The Contamination of Food

ileJ\I UNEP/GEMS

~ QJ' t! t::!I ... 1 ... 1 t:\ ~

'If'W 'j 'nu 'If'U 'W 'U 1i N ,WI n 'j1:llJ 'j ~ fJ 'j lJ 'j~ (;I 'If ru 1 'W :I.J 'W Ull

~ q q ~ u

~QJ t! ~ t:I t! 0

ft'j'j(;l'U 1i'j'j:I.Jl'jfJ~ 'lfft'j 'If~'Ul 'W.:IftfJ'Wl W ~1'W'U

~ q ~

""

fl'Ull'lfl ms

"111-# 15 1eWa::'1JaJ

..

~JathJtJ~lfJ~UUIVaU

(1::~lJlfJff~nllU::U1iia

" ,

20 7JJ[mn1JJdi[an1JJ)

~Ul1n!Jv1nn11~1Jv lfa lJn lfVl iJ a Wln1

1u «« 1981 ~miu'h ';aWfilJ~nalli1ilf1JJ11(1

"

f1JlJflJJn11UUIVau

,

a::wa1'nan'iu iiall1Jn U1::lfYlimw luYin

,

U1::1Y1f'1lV1ihif

32

E1::~1.'l1ViEJn~"bLlI'I.-I.~11VliS'~Ln",nm1U1-.'1"lfit" L'lf'l.-l. LLEI~LlJElf~1.'li~ ~1.'lTr~ (Aspergillus flavus) ~Wil~t!J L@iu 1"E1~1iI1lJVl'1!LL1.'l::LlJ~"Vl'1! lJ~lJ1ru.E1::~1.'l1ViEln~'I.-I. ~Lnlil~'I.-I.ciEllJLLa1LL~~111?l~'lf·HJ1~Ln@1n11L@iu 1 iii L'lf'l.-l. 1'1.-1.~111?l~~m1lJn@1~'I.-I. ~~LLfi

~'lf1-.'1 LLa-.'l ~@1lJn@i ~ LLlJfl-.'l1::U1@1'V11E1?l1£J'VIlJ'I.-I.

, ,

L nu L~ £J1Vl'1!~ fl LLa1n E11"il"h ~lJtin11lJ'I.-I.LrJ E1'1.-1.'lJ E1-.'1 E1::~ fl1Vi E1n~'I.-I.~1 £J L'lf'l.-l.n'l.-l.

"

i'E1'1.-1.~wyh 1 ~11riEl~1U'l.-l.E11'V111LLfl::'Yh 1 ~ij E1::~1.'l1Vi E1n~'I.-I.1 'l.-l.1::~U~-.'I

"

n11L n@1lJ:: L1-.'1 ~u.:at ~L ~'I.-I.n11LL ?l1m::"il1 £J"lJ E1-.'111f1.n1il1 u in is'ru.::'Yl1-.'I 11 iJf'l1 ~liIf

"

LQ,?l1::LL~fl::vlEl-.'lii'l.-l. ~-.'If1a1 £Jfla-.'lnUn11m::"il1 £Jn11lJ'I.-I.LrJ E1'1.-1.'lJEI-.'I E1::~1.'l1Vi E1n~'I.-I.1 '1.-1.

E11'V111 "il1n'll E1lJ1.'l.nLLfl::'ll E1lJ1.'l ~'I.-I. 'Yh 1 ~L11 ~1lJ~~':h E1::~ fl1Vi E1n~'I.-I.LlI'I.-I.~1 L'VI @1 ~1fltlJ~

III cu 'I II QI

lJ1 nn-h 50 lJ1:: L 'Y1 f'I~~n1'V1'1.-1.,,;j ",hn"lJ~lJ1 ru.E1::~ 1.'l1 Vi E1n~'I.-I.1 'l.-l.E11'V111 1::WJ1-.'1 5 ~-.'I 20 ~lJ 1mni'lJ/nhmi'lJ LLfl::flru.::nTIlJn111flL~n.f (Codex Committee) L~'I.-I.E11'V1"'l'1i1::~U 10 ~lJ1mni'lJ/nhni'lJ

1'1.-1. fl.f'I. 1980-1988 ~lJ1~n 34 lJ1::L'Y1f'1~~11£J-.'I1'1.-1.L~E1-.'1E11'V111'V1fl1£J'1!it@1 itlJVl'1!~~E1::~fl1Vi E1n~'I.-I.~-.'I~ ~,,~ E1'll111?l" 1" £JLQ, ?l1::"il1n~'VI111?l1'll"Li Wil ~'I.-I.L~ £J use

" " ,

i'llm"l~'IJ1l;]t'J~~;]~ul"'U""l"~L'YII'fLLl'l~~1.i1L-n1'IJ1l;]~'I'I"¥'i!llLlJ1m :g;]jjll~yJl'l1Villn.:n ... ~;]n11 25 1lJ Lmn1lJ/fiLl'ln1lJ ~

"

U5::1mllYl,hGI8UO vm.!C\lfifl:lnu~:nu IVUVUtJOll815 UUiDOU5:lU 19 'lIU~ lu01Y115u1nn:h 1,200 'lIUOl

wam5Uimnif:h uuoliluu 0115:: !ilu 815 aaao Iaatcunelu U5::m filiAl 0lJ U111cb

8

o

umn

Jl El1n11"1 LL~:~'\.I,~lhutiEl'\.l,a'l'lLI'I~m~:a'l'llJ~Yhr;l1n hJ\ll'\.1,El~a'1'V1m'llJ

,

El cil\1 LLVd'VI~l tJ 'VIm tJmllJ';hVl"n~ L 'll1.J~n LL~:;~1~ m 1 'lidJ'\.I,Ell'VI11lJn L~i'lJa'11~~

"

L 'VI~1.;i'~1 u a'11lJ~~~,;]lni\l LLd~a nu LL~:a'1'l~'\.I, ~ Ell';]1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l, 1 '\.I, Ell 'VI 111 '\.I,'l:tJ:L~lJ

LL'ln"lJ El\ln1'l~~~ 1 '\.I,1:'VI11\1n1'lLL1.J'l11.J'VIi\l dilJ L~ tn LLa1 1 '\.I,n1'l"lJ'\.I,~\I LL~:n11ililn1'l

"

LL 'VI ~\I n1'l1.J '\.I,L ti El'\.l,L Vl u \I LL 'VI ~\I L~ tJ1 Ell';] ~ ~ snrenu ~ El Ell'V11'l~1.J'l:"nl"nW;i'1 '\.I, 1 '\.I,lJln

lJ~111 1'1 LL~: Ell'V11'l~1.J '\.I,Lti El'\.l,Ell';] ~ El'\.l,~'l1 u El cil\111 u LL 'l\l ~ El a'''lJ111~''lJ El\llJ'\.I,~Ei

, ,

'll El a''\.I,L 'Yl1"I~~: L~ tJ~ LL~:tln~ El\l L~ tJ1nlJn111.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l, 1 '\.I,Ell'V111LlJ'\.I,i\l,h LlJ'\.I,

"

El cil\1 ri\l1.il'V1i'lJ ~nl'V1'\.1,~'\.I, Iuin tJ~~El\ln11~~n1'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,~\1 1'\.1, 1'1.1"1. 1976 1m\ln1'l

"

~'l1,;] snu Ell 'VI 1 'l11 u 1: 'VI 11 \l1m\l n11i\l LLd ~a EllJ LL V; \I a''VI1.J'l:''n1''n1 ~ El\l ffn1'lEll'V11'lLL~:

L n ~~'lLL V; \I a''VI 1.J 1: "nl "nl ~ LL~: El\l ff n1'lEl'\.l, llJtJ Isn ~'l1lJ L~tJn11'l:lJ lJ m1,;] a'EllJ i\lLLd~aEllJ hn~1'\.1,Ell'V111 (GEMSIFood) L~riEli\l;1'\.1,L~m11J11lJ'llEla''\.I,L'Ylfl~\ln~11

1m\ln11.;i'1.J~lJ1i\ll'\.1, 1~ tJa'mU'\.l,~L'll111lJ 1 '\.I, LI'I1El'lh tJ ~\I Ln1J111J11lJ'llEl~~ L~ mnlJ

n111.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,a'11LI'I~1 '\.I,Ell'VI11~nl'V1'\.1,~;1'\.1,lJl\111 tJn11 LL~:~\I'll EllJ~ L 'VI~ltf'\.l, L1.J EJ\lfI'\.I,Ei

" "

'llEllJ~"lJEl\l Isn ru. El\lf1n1'lEl'\.l,llJtJ Ian

"

, .,; .f

1'\.1, 1'1.1"1. 1990 1.J'l:L'Yll"lfh'll111lJ1m\ln1'l GEMSIFood L~lJ"lJ'\.I, ,;]In 13

LlJ'\.I, 391.J'l:L'Yl1"I ('VI~ltJ1.J'l:L'YlflL1.J~tJ'\.I,~ElL1.J LL~~hnwJi1\1LnlJ'llEl~~';]:EJ\lf1\11.J'lln!l1'\.1, 'VI,z\liEl) 1.J1:L 'YlflL 'VI~l.;i'La''\.I,El'll eus L~ mnlJmllJ L'lllJ'll'\.l,"lJ El\la'111.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,11lJ 19 "nii,~

"

1'\.1,Ell'VI11mnn11 1 ,200 "nii,~ 11lJvY\l1'\.1,Ell'VI11~~in~ru.:~LfI~LU~1:~1'VInJLL~:L~n

" u

L ~ m,.h ~~lJl L1.J~tJlJ LVi tJlJnlJ Lnru.~lJlm~l'\.1,1.il'V1i'1J1:~lJ a'1'l1 '\.I,Ell'VI1'l~ tJ EllJi'lJL~ ~\I

...

El\l f1n1'lEll'V11'lLL~: L n~~'lLL V; \I a''VI1.J'l:''n1''n1 ~nlJ El\l ffn1'lEl'\.l, llJ tJ 1 ~n11lJn'\.l,nl'V1'\.1,~;1'\.1, 'll EllJ~~L~ LLa'~\l1 ~L ~'\.I, 'l:~lJn1'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l, ~LaJ Ell';] u EllJi'lJL~ ~\l1.J\I.:i1.J1: Lll'Yl Ell'VI1'l~Ul,;]:

"

~n1'l1.J'\.I,LtiEl'\.l, LL~:'lh u 1 ~mllJ LL'VI~\I"lJ El\ln1'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,~1 tJ L~ El'l11J11lJ LL~:i Lf1'l1:~

'llEllJ~,;]ln 17 iJLL1n"lJEl\l1m\ln11L~El1.J~ltJ'Yl1"l111~ 1980 ~~n11iLml:~L,x'\.l,1~L~'\.I,

"

'l:~lJLL~:LL'\.I,11,xlJ 1'\.1,L~El\ln111.J'\.I,LtiEl'\.l,1'\.1,Ell'VI11~Ln~;1wyt1 Isn

a'l'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,~ La Eln~'l1,;]a'EllJ 1 '\.I, 1'1.1"1. 1971-1988 LlJ'\.I,a'11~l'InmlJa"'1J111~ 1 '\.I,

, ,

'li1\1Ld~1~~n~liitJ - ~1'\.1,1'V1nJLlJ'\.I,a'1'llJ~~~,;]lnEl~a'1'V1m'llJ LL~:a'1'l6JJlf1mVl"nLL~:

" , "

;~1 ~~n1'l~n~1.:i11LL'\.I,11 ,xlJ"lJEl\l'l:~lJa'1'l~~~\I 1~ mU~l:El cil\1ri\l1 '\.I,1.J'l:L'Ylfl;~'\.I,lLLa1

~1'\.1, 1 'VInJ LlJ'\.I,L ~11:n11~llJ 1 'lia'116JJlf1mVl"nLL~:;~1~\llJn~mrl\11 '\.I,i\l LLd~aEllJ 11lJvY\I

u "

a'11"nii,~ ~'\.I,~ LlJ'\.I,~~ 'VI1El1 'VIL 'liL~ El cil\1,hn~ 11lJvY\llJl~1n11~~lJ~~~ El\la'11~:~1

,;]ln~1'V1'\.1,:LL~:a'1'llJ~~~1 '\.I,i\l LLd~aEllJ 1 'liL~~~

El cil\1L 'ln~llJ ~n ~11lJl.;i'iiL~'VIlJl tJmllJ11n1'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l, 1 '\.I,Ell 'VI 1 'lLaJ LlJ '\.I,irty 'VI 1

~n~ElL1.J LLa1 1m\ln1'l~'l1,;]a'EllJL~LlJ~ L~ tJ11 EJ\I~~1 El cil\1 a'l'l1.J'\.I,Lti El'\.l,'l:~lJa'\l1 '\.I,

"

lri0a15t.1uilioul'~h~ ri:Johi01Yl15 \l::UAi11 01 :J111 ItI mY u loin 0 5of.llYh lu uei ae ri:J ohi

815 t.Iuili eusnnms ~:J lYlmm081510liL 01\lt.luiliouo~lu61u mrna lla::l.h rilM 01Yl15t.1uilioUlUU U5lJfUn:J1011a::IUU l:Ja1Yla1fiiJ

