also provides a good cardiovascular workout. which are numbered and marked on the map before the start. (Figure 9-7 shows a sample scorecard.
Any number of soldiers may participate. team members must stay together and not separate to get two markers at once. He also gives each team a combination map/ scorecard with a two-digit number on it to identify their team. and teams finishing late are penalized. He gives them their time limitations and a reminder about the overtime penalty. the orienteering marshal briefs them on the rules and objectives of the game. it records on the scorecard the letters that correspond to its two-digit number. The maps are labeled with a location number corresponding to the location marker on the course. Location markers are color-coded on the map based on their point value. A team that separates is disqualified. A time limit is given. Figure 9-8 9-15 Playing the Game Once the soldiers have been assigned a partner. all competitors . While on the course. When a team reaches a location marker. Five points are deducted for each minute a team is late. the limiting factors being space and the number of points on the course. The markers farthest from the assembly area have the highest point values.location of markers on the course. When the orienteering marshal signals the start of the event. Point values of each location marker are also annotated on the scorecard.
Setting up requires some man-hours. The letters corresponding to 54 are LD. Handicap points are then added. team number 54 found the marker. 9-16 . He has the key to all the points and can determine each team’s accuracy. Once the location marker numbers are marked and color coded on the maps. (See Figure 9-8.) The teams’ standings are displayed shortly after the activity ends. all maps must be precisely marked to correspond with the placement of the course-location markers. Each soldier gets points if his 2-mile-run time is slower than 12 minutes. the points are computed by the orienteering marshal to determine the teams’ standings. they are covered with combat acetate to keep them useful for a long time. To help teams negotiate the course. Suggestions for locations to put point markers are as follows: at intersections. One to two hours is the optimal time for conducting the activity. A sample location marker is shown at Figure 9-9. The course organizer must decide how many location markers to make and where to put them. This line number corresponds to the location’s marker number. After all teams have found as many location markers as possible and have turned in their map/ scorecards. on building corners. Combat acetate (also called plastic sheet) can be purchased in the self-service supply center store under stock number 9330-00-618-7214. The major tasks are making and installing location markers and preparing map/scorecard combinations. Each team goes to as many markers as possible within the allotted time. Safety Briefing The orienteering marshal gives a safety briefing before the event starts. but the course can be used many times. He reminds soldiers to be cautious while running across streets and to emphasize that team members should always stay together. They should not be too hard to find. and along creek beds and trails.Figure 9-9 leave the assembly area at the same time. the team moves on to the next marker of its choice. along roads in the tree line. so they place “LD” on line 39 of their scorecard. Set Up and Materials The course must be well thought out and set up in advance. When the location marker code is deciphered. He should use creativity to add excitement to the course. For this example.
A warm-up should precede and a cool-down should follow the events. Job-Related Events The organizer should use his imagination when planning activities. all members of each team should participate. flexibility. Each team’s anchor person places his foot against a wall or a curb. This adds character to the event and sets teams apart from each other. Placings are determined by the teams’ order of finish. as many team members should participate as possible. If not. the ball is marked for each team thrower. Only one team member does push-ups at a time. A unit olympics. can be a good precursor to an SDT or the EIB test. It is a good diversion from the regular PT session. This goes on until all team members are stretched. if teams are numerically equal. He may incorporate soldier skills required of an MOS. He hands the sandbags off to a teammate when he finishes his part of the race. One player from each team lines up at the starting line with a full sandbag in each hand. The objective is to incorporate into a team-level competition athletic. Unit Olympics Sandbag Relay The unit olympics is a multifaceted event that can be tailored to any unit to provide athletic participation for all soldiers. This is repeated until all the team’s players have thrown. Events can be held for both individuals and teams. The teams begin by throwing the ball from the same starting line. and the next team player throws from this spot. He stretches his other foot as far away as possible as in doing a split. When conducted with enthusiasm. They cover as much distance as possible keeping in contact with each other. The team whose combined throws cover the most distance is the winner. it promotes team spirit and provides a good workout. and they should be designed so that both male and female soldiers can take part. For instance. Medicine-Ball Throw This event uses four-member teams. speed. and related sports skills. Teams should wear a distinctively marked item such as a T-shirt or arm band. The team that stretches farthest from the start point without a break in their chain is the winner. if well promoted from the top and well staged by the project NCO or officer. The next team member puts one foot against the anchor man’s extended foot and does a split-stretch.Unit olympics incorporate athletic events that represent all five fitness components. The competition can be within a unit or between competing units. When it lands. The objective is for the team to do as many correct push-ups as possible within a four-minute time limit. agility. events that represent all five fitness components. aerobic endurance. This event uses four-man teams for a running relay around a quarter-mile track carrying sandbags. 9-17 Team Flexibility In this event. he could . This continues until the last team player crosses the finish line. TYPES OF EVENTS The olympics should include events that challenge the soldiers’ muscular strength and endurance. The following are examples of athletic events that could be included in a unit olympics: Push-Up Derby This is a timed event using fourmember teams. Each soldier should be required to do a minimum number of events. The four team members may rotate as often as desired.
This type of event is excellent for fine-tuning job skills and is also physically challenging. JUDGING AND SCORING The MC should have one assistant per team who will judge that one team during each event.through fourth-place teams are then recognized. OPENING CEREMONY The commander. or ceremony host gives an inspirational speech before the opening ceremonies. The first. tripod. • Fourth = 1 point. the totaled point scores for each team are figured. and baseplate) to three different locations. ranking person. and team captains lead motivating chants. The games then begin. The team would carry an 81 -mm mortar (tube. the points are added together and split After the equally between them. welcoming competitors and wishing them good luck. The master of ceremonies (MC) announces the sequence of events and rules for each event. Points are awarded for each event as follows: • First = 4 points. The teams are then put back into formation. Assistants give input on events that need a numerical count. competition ends. • Third = 2 points.devise a timed land-navigation event geared toward soldiers with an MOS of 11 C. and set it up in a firing configuration. This is followed by a short symbolic parade of all the teams. The olympics is officially opened with a torch lighting. each a mile apart. The MC monitors the point accumulation of each team. • Second = 3 points. When two teams tie an event. 9-18 .
As stated in FM 25-100. ● Improve the unit’s average APFT score through each soldier obtaining a minimum score of 80 points on the push-up and sit-up events and 70 points on the 2-mile run. Steps in Planning STEP 1: ANALYZE THE MISSION When planning a physical fitness program. “The wartime mission drives training. They should. The goal of the Army’s physical fitness program is to improve each soldier’s physical ability so he can survive and win on the battlefield. Examples of fitness objectives are the following: ● Improve the unit’s overall level of strength by ensuring that all soldiers in the unit can correctly perform at least one repetition with 50 percent of their bodyweight on the overhead press using a barbell. STEP 3: ASSESS THE UNIT With the training objectives established.” A careful 10-1 analysis of the mission. the commander and MFT are ready to find the unit’s current fitness level and measure it against the desired level. The unit PT program is the commander’s program. the goals should provide a common direction for all the commander’s programs and systems. Leaders must understand the principles of exercise. realistic training is good. The commander and MFT identify and prioritize the objectives. Missions vary as do the physical requirements necessary to complete them. they must set the example through their own participation. More importantly. must analyze the METL and equate this to specific fitness objectives.Commanders must develop prgrams that train soldiers to maximize their physical performance. The wise commander also uses his PT program as a basis for building team spirit and for enhancing other training activities. yields the mission-essential task list (METL) a unit must perform. ● Decrease the number of physical training injuries by 25 percent through properly conducted training. it must be our goal to ensure that our soldiers are capable of roadmarching 12 miles with a 50-pound load in less than three hours. coupled with the commander’s intent. The commander. as physical fitness advisor. To plan PT successfully. scientific principles. the commander and MFT must know the training management system. the FITT factors. and the MFT. plan wisely to minimize injuries and accidents. not just performance on the APFT. STEP 2: DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES Objectives direct the unit’s efforts by prescribing specific actions. leaders must be aware of the risks involved with physical training and related activities. reasonable goals are essential. (See FM 25-100. They must develop programs that train soldiers to maximize their physical performance. According to FM 25-100. Leaders should use incentives. An example of a goal is as follows because the exceptional physical fitness of the soldier is a critical combat-multiplier in the division. It must reflect his goals and be based on sound.) Commanders should not be satisfied with merely meeting the minimum requirements for physical training which is having all of their soldiers pass the APFT. However. Physical fitness includes all aspects of physical performance. and know how to apply them in order to develop a sound PT program that will improve all the fitness components. . Regardless of the unit’s size or mission. the commander must consider the type of unit and its mission. therefore. Tough. as tactician.
and so forth. can also provide invaluable information. and the sequence for training requirements. For example. The training schedule shows the order. 10-2 . and the supervision of the actual training.and short-range training plans to identify training events and allocations of resources which will affect near-term planning. The bottom line is that training programs must be developed using resources which are available. education of individual soldiers. mission-essential task can be used as an assessment tool. EDREs. Leader tasks. They are keyed to the unit’s specific fitness objectives.Giving a diagnostic APFT is one way to find the current level. to improve CR endurance the individual soldier must do ability-group running. Resources. training requirements may be too idealistic. leaders can determine fitness training requirements. They identify what has to be done to correct all deficiencies and sustain all proficiencies. STEP 6: DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE The fitness training schedule results from leaders’ near-term planning. The early identification and acquisition of resources is necessary to fully implement the training program. and calculate/monitor his THR when appropriate. frequencies. The essential elements of fitness tasks can be cataloged into four groups: (1) Collective tasks (2) Individual tasks (3) Leader tasks (4) Resources required for training Collective tasks. An example would be to conduct training to develop strength and muscular endurance utilizing a sandbag circuit. When. facilities. Figure 10-1 illustrates a typical PT session and its component parts. Fitness tasks establish priorities. Training records and reports. interval training. and duration of activities for PT. Another way is to have the soldiers road march a certain distance within a set time while carrying a specified load. and training aids during the planning phase gives the trainer ample time to prepare for the training. Fartlek training. Collective tasks are the training activities performed by the unit. Any quantifiable. These will involve procuring resources. They must be adjusted for real world constraints before they become a part of the training plan. Once training requirements are determined. Individual tasks are activities that an individual soldier must do to accomplish the collective training task. STEP 4: DETERMINE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS By possessing the unit’s fitness capabilities and comparing them to the standards defined in training objectives. STEP 5: DEVELOP FITNESS TASKS Fitness tasks provide the framework for accomplishing all training requirements. Individual tasks. intensity. Leader tasks are the specific tasks leaders must do in order for collective and individual training to take place. as well as any previous ARTEP. Leaders must emphasize the development of all the fitness components and follow the principles of exercise and the FITT factors. physically demanding. the setting up of training. Identifying the necessary equipment. road marching. after extensive training. soldiers cannot reach the desired levels of fitness. the commander reviews higher headquarters’ long.
(See the FITT factors in Chapter 1. a workout that develops cardiorespiratory fitness and/or muscular endurance and strength.) Each activity period should include a warm-up. 2.) For more information on this topic. using THR or muscle failure. along with the duration of the daily workout. Leaders should . Determine the type of activity. 3. (See Figure 102. Ideally. see Chapters 1.There are three distinct steps in planning a unit's daily physical training activities. and a cool-down. Determine the minimum frequency of training. Figure 10-1 10-3 At the end of a well-planned and executed PT session. They should also understand the objective of the training session and how it will help them improve their fitness levels. and 3. The key to evaluating training is to determine if the training being conducted will result in improvements in If not. They are as follows: 1. They evaluate how the training is performed by monitoring its intensity. training needs revision.) 2. This depends on the specific purpose of the training session. (See the FITT factors in Chapter 1. (See Figure 10-1). Determine the intensity and time of the selected activity. it should ininclude three cardiorespiratory and three muscular conditioning sessions each weeks. STEP 7: CONDUCT AND EVALUATE TRAINING The commander and MFT now begin managing and supervising the day-to-day training. all soldiers should feel that they have been physically stressed. the physical conditioning.
It must be an ongoing effort that uses trained experts like MFTs. and stress management should be held at regular Common Errors 10-4 Total fitness should be reinforced throughout each soldier's career by classroom instruction. tobacco cessation. Total fitness should be reinforced throughout each soldier’s career. Yet another error is failing to strike a balance in a PT program between CR endurance training and muscular endurance and strength training. In addition. When they know why they are training in a certain way. Education also helps the Army develop its total fitness concept.Figure 10-2 not be sidetracked by PT that is all form and little substance. Local “Fit to Win” coordinators (AR 600-63) can help develop classes on such subjects. The least-fit soldiers of the unit may be at risk because they may be training at heart rates above their THR. Classroom instruction in subjects such as principles of exercise. they are more likely to wholeheartedly take part.” These exercises emphasize form over substance and do little to improve fitness. . When all soldiers must run at the same pace as with a unit run. intervals. Soldiers must understand why the program is organized the way it is and what the basic fitness principles are. many do not receive a training effect because they do not reach their training heart rate (THR). The most common error concerns the use of unit runs. Another error is exclusively using activities such as the “daily dozen. Such training defeats the concept of objectivebased training and results in little benefit to soldiers. Education There are some common errors in unit programs. This makes the training more effective. diet and nutrition. imbalances often stem from a lack of variety in the program which Teaching soldiers about physical fitness is vital.
digging. Captain Jones determined that the major PT emphasis should be to improve muscular endurance and strength. If his unit received artillery fire. mission-oriented tasks the unit performs. for 15 to 30 minutes. and there was an apparent lack of prior emphasis on. and their application is shown in the sample program below. This requires much lifting. The analysis showed that. They went through the following steps. and on his commander’s guidance and objectives. CPT Jones concluded that its level of physical fitness was inadequate. unloading. Captain Frank Jones’s company has just returned from the field where it completed an ARTEP. All of these tasks require good muscular endurance and strength and a reasonable level of cardiorespiratory endurance. With this information and the MIT’s recommendations. After evaluating his unit during this ARTEP. good lifting techniques. and three low back strains. He based this on his unit’s mission. Captain Jones decided to ask the battalion’s MFT to help him develop a good unit program for the company. combined with poor flexibility in the low back and hamstrings. and selects and prepares alternate positions. He thought this contributed to the injuries and poor performance. ● Improve the unit’s average APFT score. they analyzed the recently completed ARTEP and reviewed the 1 0 . may have contributed to the unacceptably high number of low back strains. CPT Jones developed the following fitness objectives. resulting from a dropped container. A Sample Program The following sample program shows a commander’s thought processes as he develops a 12-week fitness training program for his unit. DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES Next. typically. equipment weighing up to 95 pounds. Several injuries occurred including a broken foot. and moving of heavy equipment. ● Improve the unit’s overall level of muscular endurance and strength. 7-STEP PLANNING PROCESS ANALYZE THE MISSION DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES ASSESS THE UNIT DETERMINE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DESIGN FITNESS TASKS DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE CONDUCT AND EVALUATE TRAINING ANALYZE THE MISSION First. training schedule. loading.5 ARTEP manual to find the most physically demanding. organized PT will beat the commander’s discretion. Each soldier will score at least 80 points on the push-up and . and training in. The principles of exercise are described in Chapter 1. improves its positions. One of the most demanding missions while in position requires soldiers to move by hand. available resources. The guidance and objectives issued are as follows: a. the company does a tactical road march and then occupies a position. In the field. This. ● Improve the unit’s overall level of flexibility. it would need to be able to move to alternate positions as quickly as possible. The soldiers’ flexibility was poor. CPT Jones reviewed his battalion commander’s physical training guidance. Units will do PT five days a week (0600-0700) when in garrison. It showed that the commander was aware that the unit’s tasks require muscular endurance and strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.leads to boredom. It establishes a perimeter.
● Eight percent of the unit is now on temporary profile. Each soldier will perform timed sets of push-ups and sit-ups. The section leader will supervise lifts. and hip extensor muscle groups.5 hours. ● A formation toe-touch test revealed that over half the company could not touch their toes while their knees were extended. sandbag dead-lifts at least two times a week to develop strength. The MFT studied the results of the unit’s latest APFT and came up with the following information: ● The average push-up score was 68 points. DESIGN FITNESS TASKS Once all training requirements are identified. ● The average sit-up score was 72 points. emphasis on will be placed on developing flexibility in the low back. Reduce tobacco use. the problem must be addressed and corrected. During the cool-down. Units will do flexibility exercises during the warm-up and cool-down phase of every PT session. the next step is to use them to design fitness tasks which relate to 10-6 . ● Thirty percent of the unit uses tobacco. Training requirements are determined by analyzing the training results and the data obtained from the unit assessment. Road marches will be conducted at least once every other week. substance abuse. The MFT also recommended that the unit be assessed in the following areas: road march performance. flexibility. ASSESS THE UNIT The next step CPT Jones accomplished was to assess his unit. and profiled soldiers. The next step is to compare this data to the standards identified in the training objectives.● ● ● sit-up events and 70 points on the 2-mile run. ● Two soldiers are in the overweight program. Each soldier will train at least 20 to 30 minutes at THR two to three times a week. strength. ● There were six failures. subordinate leaders made the following assessments/determinations: ● Eighty-eight percent of the company finished the 12-mile road march with a 35-pound load in under 3 hours 30 minutes. Captain Jones established the following training requirements. ● The average number of points scored on the 2-mile run was 74. most from back problems. Decrease the number of profiles. hamstrings. Following the MFT’s recommendations. two on the 2-mile run and four on the pushup. When performance is less than the established standard. Each soldier will do heavy resistance/weight training for all the muscle groups of the body two to three times a week. Improve the unit’s road marching capability so that 100 percent of the unit can complete a 12-mile road march with a 35-pound load in at least 3. Each soldier will do 8 to 12 repetitions of bent-leg. DETERMINE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS The next step CPT Jones accomplished was to determine the training requirements. Tobacco cessation classes will be established to reduce the number of tobacco users.
road marching.and muscle endurance-training sessions and CR training sessions so as to best meet all related fitness objectives. individual. sandbag circuits. and leader tasks as well as resources required. In developing the fitness tasks. The individual tasks all soldiers must perform during the week are as follows. where weaknesses exist.and/or muscle endurance-training session works all the major muscle groups of the body. The leader’s tasks are to organize and supervise all strength. By accurately listing the fitness tasks that must be done and the resources required to do them. they must do stretching exercises during their daily warm-up and cool-down. the subsequent step of developing a training schedule is greatly facilitated. and improve flexibility. improve CR endurance. the leader will ensure the following: ● Each strength. An example of designing fitness tasks is provided in Figure 10-3 by using the activities which might occur during one week of physical training. CPT Jones must address collective. For developing strength and muscular endurance. they must perform appropriate strength circuit exercises. Similarly. PREs. interval training. to include performing bent-leg dead lifts exercises. Fitness tasks provide the framework for accomplishing the training requirements. ● Areas with respect to strength/muscle . ● High priority is given to training those muscles and muscle groups used in mission-essential tasks. and training for push-up/ sit-up improvement.the fitness objectives. the leader must organize and supervise all warm-up and cool-down sessions to best meet the fitness objectives for the development and maintenance of flexibility. To provide specific examples of leaders tasks in the area of training for strength and muscle endurance. and they must calculate their THR and monitor THR when appropriate. To improve their flexibility. To improve cardiorespiratory endurance. The collective tasks for the unit are to perform the following: develop muscular endurance and strength. they must Figure 10-3 10-7 do ability-group runs.
● All the principles of exercise. recovery. ● Problem areas related to APFT performance are addressed in appropriate workouts. DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE The next step was to develop a fitness training schedule (shown at Figure 10-4). are targeted in all workouts. to include regularity. Figure 10-4 10-8 . overload.endurance. ● The duration of each strength training session is 20-40 minutes. a running track and/or running trails. It lists the daily activities and their intensity and duration. a PT field. specificity. In a similar manner. ● Soldiers train to muscle failure. The resources needed for the oneweek period are as follows: a strength room. and sandbags. progression. the leader would ensure that the guidelines and principles outlined in this and earlier chapters are used to organize training sessions for improving CR endurance and flexibility. a gym. balance are used.
Figure 10-4 (continued) 10-9 .
Figure 10-4 (continued) 10-10 .
Figure 10-4 (continued)
CONDUCT AND EVALUATE
Conducting and evaluating training
is the final phase of the training
process. This phase includes the evaluation of performance, assessment of
capabilities, and feedback portions of
the training management cycle. These
portions of the cycle must be simultaneous and continuous. To be effective, the evaluation process must address why weaknesses exist, and it
must identify corrective actions to be
taken. Evaluations should address the
● Assessment of proficiency in mission-essential tasks.
● Status of training goals and objectives.
● Status of training in critical individual and collective tasks.
● Shortfalls in training.
● Recommendations for next training
cycle (key in on correcting weaknesses).
● Results of educational programs.
Using the Principles of
As CPT Jones developed his program, he made sure he used the seven
principles of exercise. He justified his
program as follows:
● Balance. This program is balanced
because all the fitness components
are addressed. The emphasis is on
building muscular endurance and
strength in the skeletal muscular
system because of the many lifting
tasks the unit must do. The program also trains cardiorespiratory
endurance and flexibility, and warmup and cool-down periods are included in every workout.
● Specificity. The unit’s fitness goals
are met. The sand-bag lifting and
weight training programs help
develop muscular endurance and
strength. The movements should,
when possible, stress muscle groups
used in their job-related lifting tasks.
Developmental stretching should help
reduce work-related back injuries. The
different types of training in running
will help ensure that soldiers reach a
satisfactory level of CR fitness and
help each soldier score at least 70
points on the APFT’s 2-mile run.
Soldiers do push-ups and sit-ups at
least two or three times a week to
improve the unit’s performance in
these events. The competitive fitness
activities will help foster teamwork
and cohesion, both of which are essential to each section’s functions.
● Overload. Soldiers reach overload
in the weight circuit by doing each
exercise with an 8- to 12-RM lift
for a set time and/or until they
reach temporary muscle failure. For
the cardiorespiratory workout, THR
is calculated initially using 70 percent of the HRR. They do push-ups
and sit-ups in multiple, timed sets
with short recovery periods to ensure that muscle failure is reached.
They also do PREs to muscle failure.
● Progression. To help soldiers reach
adequate overload as they improve,
the program is made gradually more
difficult. Soldiers progress in their
CR workout by increasing the time
they spend at THR up to 30 to 45
minutes per session and by maintaining THR. They progress on the
weight training circuit individually.
When a soldier can do an exercise
for a set time without reaching
muscle failure, the weight is increased so that the soldier reaches
muscle failure between the 8th and
12th repetition again. Progression
in push-ups and sit-ups involves
slowly increasing the duration of
the work intervals.
● Variety. There are many different
activities for variety. For strength
and muscular endurance training
the soldiers use weight circuits,
sandbag circuits, and PREs. Ability
group runs, intervals, Par courses,
Fartlek running, and guerrilla drills are
all used for CR training.
stretching techniques, including static,
partner-assisted, and contract-relax,
are used for developmental stretching.
Each component of
fitness is worked regularly. Soldiers
will spend at least two to three days
a week working each of the major
fitness components. They will also
do push-ups and sit-ups regularly to
help reach their peak performance
on the APFT.
● Recovery. The muscular and cardiorespiratory systems are stressed in
alternate workouts. This allows one
system to recover on the day the
other is working hard.
CPT Jones’s step-by-step process
of developing a sound PT program for
his unit is an example of what each
commander should do in developing
his own unit program.
Good physical training takes no
more time to plan and execute than
does poor training. When commanders
use a systematic approach to develop
training, the planning process bears
sound results and the training will
Soldiers report to initial entry training (IET) ranging widely in their levels
of physical fitness. Because of this,
there are special considerations when
designing a physical training program
for IET soldiers. Physical training
involves safely training and challenging all soldiers while improving their
fitness level to meet required standards. The regulations which govern
the conduct of physical training in IET
and explain the graduation requirements are TRADOC Reg. 350-6 and
The mission of physical training in
IET is twofold: to safely train soldiers
to meet the graduation requirements
of each course and to prepare soldiers
to meet the physical demands of their
All physical training programs in
IET must do the following: 1 ) progressively condition and toughen soldiers
for military duties; 2) develop soldiers’
self-confidence, discipline, and team
spirit; 3) develop healthy life-styles
through education; and, 4) improve
physical fitness to the highest levels
possible in all five components of
physical fitness (cardiorespiratory
endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body
Because each IET school is somewhat different, commanders must
examine the graduation requirements
for the course and establish appropriate fitness objectives. They can then
design a program that attains these obThe seven principles of
exercise outlined in Chapter 1 are
universal, and they apply to all PT
programs including those in IET.
Commanders of initial entry training
should look beyond the graduation
requirements of their own training
course to ensure that their soldiers are
prepared for the physical challenges
of their future assignments. This
means developing safe training programs which will produce the maximum physical improvement possible.
MFTs are skilled at assessing soldiers’ capabilities. They use the five
components of physical fitness in designing programs to reach the training
objectives established by the commander. They also know how to
conduct exercise programs that are
effective and safe. MFTs are not,
however, trained to diagnose or treat
The commander’s latitude in program development varies with the
length and type of the IET course.
For example, commanders of basic
combat training (BCT) may do a
standard PT program at one installation, while AIT commanders may
design their own programs. Regardless of the type of course, all leaders
must strive to train their soldiers to
attain the highest level of physical
fitness possible. This means using the
established principles of exercise to
develop a safe physical training program.
Overuse injuries are common in
IET. However, they can be avoided by
carefully following the exercise principles of “recovery” and “progression.”
Research suggests that soldiers are
more prone to injuries of the lower
extremities after the third week of
IET. High-impact activities, such as
road marching and running on hard
surfaces, should be carefully monitored during at this time. During this
period, fixed circuits and other activities that develop CR fitness are good,
Properly fitted, high-quality running shoes are important, especially
when PT sessions require running
on hard surfaces. Court shoes, like
basketball or tennis shoes, are not
By the sixth week. common sense dictates a reasonable break-in period for new combat boots. soldiers can be expected to carry progressively heavier loads including a rucksack. Examples of recommended PT sessions and low-risk exercises are in Chapter 7. Loads should be restricted to the standard LCE. Activities such as running obstacle courses and road marching require combat boots to protect and support the feet and ankles. and their feet should be less prone to blistering. 350-6. At no time during IET or one-station unit training (OSUT) should loads exceed 40 pounds. the load may be increased to 40 pounds including personal clothing and equipment. Road Marching One road march should be conducted weekly with the difficulty of the marches progressing gradually throughout IET. and weapon. paragraph 4-2. and tendons respond slowly to training and may be injured if the load and/or duration are increased too quickly. By he start of the fourth week.designed to absorb the repetitive shock of running. In the first two weeks of IET. especially before long marches. Naturally. Specific health and safety considerations are in TRADOC Reg. kevlar helmet. After the initial adaptations in the early weeks of IET. ligaments. they should be accustomed to marching in boots. soldiers can be expected to road march Figure 11-1 11-1 up to 5 kilometers with light loads. A sample regimen for road marches during IET is at Figure 11-1. . Bones.