10

..,

fl 1111 'J1.huiJ fl'U 1~ fl fh~ 1'J

fiL'lll~l.J~l ~'ll'~~ LL~::irirr~'\.I, Ldm'll1~v\1\11'liEl1V11"i1l::L~3Jm13JL'll3J'll'\.l, L~~\lim.ILYh

~ ~

1'\.1,LL~~::v\1\11'li LiJ'\.I,~El ~ LL~::~LL~11l~'\.I,Y11EJel'\.l,LiJ'\.I,~lLWil'llEl\l hq;] 1l~'\.I,Y11EJmll L~3J

\I q II II

1l1n~El\l~3J~1'\.1,LiJ'\.I,VI~ltJ~1'\.1,r,;l11'\.1,L1~lL~~-t113J\I L"i1~El11mVl1"i 'l.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,' LdElii

~"iLq;] iiVl1Elll ~'\.I, Y11EJl.J'\.I,El ~~\I"i::r,;l'lJ~ LiJ'\.I,elWil"i1 tJ~ ElwtJ111~ ~ L VlIil1 VI nJ'll El\lm"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,

q \I q q III

1'\.1,mVl1"i ~El 1111::3J~.;AhrlJEl\lEl1mf'f J1 LL~::~'\.I, q;]1'\.1,LL~::~'\.I,1l1nElIil~Vlm"i3JLL~::

• •

LEl L~tJ"itl tJ'\.I,IffLiJ'\.I,~ LVlIilrt1 Ll.J'll El\l3J~~~El1mf'f li1lilel'\.l,Iil"i1 tJYiLnIil1l1nm"i'll'\.I,~\lY11\1

• •

mma L'lf'\.l, lil::rt1 El11l"r1'lJtl3JLL~::1il1il.:n3JEl~1'\.1,~~L~ ~n LL~::itlJ~'ll'L~ 'llEl\lL~tJ1l1n

~ ~ "

ElIil~Vlm"i3,I LL~::~ El ~ mimrntln~\I~\l1 '\.I,J1 ~l"iLflii LL~::11~'\.I,Y11EJ~ LiJ'\.I,el'\.l,1il"i1 useuun

II IIIJ \I II

r,;l1 ElEln~1 £.I m::'l.J1'\.I,m"iY11\I;h1Y1 mVl1ElY11\1 Lq;]ii El ~l\1L"ifiIil13J 'll El\l L~mh'\.l,1'\.1,3J1n~ iT\I

iiL~U1,j'1il LL~::~"iLq;] ii'l.J1\1'll'UIil L~~ 3,11 "itl'll') 1il~~El nn L~ ~"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,~\1 iT\I q;]\lii El ~1 '\.I, J 1

~

usenn 1il1il.:n3,I L 'll1 ~"i::'lJ'lJUL 1 f'fLL~:: El1V11"i~ L "i1'lJ~111 fl J1fi mlll.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l, L~ Ld ElJ1 ~'\.I, L VI ~

\I \I'll.

~1'\.1,~'\.I,~l.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,~\I~LL~J1~1q;]~El\lLL~::Y1::L~~'lJ

~

.1 ?i ,.. , ........ .r ... .. ",II

rrmnuu El'\.l, b'\.l,Iil'\.l,LL~:: b '\.I,~'ll'3Jn L nlil'll'\.I,1l1n ElIil~Vlm"i3,IVI"iElm"iY11 L VI 3,1 El\l LL"i"ll'\I

l.Ja El £.I'll El\l L~tJ~ LiJ'\.I,~~~\I 11il £.I LU ~l::L~ El L~iim"i,)~m"i'll El\l L~mr'\.l,~1 tJm13J"i::lJm::1\1

Vl1mZ 1 Ll.J~\l1n ~~'\.I, ~m"iL n~Iil"i LL VI a\ll.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,~l'\.1,m"iLn~Iil"i~ Ell:! £.I LL~::~"i'J-hilil"i~'ll'

. ~

Q"oO 6".d 'i.<' 1'1.::!1 I' Q .d '1 "" .. +1 I c&,.I ~

LL~::~1il1 "ll'\llilnm\lEltJ b'\.l,~'ll'~~LL~::El11l~::~3JEl £.I b'\.l,Iil'\.l,L3JEl b'll'lJ mL~::~"i'lJ1f'f1il"i~'ll'LL~::

\I \I II \I

iIil1LVla1J'\.I,LiJ'\.I,L1~1'\.1,1'\.1,iJ ~"i~l\1 6) L'lf'\.l, LLq;]~LiitJ3J mlll.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,El~1'\.1,El1V11"i'llEl\lfl'\.l,

~

LL~::iIil1~1 tJ1n-d mma J1 ~'\.I, ~'ll' LL~::iIil1L;El3J 1tJ\ln'\.l,~1 tJ~ £.I 1tJelwrr'lJ-nEl'\.l,'llEl\l

m::'l.J1'\.1,m"i1iTI3J'll'1~ m"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,1 '\.I,~\l1~~\lVlrt\l~\I~\I~~~El~\I~'\.I,~1 £.I ~"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,1l1n m"ii'1LVI~'ll El\l~"iLq;]ii L'lf'\.l, ~"in3JlJ'\.I,Iili'\I~~411l1nEl'lJ'1iL VlIilU1Lq;]~Hf~L~El\lL'll'El-n '\.I,ij~mll

• •

l.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,El ~1 '\.I,~'\.I, mms LL~::J1 Yl1 1 i mVl1"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,LiJ'\.I,'lJ~L 1 nbn11 \I LL~:: LiJ'\.I,L 1~1V1 ~1 tJiJ

~

~1"il.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,~'lJL~1.JEltJ1'\.1,iIil1 1~mU~1::1l1nm"iYhvhf3J~lJtJ1V1~ m~H

lJEl\ln'\.l,hfl LL~::m::~'\.I,m"iLll~tlJL~'lJ 11il'llEl\li1il1 ,h~El\lm'lJq;]3JEl ~l\1"iEl'lJq;]El'lJ L~Eli''lJ

." .

l.J"i::n'\.l, 11"i::r,;l'lJ m~ El ~1 '\.I,L dEliIil1l.J~El~.n tJ~ Elm"i'lJ~111fl'llEl\l3J'\.I,~EJ ti1ilil1tln Li £.1\1 a ~

\I q \I III

1'\.1,~,hn~ m"il.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,1'\.1,mVl1"iiIil11l::ii~~m::Y1'lJ~EliIil1,)1'\.1,1'\.1,3J1n LL~::~"il.J'\.I,L~El'\.l,

~El3J ~ ~3J n ~1 '\.I,L dEl L~ El'll El\lilili'l '\.I,"i::r,;l'lJ~ LiJ'\.I,el'\.l,Iil"i1 £.I m"il.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,El11l Lnlil;f'\.l, L~LL~LL~

~

1'\.1,"i::Vl11\1m"iLfi'lJi'n~lEl1V11"i r,;l1El~l\1L'lf'\.l, L"ll'h~Lfl~El'lJ~1'\.1,1'\.1,~1tJ~"i PCB ~\lH

'l.J"i"illJ1'\.1,3J ll::ii~"iLVI~ldl.J'\.I,L~ El'\.l,1 '\.1,'\.1,3,1 1 '\.I,"i::r,;l'lJ~\I

. ~

'i!aun58no~lu 01l'l1SYlnlfUOl tOlBlOW1::1008Ud mmsneta lri uae waUlnrurhnnulJ

12

dI d A I

VI 'H] dJ a'l 1Vfly~ a'dJ eHJ

'U

Vl1El~,;]~'L-b'Yl~6~ Lij'L-b~lYEl ~h.j,El1V1l1~'L-b a'11LfI~iJl>1"ll'u,~~L"lilrn·ml uinn '] 1~ mu vn:

• 'U 'U

El ~l>1ij>l a'11LfI~'l1nm:iJ1'L-bm1~~Cil~1'L-bEl Cil a'1V1m1dJ LL~: L nlYmm1dJ LL~:,;] ~'L-b'Yl~6

• •

iJ1>1"ll'U,Cil Lij'L-bEl'L-bCil11 [J ~ ElWlJ111~'lJ El>l dJ'L-blY6 El1m1L~:IJ i>l LL~fI~'L-b LHhl a'iJ1 [J LtJ'L-bflf>l fl111

• •

,;]'L-b~>I LH[J El1 m:111 [J 1 un ~l>1tl111 Vl1El LH[J;!iCil m11:::iJ1CilEl ~l>1n1'l>1'lJ1l>1'lJ El>lm1Ln~ ~ lYvY>I a'El >I 'I.h: Ll1'Y1'ii'L n~.:E'L-b L~ L ~1l:m1iJ'L-bLn El'L-b 1 'L-bEllV1l1vY>li'L-b a'11iJl>1"ll'U,~ ~~ lY a':a'dJ i1El ~1>1 L'lf'L-b LLfI~L~[J:IJ LL~:Cil:~1,;]:a':a':lJEl ~1 'L-b~l>1m mtJ'L-bL1~l'L-bl'L-briEl'L-b,;]:~>I

'U

1:iiJ~ LtJ'L-b~lY a'11iJ'L-bLn El'L-b,;]:El ~1 'L-b ~l>1m [J LtJ'L-bL1~1'L-bl'L-briEl'L-bEllm1th [J';]:iJ1ln!]

,;]~'L-b'Yl~6~El~1'L-bEllV1l1'Yln"ll'u,Cil 1Cilmu~1:Ldm~'Cil1 EllV1l1'Yl:L~ L'1l LL~:

• 'U •

~~Cil.n nl.rvl,;]ln'L-bdJ iCil1 Ell';] L~fiJ LLiJflYi L~[J,;]ln EllV1l1 Ellm1~ Cil L :gEl,;]: LL ~~,;]lniCil1

i1V1~>lLiJ EJ>I ~ni1V1~>I LLiJflYi L~[Ji>ln ~lT;]: EJ>I fI>I El ~1 'L-bL dEl iCil1V1;>I,;]ln~iCil1!ln"JJl

'U 'U

LL~:::Ell,;] ~1'L-b LiJ~EllV1l1~'L-b '] ~ LniJlnn~n'L-bVlln L3J~m1lJEl>ln'L-b~~~ El

'U

EllV1l1vY>I~iJ usesnwin LniJL 11 'L-b~ nu ~'L-bEll,;]'Yll1 ~LLiJflYi L~[J L,;]1nJ L~iJ 1CilL~

. . ~

L VI~ El'L-bn'L-b ~1 mVlCilii'm1LL'lfLL-n>lVl1ElVl>l ~dJ 1 ~L~ElCil Ell,;]Vl1 1 ~LLiJflYi L~[JCi11 [JL~ LL~ijL~

• •

VI dJ1 [J fI1l :IJ':h El1V1l1~ 'L-b';]:iJ ~ El Cil.n [J ~ El m1iJ1111 fI

i>l ~ 'L-b~ >I ~ El >I ~m1m1 ';] a'El u EllV1l1 L ~ El Vll a'11LfI ~iJl >I "ll'u,~ ~ ~iJ1dJl nI.:IJ1n Vl1El LLlJm:vt>l a'11iJ'L-bLn El'L-b~ ~iJ1:1J1 nI.,zEl [J LL~ ~~ lYa':a'dJ 'L-bElmlnii'EJ>I,h LtJ'L-b~ ~ El>l m1,;] sau LLiJflYiL~[J~~ El ~1 'L-bEllV1l1i>l LL~ LL1n Vl1El~ L,;]1ty L~iJ 1Cil.:E'L-bL ~1l:LniJfnlY1V11El LLiJ11iJ1Cil[JL~h:lJm:1>1

'U

.w lnn ll.h iJ 1'1 ~ ,;j iJ.:J ij '" 1 :JJ 1 (?l ~ 11 l ~ , 1'1 ft tl1 iJ u

.. 'I

~lY'lJEl>la'11iJ1:n EliJ~'L-b'Yl~6~~iJ1El'Yl LtJ'L-b~1'L-biJ1:nEliJ 'Yll1 ~a':IJ El>l LiEldJ LL~:

a'nJLH[Jm1miJfI:lJiJ1:a'1'Yli>lm1 m1LnCil~lYi>ln~111~nn'L-b1'L-b~El1l hfl 'ij'L-bl:IJ1Cil:'

\I QJ II \I

~... .cd Q.d'.dod Q .:I • .d OJ,.I

L~11:mTI:iJl~m>l11mm'Yla'~Ln~'lJ'L-b'YlL:lJEl>l:IJ'L-bldJ1Cil: iJ1:L'Ylf'fnJtJ'L-b L:lJElCil'L-b'Ylfl1TIlY

. ~ .