) • Convection-the transfer of heat by circulation or movement of air. heat can be lost by a combination of the four methods. is the body’s most important means for heat loss. (Evaporating sweat cooling the skin is an example. especially during exercise. preventing them is even more important. The degree to which evaporative cooling occurs is also directly related to the air’s relative humidity (a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air). sweat does not evaporate. soldiers may deploy anywhere in the world. During exercise. especially during exercise. (Warming boots by putting them on is an example. and the body temperature increases. hypothermia and heat injuries can occur within much narrower limits. no cooling effect takes place. This causes even more sweating. To survive. As a result. To maintain a constant normal temperature. This requires an understanding of the environmental factors which affect physical performance and how the body responds to those factors. usually between 74 and 110 degrees Fahrenheit. it must pass this heat on to the environment.In today’s Army. Life-threatening circumstances can develop if the body becomes too hot or too cold. During exercise. (Using a fan on a hot day is an example. Overheating is a serious threat to health and physical performance.) Heat moves from warm to cool areas. Body temperature must be maintained within fairly narrow limits. however. No more water can evaporate into the surrounding air. when the body is extremely warm. Each environment presents unique problems concerning soldiers’ physical performance.) • Evaporation.the transfer of heat by changing a liquid into a gas. Sweating. physical exertion in extreme environments can be life-threatening. Furthermore. When the relative humidity is 100 percent.) • Radiation-the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. Temperature Regulation The body constantly produces heat. the air is completely saturated at its temperature. it must get rid of the excess heat. or the rolling hills of Western Europe. extreme temperatures can have a devastating effect on the body’s ability to control its temperature. sweat rates of up to two quarts per hour are not uncommon. the body can produce heat at a rate 10 to 20 times greater than during rest. The four ways in which the body can gain or lose heat are the following: • Conduction-the transfre of heat from a warm object to a cool one that is touching it. 12-0 . During exercise in the heat. While recognizing such problems is important. the deserts of the Middle East. Therefore. Any condition that slows or blocks the transfer of heat from the body by evaporation causes heat storage which results in an increase in body temperature. the frozen tundra of Alaska. They may go into the tropical heat of Central America. However. (Sitting under a heat lamp is an example.
Increased temperatures and humidity cause increased heart rates. A soldier’s ability to perform effectively in hot. Soldiers who are sedentary take much longer. These are places where soldiers have been or could be deployed. it takes much less effort to elevate the heart rate into the training zone. When two soldiers do the same task. High relative humidities combined with high temperatures can cause serious problems. and his performance is likely to be better. legs. To prevent heat injuries while exercising. ● During the activity: drink 3 to 6 ounces at 15 to 30 minute intervals. humid climate and are moderately active in it can acclimatize in 8 to 14 days. rapid pulse. humid conditions when a soldier’s sweat cannot evaporate. If rapid weight loss occurs. The degree of heat stress directly depends on the relative workload. Plain water is the best replacement fluid to use. excessive sweating. ● After the activity: drink to satisfy thirst. Acclimatization to Hot. Body weight is a good gauge of hydration. it is important to maintain high levels of fitness. This condition. the heat stress is less for the soldier who is in better physical condition. mental confusion. trainers must adjust the intensity to fit the temperature and humidity. dehydration can occur. dizziness. Consequently. The following are common types of heat injuries and their symptoms. These facts underscore the need to use combat-development running . can result in severe heat injuries. in turn. ● Heat cramps-muscles cramps of the abdomen. but the training effect is the same. there is no cooling effect through the process of evaporation. then drink a little more. dry skin. clammy skin. dehydration should be suspected. unconsciousness. soldiers are much more likely to develop heat injuries. To prevent heat injuries. Humid Environments Heat Injuries and Symptoms Adapting to differing environmental conditions is called acclimatization. Therefore. ● Heat stroke-hot. nausea. Until they are acclimatized. cessation of sweating. Weather of this type occurs in the tropics and equatorial regions such as Central America and southern Asia. in hot. ● Heat exhaustion-headache. humid conditions depends on both his acclimatization and level of fitness. They must ensure that soldiers drink enough water before and during the exercise session. Thus. Highly concentrated liquids such as soft drinks and those with a high sugar content may hurt the soldier’s performance because they slow the absorption of water from the stomach. ● Before the activity: drink 13 to 20 ounces at least 30 minutes before. 12-1 Adapting to differing environmental conditions is called acclimatization. the following hydration guidelines should be used: ● Type of drink: cool water (45 to 55 degrees F).If the lost fluids are not replaced. Soldiers who are newly introduced to a hot. or arms.
without proper precautions. Some guidelines for dressing for cold weather exercise are shown in Figure 12-1. The sweat dampens the clothing next to the skin making it a good conductor of heat. It develops because the body cannot produce heat as fast as it is losing it. loss of judgment. ● Insulation will occur by trapping air which has been warmed by the body and holding it near the skin. There is no danger of freezing the lungs. GUIDELINES FOR DRESSING FOR EXERCISE IN THE COLD Clothing for cold weather should protect. As they get fatigued. Hypothermia develops when the body cannot produce heat as fast as it is losing it. frostbite. insulate. ● Blood volume is increased. Some important changes occur as a result of acclimatization to a hot climate. 40% HEAT LOSS THROUGH HEAD J:q(([l’ AND NECK WHEN UNCOVERED t i= $ ● Protect by covering as large an area of the body as possible. This condition is called hypothermia. there are few real dangers in exercising at temperatures well below freezing. ● Ventilate by allowing a two-way exchange of air through the various layers of clothing. Also.and to monitor heart rates when running. However. The following physical adaptations help the body cope with a hot environment ● Sweating occurs at a lower body temperature. Exercising in Cold Environments Contrary to popular belief. and ventilate. HYPOTHERMIA If the body’s core temperature drops below normal. This makes the body sweat. The combination of decreased heat production and increased heat loss can cause a rapid onset of hypothermia. This can lead to death. they slow down and their bodies produce less heat. During exercise in the cold. drowsiness. and muscle weakness. people usually produce enough heat to maintain normal body temperature. ● Heart rate is less at any given work rate. slurred speech. humid conditions. Some symptoms of hypothermia are shivering. hypothermia. however. LIGHIWEIGHT WARM-UPS (NOT WATERPROOF) Clothing should leave your body slightly cool rather than hot. it has little trouble maintaining a normal temperature. \ / “ / Clothing should also be loose enough to allow movement. Since the body produces large amounts of heat during exercise. especially in hot. ● Sweat production is increased. people often overdress for exercise in the cold. its ability to regulate its temperature can become impaired or lost. and dehydration can occur. The chance of a soldier becoming hypothermic is a major threat any time he is exposed to the cold. Clothing soaked with perspiration should be removed if reasonably possible. i FEET SHOULD BE KEPT DRY Figure 12-1 12-2 l l J ! ! ! ! .
hands. Figure 12-2 shows how the wind can affect cooling by providing information on windchill factors. Severe cases of frostbite may require amputation. soldiers may in time become dehydrated. Riding a bicycle at 15 Figure 12-2 12-3 mph is the same as standing in a 15mph wind. For a given temperature. the overall effect is equivalent to a 20-mph wind. trainers should check the body weights of the soldiers regularly and encourage them to drink liquids whenever possible. in addition. While operating in extremely cold climates. A person’s movement through the air creates an effect similar to that caused by wind. It commonly occurs in body parts located away from the core and exposed to the cold such as the nose.FROSTBITE Frostbite is the freezing of body tissue. an exercising soldier must be very cautious to avoid getting frostbite. Cold environments are often dry. the greater the cooling effect. ears. As a result. Factors which lead to frostbite are cold temperatures combined with windy conditions. If. Therefore. there is a 5-mph headwind. DEHYDRATION Dehydration can result from losing body fluids faster than they are replaced. feet. the higher the wind speed. and water may be limited. and skin. . Covering exposed parts of the body will substantially reduce the risks. The wind has a great cooling effect because it causes rapid convective heat transfer from the body.
000 feet. he will not perform as well as at sea level and should not be expected to. including regular physical activity. • Avoid exercising near heavily traveled streets and highways during rush hours. nausea. The primary treatment is further acclimatization or returning to a lower altitude.000 feet have little noticeable effect on healthy people. while other pollutants irritate the eyes. deacclimatization will occur if they spend 14 or more days at lower altitudes. The limiting effects of high elevation are often most pronounced in older soldiers and persons with low levels of fitness. This includes such symptoms as headache. loss of appetite. Ozone and the oxides irritate the air passageways in the lungs. When exercisers in high-pollution areas breathe through the mouth. sulfur oxides (SO). the nasal mucosa’s ability to remove impurities is bypassed. and many pollutants can be inhaled. if possible. Once soldiers are acclimatized to altitudes above 5. 12-4 Pollutants can irritate the respiratory tract and make the person less able to perform aerobically. This means that soldiers cannot work or exercise as well at high altitudes. For this reason. This irritates the respiratory tract and makes the person less able to perform aerobically. Primary pollutants are produced directly by industrial sources. However. however. Originally. . For example. Smog is a combination of primary and secondary pollutants. Before acclimatization is complete. to reacclimatize before being required to take a record APFT. There are two classifications of air pollutants . and particulate (ash).Acclimatization to High Altitudes Elevations below 5. carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and reduces the amount of oxygen carried in the blood. These include carbon monoxide (CO). • In areas of high ozone concentration. train early in the day and after dark. and the body tissues get less oxygen. be permitted before they are administered a record APFT. not to exceed 30 days. many pollutants are produced naturally. aldehydes. the longer a soldier remains at high altitude. the time required to acclimatize depends largely on the altitude. and sulfates. soldiers should be permitted twice the length of their absence. However. it is recommended that 30 days of acclimatization. Air Pollution and Exercise Pollutants are substances in the environment which lower the environ- ment’s quality. Generally. hydrocarbons. In order to insure that soldiers who are newly assigned to altitudes above 5. people at high altitudes may suffer acute mountain sickness. For example. A period of 30 days is adequate for any given reacclimatization. the better his performance becomes. The following are some ways to deal with air pollution while exercising: • Avoid exposure to pollutants before and during exercise. For normal activities.000 feet are not at a disadvantage. volcanoes emit sulfur oxides and ash.primary and secondary. and an inability to sleep. rapid pulse. Due to acclimatization. and lightning produces ozone. at higher elevations the atmospheric pressure is reduced. Some pollutants have negative effects on the body. Examples of these include ozone (03). air pollutants were thought to be only byproducts of the industrial revolution. Secondary pollutants are created by the primary pollutant’s interaction with the environment. • Consult your supporting preventive-medicine activity for advice in identifying or defining training restrictions during periods of heavy air pollution.
sitting. Most overuse injuries can be treated with rest.an inflammation of the bursa (a sack-like structure where tendons pass over bones). he should stop what he is doing. and seek medical help. Blister . level surfaces for stretching and running also helps prevent injuries. ● Low back problems . ● Knee injuries . ● Strain . health-care personnel should evaluate the injured soldier. Injuries are not an uncommon occurrence during intense physical training. It is.a bruise with bleeding into the muscle tissue. injuries do occur. and/or having calf muscles with a limited range of motion. Many common injuries are caused by overuse. and . soldiers often exercise too much and too often and with too rapid an increase in the workload. If a soldier suspects that he is injured. ● Stress fractures of the feet. knees. and by failing to stretch the back and hip-flexor muscles and to strengthen the abdominal muscles. These can generally be avoided by applying lubricants such as petroleum jelly to areas of friction.overuse injuries which seem like shinsplints except that the pain is in a specific area.a painful injury to the soft tissues and bone in the shin area. ● Muscle spasm (muscle cramp) . that is. Dislocation . they should be recognized and properly treated in a timely fashion.a raised spot on the skin filled with liquid. keeping footwear 13-1 (socks. nonetheless. Following any required first aid. If.caused by running on uneven surfaces or with worn out shoes. ● Shinsplints . These are generally caused by wearing shoes with inflexible soles or inadequate shock absorption.“the displacement of one or more bones of a joint from their natural positions. and improper body alignment. overuse.a stretching or tearing of the muscles. a primary responsibility of all leaders to minimize the risk of injury to soldiers. This occurs at a joint and produces pain when the joint is moved or touched.the rubbing off of skin by friction. Swelling may not occur. Most injuries can be prevented by designing a well-balanced PT program that does not overstress any body parts. however. or lifting techniques.caused by poor running. These can be prevented by using petroleum jelly over friction-prone areas. shoes. Safety is always a major concern. running on the toes or on hard surfaces. ankles.Most injuries can be prevented by designing a well-balanced PT program. Sometimes swelling occurs.an inflammation of a tendon that produces pain when the attached muscle contracts. compression. ● Tendinitis .a sudden. ● Bursitis . ice. boots) in good repair. allows enough time for recovery. involuntary contraction of one or more muscles. Soldiers who have problems with their knees can benefit from doing leg exercises that strengthen the front (quadriceps) and rear (hamstrings) thigh muscles. Hot spot . ● Tibial stress fractures . ● Contusion .a stretching or tearing of the ligament(s) at a joint. and wearing the proper size of boot or shoe. and elevation (RICE). Typical Injuries Associated with Physical Training Common injuries associated with exercise are the following: Abrasion (strawberry) . Using strengthening exercises and soft. and includes a warm-up and cool-down. The most common running injuries occur in the feet. report the injury. ● Sprain .a hot or irritated feeling of the skin which occurs just before a blister forms.
● Achilles tendinitis (caused by improper stretching and shoes that do not fit. sweat suit. 13-2 Many running injuries can be prevented by wearing proper footwear. low back problems. Clothes used for physical activity should be comfortable and fit loosely. or runs which cross highways. clothing may be layered according to personal preference. Preventive measures include proper warm-up and cooldown along with stretching exercises.12. and blisters. jogging suit. In very cold weather. Whenever possible. ● Ingrown toenails. Many running injuries can be prevented by wearing proper footwear. dirt paths. soldiers can wear a BDU. knee injuries. or even Army-issued long underwear. multilayered soles with good arch and heel support. Other Factors Proper clothing can also help prevent injuries. C) prohibits the use of headphones or earphones while walking. Soft. These are available in a wide range of prices and styles. soldiers should. However. Shoes made with leather and nylon uppers are usually the most comfortable. they may be worn on tracks and running trails. skating. Common running injuries include the following: ● Black toenails. However. much can be done to keep them to a minimum. If there is reduced visibility. . ● Ankle sprains and fractures. Although they are hard to eliminate. They cause excessive sweating which can lead to dehydration and a dangerous increase in body temperature. control personnel must use added caution to ensure the safety of their soldiers. which were mentioned earlier. A well-conditioned soldier can run five to six times a week. Road safety equipment is required on administative-type walks. shinsplints. with adequate footwear and recovery periods. soldiers may need gloves or mittens and ear-protecting caps. or park trails. For example. he should do two things: gradually build up to running that frequently and vary the intensity of the running sessions to allow recovery between them. jogging. In cold weather. ● Stress fractures of the feet. to do this safely. Rubberized or plastic suits should never be worn during exercise. Failure to allow recovery between hard bouts of running can lead to overtraining and can also be a major cause of injuries. if possible. Soldiers should train in running shoes. or bicycling on the roads and streets of military installations. even surfaces are best for injury prevention. Army Regulation 385-55 (paragraph B. See Appendix E for more information on running shoes. However. marches. or tank trails or which are conducted on traffic ways. are also injuries which commonly occur in runners. running on roads and other hard surfaces should pose no problem. Since injuries can also be caused by running on hard surfaces. avoid running on concrete.legs. roads. ● Upper leg and groin injuries (which can usually be prevented by using good technique in stretching and doing strengthening exercises). Tibial stress fractures. They should fit properly and have flexible. soldiers should run on grass paths. A T-shirt or sleeveless undershirt and gym shorts are best in warm weather.
there is no requirement for clearance in the cardiovascular screening program before taking a record APFT. Additional physical performance tests and standards which serve as prerequisites for Airborne/Ranger/Special Forces/SCUBA qualification are provided in DA Pam 351-4. While the APFT testing is an important tool in determining the physical readiness of individual soldiers and units. not the APFT.15). Prior to their CVSP evaluation. regular CR exercise. Methods of Evaluation Commanders are responsible for ensuring that their soldiers are physically fit (AR 350. Soldiers who reached age 40 before 1 January 1989 must be cleared through the cardiovascular screening program before taking a record APFT. All soldiers in the Active Army. This is an efficient way to evaluate both the individual’s 14-1 ● ● ● and the unit’s physical performance levels. and Army Reserve must take the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) regardless of their age. both active and reserve component. mission-essential tasks. An APFT with alternate test events is given to soldiers with permanent profiles and with temporary profiles greater than three months’ duration. The APFT is a three-event physical performance test used to assess muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. Medical examination. and physical problems. Army National Guard. For soldiers who reached age 40 on or after 1 January 1989.The APFT is a threeevent physical performance test used to assess muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness . All soldiers. Observation. it should not be the sole basis for the unit’s physical fitness training. must take the APFT for record regardless of age unless prohibited by a medical profile. cardiovascular risk factors. not just to help soldiers do well on the APFT. This evaluates training procedures and indicates the sound ness of the unit’s physical fitness program. There are several ways they can assess fitness including the following ● Testing. This detects individual disabilities. ● Uses treadmill testing only for highrisk soldiers who need it. health-rerelated problems. ● Gives advice and help in controlling heart-disease risk factors. Performance on the APFT is strongly linked to the soldier’s fitness level and his ability to do fitness-related tasks. This is an ongoing way to review training but is not as reliable as testing as an indicator of the unit’s level of fitness. However. It is a simple way to measure a soldier’s ability to effectively move his body by using his major muscle groups and CR system. should drive physical training. Performance on the APFT is strongly linked to the soldier's fitness level and his ability to do fitness-related tasks. ● Provides guidelines for safe. Commanders should use their unit’s APFT results to evaluate its physical fitness level. All soldiers must undergo periodic physical examinations in accordance with AR 40-501 and NGR 40These include screening for 501. Inspection. . APFT results may indicate a need to modify the fitness programs to attain higher fitness levels. however. Commanders at every level must ensure that fitness training is designed to develop physical abilities in a balanced way. Over-Forty Cardiovascular Screening Program The Army’s over-40 cardiovascular screening program (CVSP) does the following: ● Identifies soldiers with a risk of coronary heart disease. they may still take part in physical training to include diagnostic APFTs unless profiled or contraindications to exercise exist.
Service schools. Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. Test Administration The APFT must be administered properly and to standard in order to accurately evaluate a soldier’s physical fitness and to be fair to all soldiers. Competition on the APFT among soldiers or units can also be used to motivate them to improve their fitness levels.) Individual soldiers are not authorized to administer the APFT to themselves for the purpose of satisfying a unit’s diagnostic or record APFT requirement. However. and running shoes (not tennis shoes). and sex. They should always strive to improve themselves physically and never be content with meeting minimum standards. It must not take more than two hours. age. when done too often. The APFT does. however. BDUs may be worn but may be a hindrance on some events. They may be worn in cold weather when approved by the local commander. The supervisor of each event must have the event instructions and standards. for standardization. Testing is not a substitute for a regular. Scorers should have a clipboard and an ink pen to record the results on the soldiers’ scorecards. they are not all-inclusive. The soldier fills in his name. When applied to a com mand. grade. give a commander a sound measurement of the general fitness level of his unit. The lowest passing APFT standards reflect the minimum acceptable fitness level for all soldiers. mesh pullovers or attached to the runners themselves. They must be able to measure time in both minutes and seconds. Diagnostic testing is important in monitoring training progress but. The test period is defined as t h e period of time which elapses from starting to finishing the three events. APFT events assess muscular endurance and CR fitness. other physical capabilities must be measured. social security number. may decrease motivation and waste training time. REQUIRED EQUIPMENT The OIC or NCOIC at the test site must have a copy of FM 21-20 on hand. Two stopwatches are needed. Wearing devices such as weight belts or elastic bandages may or may not provide an advantage. Runners must wear numbers or some other form of identification for the 2-mile run. Each soldier needs a DA Form 705. To assess this. They should not wear basketball shoes or other types of court shoes.15). balanced exercise program. Soldiers must do all three events in the same test period. Soldiers should wear clothing that is appropriate for PT such as shorts. 14-2 . agencies. Tshirts. APFT results show a unit’s overall level of physical fitness. Individual soldiers are also encouraged to set for themselves a series of successively higher APFT performance goals. regardless of MOS or component.Overview As stated. However. such additional equipment is not authorized unless prescribed by medical personnel. (Test results are used for personnel actions. and units may set performance goals which are above the minimum APFT standards in accordance with their missions (AR 350. Anything that gives a soldier an unfair advantage is not permitted during the APFT. The numbers may be stenciled or pinned onto pullover vests or sleeveless. The only exception is gloves. socks. overall measures of physical-combat readiness.
1 for instructions on completing DA Form 705. the scorer should write down the reasons and other pertinent information in the comment block. (See Figure 14-1.) The unit will complete the height and weight data.(See Figure 14-1.) See page 14-8. ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST SCORECARD *Figure 14-1 14-3 . Scorers record the raw score for each event and initial the results. If a soldier fails an event or finds it difficult to perform. After the entire APFT has been completed. the event scorer will convert raw scores to point scores using the scoring standards on the back of the scorecards.
*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-4 .
*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-5 .
*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-6 .
*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-7 .
and scored according to the test standards in this chapter. They should also ensure the following: • Soldiers are not tested when fatigued or ill. The goal of the APFT is to get an accurate evaluation of the soldiers’ fitness levels. Commanders should plan testing which permits each soldier to perform to his maximal level. • Arranges and lays out the test area. • Training of supervisors and scorers. Twelve to 15 scorers are required when a company-sized unit is tested. • Safety is the first consideration. Correctly supervising testees and laying out the test area are essential duties. Commanders must strictly control those factors which influence test performance. Preparations for administering an accurate APFT include the following: • Selecting and training supervisors and scorers. • Read the test instructions. They must ensure that events. There should be no less than one scorer for each 15 soldiers tested. • Trains the event supervisors. • Briefing and orienting administrators and participants. control. and a demonstrator for each event. EVENT SUPERVISORS Event supervisors do the following: • Administer the test events. and initial the scorecard block. They do not participate in the test. • Rule on questions and scoring discrepancies for their event. • Perform other duties assigned by the OIC or NCOIC. and demonstrators. scorers. SCORERS Scorers do the following: • Supervise the performance of testees. (Training video tape No. scoring.) • Ensures the test is properly administered and the events are explained. Scorers must be thoroughly trained to maintain uniform scoring standards. The goal of the APFT is to get an accurate evaluation of the soldier’s fitness levels. . • Securing a location for the events. OIC OR NCOIC The OIC or NCOIC does the following: • Administers the APFT. • Count the number of correctly performed repetitions aloud. • Enforce the test standards in this chapter. • Preparing the test and controlling performance factors. 14-8 • Supervise the scoring of events. and have the events demonstrated. • Soldiers do not have tiring duties just before taking the APFT. and equipment are uniform. Testers must be totally familiar with the instructions for each event and trained to administer the tests. scorers. • Weather and environmental conditions do not inhibit performance. demonstrated.SUPERVISION Duties of Test Personnel The APFT must be properly supervised to ensure that its objectives are met. • Record the correct. • Support personnel (safety. raw score on each soldier’s scorecard. • Procures all necessary equipment and supplies. • Event supervisor. and medical as appropriate). Proper supervision ensures uniformity in the following: • Scoring the test. • Ensure that necessary equipment is on hand. clothing. and ensure that they are done correctly. • Reports the results after the test. The group administering the test must include the following: • OIC or NCOIC. 21-191 should be used for training those who administer the APFT.
NCOIC/OIC Signature The NCOIC/OIC checks all test scores for accuracy and signs their name in the NCOIC/OIC Signature block. round down to the nearest whole number in inches. Circle GO if the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event within the required time or less. Body Fat Content Worksheet. event scorer. print N/A (not applicable) in the BODY FAT block. Circle GO if soldier meets percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and sit-up POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. round up to the nearest pound. for female soldiers. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and or sit -up POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the 2MR INITIALS block. BODY FAT If soldier exceeds screening table weight.2-milestationary bicycle ergometer. Dec 85. 2MR RAW SCORE The event scorer records the two-mile run time in the 2MR RAW SCORE block. The event scorer then determines the point value for the two-mile run using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT The event scorer prints the alternate aerobic event administered (800-yard swim. If soldier does not exceed screening table weight or does not appear to have excessive body fat IAW AR 600-9. Scoring for all alternate aerobic events is on a GO or NO-GO basis. injury during APFT and or appeals. The two-mile run event scorer totals the points from the three events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block. If the height fraction is greater than 1/2 inch. NAME Print soldier’s last name. WEIGHT Print soldier’s weight in WEIGHT block. Chapter 14. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. In all cases when a point value falls between two point values. GRADE Print soldier’s grade in GRADE block. 6. AGE Print soldier’s age on the date the APFT is administered in AGE block. or OIC may record comments appropriate to the APFT in the COMMENTS block. Percent body fat is recorded from DA Form 5500-R. round up to the next highest whole number in inches. NCOIC. No point values are awarded.2-mile-bicycle test or 2. The time the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event is recorded in minutes and seconds in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. Appropriate comments may include: weather conditions. 14-8. HEIGHT Print soldier’s height in HEIGHT block. UNIT Print soldier’s unit designation in UNIT block. for male soldiers and DA Form 5501-R. SSN Print soldier’s social security number in SSN block. first name and middle initial in NAME block. Body Fat Content Worksheet. Weight will be recorded to the nearest pound. 6. Height will be rounded to the nearest inch. If the height fraction is less than 1/2 inch. The standards for the alternate aerobic event tests are listed in FM 21-20. The alternate aerobic event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and or sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. COMMENTS The event supervisor. GENDER Print M for male or F for female in GENDER block. Circle NO-GO if the soldier fails to complete the alternate aerobic event within the required time.1 . SU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the sit-up in the SU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block.*Instructions for Completing DA Form 705. June 1998. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. DATE Print date the APFT is administered in DATE block. round down to the nearest pound. Circle GO if soldier meets screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. print the soldier’s body fat in the BODY FAT block. If the weight fraction is less than 1/2 pound. Figure 14-9. Dec 85. PU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the push-up in the PU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. Army Physical Fitness Scorecard. The point value is recorded in the 2MR POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. If the weight fraction is 1/2 pound or greater.5-mile walk) in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. The two-mile run event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. The alternate aerobic event scorer totals the points from the push-up and or sit-up events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block. The time is recorded in minutes and seconds. the lower point value is used and recorded.
(THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.) 14-8.2 .
known to all test personnel. The track is formed when the outermost points of the two circles are connected with tangent lines. traffic. the OIC or NCOIC should have a plan.) ● No significant hazards. flat. 9 3/4 inches long must be marked in the center of a clear area. heavy pollution). At a minimum. When the track is laid out. When necessary or expedient. Figure 14-2 14-9 A flat. a horizontal midline 279 feet. slippery road surfaces. depending on local policy and conditions. dry area for performing push-ups and sit-ups. It can be marked with a series of stakes along the inside edge. ● A soft. Test Site The test site should be fairly flat and free of debris. A 120-foot circle is marked at both ends of this line. (for example. However. for getting medical help if needed. It should have the following: ● An area for stretching and warming up. they do not have to be on site to have the APFT conducted. 2-mile running course with a solid surface and no more than a three-percent grade. (Commanders must use good judgement. no one is expected to survey terrain. Medical personnel may also be there.SUPPORT PERSONNEL Safety and control people should be at the test site. a quarter-mile running track can “be used. (See Figure 14-2.) ● .