1950 LL~:'Yll1V11~n~'L-bi1~>lEl'L-bml[J,;]lnm1iJ'L-bLnEl'L-b~1 [Ja'11LfI~

~ fI'L-b 1 'L-bL~ El>liJ1:dJ>I L~n '] ~ El>l'Yl'L-b'Yln,J'Yl1dJ1'L-b,;]ln mrmn ~1:IJ L dEl ~ El'L-bLL1>1

'U •

em LH[Jm1:IJ El>l L Y;'L-b ~>lvll [J~1 [Jm1LtJ'L-bEl:IJ~lCil LL~: 1f13Jl 'L-bn'Yl: L~~ L~ El>lij'L-bl:IJ1Cil:

'U ~

LL~: LL:lJ1~ L~ [J>lL l' Cill UU1'L-b ~>ln'L-biJ~l L 'If'L-bL~ mniJ"ll'11iJ1:dJ>I LL~:mEliJflf1~1'L-bLLa'Cil>l

0IIII 1 .. 1 d d 0 w dI I

'VI'm~EllJ1:L'YlI'I ·lh1~-.'I'V·nm1'\.j,lL'lJl'V11Elm1~-.'IElElnEll'V111

~li11ru.~'lJ~·HJ

m1~'li mJ-.'I fi'trh ~1 u Ell'V1l1'lJ El-.'l'lfl ~ ~ mJ'VI m u f11llJ"h1111:lJ t'lYl M~ ~1 '\.j,

." El-.'l~'\.j,Ell,;,) dh~t'l1 iillJ-;llW\.h rJiJt'll~lJ1,;,)lnll ii111fl,x'\.j, ~-.'I LL~"hlJ1mm1L"Ii'\.j, it';'):

"

...

vllt'll rJ:Ol'\.j,LI'I1M:on';')'lJ El-.'ll1ii111f1U'\.j,El ~l-.'11'\.j,Lm

01:1 01:1 cu II

~m'\.j,m1n!~-.'In~111 '\.j,iJ1:L 'Yl",rr-.'l'VIt'll rJi1'\.j,flil rJfl~-.'In'\.j, 'VIt'l1 rJiJ1: L 'Yll'lrll;-.'I

L ~lJlJlmm1'Yll-.'1n!J'VIlJl rJ';h~1 rJ~ru.111~ Ell'V1l1~'\.h L'liT'illn~h-.'liJ1:L 'Yl'" t1l ~lJiJfj'lJ"i L"Ii'\.j,,x '\.j, iJ1: L 'Yl"''lJ El-.'l ~'\.j,~ EllJ L~rJ-.'I@i umrnn dJ'\.j,LL 'VI~-.'I~iJ1: L 'Yl "'~'\.j,~-.'I Ell'V1l1L'lillJlvi lJ

~t'll~ rhl iLn~ ~t'l LHrJ@i El ~'lJ1111fl LLt'l:ElIfi~'VIm1lJ Ell'V1l1'lJ El-.'liJ1:L 'YlI'I

" .

1 '\.j, vll'\.j,El-.'l L~ mn'\.j, iJ1:L 'Yl"'~ ~-.'I El an Ell'V1l1n~El-.'li''lJiJ1:n'\.j, 11 Ell'V1l1'lJ El-.'l~'\.j, ~~

lJ1 m:Ol'\.j, 1 '\.j, 1:~'lJ L~ mn'lJ lJ1m:Ol'\.j,'lJ El-.'liJ1: L 'YlI'I~U 1 L'lil Ell'V1l1 t1l Ell'V1l1~lJ~~i''lJm1

~ ~

m1,;,)~El'lJ 1 '\.j,iJ1: L 'Yl"'~ ~a~ Ell'V1l1,x'\.j,n~lJ"'T'iI: ~1'\.j,m1m1,;,)~El'lJm1iJ'\.j,Lti El'\.j,,;,)ln iJ1:L 'Ylf'f~Ul L'lil LLt'l:';'):~lJ~~i''lJEl'\.j,rullfi 1 iUl L'lil vll1 iLn~mllJ~ru LHrJ El ~l-.'11 'VInJ'VIt'l1-.'1

q QJ 11..1 QJ ILl

...

f11~n11L~'-b~1V\~iJ L nM~rjn1~LLtJ11tJ eJ1v\11LL~::tJ1:: L Y1 ff~ ~~ El EJn ~.J'ii)::~ El~ em L;rJ ~ ~1 ~

'\I III \I \I III

~-.'I ElEln~1 rJt1l1:~'lJm1iJ'\.j,Lti El'\.j, ~lJt'l~t'l-.'l

LnMmm~~a~Ell'V1l1L ~m~·-.'IElElnlJ1nn1l,;,):~~~L ~El'lJ11nmEl-.'l nn hdJ~~~

"

mldJ L'lidJ'li'\.j,'lJEl-.'l LdJfit'lLdJElf~11 (methyl mercury) .yhn~,;,)lnm1m:vll 'lJ El-.'l LL'lJfl.yh1rJ@iEl~1iJ1El'Yl ElU,'\.j,'Yl1EJ (inorganic mercury) ~'lJ~CiI1 '\.j,iJt'll LLt'l:'VIEl u ~:il'lJ~~,;,)ln~111'\.j,ii'\.j,ldJl~: LLt'l:1'\.j, fl.I'I. 1968 ~-.'I1:'lJEl~l-.'1LlI'\.j,'Y11-.'1m111~1

iJ1El'Yl LlI'\.j,~'\.j,L 'VI ~vll1 iLn~YlM LL 'VI~-.'Irll L U,~'lJ El-.'l~1iJ1El'Yln~ El'lJ El-.'l LHrJ~iJ ~ El umn

'lJ1M'Yl Lfl ~n ru.'Y11 '\.j,." El-.'l~'\.j,,r '\.j,LEl-.'l

U'lJi-.'lLL@i fI.f'f. 1973 LlI'\.j,~'\.j,lJl 'lJ1M'Yl~L~m'liEl-.'ltlmJ-.'Ifi''lJ1i~lm~'\.j,'lfCilH

"

LLfi~Lfll1:'IHlmLt'l:vllmldJ~:El1Ci1~11LlI'\.j,L~'\.j,lJ1nn1l 500 il'\.j,iJEl'\.j,1Il ~Lfll1:~fw

" "

Ell-.'11li':O'lJlt'lii-.'lLL@i fl.I'I. 1952 LLi11l~11iJ1El'YlLlI'\.j,YlM@iEl~'\.j,~iJ1:lJ-.'I LL@i

~ "

i':jj'lJl t'lnt'll-.'1~lJ u EllJi''lJ ~CiI'lfEl'lJ ~Lml:~il rJ-;ll'\.j, 1'\.j,lJln~-.'I ~-.'I1Elfi El u L~'\.j,'lf~ L 'lfrJ El ~

a" "

, ...

... ... ..

';')'\.j,m:m'lJ~'\.j,

t'1alflus::mVlrl1a\l UMlJlJlIilSn1Sn1\l nOt'1lJ1fl::hQi':Jfl UlrumWf)1t'11sri 1.,h1'z11Ulnoil\lUS::mVl

13

..I ~."'. 1976 L'V'lEl

mT;) snu LLiil::"il [J-:Jlu. "i::i'lJ use LL 1.1.11 ,z3J"IJ El-:J ~l"iUu.L~ Elu.1 u.EllV1l"i 1~ [J El1~[JoUEl3Jiil,;]lnU"i::L'Ylf'l~LoUl~13J 1m-:Jm"i~1 hnori1mlu.Lnm1m13J

'II

LL u.::"hiTIm"i3J1~mi1u.1 u.m"i"i1'lJ"i13J LLiil::lJWnnoUEl3Jlil (~-:J'~i''lJm''i

~ 'II

~,r'lJ~u.u.,;]ln 1m-:Jm"iU"i:::nu.flnb1l1'V'l) L ~ El1 ~oU El3Jlil1 u.m"iCil"i1,;]~El'lJ

• • 'II

mwn 1 ~~ml3J~3JmmLLlil::Lu1[J'lJ LVi [J'lJ'~n'lJu.lu.1U"i:: L 'Ylf'l

'II

L~13J ~1l-:J ml3J L oU3J LLii-:J 1 ~LLri1m-:Jm"im1,;]~El'lJ 1 u.U"i::: L 'Yl f'I~3Jl.:nn 1~ [J ~,r'lJ~u.u.LLlil::'tJn Elm3J~lu.L 'Yl~ii,fI LLa:::

U"i::Liiu.~ aoU El3J a El ~l-:J d:Ju. 'Yl1-:Jm"iH1V1i''lJVI'l-b 1 [J-:Jlu. ~~VI,zl~m'lJ ~3J~ LLa

'II • 'II

.. ..I

LLa::El-:JflmElu. ~

ir,;],;]lJWn 39 U"i:::L'Yl""~L~u.EloUEl3Ja,;]ln 1m-:Jm"iCil"i1,;]~El'lJEllV1l"iLLvI-:J"n1~

• 'II

i-:J~LL~~-:J1u.LL~u.~VI,z1 16 U"i:::L'Ylf'l~~-:JoUEl~u.L'Ylf'lni'lJLu!T-:J GEMS ~1u.1V1qjLi:Ju.

U"i::L'Yl"'';@lJu.1LLa1 oUEl3Ja,;]lmLVI~-:J~u. ~ n~13Jl1'1i1u.m"iU"i::Liiu.~lil"IJEl-:J GEMS

'II

~-:JVI,r-:J;ElL~3Jii'Heil-:J~-:J Loriu.L~ mnu. oU El3Ja~lu.m"im1,;]~El'lJ 1 u.;i1u.oUEl3Jlil"IJ El-:J GEMS

'II ~ 'II

~L~mn'lJLLElyJ1m~,zEl[J3J1n LLa:::~L~moUEl-:Jn'lJ[J 1"iUCiI::1u.ElElnLLa::a::~u.ElL3J1m 1m-:Jm"i

Cil"i1,;] ~El'lJii'!T-:J mEl'lJ ~ a 3JL3-lii-:J

U"i::L 'Ylf'l~"il [J-:Jlu.~a LoUl3Jl L~m1,;]~Elm::i'lJ~"iUu.L~ ElWihu.1u.3Jln 1 u.EllV1l"i

Vliill [J"nii,~ L ~Eliii,';]~[J1lm"iUu.L~ Elu.Ln~~u.1 u.EllV1l"i"nii,~ 1~ LLa:::L VlEli-:J LnCil1l~1"i Uu.L~ Elu."nii,~ 1~~"i::i'lJ~-:J~u. Vl1El~la-:J 1 u.EllV1l"i"nii,~ 1~ 1 u.llii1l1~ 1~ Vl1El1 u.U"i::L 'Ylf'l1~

'II 'II

oUEl3Ja L VI~lii'Ell,;] 1iL ~ Elm1,;]~El'lJU"i:::H'Yln-1l1'V'l"IJ nsn lloU EllJ-:Jfl'lJ~rhi-:J 1iEl ~ L ~ ElYl ~';]"r

'\I ~ III '\I

1~LY;u.1l"i:::i'lJ~"iUu.L~Elu.1naL~[J-:JVl1ElLnu.n11~~,hn~"IJEl-:JU"i:::L'Yl"'Vl1El"i:::Vl1l-:JU"i:::L'Ylf'l

Vl1El L3-I LLlil::L ~ El1idJu.~i1u.H1V1i''lJ~~,hn~ 1 u.oU EllJ-:Jfl'lJ 1 VI 3-11 u.mnt~,h Li:Ju.

..

m"iL; Elni1 El ~l-:J El1V1l"iLLa:::~"iUu.L~ Elu.LLCiln~h-:Jnu. LU LLliiiil:::U"i::: L 'Ylf'l LL~"i:::Vl1l-:J ~u. ~~ Iiil-:Jnu.1l1 [J 1 u.U"i:: L 'Yl f'lL~ mnu. 1~ [J L';]' 'V'll::El ~l-:J~-:J L~ El'Yl"il'lJ11EllV1l"i,;]ln~u. ~ Vlrt-:J ~ L~i''lJ~''iUu.L~Elu.El~1-:J1~El~1-:JVlrt-:JLlJu.YlLf'I~ Loriu. L~i''lJYl~~u~El[JElEln3J1,;]ln 1 "i-:J-:Jlu.ElCii ~lV1m"i3J EllV1l"i~~l3J1'Yl~~El'lJ Ell';] LLCiinliil-:Jnu. LUCill3Jma L 1al L'V'l"il::ii,i[J

m"i'lJ1111f1 LU~ [Ju. LU Vl1El L 'V'l"il:::LL VI~-:Jm"iUu.L~ Elu. L~i''lJm''im'lJfl3J LLa:::'V'l'lJ LL VI ~-:Jm"i

Uu.L~Elu.1 VI 3-1 ~ L ~3J~u. ir';]i [JVlal [JU"i:::m"i~13J1Yl,;]1"inbl L~ElL;Eln11EllV1l"iLLiil:::~1"i

Uu.L~ Elu."nii,~ 1~m"i"i13J El ~1 u.qnu.oU El3Jiil"IJEl-:J Isn

'II" 'II

15

a a

~1'l-L1

7

8

.Q, Q.otI.Q, ~

11 aJ 'VI iN 't11 \11 't1 tn A'1 iif c;) ".i

~ ~

El1V11".il.hutJ El'l;l, t~ El ~1_,t".i

~~n".i:Yl1JCilEl~"1J1l1~

q

~~n".i:Yl1JCilmff"jM~n';]

..

m"jlh:~ii'l;l,~~"1JEl_' GEMS

10 10 12 13 15

~f~n1".iAm~11~tI ~".i PCB

..