” (If scorecards have been issued to the soldiers and filled out before they arrive at the test site. However. The instructions printed here in large type must be read to the soldiers: “YOU ARE ABOUT TO TAKE THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST.) Next. 4 inches. the scoring tables are explained so everyone understands how raw scores are converted to point scores. he receives credit for all correctly done repetitions within the two-minute period. If he continues. PRINT IN INK THE PERSONAL INFORMATION REQUIRED ON THE SCORECARD. RETAKING OF EVENTS Soldiers who start an event incorrectly must be stopped by the scorer before they complete 10 repetitions and told what their errors are. The test is then given. The OIC or NCOIC then says the following: “IN THE APPROPRIATE SPACES. soldiers who run the 2-mile event on a 400-meter track must run eight laps plus an additional 61 feet. The OIC or NCOIC then explains the scorecard. STAY WITH YOUR TEST GROUP FOR THE ENTIRE TEST. he is sent to the end of the line to retake that event. 14-10 . He may not retake the event if he has exceeded 10 repetitions. HAND THE CARD TO THE SCORER. this remark is omitted. Therefore. Soldiers who are unable to perform 10 correct repetitions because of low fitness levels may not retake an event. They are then sent to the end of the line to await their turn to retake the event. If he has not done 10 correct repetitions. AND RETURN IT TO YOU. THE SCORER WILL RECORD YOUR RAW SCORE. LISTEN CLOSELY TO THE TEST INSTRUCTIONS.” (At this point.” If scorecards have not already been issued. A TEST THAT WILL MEASURE YOUR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS. INITIAL THE CARD. He then says the following: “YOU ARE TO CARRY THIS CARD WITH YOU TO EACH EVENT.A 400-meter track may be used in place of the standard quarter-mile (440-yard) track for the 2-mile run. he gets credit for the number of correct repetitions he has performed up to that time. AND DO THE BEST YOU CAN ON EACH OF THE EVENTS.) The OIC or NCOIC pauses briefly to give the soldiers time to check the information. soldiers are assembled in a common area and briefed by the test OIC or NCOIC about the purpose and organization of the test. BEFORE YOU BEGIN. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TEST AT THIS POINT?” Groups are organized as required and given final instructions including what to do after the final event. the OIC or NCOIC says the following “EACH OF YOU WILL BE ASSIGNED TO A GROUP. scoring standards. If he does not continue. Eight laps on a 400-meter track is 736 inches shorter than eight laps (2 miles) on a 440-yard track. and sequence of events. A soldier who has problems such as muscle cramps while performing an event may rest if he does not assume an illegal position in the process. they are handed out at this time. THE RESULTS OF THIS TEST WILL GIVE YOU AND YOUR COMMANDERS AN INDICATION OF YOUR STATE OF FITNESS AND WILL ACT AS A GUIDE IN DETERMINING YOUR PHYSICAL TRAINING NEEDS. AFTER YOU COMPLETE THE EVENT. Test Procedures On test day. one lap run on a 400-meter track is 92 inches shorter than one lap on a 440-yard track.
paragraph 11) must be flagged IAW AR 600-8-2 (Reference B). Test Sequence The test sequence is the push-up. ON THE COMMAND ‘GET SET. 14-11 instructions. The following paragraphs describe the equipment. and triceps muscles. sit-up. SHOULDER. and 2-mile run (or alternate. to recover between each event. timing techniques.) Equipment One stopwatch is needed along with one clipboard and pen for each scorer. and scorers’ duties for the pushup. shoulder. (See Figure 14-3. paragraph 11. Soldiers should be allowed no less than 10 minutes.’ ASSUME THE FRONT-LEANING REST POSITION BY PLACING YOUR HANDS WHERE THEY ARE COMFORTABLE FOR YOU. Facilities There must be at least one test station for every 15 soldiers to be tested. Instructions The event supervisor must read the following: “THE PUSH-UP EVENT MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF THE CHEST. as it will depend on the total number of soldiers who are participating in the APFT. YOUR BODY SHOULD FORM A GENERALLY STRAIGHT LINE FROM YOUR SHOULDERS TO YOUR ANKLES. There are no exceptions to this sequence. and 2-mile-run events. The event supervisor must have the following the instructions in this chapter on how to conduct the event and one copy of the push-up scoring standards (DA Form 705). facilities. Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet deep. The order of events cannot be changed. WHEN VIEWED FROM THE SIDE. administration. Soldiers who rest in an unauthorized rest position will have their performance in that event immediately terminated. Personnel One event supervisor must beat the test site and one scorer at each station. YOUR FEET MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12 INCHES APART. The event supervisor may not be the event scorer. commanders may allow soldiers to retake the test as soon as the soldiers and commanders feel they are ready. but ideally no more than 20 minutes. The OIC or NCOIC determines the time to be allotted between events. personnel. staggered starting times should be planned to allow the proper intervals between events. AND TRICEPS MUSCLES. sit-up. PUSH-UPS Push-ups measure the endurance of the chest. If many soldiers are to be tested. The records of soldiers who fail a record APFT for the first time and those who fail to take the APFT within the required period (AR 350-15. aerobic event). . RETESTING Soldiers who fail any or all of the events must retake the entire APFT. In case of test failure. Under no circumstances is the APFT valid if a soldier cannot begin and end all three events in two hours or less. Soldiers without a medical profile will be retested notlater-than three months following the initial APFT failure in accordance with AR 350-15.TEST FAILURES Soldiers who stop to rest in an authorized rest position continue to receive credit for correct repetitions performed after their rest.
AND ANY INCORRECTLY PERFORMED PUSH-UPS WILL NOT BE COUNTED. HOWEVER. THE SCORER WILL TELL YOU TO GO TO YOUR KNEES AND WILL EXPLAIN TO YOU WHAT YOUR MISTAKES ARE. RETURN TO THE STARTING POSITION BY RAISING YOUR ENTIRE BODY UNTIL YOUR ARMS ARE FULLY EXTENDED. IF YOU FAIL TO KEEP YOUR BODY GENERALLY STRAIGHT. THE TEST WILL CONTINUE. YOU MAY 14-12 .’ BEGIN THE PUSH-UP BY BENDING YOUR ELBOWS AND LOWERING YOUR ENTIRE BODY AS A SINGLE UNIT UNTIL YOUR UPPER ARMS ARE AT LEAST PARALLEL TO THE GROUND. AND THE SCORER WILL REPEAT THE NUMBER OF THE LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED REPETITION. AT THE END OF EACH REPETITION. YOUR BODY MUST REMAIN RIGID IN A GENERALLY STRAIGHT LINE AND MOVE AS A UNIT WHILE PERFORMING EACH REPETITION. THAT IS. THE SCORER WILL STATE THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS YOU HAVE COMPLETED CORRECTLY. IF YOU FAIL TO PERFORM THE FIRST TEN PUSH-UPS CORRECTLY. AFTER THE FIRST 10 PUSH-UPS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED AND COUNTED. OR TO EXTEND YOUR ARMS COMPLETELY. THEN. YOU WILL THEN BE SENT TO THE END OF THE LINE TO BE RETESTED. THAT REPETITION WILL NOT COUNT. FRONT-LEANING REST POSITION IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSITION. TO LOWER YOUR WHOLE BODY UNTIL YOUR UPPER ARMS ARE AT LEAST PARALLEL TO THE GROUND. AN ALTERED. NO RESTARTS ARE ALLOWED.ON THE COMMAND ‘GO.
THE CORRECT STARTING POSITION BEFORE CONTINUING. YOU WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES IN WHICH TO DO AS MANY PUSH-UPS AS YOU CAN. Then he moves the groups to their testing stations. AND PAUSE IN. The event supervisor cannot be ready to begin. Successive groups do the event until all soldiers have completed it. BUT NOT TO SUCH AN EXTENT THAT YOU ARE SUPPORTING MOST OF YOUR BODY WEIGHT WITH YOUR LEGS. He calls out the time remaining every 30 seconds and every second for the last 10 seconds of the two minutes. YOU MAY BEND YOUR KNEES.) “WHAT ARE -YOUR QUESTIONS?” Figure 14-4 14-13 Administration After reading the instructions. He ends the event after two minutes by the command “Halt!” Scorers’ Duties Scorers must allow for differences in the body shape and structure of each soldier. YOU MUST RETURN TO. YOUR PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMINATED. The scorer should talk to the soldier before the event begins and have him do a few repetitions as a warm-up and reference to ensure he is doing the exercise correctly.SAG IN THE MIDDLE OR FLEX YOUR BACK. CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. the supervisor answers questions. IF YOU REST ON THE GROUND OR RAISE EITHER HAND OR FOOT FROM THE GROUND. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer. WHEN FLEXING YOUR BACK. YOU MAY REPOSITION YOUR HANDS AND/OR FEET DURING THE EVENT AS LONG AS THEY REMAIN IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES. . See Figure 14-4 for a list of points that need to be made during the demonstration. The scorer uses each soldier’s starting position as a guide throughout the event to evaluate each repetition. YOUR PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMINATED.” (The exercise is then demonstrated. WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION. IF THIS OCCURS.
He counts out loud the number of correct repetitions completed and repeats the number of the last correct push-up if an incorrect one is done. and returns it to the soldier. Each scorer determines for himself if he will sit or kneel when scoring. The event supervisor must have the following: the instructions in this chapter on how to conduct the event and one copy of the sit-up scoring standards (DA Form 705). Instructions The event supervisor must read the following: “THE SIT-UP EVENT MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF THE ABDOMINAL AND HIPFLEXOR MUSCLES.The scorer may either sit or kneel about three feet from the testee’s shoulder at a 45-degree angle in front of it. When the soldier completes the event. Ensure that no more than 15 soldiers are tested at a station. He may not lie down or stand while scoring. Scorers tell the testees what they do wrong as it occurs during the event. initials the scorecard.) Equipment One stopwatch is needed along with one clipboard and pen for each scorer. SIT-UPS This event measures the endurance of the abdominal and hip-flexor muscles. The scorer’s head should be about even with the testee’s shoulder when the latter is in the front-leaning rest position. ON THE Figure 14-5 14-14 . The event supervisor may not be the event scorer. Personnel One event supervisor must be at the test site and one scorer at each station. (See Figure 14-5. A critique of the performance is done following the test. Facilities Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet deep. the scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions.
THE Figure 14-6 14-15 VERTICAL POSITION. A REPETITION WILL NOT COUNT IF YOU FAIL TO REACH THE VERTICAL POSITION. ARCH OR BOW YOUR BACK AND RAISE YOUR BUTTOCKS OFF THE . OR ELBOWS DO NOT HAVE TO TOUCH THE GROUND. ON THE COMMAND “GO”. OR BEYOND. HANDS. AFTER YOU HAVE REACHED OR SURPASSED THE VERTICAL POSITION. YOUR FINGERS MUST BE INTERLOCKED BEHIND YOUR HEAD AND THE BACKS OF YOUR HANDS MUST TOUCH THE GROUND. NO OTHER METHOD OF BRACING OR HOLDING THE FEET IS AUTHORIZED. YOUR HEAD. ANOTHER PERSON WILL HOLD YOUR ANKLES WITH THE HANDS ONLY. ARMS. AT THE END OF EACH REPETITION. THE SCORER WILL STATE THE NUMBER OF SIT-UPS YOU HAVE CORRECTLY COMPLETED. YOUR ARMS AND ELBOWS NEED NOT TOUCH THE GROUND.COMMAND “GET SET”. BEGIN RAISING YOUR UPPER BODY FORWARD TO. ASSUME THE STARTING POSITION BY LYING ON YOUR BACK WITH YOUR KNEES BENT AT A 90DEGREE ANGLE. LOWER YOUR BODY UNTIL THE BOTTOM OF YOUR SHOULDER BLADES TOUCH THE GROUND. YOUR FEET MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12 INCHES APART. FAIL TO KEEP YOUR FINGERS INTERLOCKED BEHIND YOUR HEAD. THE HEEL IS THE ONLY PART OF YOUR FOOT THAT MUST STAY IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND. THE VERTICAL POSITION MEANS THAT THE BASE OF YOUR NECK IS ABOVE THE BASE OF YOUR SPINE.
this angle becomes greater than 90 degrees. AS LONG AS YOU MAKE A CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL EFFORT TO SIT UP. The scorer counts aloud the number of correctly performed sit-ups and repeats the number of the last correctly performed repetition if an incorrect one is done. He then moves the groups to their testing stations. the testing is ready to begin. the scorer should instruct the testee and holder to reposition the legs to the proper angle and obtain compliance before allowing the testee’s performance to continue. IF A REPETITION DOES NOT COUNT. WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION. When the soldier completes the event. The loss of the proper angle does not terminate the testee’s performance in the event. THE UP POSITION IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSITION. YOU MAY NOT USE YOUR HANDS OR ANY OTHER MEANS TO PULL OR PUSH YOURSELF UP TO THE UP (RESTING) POSITION OR TO HOLD YOURSELF IN THE REST POSITION. When checking for correct body position. See Figure 14-6 for a list of points that need to be made during the demonstration. YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. He ends the event after two minutes by the command “Halt!” Scorers’ Duties The scorer may either kneel or sit about three feet from the testee’s hip. The scorer’s head should be about even with the testee’s shoulder when the latter is in the vertical (up) position. THE EVENT WILL NOT BE TERMINATED. The angle to be measured is not the one formed by the lower leg and the ground. initials the scorecard. the scorer must be sure that at a 90-degree angle is formed at each knee by the soldier’s upper and lower leg. OR LET YOUR KNEES EXCEED A 90-DEGREE ANGLE. He calls out the time remaining every 30 seconds and every second for the last 10 seconds of the two minutes. A soldier who simply touches his knees with his elbows may not come to a completely vertical position. IF YOU STOP AND REST IN THE DOWN (STARTING) POSITION. IF YOU DO SO.) “WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS?” Administration After reading the instructions. and returns it to the soldier. A critique of his performance is given to each soldier after the event. The event supervisor cannot be a scorer. He may not lie down or stand while scoring. the supervisor answers questions. THE SCORER WILL REPEAT THE NUMBER OF YOUR LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED SIT-UP. Successive groups do the event until all soldiers have completed it. When the soldier comes to the vertical position. the scorer must be sure that the base of the soldier’s neck is above or past the base of the spine. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer. If. Scorers tell the testees what they are doing wrong as it occurs during the event.” (The exercise is then demonstrated. 14-16 . THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. The scorer must ensure that the holder uses only his hands to brace the exerciser’s feet. Each scorer decides for himself whether to sit or kneel down when scoring.GROUND TO RAISE YOUR UPPER BODY. while performing the situp event. YOU WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES TO PERFORM AS MANY SIT-UPS AS YOU CAN. CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. the scorer records the number of correctly performed situps. At this point.
PUSHED.) The event supervisor must read the following: “THE TWO-MILE RUN IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR AEROBIC FITNESS AND YOUR LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. IF YOU ARE PHYSICALLY HELPED IN ANY WAY (FOR EXAMPLE. TO RUN THE REQUIRED TWO MILES. IT IS STRONGLY DISCOURAGED. copies of the event’s instructions and standards. YOU ARE BEING TESTED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE 2-MILE COURSE IN THE SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE. PICKED UP. (See Figure 14-7. and numbers for the testees are needed. ALTHOUGH WALKING IS AUTHORIZED.TWO-MILE RUN Instructions This event tests cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance and the endurance of the leg muscles. YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps. ALL SOLDIERS WILL LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. and course layout). AT THE START. Figure 14-7 14-17 . Personnel One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every 15 runners are required.’ THE CLOCK WILL START. YOU WILL BEGIN RUNNING AT YOUR OWN PACE. the start and finish and one-mile (half way) point must be clearly marked. You MUST COMPLETE THE RUN WITHOUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP. An oval-shaped track of known length may be used. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. PULLED. start and finish points. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. AND/OR CARRIED) OR LEAVE THE DESIGNATED RUNNING COURSE FOR ANY Equipment Two stopwatches for the event supervisor. Facilities There must be a level area with no more than a three-degree slope on which a measured course has been marked. If a road course is used.
14-18 .) THE NUMBER ON YOUR CHEST IS FOR IDENTIFICATION. This simplifies the recording of finish times when large groups of soldiers are simultaneously tested. In all cases. Test Results The soldier’s fitness performance for each APFT event is determined by converting the raw score for each event to a point score. when a time falls between two point values. Scorers’ Duties The scorers observe those runners in their groups. and record their times as they cross the finish line. the supervisor answers questions. IS PERMITTED. the test’s OIC or NCOIC signs all scorecards and returns them to the unit’s commander or designated representative. AS LONG AS THERE IS NO PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE PACED SOLDIER AND IT DOES NOT PHYSICALLY HINDER OTHER SOLDIERS TAKING THE TEST. age 17 to 21. DO NOT STAY NEAR THE SCORERS OR THE FINISH LINE AS THIS MAY INTERFERE WITH THE TESTING. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ON THIS EVENT?” Administration After reading the instructions. As the soldiers near the finish line.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. For example. monitor their laps (if appropriate). They enter those point values on the scorecards and determine the total APFT score for each soldier before giving the scorecards to the test’s OIC or NCOIC. Properly interpreted. the scorers for the 2mile run also convert the raw scores for the push-up and sit-up events by using the scoring standards on the back side of the scorecard. (IT IS LEGAL TO PACE A SOLDIER DURING THE 2-MILE RUN. fifteenthirty-one. TURN IN YOUR NUMBER WHEN YOU FINISH THE RUN. He then organizes the soldiers into groups of no more than 10. “Fifteen-thirty. THEN. (It is often helpful to record the soldiers’ numbers and times on a separate sheet of paper or card.) After all runners have completed the run.REASON. performance on the APFT shows the following: ● Each soldier’s level of physical fitness. ALONG SIDE OF. and enter their initials in the scorers’ blocks. the score awarded is 95 points. the scorers determine the point value for each soldier’s run time. At the same time. ● Soldiers who need special attention. WHILE SERVING AS A PACER. YOU WILL BE DISQUALIFIED. OR BEHIND THE TESTED SOLDIER. CHEERING OR CALLING OUT THE ELAPSED TIME IS ALSO PERMITTED. At this time. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go. record the point values on the scorecards. the event supervisor calls off the time in minutes and seconds (for example. After the test scores have been checked. the scorer collects the scorecards and records each soldier’s number. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer. fifteen-thirty -two. THE PRACTICE OF RUNNING AHEAD OF. runs the two miles in 15 minutes and 19 seconds. ● Deficiencies in physical fitness. The scorer for each group assigns a number to each soldier in the group. the lower point value is used and recorded. GO TO THE AREA DESIGNATED FOR THE COOL-DOWN AND STRETCH. ● The entire unit’s level of physical fitness. if a female soldier.” and so on). YOU MUST MAKE SURE IT IS VISIBLE AT ALL TIMES.
For a proper analysis of the unit’s performance. the official. maximum score on the APFT must remain at 300 (100 points per event). Scores Above Maximum Even though some soldiers exceed the maximum score on one or more Figure 14-8 14-19 APFT events. however. Take.(Leaders must develop special programs to improve the performance of soldiers who are below the required standards. Therefore. Each push-up and sit-up beyond the maximum is worth one point as is every sixsecond decrease in the run time.) Commanders should not try to determine the individual’s or the unit’s strengths and weaknesses in fitness by using only the total scores. want to know unofficial point scores to reward soldiers for their extra effort. A male soldier performs above the maximum in the 17-21 age group by doing 87 push-ups and 98 sit-ups and by running the two miles in 11 minutes and 12 seconds. extra points are awarded at the same rate as points obtained for scores at or below the 100 point level. a female’s 80point push-up score should be considered the same as a male’s 80-point push-up score. They are corrected for age and sex. To fairly determine the points earned. the following case shown in Figure 14-8. Some commanders. for example. His score would be calculated as follows: . event scores should be used. Using the total point value or raw scores may distort the interpretation. Only those soldiers who score 100 points in all three events are eligible to determine their score on an extended scale. A detailed study of the results on each event is more important.
● 6. Alternate Events Alternate APFT events assess the aerobic fitness and muscular endurance of soldiers with permanent medical profiles or long-term (greater than three months) temporary profiles who cannot take the regular. He also indicates the events and/or alternate aerobic event that the soldier will do on the APFT. For example. Physical Profile. give the soldier a total score of 318 points. This recommendation. A soldier whose profile prevents two or more APFT events must complete the 2-mile run or an alternate aerobic event to earn a “go” on the test. He may recognize soldiers for their outstanding fitness achievements. should address the soldier’s abilities and preference and the equipment available.” He must also complete the alternate event in a time equal to or less than the one listed for his age group.) The profiled soldier must perform all the regular APFT events his medical profile permits. not only on the APFT but also for other.2-mile-bicycle test on a conventional bicycle using one speed. ● 6. Commanders may also establish their own incentive programs and set their own unit’s standards (AR 350-15). The profiling officer gives the unit’s commander a list of physical activities that are suitable for the profiled soldier. Soldiers who do push-up and sit-up events but who take an alternate aerobic event are not awarded promotion points for APFT performance. Temporary Profiles A soldier with a temporary profile must take the regular three-event APFT after the profile has expired. (Soldiers with temporary profiles of more than three months may take an alternate test as determined by the commander with input from health-care personnel. Such information will be recorded in their official military record. This method lets the commander easily determine the scores for performances that are above the maximum. the soldier should be given a mandatory make-up date. The standards for alternate events are listed in Figure 14-9.2-mile-stationary. ) Once the profile is lifted. Scoring for all alternate events is on a go/no go basis. (See DA Form 3349. three-event APFT.5-mile-walk test. a soldier whose profile forbids only running will do the push-up and sit-up events and an alternate aerobic event.bicycle ergometer test with a resistance setting of 2 kiloponds (2 kilograms) or 20 newtons. 14-20 . Permanent Profiles A permanently profiled soldier is given a physical training program by the profiling officer using the positive profile form DA 3349 (see Appendix B). The alternate aerobic APFT events are the following: ● 800-yard-swim test. referenced in AR 40-501. Soldiers who cannot do any of the aerobic events due to a profile cannot be tested. Using this method ensures that each soldier has an equal chance to be recognized for any of the tested fitness components. the soldier has 14 days to train for the APFT after the profile period ends. He must get at least a minimum passing score on each event to earn a “go” for the test. if the profile period was 7 days. unofficial fitness challenges. the soldier must be given twice the time of the profile (but not more than 90 days) to train for the APFT. For example. ● 2.The calculations on the previous page. If a normally scheduled APFT occurs during the profile period. Each soldier must earn at least 60 points on the regular events to receive a “go. made after consultation with the profiled soldier.
5-MILE WALK Men Women 34:00 37:00 34:30 37:30 35:00 38:00 35:30 38:30 36:00 39:00 36:30 39:30 37:00 40:00 37:30 40:30 38:00 41:00 38:30 41:30 *Figure 14-9 800-YARD-SWIM TEST This event is used to assess cardiorespiratory (aerobic) fitness. is needed. YOU WILL BEGIN IN THE WATER. YOUR BODY MUST BE IN CONTACT 14-21 WITH THE WALL OF THE POOL. WALKING ON THE BOTTOM TO RECUPERATE IS AUTHORIZED. and appropriate safety equipment are needed. Facilities A swimming pool at least 25 yards long and 3 feet deep. one clipboard and pen for each scorer.ALTERNATE TEST STANDARDS BY EVENT. OR LESS THAN. YOU MUST TOUCH THE WALL OF THE POOL AT EACH END OF THE POOL AS YOU TURN. one copy each of the test instructions and standards. and medical personnel must also be present. YOU SHOULD THEN BEGIN SWIMMING AT YOUR OWN PACE. SWIMMING GOGGLES ARE PERMITTED.’ THE CLOCK WILL START. SEX. BUT NO OTHER EQUIPMENT IS AUTHORIZED. ANY TYPE OF TURN IS AUTHORIZED. Instructions The event supervisor must read the following statement: “THE 800-YARD SWIM IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS. Appropriate safety. YOU MUST SWIM (tell the number) LAPS TO COMPLETE THIS DISTANCE. AND AGE AGE EVENT SEX 17-21 22-26 27-31 32-36 37-41 42-46 47-51 52-56 24:00 25:00 57-61 62+ 24:30 25:30 25:00 26:00 800-YARD SWIM Men Women 20:00 21:00 20:30 21:30 21:00 22:00 21:30 22:30 22:00 23:00 22:30 23:30 23:00 24:00 6. Personnel One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every soldier to be tested are required. NO DIVING IS ALLOWED. AT THE START. control. USING ANY STROKE OR COMBINATION OF STROKES YOU WISH. or an approved facility. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” . THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE SWIM IN A TIME EQUAL TO. (See Figure 14-10.) Equipment Two stopwatches.2-MILE BIKE (Stationary and track) Men Women 24:00 25:00 24:30 25:30 25:00 26:00 25:30 26:30 26:00 27:00 27:00 28:00 28:00 30:00 30:00 32:00 31:00 33:00 32:00 34:00 2. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO.
4 yards. (See Figure 14-11. He gives them a short warm-up period to acclimate to the water temperature and loosen up.37 and divide the product by 36.37)/36 = 437. The bicycle should be one that can be used for training and testing. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer. Above all. nineteen-twelve. Its seat and 14-22 . The scorers record each soldier’s time in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard and use the comment block to identify the time as an 800-yard-swim time. that is.37)/36 = yards.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails.4 yards.) Equipment Two stopwatches. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go. (meters x 39. He assigns one soldier to each lane and tells the soldiers to enter the water. the event supervisor begins calling off the elapsed time in minutes and seconds (for example. They must be sure that each swimmer touches the bulkhead at every turn. 6. For example. If the pool length is measured in meters. Scorers’Duties Scorers must observe the swimmers assigned to the. To convert meters to yards.” and so on). As the soldiers near the finish. the event supervisor answers only related questions. “Nineteen-eleven. the event supervisor must be alert to the safety of the testees throughout the test. nineteen-thirteen. multiply the number of meters by 39. that is. and one stationary bicycle ergometer are needed.2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER TEST This event is used to assess the soldier’s cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle endurance. The time is recorded when each soldier touches the end of the pool on the final lap or crosses a line set as the 800-yard mark.800-YARD SWIM Figure 14-10 Administration After reading the instructions. (400 x 39. the scorers convert the exact distance to yards. The ergometers should measure resistance in kiloponds or newtons. a copy of the test instructions and standards. 400 meters equals 437.