~"j~~~Wl~:IJ~:IJ

~".ilhElYl

~".iEl:y.J ~1Vi ElnBft'l;l, ~"j&JJ1~1I1"j-rl"1l'~~~:ilirrElEl{m 1 'I;I,~~El~'I;I,

'II

~".i&JJ1~1I1"j-rl"1l'~~~:iIl11 ElEl{m 1 '1;1, y.J El~y.J El1~

'II

20 20 23 27 29 32 35 40

43

49

1. n1"llL1El'1-!.m::"'i1n

2. off'\.j, LEl L"ll'\.j,

3. 'lh:JLLEl'tJ'1m

4. lJ~Yl~El1mI'l1'\.j,L~El\l

5. El1'V1l'i1J'\.j,L~El'\.j,

6. lJ~Yl~1'\.j,LL'VI~\lJ1~~

7. ~~m::'Yl1J"'i11nm"j"'Yh~1~off'\.j,LEl1"ll'\.j,

8. 1J"l"1n!lm"j"ruLEl~ULtjJ

~ ,

9. 1iI"j",.z1LLij"ri1Ji\lLL1~~EllJ

1 o. ~~m::'Yl1JLdEllliiEl1mI'lL1J~~'\.j,LL1J~.:I

'IJ

11. m1lJ'VI~1n'VI~1~'Yl1\1ii11l1~'1JEl\l Isn

12. lJ~Yl~1 '\.j,'Yl::L~I.n1J LL~::~1\1 Lfi1JJ1

13. ~~n"j"::'Yl1J'1JEl\llliiEl1n11'1~Eln1"j"1J"j"::lJ\I

'IJ

1Jmih1l1~~~1~1'\.j,1J1'V1~ 1J"j"::L'YlI'lEi'\.j,L~itLoii~ El1'V11"j"1J'\.j,L~ El'\.j, 1~~1 ~ LL 'Yl1J'Yln.ff'\.j,Cil El'\.j,

,

i"LL~"'i11nH'\.j,1"'i1'\.j,ti,,1Li"'i11'\.j,

(Steve Satushek,

The Image Bank)

1::@lJ PCB lu U3J T fI 1J::~1Ll"::"~M Ll~'lu

~ ,. ~

ffVl WU1iffT1f11m1j

WEmJU1::@lJ PCB 11.1 U3JTFlffJLnUfh~ri'1V1u~

"

H'i-lVI1lJU3J Tfl

20

all PCB

1~~f1iilEl1L'[.I,L~IiI~U?Jii,iil (Polychlorinated biphenyls Vl1El PCB) dj'[.l, "lJ El\l L Vliil1~\1 Hn'[.l,LL ~1V1iil1 [J 1 '[.I, VllJElLLUiil\l~ 'V'Jvh "lJ El\l L Vliil11::U1 [Jm1111El'[.l, LLiil::1::UU ~~1iI1El~n ~1 PCB iJ\lhn'[.l,El~~Vlm111~nVliil1[JEl~1\1 L"ll'[.l, ~~l1nu; m::IiITlyi1L'[.I,1

,

LYlUm1 LLiil::~iil1~~n LVlElLYhJm111~IiIVI~'[.I, m1~~1iI~11d1'[.1,L.:n\l~1ru.'l!EJL~111'[.1,

,

Y1m11jy 1930 LLCilL~El~~-;],rt~11~11U1::LllYld~~jy m1~~~LLiil::m1Hniilliliil\l-;]'[.I,El~

" "

1'[.1,1\1,)1nIilEl ~1\111Ii1L111'[.1,Vliil1[JU1::LYlf'li\lLLCil~'[.I,Y1m11jy 1970

m1U'[.I,L~El'[.l,"lJEl\l~11 PCB 1'[.1,J1lJ'[.I,U1\1El1V111LU'[.l,~jyEl~1\11'[.1,Lm1'[.1,U1::LYlI1I

, ,

nbJ'[.I,L~El fl.l1I. 1968 LLfl::1'[.1,~~Wr'[.l,L~El fl.l1I. 1979 m1~njy1ii[J11~1[Jm1m::-;]1[J

" ,

"lJEl\l~1 PCB 1'[.1,U1L1ru.~~f1'[.1,vi'1\11'[.1,~u11~1LVI~1dL;[J\lCilElm1LU'[.I,lJ::L1\11'[.1,lJ'[.I,jyEJ

" ,

"IJEllJfl"lJEl\l GEMS L~mnu PCB ~~m-;]1nu1::LYlf'lCil1\1 '] 23 U1::LYlI1I

"

LLfl::mElUfl~l1El1V111Cil1\1 '] L"ll'[.l, '[.1,11 it!JVl'l! Ufl1 ~"lJlJ'[.I, J1lJ'[.I, LLfl::J1'[.1,1111111i11

1'[.1,1::~m::Vl11\1U1::LYlI1I~~~Lnru.~fhVl'[.l,IiI~11111\1m[J11'[.1,jyEJ~1111f1i'U~1it'1~inL'I'hh

,

LLCilU1\1U1::L Y1l11n1V1'[.1,1iI H

1::~U~1 PCB ~11[J\l1'[.1,L~mnuJ1'[.1,lJ1f1 11i1[J~1 '] ~ULVI~El'[.l,nU"lJEl\lU1::LYlf'I njlJ'[.I,~LL~IiI\I~11'[.1,m1'V'J"IJ1\1~1\1d 1::~UEl~~1n11Lnru.~~1~m::~U'l!1~~\ln1V1'[.1,IiIH~

ILl q III q

20 ~11 1mni'11/nhni'11 LLfl::iilliliil\lL~El[J '] 1'[.1,J1'[.1,1111111i11~~1d~\ln11LLiil::~LL'[.I,11 1%1111

"

-;]::~\1~'[.I,~n (~\I~1 '1iLLYI'[.I,J1'[.1,1111111i11~\l1 '1iJ1~~~11U'[.I,L~ El'[.l,~ ~11 El ~n-;]::Lu'[.I,5'[.1,~11 [J

" "

110

m1lJL'lllJ'll'[,l, u1'[,1,m:n,,1'[,1,J1'[,1,lJ lJ11il1 LL~::'[,I,lJ 11'1

(1lJ 1mni'lJ/n1~ni'lJ)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

o 1970

1975

1980

1985

1::@lJ PCB lu U3J T fI 1J::~1Ll"::"~M Ll~'lu

~ ,. ~

ffVl WU1iffT1f11m1j

WEmJU1::@lJ PCB 11.1 U3JTFlffJLnUfh~ri'1V1u~

"

H'i-lVI1lJU3J Tfl

20

all PCB

1~~f1iilEl1L'[.I,L~IiI~U?Jii,iil (Polychlorinated biphenyls Vl1El PCB) dj'[.l, "lJ El\l L Vliil1~\1 Hn'[.l,LL ~1V1iil1 [J 1 '[.I, VllJElLLUiil\l~ 'V'Jvh "lJ El\l L Vliil11::U1 [Jm1111El'[.l, LLiil::1::UU ~~1iI1El~n ~1 PCB iJ\lhn'[.l,El~~Vlm111~nVliil1[JEl~1\1 L"ll'[.l, ~~l1nu; m::IiITlyi1L'[.I,1

,

LYlUm1 LLiil::~iil1~~n LVlElLYhJm111~IiIVI~'[.I, m1~~1iI~11d1'[.1,L.:n\l~1ru.'l!EJL~111'[.1,

,

Y1m11jy 1930 LLCilL~El~~-;],rt~11~11U1::LllYld~~jy m1~~~LLiil::m1Hniilliliil\l-;]'[.I,El~

" "

1'[.1,1\1,)1nIilEl ~1\111Ii1L111'[.1,Vliil1[JU1::LYlf'li\lLLCil~'[.I,Y1m11jy 1970

m1U'[.I,L~El'[.l,"lJEl\l~11 PCB 1'[.1,J1lJ'[.I,U1\1El1V111LU'[.l,~jyEl~1\11'[.1,Lm1'[.1,U1::LYlI1I

, ,

nbJ'[.I,L~El fl.l1I. 1968 LLfl::1'[.1,~~Wr'[.l,L~El fl.l1I. 1979 m1~njy1ii[J11~1[Jm1m::-;]1[J

" ,

"lJEl\l~1 PCB 1'[.1,U1L1ru.~~f1'[.1,vi'1\11'[.1,~u11~1LVI~1dL;[J\lCilElm1LU'[.I,lJ::L1\11'[.1,lJ'[.I,jyEJ

" ,

"IJEllJfl"lJEl\l GEMS L~mnu PCB ~~m-;]1nu1::LYlf'lCil1\1 '] 23 U1::LYlI1I

"

LLfl::mElUfl~l1El1V111Cil1\1 '] L"ll'[.l, '[.1,11 it!JVl'l! Ufl1 ~"lJlJ'[.I, J1lJ'[.I, LLfl::J1'[.1,1111111i11

1'[.1,1::~m::Vl11\1U1::LYlI1I~~~Lnru.~fhVl'[.l,IiI~11111\1m[J11'[.1,jyEJ~1111f1i'U~1it'1~inL'I'hh

,

LLCilU1\1U1::L Y1l11n1V1'[.1,1iI H

1::~U~1 PCB ~11[J\l1'[.1,L~mnuJ1'[.1,lJ1f1 11i1[J~1 '] ~ULVI~El'[.l,nU"lJEl\lU1::LYlf'I njlJ'[.I,~LL~IiI\I~11'[.1,m1'V'J"IJ1\1~1\1d 1::~UEl~~1n11Lnru.~~1~m::~U'l!1~~\ln1V1'[.1,IiIH~

ILl q III q

20 ~11 1mni'11/nhni'11 LLfl::iilliliil\lL~El[J '] 1'[.1,J1'[.1,1111111i11~~1d~\ln11LLiil::~LL'[.I,11 1%1111

"

-;]::~\1~'[.I,~n (~\I~1 '1iLLYI'[.I,J1'[.1,1111111i11~\l1 '1iJ1~~~11U'[.I,L~ El'[.l,~ ~11 El ~n-;]::Lu'[.I,5'[.1,~11 [J

" "

110

m1lJL'lllJ'll'[,l, u1'[,1,m:n,,1'[,1,J1'[,1,lJ lJ11il1 LL~::'[,I,lJ 11'1

(1lJ 1mni'lJ/n1~ni'lJ)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

o 1970

1975

1980

1985

I I '" I I

Cil::n1 dJ'I,I,a'1~VlMa'::a':lJYiij~~m::'Y1lJ~El L 'ilEl L~ElYia"h:J Lri~ L~El~

El1'V11~LL~::~::lJlJi.h::a'1'Y1 LL~::~Cil~1 £1 ~~~~1lJVlMa'1~Cil::rt11i1::rnlJ.n~

'IJ 'IJ

'VI\lCil'VI~Cil~1£1 LijElEl1'V11~ LL~::h~Cil1il1\1 1'1,1,~::£1::~El:IJ1El11i1ijEl1m~1\1L1£1'I,I, 'l.hCil~hM::

Cil1~t1 lJ1\1f1f\l~mL~::ozJEl~ElEl11i1LU'l,l,5:IJ~1Cil L~n ~ 1lJa'1~Cil::rt1~~~1£1~a'Cil a'1~Cil::rt1

1 'l,l,L~ a ~ LLaJ L ~ £1\1 L~mtEl £1n ij ~~m::'Y1lJ~i'1 £1 LL ~\I ~ Ela'~i1tyty1 LL~::~t1 ~m~:IJ"1J El\l L~n ~~

1'1,1,m&.~~'I,I,LmVlmEl\lCil::rt1El11i1'Yh~1£1a':lJEl\l 'VI1m'h1~L;£1;;1Cil~~

~fI'I,I,ort\l'VI~1 £1r;l El\li:IJ ~a'a'1~Cil::rt1'Y1n1'1,1, a'1~Cil::rt1ijEl ~1 W!i~~:IJ'1l'1~ LL~:: LozJ1~

CU II CU CU

i\l LLd ~~ El:IJ 1~ £1'Y11\1 El Cila'1'V1m~:IJ LL~::~El L;£1 m'l,l,~1'V1'1,1,::~1 ,rJ1lJ'I,I,~a':lJa'1~Cil::rt1 a'1~

Cil::rt1!T\I~lJ~~'I,I,LLlJCilLCilEl~ 1a'CilUCiln1 ;!JEl:IJ~1 LL~::a'1~6JJ1LL:IJ~\I ~\lEl1li1LozJ1~El1'V11~

• 'IJ

~1 £1m~L~mJ'I,I, 1~ £1Cil~\I 'VI1El1~£1elEl:IJ1iI1nm~1.J'I,I,LtrEl'l,l,1 'l,l,i\l LLd~~El:IJ a'1~Cil::rt1 LozJ1rn\lm £1

'IJ

1~ £1m~'VI1 £1 h LEl1 ~\lCil::rt1 LozJ1~1.J 1~ £1m~~~rrr:IJa'1~Lflij~ijCil::rt1 LozJ1~1.J'Y11\1 ~1'V1,r\l 'VI1El

'IJ

1~ £1m~lJ'i111 fI El1'V11~LL~::J 1~ ij a'1~Cil::rt1 L~ El1.J'I,I,Cil1 :lJjj1'1,1,L1El'l,l,a'1~Cil::rt1 El11i1 ij El ~1 '1,1, J 1~:IJ

'IJ

fI'I,I,m!T\lHCil::rt1~a':IJ;fi1Lf1~El\lLa'l,l, "1JEl\lL~n Lfl~El\lL1El'l,l, ~1:IJort\l;'Y11jj1'1,1, a'1~Cil::rt1!T\lH Lf1~EllJ Lf1~El\lf111 LL~:: Lfl~El\lti1 £1'1l'1:IJ LL~:: 1 '1,1, 1a'CilUCiln1m::lJ El\lm~liIEl1'V11~LL~:: Lfl~El\l~:IJ

• •

m~~ L ~1 r;lEl\l i:IJ ~a'a'1~Cil::rt11 '1,1,;;1 Cil1.J~::,i'11'1,1,1iI'1,1,LU'I,I,1.Jn~1i~~:lJm L'li'l,l,i!