Personnel One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every three soldiers to be tested are required. AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR OWN PACE WHILE MAINTAINING THE RESISTANCE INDICATOR AT TWO POUNDS. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” . Facilities The test site can be any place where there is an approved bicycle ergometer. The resistance is usually set by a tension strap on a weighted pendulum connected to the flywheel. 14-23 Instructions The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 6.’ THE CLOCK WILL START. THE ERGOMETER’S RESISTANCE MUST BE SET AT TWO KILOPOUNDS (20 NEWTONS).2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER EVENT TESTS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG MUSCLE ENDURANCE.2 MILES (10 KILOMETERS). control. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE 6. Each test station must be two yards wide and four yards deep.Figure 14-11 handlebars must be adjustable to let the soldier fully extend his legs when pedaling. IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. This could be the post’s fitness facility or the hospital’s therapy clinic. and medical personnel should also be present. See Appendix D for guidance on using various types of stationary bikes. AS SHOWN ON THE ODOMETER. It should have an adjustable tension setting and an odometer. Appropriate safety.
they record each soldier’s time on the scorecard in the 2-mile-run block.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST After reading the instructions. If a multispeed bicycle is used. Equipment Facilities A relatively flat course with a uniform surface and no obstacles must be used.2-mile stationary-bicycle ergometer test. the event supervisor should start calling off the time in minutes and seconds (for example. The scorers must observe the soldiers throughout the event.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. At the end of the test. instructions The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 6. Scorers’ Duties Scorers must ensure that the bicycle ergometer is functioning properly. control. and note in the comment block that the time is for a 6. This event is used to assess the soldier’s cardiorespiratory and legmuscle endurance. Soldiers should not be tested on a quarter-mile track. (This can usually be done by taping the gear shifters at the setting preferred by the testee.” and so on).2 14-24 . a copy of the test instructions and standards.Administration 6. Although one-speed bicycles are preferred for this event. and medical personnel should also be present as appropriate. They must then make sure that the bicycle ergometers’ tension settings have been calibrated and are accurate and that the resistance of the ergometers has been set at two kiloponds (20 newtons). Safety. the event supervisor answers any related questions. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go. measures must be taken to ensure that only one gear is used throughout the test. “Twenty-thirty-one. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. Each soldier is given a short warm-up period and allowed to adjust the seat and handlebar height.) The event supervisor is the timer. multispeed bicycles may be used. twenty-thirtythree. It must also be clearly marked. twenty -thirty -two. and they should never be out of the scorers’ sight. As the soldiers pedal the last two-tenths of the test distance. and numbers are needed. Timing Techniques Two stopwatches. The course should be completely free of runners and walkers. YOU MUST COMPLETE THE 6. initial the appropriate block. He calls the time remaining every 30 seconds for the last two minutes of the allowable time and every second during the last ten seconds.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. From time to time the scorer may need to make small adjustments to the resistance control to ensure that a continuous resistance of exactly 2 kiloponds (20 newtons) is maintained throughout the test. Personnel One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every 10 soldiers are required.
start and finish points. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. YOU WILL BE DISQUALIFIED. the event supervisor answers any related questions.2-mile ride.’ THE CLOCK WILL START. AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR OWN PACE. CHANGING GEARS IS NOT PERMITTED AND WILL RESULT IN DISQUALIFICATION. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” Administration After reading the instructions. YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps. IF YOU LEAVE THE DESIGNATED COURSE FOR ANY 14-25 REASON.MILES WITHOUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP FROM OTHERS. As soldiers near the end of the 6. He then organizes the soldiers into groups of no more than ten and assigns each group to a scorer. Scorers assign numbers to the soldiers in their groups and record each soldier’s number on the appropriate scorecard.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. YOU MUST KEEP YOUR BICYCLE IN ONE GEAR OF YOUR CHOOSING FOR THE ENTIRE TEST.2 MILES ( 10 KILOMETERS) IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. the event supervisor starts calling off the time in . TO BEGIN. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE DISTANCEOF 6. and course layout). TO COMPLETE THE REQUIRED DISTANCE OF 6. YOU WILL LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.2 MILES.
and copies of the test instructions and standards are needed. Personnel One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every three soldiers to be tested are required. Equipment Two stopwatches. “Thirty-twenty-one. They initial the appropriate block and note in the comment block that the time is for a 6. and medical personnel should be present. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. 14-26 . thirty.5-MILE WALK This event serves to assess cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle endurance. numbers. Appropriate safety. thirty -twenty-three. Facilities This event uses the same course as the 2-mile run. Scorers’ Duties When the event is over.2-mile-bicycle test and whether or not the testee met the required standards for his age and sex.twentytwo.” and so on).minutes and seconds (for example. 2. scorers record each soldier’s time in the 2mile-run block. control.
ONE FOOT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES.” When the event is over. As the soldiers near the end of the 2. YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps.5-MILE COURSE IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. Soldiers who break into any type of running stride will be terminated from the event and given a “no go. the event supervisor answers any related questions. Scorers’ Duties Scorers must observe the soldiers during the entire event and must ensure that the soldiers maintain a walking stride. IF YOU BREAK INTO A RUNNING STRIDE AT ANY TIME OR HAVE BOTH FEET OFF THE GROUND AT THE SAME TIME. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE 2.” and so on). the event supervisor starts calling off the elapsed time in minutes and seconds (for example. and note in the comment block that the time is for a 2. AND YOU WILL BEGIN WALKING AT YOUR OWN PACE. initial the appropriate block."Thirty-three-twenty-two. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go. thirtythree-twenty -four. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” Administration After reading the instructions. Each soldier is issued a number which the scorer records on the scorecard. and course layout).” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails.’ THE CLOCK WILL START.5-mile walk. thirty -three -twenty -three.5mile walk and whether or not the testee received a "go" or "no go. scorers record the time in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard.Instructions The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 2." . start and finish points. He then divides the soldiers 14-27 into groups of no more than three and assigns each group to a scorer. YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL BE YOU WILL BE TERMINATED. Timing Techniques The event supervisor is the timer.5-MILE WALK IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG-MUSCLE ENDURANCE.
While leaders must require equal efforts of men and women during the training period. The following paragraphs describe the most important physical and physiological differences between men and women. and thighs.APPENDIX A PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEXES Soldiers vary in their physical makeup. because the center of gravity is lower in women than in men. MUSCLES Men have 50 percent greater total muscle mass. Each body reacts differently to varying degrees of physical stress. women must overcome more resistance in activities that require movement of the lower body. than do women. and abdomen. Thus. women gain fat in the buttocks. and power over women. speed. and no two bodies react exactly the same way to the same physical stress.8 pounds. arms. Men accumulate fat primarily in the back. This difference in size affects the absolute amount of physical work that can be performed by men and women. whereas the average woman of the same age is 64. but their pelvic structure is wider. Also. This difference gives men an advantage in running efficiency. Thus. BONES Women have less bone mass than men. for any given work rate. They must also be aware of the physiological differences between men and women. The larger heart size contributes to the slower resting heart rate (five to eight beats a minute slower) in males. For everyone to get the maximum benefit from training. This lower rate is evident both at rest and at any given level of submaximal exercise. the faster heart rate means that most women will become fatigued sooner than men. FAT Women carry about 10 percentage points more body fat than do men of the same age. leaders must be aware of these differences and plan the training to provide maximum benefit for everyone.2 inches tall and weighs 144. based on weight. A-O . the man’s heart can pump more blood with each beat. chest.year-old man is 70.4 inches tall and weighs 126. they must also realize that women have physiological limitations which generally preclude equal performance.6 pounds. men usually have an advantage in strength. A woman who is the same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80 percent as strong. FLEXIBILITY Women generally are more flexible than men. SIZE The average 18. HEART SIZE AND RATE The average woman’s heart is 25 percent smaller than the average man’s. Therefore.
do not. soldiers with a higher level of physical fitness generally better tolerate. should be worn to avoid potential injury to unsupported breast tissue that may result from prolonged jarring during exercise. encouraged.S. The safety and health of the mother and fetus are primary concerns when dealing with exercise programs. in fact. Leaders must use common sense to help both male and female soldiers achieve acceptable levels of fitness. heat stress than do less fit soldiers. Women can exercise during menstruation. lose less heat through evaporation. and reach higher body temperatures before sweating starts. Leaders need to understand other factors too. Pregnant soldiers cannot be required to exercise without a doctor’s approval. However. Unit runs. RESPONSE TO HEAT A woman’s response to heat stress differs somewhat from a man’s. Properly fitted and adjusted bras.LUNGS The lung capacity of men is 25 to 30 percent greater than that of women. Army Physical Fitness School (USAPFS). women can adapt to heat stress as well as men. it is. A-1 . Regardless of gender. however. any unusual discomfort. Nevertheless. Also. For example. pregnant women may exercise until they are close to childbirth if they follow their doctors’ instructions. however. This guidance is available from medical authorities and the U. Vigorous activity does not harm women’s reproductive organs or cause menstrual problems. Women sweat less. Although female soldiers must sometimes be treated differently from males. ability-group running alleviates gender-based differences between men and women. and adapt more readily to. women can reach high levels of physical performance. This gives men still another advantage in the processing of oxygen and in doing aerobic work such as running. or pains while menstruating should be medically evaluated. Generally. physical fitness training need not damage the breasts. OTHER FACTORS Knowing the physiological differences between men and women is just the first step in planning physical training for a unit. The Army agrees with the position of the American College of obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding exercise and pregnancy. cramps.
APPENDIX B POSITIVE PROFILE Figure B-1 B-1 FORM .
The results should closely parallel or exceed the unit’s goals. Fitness goals are determined before the training begins. Figure C-1 shows an example of a physical fitness log that could be reproduced locally. While this is not a requirement. The log will serve as a diary of how well they achieve them. Figure C-1 C-1 . the log may also be used by commanders and supervisors as a record of physical fitness training.APPENDIX C PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG Soldiers can use a physical fitness log to record their fitness goals.
• Odometer which accurately measures the distance traveled in either miles or tenths of miles or in kilometers and tenths of kilometers. the event supervisor or scorer must be sure that the stationary bicycle can be accurately adjusted to ensure that the soldier pedals against the correct resistance (force) of 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. when using a stationary bicycle which measures distance in kilometers. The test is completed when the soldier pedals 6. If the stationary bicycle has an odometer.braked Bodyguard 990 or Monark 868 is used. the test is ended at 10 kilometers. There are many electrically operated. stationary bicycles (EOSBS) on the market and in gymnasiums on Army installations. In either case. they should not be used for the alternate. Such EOSBS are relatively expensive and are generally found in medical and scientific laboratories. not 6. • Adjustable resistance displayed in kiloponds or newtons. are found in gymnasiums on Army installations. soldiers designated to be tested on either of the two bicycle protocols should be tested using a moving bicycle IAW the guidelines provided elsewhere in this field manuel. cardiorespiratory APFT event. For the sake of accuracy and ease of administration. if any. the tester must ensure that the equipment has been properly calibrated prior to each test. Examples of stationary bicycles which meet the above criteria are the mechanically braked Bodyguard 990 and Monark 868.2 miles (10.2 miles (10. alternate APFT event.0 kilometers). Only a limited number of EOSB models are designed to accurately assess a person’s energy expenditure during exercise. They are often called bicycle ergometers. The best type of stationary bicycle for testing has the following features: • Calibration adjustment.2 kilometers. He receives a “Go” if he is below or at the time allotted for his particular age group and gender. Because most of the more common training EOSBS were not designed to accurately assess energy expenditure. Therefore.2-mile (l O-kilometer). D-1 . Such bicycles can be used to accurately measure a person’s rate of work or the total amount of work.000 meters) against a resistance set at 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. Very few. however. the test would not provide an accurate indication of the soldier’s level of cardiorespiratory fitness.APPENDIX D STATIONARY BICYCLE TEST Only stationary bicycles which can be calibrated and which have mechanically adjustable resistances may be used to test profiled soldiers on the 6. the soldier must pedal 6. the soldier may end up pedalling against a resistance which is too great or not great enough.0 kilometers or 10. If the mechanical y. Most of them are designed for physical fitness training. Care should be taken to ensure that. If the stationary bicycle cannot be properly calibrated and adjusted.
or normal foot. -Check for loose threads or extra glue spots. The shoes' ability to protect you from injury decreases as the mileage on them increases. • Choose a pair of shoes that fit both feet well while you are standing. they “give” when they hit the ground. read the information on special features you should look for in a shoe. • Discuss your foot type.APPENDIX E SELECTING THE RIGHT RUNNING SHOE Choosing a running shoe that is suitable for your particular type of foot can help you avoid some common running. and well-stitched. • Check the PX for available brands and their prices before shopping at other stores. These people need shoes that are built to control the foot’s motion. • Ask if you can try running in the shoes on a non-carpeted surface. E-1 . • Look at more than one model of shoe. the third type. keep the following in mind: • Expect to spend between $30 and $100 for a pair of good shoes. It can also make running more enjoyable and let you get more mileage out of your shoes. falls somewhere between mobile and rigid. This type of foot can use any running shoe that is stable and properly cushioned. Then. Record the number of miles you run with them on a regular basis. Some people have “floppy” feet that are very “loose. be sure to try on both shoes. anatomically. and shoe needs with a knowledgeable salesperson. they are usually signs of poor construction. Also. even. and replace the shoes when they have accumulated 500 to 700 miles even if they show little wear.jointed. When shopping for running shoes. Finally. Do the following: -Place the shoes on a flat surface and check the heel from behind to see that the heel cup is perpendicular to the sole of the shoe. At the other extreme are people with “rigid” feet. -Feel the seams inside the shoe to determine if they are smooth.” Because feet like this are too mobile. This gives you a feel for the shoes. • Carefully inspect the shoes for defects that might have been missed by quality control. Use the chart at Figure E-1 to help you determine what kind of foot you have. These feet are very tight-jointed and do not yield enough upon impact. • Buy a training shoe. foot problems.related injuries. To help avoid impact-related injuries. • When trying on shoes. feet usually fall into one of three categories. Shoe manufacturers are aware that. these people need shoes that cushion the impact of running. not a racing shoe. wear socks that are as similar as possible to those in which you will run.
Figure E-1 E-2 .