'VI:lJ1£1m1:IJ'h fI'I,I,~1'1,1,:IJ1n1~mu~1::El~1\1~\lL~n ~ El11i1ija'1~Cil::rt1El~1'1,1,11\1mmL~1

'IJ

300

1:;iutf1Wl:;n1 h.J.El1'1'111 1:;'I'I'-J1~ fH'!. 1980-1988 ('l3J Lmn13J1 fiLt'ln13J)

~tl~ 7 Il,l1l1s::€J1vnr

..

n::!s~nlnr~::rtJlur::@1J lfJlf~ @1Jt!s::1~nlnr

'II •

. ~

~::nJ lfJm' .. n um!s::

'II

23

:IJ'\.l,'lYm~ iiJ~E1'Yl3J1V1~1 £J1i'I~1~~'lYLL~1 "l!11~'\.l, 11J~miiniJ~E1'Yl~ LL~::!T.J~1J

. ~

1 '\.l,a'Wl'\.l,'lJ E1.J"l!11 ~~iJ~:IJ1'\.l,1'\.l,n':h 3,500 11 LL~1 1 '\.l,trlillilUWd'iJ~E1'Yl !T.J~f1'\.l, HEI ~vt1 ~iJ

. . ~

1~w1 i1 '\.l,L'Yl E1-f1:IJij L~E1f LL1J~ L~ E11 VI~ E1~~ v-Jv-J~ E1m~a'LIJl''\.l,~ LL~:: 1 '\.l,m::1J1'\.l,m~

~

iJ~E1'YlLiJwYl'IY~m~'~1LL~:::IJ'\.l,'lYEf Vlru.J~m~.n :lJ1~~11'\.l,~::£J:: 1~'\.l,:lJ1J~~ LL~::L~n

. .. .

'oj)::~c;ii'1J'Yl'IY1il1n1i1~"l!ii,~ii." 13J1n LiJWYl LIi'I'IY iJ~E1'Yl~~'Yl'IY~'\.l,Lm~ ~~~E1 L:lJYi ~ L:IJ E1f~11

• • •

(methymercury) iJ~E1'Yl"l!ii,~ii''oj)::'Yh~1m::1J1JiJ~::a'1'Yl~1'\.l,n~1.J~c;i

~::i1J PTWI 'lJEI.Ja'1~iJ~E1'Y1fhVl'\.l,~H~ 300 ~:IJ 1mni':IJ~ml'\.l, (L'Yhn1J 5 ~:IJ 1mni':lJ/tZ1V11!ni1V1rt.Jnhni':IJ) LL~tl1LiJ'\.l,L:lJYi~L:lJElffh1c;iEl.J~~:lJ1nn"h 200 ~:IJ 1mni':IJ (3.3 ~:IJ 1mni':lJ/tZ1V11!ni1V1rt.Jnhni':IJ) L:lJYi~L:lJElffh1~n~1J1'\.l,iJ~1 L~~1::'lJEI.JL~£J1il1n h.J.J1'\.l,E1~~1V1m~:IJ~~iJ~E1mmiJ~E1£J~.J1'\.l,LL~tZ1V11E1'Yl::L~ LL~1tm

. ~ ~

LL1J flYi L1£J LiJ~ £J'\.l, 1 ~LiJ'\.l,L:lJYi ~ L:IJ E1ffh1~.J ~::~:IJ 1 '\.l,i1iJ ~1 VI ~1 £JiJ~:: L 'Yl"'~.J n1V1'\.l,~

iJ1:IJ1m~1~iJ~E1'Yl1'\.l,iJ~1LiJ'\.l,'YlL"''IY :lJ1n~a'~iJ~:::lJ1m 500 ~:lJ1mni':lJ/nhni':IJ

'li'EI:IJ~-;i'1'\.l, 1'\.l,:lJ1n L~ mn1JiJ~E1'Yl1 '\.l,E11V11~~VI"b £J.J1'\.l,~1.J ~ ~1m1:IJHu1:IJ1

~

iJ~:::lJ1~H1'\.l,m~iJ~::Lij'\.l,'lJEI.J GEMSlFood 'li'EI:IJ~'oj)1n'YlI"l1~~'IY 1960 LL~:: 1970

~

LL~~.J~::i1J~1~iJ~E1'Yl1'\.l,'li'11 ~~~~m1nit1Jvh ~n ~~~~ LL~::LdEl11~1n11 30

~:IJ 1mni':lJ/nhni':IJ ~::i1JiJ~E1'Yl1 '\.l,iJ~1'oj)1n LLVI~.JtZ1~~~~1111:::IJ~'Yl'IY'oj)::LL~n~1.Jn'\.l, ~iJ LL~~~Ln'\.l, 200 ~:lJ1mni':IJ!fihni':IJ LL~::1'\.l,i~1,h~1nVlElmL~::n.J~m::~~Ln'\.l, 100

~:IJ 1mni':lJ/nhni':IJ 1'\.l,LLVI~.JtZ1~~~~a'1~iJ'\.l,L~E1'\.l,~m::~1JiJ~E1'Yl 500 ~.J 700

t1ii1TY1::LiiI' ;1al"'''itl''ieJ'I1'!\l;1u'j.!,n" 1-1 'lfUfI

fi7lflNlJ111f1'j'j7U (7:u [mnf:u/nn.j

fi7lflNmr"lffl (7:u[mn;:u/~n.j

tI~1U~1lJf1~U 1fi, tI~1t11ntJ11 tI~1LLlJmf1m'l'~ tI~1LlJm tI~1ii~nyh tI~1LM"ll'

il ~1 L YH:rfih n I'l tI~1U1'l1lJ tI~1RLLUtiLti ,rf

450 550 1,200 1,600 640

500 1,800 1,000 380

1.170 1.250

3,000

1,700 4,200 8,350

990

tI~1!i11U 1,000 3,000

tI~1'111-11 300 2,000

"""i4J,d"",Q..o '¥da

* tI~1"ll'U!il'l1lJ'l'~!ilUR1'l'tI'l'1l'l1R,~U'ffiuU1' Inmeuse lu~um1L~1~

.

29

35 350

,::!ii'u LLf1~ LiJ !JiIJ~1!ii"1J11 !J~1"" 7:JJfmnr:JJlfifflnr:JJ

LLfI~ L~ uu dJ'L-b~l,!~'lS-~:~:IJ~~ ~i.'l ~ El1~ LLlJ';)diJL'lJ1L'thh'l L~mZmJ LLf1~ L~ £1:IJ

~ ,r ..... &"

niil1lJm1HI'@l1

~n itjJ~'ll/~~@l1i'nL'I11l1nitjJ~'ll

5 10 15 25 30

Uiil1

L"lll~fl\lm£1 1~£1El1'V1l'!~1.J'L-bL~El'L-b ~lL'VI~ ~@l1,hYnm~mJ n~

'II "

ilflty~~LLfI~L~£1:lJL'L-bEll'V1l1 ~El~1~'lS-~ 1@l 500

1.J~Elml1n h\l\ll'L-bEl~~'VIm,!:lJLLi.'l:U£1~\lVhLi~'L-bLLi.'l:::~"l!~i.'l1.J'L-bL~El'L-b LLf1~L~£1:IJ~ElciL'L-b

" 'II

~'L-b~El~L~~ ~\lLlI'L-b~1'L-b~~:IJ'1JEl\lU£1 '!1:IJvt\lm'L-b~;~..n'L-bL'1J~LYlli'IlJli.'l LLi.'l:::L'L-bU£1'VIlJn

, ,

LL'VI~\I~'L-b '] ~El El1.Jmnb1i.'l'VI:~Lii£1'L-b'1JEllJ~1mLfI~L~£1:IJ~\lH'l'L-bm1LL1.J111.JEl1'V111 ~i.'lEl~,;)'L-b

• 'II

LfI~El\l LfI~ EllJ~1 i'l 'L-bfl11 ~1LfI~ au LfI~El\l~'L-b~'L-bL~l LLi.'l:~i.'l1~@inm1,;) LLfI~ L~ £1:IJ

,

ii ~,hn ~ m:IJ"ll mJ\lfllJ LL v\\I"l!l @i1~ri'1'V1'L-b~1.J1:1J1 nbLLfi ~ L~ £1:IJ L 'L-bEll'V1l11.J1::: LllYl

~1\1 '] H~l\1n'L-bi\ld 'L-b:IJ'VI1El1'll~1~ 10 L:IJ 1mn1:IJ/nhn1:IJ 1.Ji.'llLLi.'l:::'VIEl£1~1~ 2,000 1:IJ 1mn1:IJ/nhn1:IJ LLi.'l:::'!:::ilJ PTWI ~ri'l'V1'L-b~H~El 7 1:IJ 1mn1:IJ/Jl'V1,zni1'V1~\I

nhn1:IJ "llEl:IJi.'l';)ln 31 1.J1:L YlI"IL 'L-b~111\1lJ'L-b'1J1l LL~~\l1l1:ilJ LU~£1~l~~~El ciL 'L-b~~~.nnboyf

'II • 'II

'L-b:IJ ~n ~i.'l1lJ it1l~"l! L.nEl LLi.'l:1.Jiill ~\lL~'L-bi~1'L-bi~{,h~1n'VIEl£1 71\1 LLiil:::L'L-b1~

- 'II ,

Wr £J1:d1~1lJ ~i.'lm:Ylmln LLfi ~ L~ £1:IJ :IJ1n~~~) 'VI1Elm11.J'L-bL~ El'L-b,;): L ~ :IJ;r'L-b~l:IJ Ell £1

• •

'1JEl\li~{ L 'L-b1.J1:L YlI"ILlJi.'l L~ £1:IJ m1lJ1111f1'V1El £1~El\l ~1'V11ElL~ L ~ £1\1 i1.J~l~i.'l:f1f\l LlI'L-b~i.'l

L iLLfI~ L~ £1:IJ L"lll~~l\1m m vhnlJ'!:::ilJ PTWI L 'L-b1.J'!:::LYlIi'IL~'L-b:IJTfnTh-rl'L-bL~ mn'L-b

'II

m,!lJ1111f11~'1J El \I 11 'VI El £1~El\l ~l,;)lmL 'VI~\lJl~1.J'L-bL~ El'L-b 'VI1ElL?;~lh LLfI~ L~ £1:IJ,;):L"lll~

'II

W1'm~@lLljtJlJ1~~U 70
ih .. mm1 .. .r"~~~LLI'l~
itjJ~'ll (LlJ 1mn1lJI 60
nhn1lJ)
ar",,~f~ 50
- mltn~~Lm~
- LL~"1~1
- ~~,. 40
.......... i!1'I1!m~1m
30
fi'ruYlti ..
• iii. ty~'I.L
.. ii1iliiii ilI'I1!m~1m 20
!!!II t~!I! i!l'Ii,.1i'iI11i11l11.1!-
Lmmj',.
(-rr11i11~) 10
• till. ill'li,,1i'iI11i1~l1I.1!-
L~~1lJ"
(i11htf) 0
1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 hnlsemaruauiau m5usln~rlC)aaf)lllAh Yl5f) lUlIWallauonri a:::~51lIijuwa hi' lI~olliiaUlth~::hllma lyi1rl'uui1 PTWI

"iJl~ 11 in111f1@1lihJ3J

..

1::f1!Jlhummlu';uMiJ

~"liJU8TW)1V1;n'l/€J.J VI~1111.h::1 rWf8Eh::wh"

"

15 5" 40 7JJ T f11nlJJ/

fiTrlfllJJ f171JJI'limiu

'l/ €1""f1@1lihJJJluicyw'lf

II ~ifl~h" rlU 7Ii fI1JJ'lfU@1 'l/€1"W'lf 'lfu@1.;tIi~nlul'l/@1

"

81 mnu 1f"~,,Ii~ n!J11 nil.

"

€1@1inVlnrrml::iifl11

. ~

IiUliJ8Ulf,j

"

27

LdElIl1'L-b'Yl11!1·r~M 1970 ~m'W"l1~1"i"'l-h~mYl'll'LL~::ir;rrElElfm hfl~El1'L-bLiJ'L-b~1"i"

'II

dJ~~Mthv\'r1J~\I LL1~~ EldJ~i1 £1 LL"i"\I~ ~~'ll'-U~Vlrt\l LL~J'L-bdJl'l.h::L 'Yl1i'I~~'L-b1 LL~1~\lLII1~~

,

Vl1ElL~nH~"i"i\ln~11 1iI::EJ\lHEl~f\LL~1'L-bm"i"~11h::L'Ylli'ln1;\I~~'L-b1LVhJ'L-b ~"i"'.l.him

'II 'II

Yl'll'LL~::iIil1L VI~1dlil:: EJ\lfI\I El ~1 'L-b~\I LL1Ii1~ EldJVI;\l1iI1n 1-rlu LL~1 LL~::~dJ L"ll1LiiIil1LL~::U~1

'II 'II

~"i"L VI~1'd'1iI::"i"1dJi1n'L-bLiJ'L-bL dEl L~El~ Lij'L-b L"lJlJ'L-b LL~::ijm1dJ L"lldJ"ll'L-bL ~:IJ;f'L-bLd m.h'L-b VI1\11'li

El1V11"i" 1I11mVllild~"i"u"i"::nEl1JElElfm 1'L-bfl~El1'L-b~\lLn~;f'L-b1'L-b'L-b:IJ ~~IiI.nmsyf1il1n'L-b:IJ L"lJlJ'L-b

,

snn ') L'll'~aU"i"::~'Yl"lJ El\l:IJ'L-bM~ El11i1 L1I111J 5'L-b1il"i"1 £JLII1 m"i"11J LEl1~"i"6J.h~IiI"i"Yl'll'LL~::iIil1

, 'II

L"ll11 'L-b ~1\1m £1 LL~L ~ £1\1 L~mZEl £JliI::vh 1 ~~1\1m £J;'L-bL ~ dJ LL~::~ El'L-bL ~~ £1 LVi £J1JLlI1n1J dj'L-b

L "llwrlil1 wnl m"i"11J LEl1~"i"'<I,hilil"i"Yl'll'LL~::iIil1~ L"ll:IJ"ll'L-bmn L"ll1Li~1\1m £JliI::vh~1 £J"i"::1J1J

" 'II 'II

U"i"::~1'YlLi1'L-bn~1\1

.... .. "":'1 • 1 .. 1 .... "" "" 1":'1 ' :'1

El~m'L-b'll'\I LlJ'L-b~1"i"lJ"i"::nEl1J El nrm 'L-bfl~ m'L-b'll''L-b~VI'L-b\l'll'\I 'll'LlJ'L-b~1"i"'.lJ1 LLdJ~\I LlJ'L-b

flf\l usn 1 'L-b'YlI1!1"i""i"M 1940 ~~M~ EliIil1L~ El~ ~'L-bLL~::~1dJ1"i"tl~:IJ.rr1J L"ll1LU1 'L-b~1\1m £JLII1

,

1111 £Jm"i"n~'L-b m"i"Vl1 £1 h LL~::m"i"~:lJL"ll1'Yl1\1~1V1U\l 5~1iI1'L-b1il::tlnYl'll'LL~::iIil1LU~£J'L-b1~

'II

dj'L-bLIiILEl~1iI1'L-b LL~::LIiI LEl~1iI1'L-b~LEl\l~m~1J 1'L-bEl1V11"i"

"llEldJ~"lJEl\l GEMSIFood LL~~\l1~LY;'L-b";h1'L-bL1~1 15 lJ~LL~1dJ1d~"i"liImr1\1

'II

"lJEl\l5~~1'L-bLL~::L~ LEl~~1'L-b 1 'L-b'L-bdJ:lJ1"i"~1 LL~::'L-b:IJ lf1~~~\1 LL~1 'L-b1J1\1U"i"::L 'YlIi'IEJ\lfI\I~El tl

'II

~\ln11"i"::i1J~£JEl:IJ11JLII1~"i"LVI~1d1'L-bL'L-bmVl~1 i't!JYl'll' ~~L~ ~n L'll LdEl LL~::U~1

~El~1'L-b"i"::i1J~1:IJ1n

'II

ADI ~1V111J ~1"i"5 ~ 1i11'L-bLL~::LIiI LEl ~ 1i11'L-b ~\I El\l"m"i"El1V11"i"LL~:: L nMIiI"i"LL vi \I ~VlU"i"::'ll'1'll'1~LL~::El\lffm"i"El'L-b1lJ£J hnn1V1'L-b~H ~El 0.1 L:IJ lmn1:IJ/J1 VI un i1 Vlrt\l nhn1dJJ1'L-b "i"U~ 16 LL~~\liEl£J~::"lJEl\l ADI ~1V111J5~~1'L-bLL~::L~LEl~~1'L-b~L"ll1Li

'II 'II

~1\1m£J1iI1n 10 U"i"::L'Yl11! Li1'L-b1V1tU"lJEl\l 10 U"i"::L'Ylli'ld m"i"11JL"ll1Li~\lm£J~~~\I LL~::

" 'II

LVI 1iI~~~a\ll~ £Jvi'1 LU Li1'L-b 1 wnl LiJ'L-bL ~"i"1::m"i",i'1n~Vl1El~1:IJ 1-H

, "

, ,

o I 6"'.c:I 0

1iI1m1Lnm'Y1'YlmVl'L-b~

5~1iI1'L-bLLa::LIiILEl~1iI1'L-b

DDT ~\lLiJ'L-b~"i"'l-hilil"i"Yl'll'LL~::iIil1ElElfm 1 'L-bfl~El1'L-bL-rl'L-bn'L-b Hn'L-bEl ~1\1n11\1

'II

"lJ11\1i\lLL~'Yl1i'l1"i""i"M 1940 ~\I 1960 DDT lJnfl\lEl~1'L-bYl'll'LL~::~'L-bLII1'L-b1'L-b LL~::L"ll1Li

'II 'II

vi 1 \ll'liEl1 Vl1"i" 1111 m Vllild~\I El ~1 'L-bEl1V11"i"~:IJ'L-bM~1J1111f1 1 'L-b'Ylm"i""i"M 1970 £1 EldJ11Jn'L-b

''II ,

11 DDT LiJ'L-b5'L-b1il"i"1£JdJ1mLa::VI~1£JU"i"::L'YlIi'I,i'1n~m"i"H~"i"'ll'-u~d El~1\1hf\1iI1dJ DDT

35

The Contamination of Food

© UNEP 1992

, ,

'Vnr\liEl"l!~i\l LL1~~mJ L~3JYi 5

,

1m\lm~~\lLL1~~El3JLLvI\la''VIj_h:''l!1''l!1~ Lu.hil

\II"\limLtl£le1'W>61U~ 171

. ...

ft1'2J1ft\lLL1"£ltla.l

~"lJi'YltQiJU111M1L'YlEJdJu."lJEl\lm:m1\1~nM1~m~

a'miJu.m~LLUiil'VI,r\liEl m3J1"l!1m~ m:m1\1~nM1~m~ LLUiilLLiil:~~~3J~

., ,

Q.<I .CiI 0 A ft I

m\l'Yl 1 ~."'. 2544 1l1U.1U.~3J~ 15,000 Liil3J

~ . ~

'U fUJt1m..:l1J'l'HUTW n'l:J.J'U eJ..:Il'IeJ tl':J.J ~ IIl'1..:1'l1'lVi

" . .

a''VIU~:''l!1''l!1~. 1m\lm~~\lLL1~~El3J.

El1'V11~UU.Li5ElU. = The Contamination of Food.-- m\lL'Yl~'1:

a'miJu.m~LLUiil'VI,r\liEl m3J1"l!1m~, 2544. 50 'VI"h

1. El1'V11~--m~Uu.Li5Elu.LLiil:m~~~11la'ElU. I. ~:UU~~11la'ElU~\lLn~~El3J Ian.

363.192

ISBN 974-269-037-5

€J€Jfm Tuwml'w€rr«Z';nu mhm'i1-nJJ1" I ushun« ~ijLYIfITuTrliiYl1"m1

40

tm"\I-n1:1J11Ui.nnh::nmH1Elfm hfliilEl1'\.l, a-11·.l.h~'il·f~'1!LLiil::i(irrElElfm h

'IJ

v-J Ela-v-J Eli'a-1:IJ'ilnf11\1 El ~1 '\.l,~\1 LL1Ci1~ m,JLU'\.l, 1:: £J:: L1 iil1'\.l,1'\.l, ~ LLiil::';]::1:IJEl ~1 '\.l,L dmriEl"lJ El\l

'IJ 'IJ

i'il1~1~i'u ~11ih::Lll'1'ldL-n1 ~f1\1m £J i\ltf '\.l,3J'\.l,M!f~\l1 'li'~1ih:: Lll'1'ldL ~3J;r'\.l,LL'I'l'\.l,~1

'IJ ,

6l..hl1i'mYJ'1!LLiil::i'il1ElElfm1'\.l,fliilEl1'\.l, 'I'h1~ GEMS ~'\.l,h'il11,;]~ElU~1d1'\.l, f1.I11, 1980

'IJ

~116JJ111i''il1YJ'1!LLiil::i'il1 El Elfm 1 '\.l, v-J El ~V-J Eli'~~m13J L~£J\I ~ El~"lJ111~ El ~1\11'\.l,LL1\1 Ld El L-n1 ~

'\I II II III

~1\1m £J 1 '\.l,1.J~3J1ru.3J1nLn'\.l, 11.J L'I'htf'\.l,

L rtEl\l~1 £J~16JJ111i''il~YJ'1!LLiil::i'il1ElElfm 1 '\.l,v-JEl~v-JEli'~1:IJ1.Jl1n!l1 '\.l,LdEl LriEl"lJEl\li'il1 GEMS ~\I"lJEl M'Vn-nEl3JiilL~El\l~16JJ1~'il1YJ'1!LLiil::i'il1'1!UCi1d1'\.l,L3J~Ci1iruYJ'1! ~n LLiil::~a1:IJ

'IJ 'IJ "

~LU'\.l,El1'V111,hflru ~16JJ111i''il1YJ'1!LLa::i'il1~~1flru 5 '1!UCi1~'il11,;]~ElU 1~LLri 1Ci1El11'll''\.l,El'\.l,

"'IJ "

(diazinon) Lv-JU1m1'1'lElEl'\.l, (fenitrothion) ma11'1'lElEl'\.l, (malathion) ~1111'1'lElEl'\.l,

(parathion) LLa::~1111'1'lElEl'\.l,L3J~a (parathion methyl) 1:IJ~-nmhnm::'VI'"l1\11.J1::L'I'l11l ~nl'VI'\.l,Ci1;r'\.l,~1'V1i'u~16JJ1I1i'mYJ'1!LLiil::i'il1ElElfm 1'\.l,v-JEl~v-JEli'~1'\.l,El1'V111 £JnL1'\.l, MRL

'IJ

1Ci1El11'll''\.l,El'\.l,~a'il;r'\.l,flf\lLL1n 1'\.l,'I'l11l111M 1950 LLa:: H1.'\.l,m1~11i'11ru.~"lJ use

,

QCi1?J'\.l,~iil1:IJLLiil::~n MRL "lJEl\l1Ci1El11'll''\.l,El'\.l,~1'V1i'uitlJYJ'1!lJ1\1'1!UCi1~El 1 0013.1 1mni'3JI nhni'3J LLiil::~1'V1i'UYJ'1!~El 500-700 13.1 1mni'3Jlnhni'3J ~iil1:IJLLa::~n~1'\.l,1'V1qj~ ~nM11:IJ~ mJ1.Jl1n!l"h~~16JJ1~'il~YJ'1!LLa::i'il1 ElElfm 1 '\.l,v-J El~v-J Eli'~ 1 '\.l,1::iu 1Ci1 '] ~1'\.l, 1'\.l,itlJYJ'1!~1:IJ~\I 5 13.1 1mni'3J/nhni'3J

~fr;l1nn11~m~1'lJ £h'l GEMSlFood L~L ~U,1.h::~'I'ln-111~ 1 u,n111 ,yn~'ll mJ\lflU 'lJ El\li'~Ul ~ L~ mnUn11'I.Ju,Lfl ElU,'lJ El\l Ell'V1l1 El ~l\1L 1n~n1J ~ ~ L 'VI ~ldtJ\I LLa'~\l1 ~L ~u, ':h

..