Instead. This scale consists of numerical ratings for physical exercise followed by their associated descriptive ratings. The scale in Figure G-1 lets a soldier rate his degree of perceived exertion . when multiplied by 10. For example. Do not be concerned with any one single factor such as shortness of breath or work intensity. try to concentrate on the total inner feeling of exertion. equals 140.APPENDIX G PERCEIVED EXERTION The heart rate has traditionally been used to estimate exercise intensity. . Although either percent of maximum heart rate or perceived exertion may be used during exercise. estimate how difficult it feels to do the exercise. Most soldiers with THRs between 130 and 170 BPM would exercise between a PE of 13 (somewhat hard) and 17 (very hard). However. a PE of 14. G-1 . the most valid method for calculating THR is percent HRR. Multiplying the rating of perceived exertion by 10 roughly approximates the heart rate during exercise. Figure G-1 To judge perceived exertion.(PE). evidence shows that a person’s own perception of the intensity of his exercise can often be just as accurate as the heart rate in gauging his exercise intensity.
It attaches to the lumbar vertebrae and the femur. H-1 .APPENDIX H THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY Figure H-1 The iliopoas muscle (a hip flexor) cannot be seen as it lies beneath other muscles.
intensity.GLOSSARY Section 1: Acronyms and Abbreviations AC AGR A IT APFT AR ARNG ARTEP ATP Active Component ability group run advanced individual training Army Physical Fitness Test Army regulation Army National Guard Army Training and Evaluation Program adenosine triphosphate BCT BDU BPM BT BTMS basic combat training battle dress uniform beats per minute basic training Battalion Training Management System c CVSP centigrade coronary artery disease cardiopulmonary resuscitation captain cardiorespiratory cardiovascular screening program DA DOD Department of the Army Department of Defense EDRE EIB EOSB emergency deployment readiness exercise Expert Infantryman Badge electrically operated. Department of the Army heart rate reserve ID IET IG identification initial entry training inspector general kph kilometers per hour CAD CPR CPT CR Glossary-1 . stationary bicycle F FITT FM FTX Fahrenheit frequency. type field manual field training exercise HDL HQ HQDA HRR high-density lipoprotein headquarters Headquarters. time.
elevation repetition maximum Reserve Officers’ Training Corps sec SCUBA SDT SU second(s) self-contained underwater breathing apparatus self development test standing operating procedure sit-up TB med TDA THR TM TOE TRADOC TS TSP technical bulletin. noncommissioned officer noncommissioned officer in charge National Guard regulation number OIC OST OSUT officer in charge one-station training one-station unit training Pam PE PNF PRE PT pts PU pamphlet perceived exertion proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation partner-resisted exercise physical training points push-up RC rep RHR RICE RM ROTC Reserve Component repetition resting heart rate rest.lat LCE LDL latissimus dorsi load-carrying equipment low-density lipoprotein MACOM MEDDAC METL MFT MHR min MOS MPH MRDA MRE major Army command medical department activity mission-essential task list master fitness trainer maximum heart rate minute(s) military occupational specialty miles per hour military recommended dietary allowance meal. ice.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command timed set training support package SOP Glossary-2 . compression. ready to eat NCO NCOIC NGR No. medical table of distribution and allowances training heart rate technical manual table of organization and equipment U.
flexion of the elbow involves a decrease in the angle formed by the lower and upper arm as the arm bends at the elbow. extension of the elbow involves an increase in the angle formed by the upper and lower arm as the arm straightens at the elbow. the opposite of flexion. USAPFS USAR United States United States Army Physical Fitness School United States Army Reserve V 02max maximum oxygen consumption per minute WBGTI WCF wet bulb globe temperature index windchill factor Section II: Terms extension An increase in the angle between two bones in which a straightening movement occurs. flexion A decrease in the angle between two bones in which a bending movement occurs. Glossary-3 . For example.S. For example. the opposite of extension.U.
1 Physical Fitness and Weight Control Program. The Army Food Service Program. OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS DOD Directive 1308. September 1987. OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS FM 25-100 NGR 40-501 TRADOC Reg 350-6 Training the Force. January 1985. DOCUMENTS NEEDED These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication. ARMY REGULATIONS (ARs) 40-501 600-8-2 600-9 600-63 Standards of Medical Fitness. June 1973. Initial Entry Training (IET) Policies and Administration. August 1991. November 1988. May 1983. Army Formal Schools Catalog. ARMY REGULATIONS (ARs) 15-6 30-1 350-15 385-55 Procedures for Investigating Officers and Boards of Officers. May 1988. Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents. References-1 . June 1990. Suspension of Favorable Personnel Actions (Flags). READINGS RECOMMENDED These readings contain relevant supplemental information. Medical Examination for Members of the Army National Guard. Commander’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. November 1989. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PAMPHLETS (DA Pares) 28-9 350-15 350-18 350-22 351-4 Unit Level Recreational Sports. November 1987. July 1987. The Individual’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. FM 21-18 Foot Marches. April 1981. Army Physical Fitness Program. October 1981. You and the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). October 1987. Army Health Promotion. October 1982. August 1989. The Army Weight Control Program. March 1987.REFERENCES SOURCES USED These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. September 1986.
July 1980. 1988. 1986. December 1986. Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). “Training Facilities. Push-up/Sit-up Improvement.Total Fitness. December 1989. 1 Administration of Army Morale. Master Menu. Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. February 1984. Drill and Ceremonies. Directorate of Facilities Engineering. OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS AR 215-1 DA Form 705 DA Form 3349 Folio No. July 1987. April 1968. December 1971. 1988. TSP Physical Fitness Training . Basic Cold Weather Manual. 1987.” Corps of Engineers Drawing No. 28-13-95. and Recreation. 1989. Flexibility: The Truth About Stretching. and Control of Heat Injury. SB 10-260 TB Med 507 Occupational and Environmental Health Prevention. Administration of the APFT. 1986. TRAINING VIDEO TAPES (TVTS) 8-103 21-76 21-191 21-192 21-218 21-203 Standards for Determining Body Fat. References-2 . Partner-Resisted Exercises (PRE).FIELD MANUALS (FMs) 21-150 22-5 31-70 Combative. Welfare. Physical Profile. Treatment. May 1986. May 1987.
3 types of. 9-11. 14-17. 14-20. 14-14 through 14-16 two-mile run as an event in. 7-7 through 7-17 cardiorespiratory fitness. 1-14. cardiorespiratory circuits designing of. 10 sit-up as an event in. see cycling body composition. stationary (APFT event). 14-10. see also overweight soldiers broom-ball hockey. see also profile push-up as an event in. 7-1 circuit training. ability group running advanced individual training. 5-0. 1-10 aerobic exercises. 14-1 failures. 1-7. 3 duties of test personnel for. aerobic aerobic fitness. 15. 9 evaluation of. 14-11 through 14-18 site of. 7-3 through 7-6 variables in. 12 calisthenics. 7-1 through 7-6 sample circuits for. 1-2. 1-12 procedures for testing. 2-14 Index-1 . 14-20 through 14-27 cardiovascular screening program for. 19 scorecard for. 4-3. 14-1 command functions relating to. 14-24 through 14-26 bicycle ergometer test. 14-8. 14-3 through 14-7 scores above maximum in. 14-11 through 14-14 results of. see exercises. 11 profiles in regard to. 1-3. 1. 18 bicycle test (APFT event).INDEX This is a topical index organized alphabetically. 14-22 through 14-24. 7-1. 8-19 through 8-22 Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). 14-1 through 14-27 ability group running to prepare for. 7-2. Citations are to paragraph numbers. 9-1 through 9-18 cool-down. 14-2 through 14-8 alternate events for. cardiorespiratory aquatic exercise. see fitness. 14-18. 14-9. 2 competitive fitness activities. 2-15 cycling. see fitness. 1-10 administration of. D-O bicycling. 8-22 cross-country skiing. 14-19 sequence of.
10-12. 13 exercises. see also overweight soldiers saturated. 7-17 grass. Fartlek training fat body. 12-1 hot. see weight. 12-2 temperature regulation. guerilla injuries related to. conditioning cool-down after. 1-7. 6-5. see fitness. 1-4. diet and exercise drills conditioning. 7-23 through 7-26 log. 2-15. 4-3 flexibility. see muscular endurance and strength environmental considerations. 12 endurance cardiorespiratory. 3 dehydration. 2-6 through 2-16 aerobic (alternate forms).dehydration. 8-19 through 8-22 aerobic. 3-21 through 3-35 without special equipment. 12-4 altitude. 12-4 cold environments. 12-3 heat injuries and symptoms. 3-3 through 3-9 muscular training chart. 16 warm-up before. 3-36 partner-resisted. 7-17 through 7-22 guerilla. 12-0 through 12-4 air pollution. 5-0. 2-13 through 2-13 calisthenic. see drills. 1 -3. humid environments. 12-2. 4-1 through 4-17 guerilla. 8-13 through 8-18 rifle. see also drills acquatic. 1 windchill factor. 4-2 with equipment. 1. 12-3 frostbite. 3-12 Fartlek training. 1-7. see drills. 12-3 exercise principles. 13-1. 8-11. see running. 12-1. 12-0. 2 hydration guidelines. 2 muscle strengthening. 13. 12-3 diet. 6-3 Index-2 . 2-0. 3-13 through 3-20 rhythmic (with music). 12-2 hypothermia. 7-7 through 7-17 conditioning drills. cardiorespiratory muscular. 1-12.
(calculation) 2-2 through 2-6 initial entry training (IET). 10. 13. 2-0 through 2-16 components of. see exercises. 6-0 through 6-6 for optimal physical performance. 2-15 heart rate. 14 exercise programs for. 1-10. 2. 2-3 through 2-6 maximum heart rate (MHR). interval training intramural. 4-2 flexibility. 4 conditioning phases for. 6. 2 interval training. 1-10 individual. components of heart rate reserve (HRR). 8. 1-1. 1-7 through 1 -9. log master fitness trainer (MFT).I through 9-5 log drills. 1-3. 6-5. 1-11 unit. see drills. 3-9 through 3-11 muscle contractions (types). 12. see drills. 3-6. 9-5 through 9-8 nutrition and fitness. 6-0 through 6-3 in the field. see unit program fitness programs. 1-3. 1-11. 1-6.fitness cardiorespiratory (aerobic). 1-9. 6-6 Index-3 . 10 FITT factors. 1-6. 3-1 through 3-36 age as a factor in. 1-5 through 1-7. types of advanced individual training (AIT). 9. 1-4 through l-7. 12 TOE and TDA units. 3-1 through 3-36 nine-ball soccer. intensity. 7-7. 4 training heart rate (THR). 11-0. 13 maximum heart rate. 2-6. 3-6 principles of. 1 special. 12-1 frequency. see running. 9. 3-12 training for. 7. 7 muscular. 11-0. see drills. 3-12 through 3-36 exercise selection for. 1 -3. 8. 9. 2-1 through 2-6. 1-3. maximum muscle groups. 4-1 through 4-17 flexibility exercises. 6-3 through 6-6 guidelines. 3-1 fitness programs. time. 1 injuries. 1-13. see FITT factors grass drills. 1-11 initial entry training (IET). 15. guerilla handball and racquet sports. flexibility fluid intake. see heart rate. 13-1. grass guerilla drills. type. 2-3. 3-2 through 3-5 key points regarding. 3. 2-2 resting heart rate (RHR). 1-1. 8. 2 muscular endurance and strength. 3-1.
2-8. 2-14. sit-up soccer. see APFT. see also fat. 11-0. Fartlek training strategy pushball. see muscular endurance and strength. 14-20. body partner-resisted exercise. 2-15 running cross-country. compression. 8 pushball (strategy). aquatic training heart rate. 8-6 through 8-10 safety precautions for using. types of conditioning. running technique. 2-6 safety. see exercise principles profiles. see pushball (strategy) strength training. 2-9 injuries. see fitness. 2-10 Fartlek training. see also exercise. see injuries interval training. 8-1. see exercises. and elevation (RICE). G-1 phases of conditioning. 9-7. see APFT. 3-6. flexibility swim test (APFT event). resting rifle drills. see heart rate. push-up pushball. training two-mile run. 2 sit-up. see nine-ball soccer speed play. see heart rate. partner-resisted perceived exertion. rifle road marches. see APFT. 2-10 shoes. 9 last-man-up. 2-11. A-1. 12. 2 olympics. 13. 9-8 through 9-11 resistance training. see drills. see unit olympics orienteering. B-1 principles of exercise. 2. see strength training rest. B-1 push-up. 8-2 through 8-6 confidence. 1-13. see shoes. 1 sexual differences. conditioning phases physical fitness log. training stretching. 1-12. 1-15. 11-1 rope skipping. 14-21. running (how to select). 8-1. C-O positive profile form. ice. see flexibility and exercises. E-1. 13-1 resting heart rate. see running. 2 shoes. 7-7. 9-16. 9-13 through 9-16 overweight soldiers. two-mile run Index-4 . 22 swimming.obstacle courses.
5-1 methods for evaluating. 27 walking. 5-0. 15 warm-up. 9-17. 1-10.unit olympics. 2-14. 18 unit program activities and games for. 11 V O2 max. 5-0. calculation of. 15 sample of. 1-12. 8-19 weight (body). 13 Index-5 . 10-5 through 10-12 types of. 1-7. 1 programs for overweight soldiers. 4-2. F-1. 9-5 through 9-16 development of. 2 walk (APFT event). 1 diet and exercise for proper. 10-1 through 10-13 evaluation of. 14-26. see also nutrition and fitness Army standards for. 1-14.
USAR and ARNG: To be distributed In accordance with DA Form 12-11E. SULLIVAN General.S.FM 21-20 30 SEPTEMBER 1992 By Order of the Secretary of the Army GORDON R. 0165). United States Army Chief of Staff Official: MILTON H. requirements for FM 21-20. •U. Government Printing Office: 1994 — 300-421/82850 . HAMILTON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 02361 DISTRIBUTION: Active Arm y. Physical Fitness Training (Qty rqr block no.
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