LL1J1 U,'l.J1:: L 'I'lf'f~ij'll mJ\lflU L,rU, ~ U,El tl LL~1 n11'I.JU,Lfl ElU,'lJ El\l m'VI11~ L n~.:Eu,El ~1\1 m~ L3-I~\I

'II

n tJ\I dju,5u,~1l [JEl ~ LL~::n11~El~LiEl\l~ LL~El ~1\1 tilEl L rtEl\l dju,~\I,h dju,El ~1\1 ri\l1 U,'l.J1::L 'I'lf'f

'II 'II

ri'li\l~~U,l n11Ln~1111::m'VI11'I.Ju,Lfl ElU,El ~l\11u,Lm LL~::n1l\1'1J1l\1~\I~1Jl1f1f1nm1J

• •

a''lJ111~'lJEl\l'I.J1::'l!1'l!U, UU~lU, 61 ElT;]lJ El\lnu, L~~1 [Jn11~1 L ii,U,n11'lJ El\li';i1J1~

• J ..

Ell'V1l1~'l.JU,Lfl ElU,ElT;JU El\lnu,in ~~\I ~u1111f1 L~ ~1 [Jn11Yl1 ~l [Jn11'I.JU,Lfl ElU, 1 u,

'II

I I =Q..II ~ '" t:f CI.oOAd'

1::'VI11\1L~1::'I.J~n LL'l.J11'I.J 'lJu,~\I LL~::Lnmn~lm'VI11u,u, LL~::mn11'I.Ju,LlJElU,[J\lLn~'lJU,

'II 'II

L~nn~ El\lmUfl1J LL 'VI~\I'l.Ju,Lfl ElU, LL~::U El\lnu,ij1 ~-;l1'V1U,1 [J m'VI11'I.Ju,Lfl Elu,~\ln~11 1 u, 'Yl1\1

'l.Jfju1i 1~n11L'VI~ld';)::ij'I.J1::~'I'ln-~~1Jln~~~Ldm'~lLm1J1'I.Jfju1i111Jnu,

n11m U fl1J Ell'V1l1YlWn Ld El'I.J u,Lfl ElU,~ El1Jhl ~11Jl1f1 yh L~ n ~1\1 ij'I.J1::~'I'ln-~ ~

Hl'V1i'U ~u11ml L YhnU1~n11U El\lnu, ~ ~~ Ifi Ell'V1l1Ell,;) L3-I Ifi 1:: 'VI un 'h n11'I.J u,Lfl ElU, L~

'II 'II

Ln~.:Eu,LL~1 LL~::tilL3-lijn11m1,;)a'ElU11Ell'V1l1~ u,'l.Ju,Lfl ElU, n';)::".hEl Eln-;ll'V1u,l [J ~\I

LLaj';)::m1,;) ~ElU LL~T:hn11'I.JU,Lfl ElU, 1 u,m'VI11~\ln11~~-;lln~'lJ El\l'Yl1\11l'l!n11 nL3-I m';)

'II

~ ~ Ifil1J LL~::f1 Elu,m'VI11~'l.Ju,Lfl ElU,L 'VI ~l~ U,El nnvm ~ ~l ~ L~~ [JJl [J

u,Elmlm::ij'I.J1::~'I'ln-111~1Jln.:Eu,LL~1 1JlIfi1n11U El\lnu,tJ\I,r1 [J~~n111 ,y'l'li'~ tnm

~\l1 u, 1:: [J:: [Jl1~1 [J Lihml1Ji'u ~ ~'l!ElU'lJ El\li';iUl ~~';)::'Lil1111fi1n11L,rU, d1l1U\I flU 1,y

..

'llElU\lflutill\1 ~ ,;)::~El\lHnUn11~lLii,U,n11'Yl1\1El'ila'1'V1m11JL~El~~n11'I.J~ElmL~::LL~1

m::,;)l [Ja'W~~El ElnLi~\I LL1~~El1J 1 ,ynUn11Ln~mL ~ ElmUfl1J~1Lflij~1 ,ynu~'l!~~ LL~::

'II •

L~El~~n11LL~1m::,;)1[J 11f1L'l.JLiiIfi1 LL~:: 1,ynU~LL'l.J11'I.J Ell'V1l1L~Eli'u'l.J1::nu,1lm'VI11

'11'11'11

~~ Hl'V1i'un111~~u,';)::L3-I'l.JU,Lfl ElU,~1 [J LLUflYi L1[J'VI1El ~11~ ~ 1 u, 1::'VI11\1n11LL'l.J11'I.J

• 'II

..

'VI1Elm1,;)

'll El1J~~f1n~ El\l LL3-IU,~11 U,1::~U'l!1 ~~ djU,i1';)';)UU,LL~::LLU, 11 ~1J L~El\ln11'I.JU,Lfl ElU,

'II 'II •

ij ml1J Hl fltlJ El ~1\1 ri\l [J1 ~ til Eli'~Ul ~ Lrl El H'll ElU\I flU L ~ ElU El\lnu,n11'I.Ju,Lfl ElU, 'VIu, 1 [J

" ..

m1,;) ~ElU LL vi \I 'l!l ~ ij'VI~ l~i ~'VI1'll El ~U,L 'I'lli'! m1,;) ~ElU'l.J1::~'I'ln-111~'lJ El\l'll ElU\I flU LL~:: i 'il'VI1'll El ~U,L 'I'lf'f1l ~1 [Jn11'I.JU,Lfl ElU, ~ m1,;) ~ElUL~LL~11Jl L ~U,El til Eli';i1J1 s

...

111 @l1n11~ij'I.J1::~'I'ln-111~ Hl'V1i'UU El\lnu,LL~::mUfl1Jn11'I.JU,Lfl ElU,'lJ El\l m'VI11ij

~\ltilElL'l.Jd n11H~1SJJ111f1fi1~'l!LL~::iIfi11Jlmnu,L'l.JLiju,i1tlJ'VI1~u,11Ifin L~Elm~Ln~

'II "

i1ty'VIldi'!1J1~ LL~::'VIU,1 [J\llU,till\1 ~ m1LLi\l1 ~Ln~mm'l'll1U1~y\'1n11Ln~m~~n~El\l

(Good Agricultural Practice) 'VI~El GAP 1 U,L~El\ln11 H~11SJJ1I1fm~'l!LL~::i'il1

'II

~\I,;)11mm1rn1::'VI11\1'l!1~'lJEl\lEl\lf1n11Ell'V111LL~::Ln~mLLvI\I~'VI'l.J1::'l!1'l!1~ (FAD

International Code of Conduct) ri'1'V1U,@lH1l~1[Jn11H~1SJJli@l1~'l!LL~::i@l1 LL~::

'II

43

Asian Development Bank. Handbook on the use of pesticides in the Asia-Pacific region. Manila, Asian Development Bank, 1987.

Buchet, 1. P., Lauwerys, R., Vandervoorde, A. and Pycke, 1. M. 'Oral Daily intake of cadmium, lead, manganese, copper, chromium, mercury, calcium, zinc and arsenic in Belgium: a duplicate meal study'. In Fd. Chern. Toxic. 21: 19-24,1983.

FAD. Prevention of mycotoxins. Rome, FAO, 1979.

FAO. Guidelines for can manufacturers and food canners. Rome, FAO, 1986, Paper No. 36.

FAO. International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. Rome, FAO, 1986.

FAOIWHO. Guidelines for establishing or strengthening national food contamination monitoring programmes. Geneva, WHO, 1979.

FAOIWHO. Summary report of data received from collaborating centres for food and animal feed contamination monitoring programme. Geneva, WHO, 1979.

FAOIWHO. Summary of 1980-83 monitoring data. Joint UNEPIFAOIWHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme, Geneva, WHO, 1986.

FAOIWHO. 'Codex Maximus Limits for pesticide residues'. Codex Alimentarius Vol. XIII, Second edn. Rome, FAO, 1986.

FAOIWHO. Alinorm 91/12 A. Report of the twenty-third session of the Codex Committee on food additives and contaminants. Rome, FAO, 1991.

Galal-Gorchev, H. Conference document 'Chemical contamination of food in Europe' prepared for the Joint WHO/CEC Consultation on Food Safety in Europe in the 1990s. Brussels, 20-22 November 1989.

ISO. Ceramic ware in contact with food-release of lead and cedmium=Psxt 2: permissible limits. International Standard 6486/2. Geneva, ISO, 1981.

Kaphalia, B. S., Siddiqi, F. S and Seth, T. D. 'Contamination levels in different food items and dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in India'. Indian 1. Med. Res. 81,71-78, 1985.

Muller J. and Schmidt, E. H. F. 'Heavy metals in the infant diet'. In Health evaluation of heavy metals in infant formula and junior food. Schmidt, E. and Hildebrandt, A. (eds). Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1983.

UNEPIF AOIWHO. 'Assessment of the present state of pollution by mercury in the Mediterranean Sea, and proposed control measures'. (UNEPIWG. 91/5), Athens, 1983.

UNEPIFAOIWHO. Assessment of chemical contaminants in food. Nairobi, UNEP, 1988. UNEPIFAOIWHO. Summary of 1984-85 monitoring data. Joint UNEPIFAOIWHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme, Geneva WHO, 1988.

UNEPIFAOIWHO. Summary of 1986-88 monitoring data. Joint UNEPIFAOIWHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme, Geneva, WHO, 1991.

WHO. Environmental health criteria no.2: polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls.

Geneva, 1976.

WHO. Environmental health criteria no.3: lead. Geneva, 1977.

49

It' D

6. 'L-b1.,'Ja-11V'h'lf'l[J~1 ru. ~1~'L-b

, 'IJ

... ..i_I':'!!

11 'i'U'U 1 '6 m 'i nu 'm '!oJ 1

... .

11 'i'i nn '6 mraun £J fll'i

...

11 'i'i fU 1 '6 m 'i

o 0

fllUl

~\I Ln ~~ mJ~q;]ru.~1 El L u.n El,zu.c;lLL1i:IJ"H~;1 ~lJu. Ian LLi.'l::n Elm1 :lJi1mnJllu.~\I

. ~

.ffu.Liju.5u.m1 mu.LL~\lL~L 'liu.L~mnu. ~\I Ln~~ El:IJ 1n~i1 LLi.'l::~\I Ln~~El:IJ hn~m1:IJ

i:IJ';u.fL~El:IJ 1£J\I hWli~~:IJ'1!1@i 'VI1m~'I'1nq;]u.~1:IJnWiILLi.'li'nM1~\lLn~~El:IJ1n~i1 ~::lJlJ

• 'IJ

~\I Ln~~El:IJvf\l1i.'ln ciEl:IJ ~\I ~U.LLi.'l::"h n ci~i.'lEl~ L1.J

'IJ

n~:lJ1'1!1n1~L V;U.11'V1,z\l ~El'1!~ ~\I LL 1 ~ ~ El:IJ'lJ El\l1q;]~ \ln1~~\1 LL1 ~ ~El:IJ LL vi \I

~'VI1.J~::'1!1'1!1@i LLi.'l::~::lJlJm11l~EllJ~\lLn~~El:IJ Ian (UNEP/GEMS Environment

Library) 1.J~::nEllJ~1£J1.J~::L~u.~\lLn~~El:IJ'VI;n~ 'lJEl\lhm1:IJ 13 L~El\l L~U.El~~::~ "hL1£JW~'El ci1\1:IJ1n nEl1 iLn~m1:IJm::'VI,zn 1 U.L~El\l~\I LL1~~El:IJ~\I LijU.~1U.'VIrt\l'lJEl\l;1~L~1

'IJ

~:lJm~L~£JLL~~1iLL~~'VIi.'l1£J ~\lL~i~1.J~::'l!:lJ1.J~lJ'1im~,znLL1.Ji.'lLq;]1El·lh£J 'lJEl\lm:IJ1'1!1m~ L~El~1:IJnu.LL1.Ji.'l'VI,z\l~El'1!~d' ~1'V1i'lJ 1m u. h\l L1£Ju.i\lLL~~::ilJlJli£J:IJ~nM1;1u. L1.J use

• ...

L~ £J LL ~~LLn~li1~ru.'1!u. rl\l 'VI i.'l1 £J

m:IJ1'1!1m~'lJEl'lJEllJq;]ru.,zmL1.Ji.'lLq;]1El'1h£J ~~~11l 1'1'1mm LLi.'l::~L~m,j'El\l'l'1nflu.

q ~ ~ q

~~1 :lJnu.i~y]1'V1,z\l ~Eld' LLi.'l::'lJ El'lJ au q;] ru.1m\lm~~\1 LL1 ~ ~ El:IJ LL vi \I ~'VIlh::'1!1'1!1 @iLiju.VlLI1IM

~L~ElL~El~'lJi'l'1tm~LL1.Ji.'l

Q" Q

EllilJ~m:lJ1'1!1m~

22 i:iflU.1£JU. 2544

'VI~1m~11::1\1hn 'VI1ElLMmEl@1-n (Earthwatch) rlEli\lifu,1u, fl.fI. 1972

1@1 [J~lh::'1!lJ El\lfi'n11~'VIlh::'1!1'1!1 ~':h~1 £.1;\1 Ln ~ ~ EllJ"1J El\llJW1~EJ L ~ mh:: LijU,~ ~

• •

n,m11lJ~1\1 ') ~El ~1 U,LL~U,U~lJ'1i\l1U,~11\1H 'VI~1[J\l1U,"1JEl\lEl\lfi'n11~'VIU1::'1!1'1!1~

LL~~::'VI~1 [Jvi'1'V1,z1~ @111,;)~EllJ LL~::U1:: LijU,~ ~~111vm1@1~ EllJ~1U,~1\1 ') Lum1lJ i'lJ~~'1!EllJ"1JEl\l@1U, 1::lJlJm1,;)~EllJ;\lLn~~EllJ Ian 'VI1ElL,;)lJ'; (Global Environment Monitoring System - GEMS) i\lifu,Elci1\1LlJWY11\1n11'V1i\l,;)1nJu, 2 il1u, fl.f'I. 1974 'VI~1 [J\l1wd'U~lJ'1i\l1u,11lJnlJ 1m\ln11;\1 Ln@1~EllJLLvI\I~'VIU1::'1!1'1!1~ 'VI1El ~LU,U (United Nations Environment Programme - UNEP) LL~::'VI~1[J\l1U,11lJ~U, ') 1~ £.I ~1 U,flU, EJn';) n11lJ"1J El \11m \I m1~ H1,r n \11 u, 1 'VI ru1m \I m1;\1 LL 1 ~ ~ au LL vi \I

~ ~

~'VIU1::'1!1'1!1~ 1u,m\l1u,hfl

1::lJ u @111,;) ~EllJ;\I LL 1 ~ ~ EllJ Ian ~1 L UU,\l1U,';)U,U1:: su ~~~ L ~ £.I lJ lJ1U, 1u,n11

'VIrt\l'Ylfl1TI~LL~1 @1~El~1::[J::n~1~~1u,lJ11~U1::Liju,~~;\lLn~~EllJ~H1flty ') ~1 Isn L'liU, ~~m::'YllJ';)1nn11~hn1Elu,ifu, lJ~Vl~El1n1f11 U,L"1J@1 L~El\l LL~:: 1 u,LL'VIa\lJ1~@1 5@111n11~~~\I"1JEl\llJ1L"1J@11ElU,LL~::;\I~;i@1~tlmmmlJ L'liU, 'li'1\1LLElvJ1n1 LlJwii'u,

~ .

L ~El\l,;)1n LlJU,L~El\l LQ vn:: ~\li' @1VllJvf ~ ~n11U1:: LijU,L 'VI a1ii'L u,in ~rn:: L an ~11

'Y11\1i'1!1n11@11lJUn~ LL~::'VI~1m~El\li'@1VllJvfLlJU,'VI,r\liEl'1!@1;\lLn@1~EllJ"1JEl\l UNEP/

GEMS 1 u, 1U LLlJlJ~mdJ~~u,~1U,'Y11\1i'1!1n11n~1lJ11tl ~1U,L"li'1 h 1~J1 £.I

~ ~ ..

'VI,r\liElLalJdLlJu,5u,~lJ~ 5 1 U,'1!@1 11~1 £.I n11UU,LrJ ElU, 1 U,El1'V111 ~\I LlJU,

L1El\lvhnm"li'El\lnlJ'Ylnflu, El1'V111UU,LrJElu,1~J1mf\l1u,'Y11\1m\l ~El LL'V·dm::,;)1 £.I 1u,

, ,

1 g" II1::II II1::II IllS 1 a I A ad

El@1~1'V1m1lJ LL~:: U,'Y11\1ElEllJLlJEly.j'1!~~"ll'lJ ~'VI:: ~11LfllJ LL~::~1"lJ1LLlJ~\I,;)1n~u,'YllJ

. ~

lJ~Vl~ n11LnlJi'n~1:ITty~'1!LL~::tt1~1\1 ') n ci1\1LaJ L 'VIlJ1::~lJvi'11 iL :fEl11 L,;)1ty L~lJ 1@1

El cinlJ:ITn.J~'1!L 'VIa1Ju, n11UU,LrJ Elu,~rf\l1 U,U1::L 'Ylfl~~U,1 LL~1 LL~::u1::L'Ylflrhi\l~~u,1

~ ~

1::lJ u @111,;) ~EllJ;\I Ln ~ ~ EllJ Ien ~1U,El1'V111 L~ U1:: ~U,\l1 u, n11@111';) snu El1'V111 U1::LI1'Yl~rh'VIu,@1ifu, 11lJnlJ'VI~1[J\l1U,U1::-;i'1"1JEl\lU1::L'Ylfl~1\1 ') LL~111m1lJ LL~::

U1:: LijU,~~"li' EllJ~ L~ mnlJn11Uu,LrJElU, 1 U,El1'V111 "li'EllJ~ L 'VIa1dLL~~\l1 iL ~U,1::~lJ LL~::

~ ~

LLU, 11 ,zlJn11UU,LrJ ElU,"1JEl\l El1'V111 1 U,~U,~ti1U, 1 'VIru"1JEl\l Ien ~\I'VI1\111"li'EllJ~~\lna11,;)::

~ ~

'li1 [J~11\1m1lJ@11::'VI,rn L~El\ln11UU,LrJ ElU,"1J El\lEl1'V111 LL~::'li1 £.I 1 i~~'VI,z1~i'lJ ~@1'1!EllJ

~

1 U,1::~lJ'1!1~ ~1 L UU,n11~~n11UU,LrJ ElU, 1 U,El1'V111~\I

LlJLfi~ ~. niu,u

~ ~1U,1 [Jn111::lJlJ@111,;) ~EllJ;\I Ln~~EllJ Isn

~

~::1J1Jm1"i1~El1J~-.'Ibb1~~mJ hmh""El1'V11~ (GEMS/Food) 'lJEl-.'l1m-.'lm~ ~-.'Ibn~~m,mvl-.'l~'VIlh::"ll'l"ll'l~ (UNEP) El-.'lf1m~El1'V11~bb~::bn~~~bbvl-.'l~'VIlh::"ll'1"ll'1~ (FAa) bb~::El-.'lf1m~El'\.l,llJ£J Isn (WHO) 1~~1m11J'llmJ~b~mn1Jm~u'\.I,b~El'\.l,1'\.1,El1'V11~

'IJ

1~£JEl1imq;]1El'll1£J~mtr'\.l,~dJ'\.I,~1J1.:nn:-.'Ibb~ q;].I'I. 1976 1'\.1, fI.q;'f. 1988 GEMS/Food

1~~1m11J'llEl1J~~L~"iI1nm~~~1"i1~El1Jbb~::"iI1mb'VI~-.'I~'\.I, ') 1WJf1-.'1 fI.I'I. 1971-1985

'IJ

bb~1,_z 11J11 bm1::~bb~::~~ 1J~dJ'\.I,bEln ~~111J'lJ El-.'l1m-.'lm~~-.'I u 1 ~ ~ El1J u vI-.'I ~'VIU~::"ll'l"ll'l ~

El-.'lffm~El1'V11~bb~::bn~fil~bbvl-.'l~'VIU~::"ll'1"ll'1~ bb~::El-.'lffm~El'\.l,llJ£J hn 1~;!mEln~1~d11 nT'Ju1!LfjUe.JCI«11LflihluL;J€Ju 7U€JTW71 U1J:-.'I bb~tf '\.I,mn1~~1m11J use b~ £J u vd'll El1J ~

'IJ

~::'VI11-.'1 fl.q;'f. 1986-1988 ~'\.I,~n 'llEl1Jm'VI~li1.1~111'Vn11Jb~mn1J:!i"~1J"ll'1~bb~::"lJEl1J'll1£J

'IJ

bdEl'VI1b~El-.'lm~u'\.I,b~El'\.l,1'\.1,El1'V11~El-.'lU~::bYlI"I~1~m11J111J~El 1WJf1-.'1 q;].I'I. 1971-1988

'llEl1J~~-.'In~11 bb~IiI-.'I1 ~b~'\.I,~1El ~l-.'1m~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l,~~bf1~1 '\.I,El1'V11~ 1 '\.I,~::~1J~-.'I1 '\.I,U~::bYlq;'f~IilJ'\.I,l bb~1 ~-.'I bnlil"il1n

'IJ 'IJ

mrna J1 bb~::~'\.I, ~1 £Jm~bbvdm::"iI1 £J"lJEl-.'l~l~bfl~bb~:: h'VI:: 1'\.1,Elfil~1'V1m~1J bb3Jb~El-.'ld"il::'\.I,11filnn-.'l1~ 'llEl1J~

• 'IJ

[J-.'If1-.'1 bb~~-.'I1 ~b ~'\.I, 11 UtlJ 'VI 1 d'lJ £J1 £Jnl1-.'1'lJ11-.'1 bb~::~'\.I,bb~-.'I1 '\.I,U~::b Ylq;'ffh i-.'l~IilJ'\.I,l ~-.'Inll~::dj £J1J~m1Jq;]1J Elfil~'VIm~1J

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

A I A IjJ .::to

bb~::bn~mm~1J1J n £J b ~ £J-.'I'\.I,El £J'\.I,1iI

'IJ

'\.I,Eln"il1n b 'It'\.l, 1 ~b ~'\.I,5'\.1,m1 £J"lJEl-.'lm~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l, 1 '\.I,El1'V11~bb~1 ~::1J1Jfil~1"i1~El1J~-.'I bn~~El1J hn~1'\.1,El1'V11~[J-.'I:j

u '\.I, 1Y11-.'1U~tr~~n~1 £J11 m~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l, 1 '\.I,El1'V11~"iI::~~ ~-.'I El ~1-.'11~ ~~'VI1n~1J1mm~m1J~1J 1J ~~ ~ 1 '\.I,~-.'I bn ~ ~ El1J ~1El~l-.'1b"li'\.l, 1J11i1~m~El-.'lu~::bYlI"I~IilJ'\.I,lbb~1~,hnlilm~bb~1m::"iI1£J'lJEl-.'lb~£J"iI1nElfil~'VIm~1Jbb~::1Elb~£Jm'\.l,~1'V1'\.1,::

"li1 £J 1 ~~::~1J~1~fil::rt1 bb~::~~u~ElYl1 '\.I,El1'V11~~~~-.'I ~:: blj £J1J'll Eltr-.'lfi'1Jm1Jfl1Jm~ 1 'li~~·J.hifil~Vl"ll'bb~::~l~bfl~Y11-.'1

• 'IJ

m~bn~m 'Yh1~m~u'\.I,b~El'\.l,1'\.1,El1'V11~~~~-.'I~1m"li'\.l,n'\.l,

GEMS/Food ii1~b'lt'\.l,b:a.~1::m~~T!i1~ru.nb'Yhtf'\.l, 'VI1n[J-.'I~-.'I~11-.'1m11Jb;!El~'\.I,1'\.1,b~El-.'lm11J~::El11i1

• •

1J~~Ylt'lJ El-.'l El1'V11~~1 £J 1~ £J El1i£Jm~bb~n bU~ £J'\.I,'ll11 ~~~::'VI11-.'1U~:: b Yll'lb~ mn1Jm~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l, 1 '\.I,El1'V11~ dJ'\.I,m~

~U1J ~'\.I, '\.I, 1 ~~m~fi1'lJ1 £JEl1'V11~~::'VI11-.'1U~:: bYlq;'f~n~1 £J m11J1i1 dJ'\.I, ~"iI::~El-.'l b~1~::1-.'1~-.'I1 '\.I, ~::~1J 1m-.'lm~ 1 '\.I,U~::b YlI'I

bb~::~::'VI11-.'1U~:: b YlI'I~ n ~1iI~ Ellil b ~ El~11-.'1m11J~'\.I, 1"iI11~m~ 1 'lin~~::blj £J1J11~1 £Jm~il El-.'ln'\.l,El ~1-.'11~ ~~ ueerm

n1'V1'\.1,m::~1J m11JU ~ El~.n £J'lJ El-.'lm~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l, 1 '\.I,El1'V11~1~1~'Yh El ~1-.'1 b n'\.l,b~ £J

GEMS/Food "iI::U11JU~-.'I bb~::b ~1J b~1J~l £J;!El~l~U'\.I,b~ El'\.l, 1 n '\.I, 1m-.'lm~m1"i1~El1J 1 '\.I, 1Elm~~ El1U'VI1n

1iTI1J"ll'1~ bb~::bb'VI~-.'IU'\.I,b~ El'\.l,1 '\.I,El1'V11~bU~ £J'\.I, 1u ~::1J1Jfil~1"i1~El1J~-.'I bnlil~El1J Ian [J-.'Iilil:-.'I1m-.'lm~fil~1"i1~El1J 1 '\.I,U~::bYlI'I

n1i-.'l;1ilJ'\.I,1 use 1 '\.I,£J hUfil::1'\.1,El Eln~-.'I~'llEl1J~U-.'l:j11m~U'\.I,b~El'\.l,El1'V11~[J-.'IfI-.'I u ~1m::"iI1 £JEl ~

• 'IJ 'IJ

1JEl~m?h bfl. YlEl~1J1 ~~1'\.1,1£Jm~1J~'VI1~

'IJ

1m-.'lm~~-.'Ibnlil~El1Jbbvl-.'l~'VIU~::"ll'1"ll'1~

7

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful