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Identity Struggles in Second Generation American Immigrant Children

Nicholas Romanin Student ID: 72494

Independent Study Dr. A. Scott Moreau August 10, 2010

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Introduction Imagine that you are an Asian-American. You were born in the States, but your

parents werenʼt. You grew up speaking Tagalog, but when you started going to school you noticed that everyone spoke English, no one had ever heard of Tagalog, and no one quite looked like you. You learn English and you grow up playing and learning with American kids. As you mature you realize something. You are very culturally and philosophically different from your parents. However, you are not quite like the other American kids you play with. Who are you? Are you Filipino or American? As you explore this struggle, you realize that some of the things that your parents

do are very different from what parents of other kids do. Furthermore, you find that many of the practices and ideas that your parents have are not ʻcool.ʼ You find that you donʼt want to hang out with your parents and your friends at the same time; it would be embarrassing. As this continues, you may even realize that the way you act around your friends is very different from the person you are when you are with family. Which one is the true you? Is it a combination of both? The purpose of this paper is to explore these struggles and tensions in the

identities of second-generation immigrant children. Many second generation immigrants go through a stage in their lives struggling with questions like “Who am I?” or “Where do I belong?” Some find identities in the natal cultures of their parents while others find more comfort being American. Some donʼt ever find a clear identity for themselves. This paper explores the question “Why?”

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Presuppositions Based on my own experience having a family filled with first and second

generation immigrants, and based on opinions and ideas gleaned from many articles and research papers on similar topics, this paper focuses on two general areas of influence. These areas are origin and surroundings. Origin is, in a basic sense, what distinguishes a second generation immigrant from the natives of the host culture. Surroundings describe the cloud of influence that may be different between one second generation immigrant and another.

Origin Influences of origin stem from all of those uncontrollable yet undeniable facts

about us and where we come from. They are things that from a very early age begin to define who we are. These include religion, family background, natal culture, the influence of parents, and even gender. All of these influences are contained within the family unit and are present during the early stages of the childʼs upbringing. The influences may remain throughout the personʼs life, though with varying degrees of influence.

Religion Religion is a very big factor; it is the root of worldview and often where people get

their sense of purpose and place. Religion can be partially organized and partially attached to folklore and culture. Often times religion is so attached to a particular culture that the two are inseparable. The parents of one Indian family in Canada,

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according to their daughter, “taught [her] everything and...told [her] to go to the temple and to keep reading, to keep [her] culture alive.” (Pearson, 200?). Keeping Hinduism alive was synonymous to keeping Indian culture alive. Islam, for instance, is part of being Saudi Arabian. There is a very strong connection between the cultural practices of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic faith. In fact, most of the types of dress and even the salutations commonly associated with Middle Eastern people are in general Islamic in nature. To cease to adhere to these cultural forms is to cease to practice Islam. To cease to practice Islam is to cease being part of the culture. Other religions, like Catholicism, or Buddhism can be less outwardly culturally invasive, yet morals, prayers, and holiday traditions are all deeply effected by these religions and are also tied to the cultures in which they are found.

Natal Culture Natal culture is the culture that the first generation immigrants were born into.

Natal culture is therefore the lens through which the first geners will be teaching the second geners. In some cultures, like Middle Eastern cultures as discussed above, religion is incredibly important, while for some families in other cultures, religion may take a back seat to practicality or family. There are some cultures like Chinese culture that are very communal, where loyalty to the family means more than anything, there are cultures where loyalty to the very people group is important, and there are cultures that are much less collectivistic and more individualistic such as German or American culture. These backgrounds are going to influence how the second generation immigrant children are raised. A child being taught a collectivistic mindset may be more

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prone to favor people of his or her own color whereas a person who was brought up more individualistically may seek more to do what is best for him regardless of who he helps, hinders, or befriends.

Family Background This category ties well into the first two, but is highlighted here more for the sake

of family size and location. For instance, one person may have a very large and extended family with relatives living across the state as well as across the ocean. Another person may have his father and mother, one sister, and one grandmother all in one location. These two extremes of family style present two extremes of influence. Someone with a tight-knit family of the former construction may produce a second generation that is more closely tied to the natal culture and more prone to visit their country of origin and study the language. A second generation immigrant with a family of the latter construction may be relationally and emotionally close. However, that family being in a new location may find itself relying on the community around them for cultural guidance instead of the extended family. The reason for coming to America is also an important aspect of family

background. Reasons for coming to America may influence how a parent views America and the opportunity that future generations may have. The first and most common reason that people emigrate to the U.S. is purely opportunistic. These people have worked hard and saved up with the goal of starting something new in America. Their dreams may include more financial freedom, a higher salary, higher standard of living, or education. On the other side of the coin are the refugees; those fleeing from

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war and poverty. These immigrants are searching for a place to be at peace. They are often willing to do anything for a living, as long as it means not going back to where they came from. They have a very good work ethic, and they treat their existence in America as a blessing and a gift not to be taken lightly. These reasons may play a large part in how parents shape the worldviews of their children.

Parental Influence Parents play a significant role in all of our lives. Almost every little boy thinks at

one point or another, “I want to be just like my Dad.” This attitude, of course, gives way to the rebellious nature of teenagers, but subconsciously remains, waiting to mature in adulthood. Although there is an inherent desire to be like ones parents, parents often take this into their own hands especially when living and dealing with a new culture whose values donʼt match up with their own. Some parents are very strict and controlling of their children. They may forcibly insist that the “Chinese way is the only way” and that the things that are taught in school are meaningless. There are parents who would be heartbroken if their child left their faith. These parents insist on bringing their children up in a traditional fashion despite their new progressive home. Other parents may be far more understanding and far more supportive of a different path that their child may take. These parents may be OK with their kids not growing up just like they were brought up.

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Skin color Skin color is an important aspect for a simple reason. There are second

generation immigrants in America who look like stereotypical white Americans, and there are second generation immigrants in America who look like immigrants. They are American by birth, but they donʼt look like the stereotypical average American. This effects how second generation immigrant children are perceived in group settings. In their article “What it means to be and feel like a ʻtrueʼ American,” Park-Taylor et al (2008) explore the concept of what it means to be American. They mention Barlow, Taylor and Lambertʼs (2000) experiment, which found that “although African Americans felt American and Cuban Americans did not, both groups reported they were not perceived as such by White Americans.” Furthermore, many groups of ethnic second generation Americans think that “to be American is to be White” (Devos & Banaii, 2005). It is much easier to fit in when one looks like everyone else. This certainly effects how these persons perceive themselves.

Gender Gender plays a role simply because each gender has been given its own set of

tools for how to deal with life on an emotional level. When dealing with rejection, confusion, or simply when challenged to separate social life and family life due to cultural difference, men and women respond in different ways. The roles of men and women in the natal culture may also play in here since the immigrant children will be conscious of these roles as they are taught by their parents.

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Surroundings The influences of surroundings are manifold. These are the influences that one

is introduced to outside the home and influences that grow stronger once immediate familial forces ebb and fade with time. Surroundings are all the influences outside of the family that will no doubt contribute to a personʼs answering the question ʻWho am I?ʼ These include friends and surrounding culture, nation of birth, and public opinion.

Friends and Surrounding Culture Surrounding culture can be defined as the cultural setting into which the parents

have moved from their home countries. This will include home towns, the kids at school, friends and neighbors, and parentsʼ friends and neighbors. Immigrants often feel more comfortable living close to people of a similar background. Whether coming from a collectivistic culture or not, people are more comfortable in a community of people that speak their own language, hold their own values and traditions, and that understand where they have come from. In big cities, this is manifested in little communities of Italian people, Chinese people, or Japanese people all living together. However, not every setting presents such an opportunity. In Southern California there are entire communities of Chinese people or

Mexican immigrants. In these communities the Chinese population is so dense that the culture, the architecture, and art all reflect Chinese language and culture. However, in Cleveland, Ohio there is a small community of Slovenians. Slovenia is a very small and sparsely populated country compared to China, and although there are many

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Slovenians in this part of Cleveland, there are few places that are just Slovenian. Chinese children in Southern California probably go to school with many other Chinese children, but Slovenians in Cleveland go to school with Americans. Furthermore, skin color plays a vital role in this topic. As mentioned above, a

European immigrant child may blend in well with the Anglo-Saxon American backdrop. An Asian, however, will stick out unless he or she is brought up in a predominantly Asian neighborhood.

Nation of Birth For this paper, the nation of birth will only include America. However, this topic

will be discussed here because some cultures consider the passport as proof for ethnic identity. Not only that, growing up in America, a second generation immigrant will learn far more about America than he or she will about his or her parentsʼ natal country. Be that as it may, if a white person were to be born and grow up in China with a Chinese passport, that person will still be considered a foreigner by the Chinese because of skin color. Therefore, depending on a personʼs worldview concerning the root of identity, one may be more prone to identify with blood over nation of birth or vice versa.

Public Opinion Public opinion can be defined as the light that the media and popular culture may

cast on a particular race or ethnic people. A community of people may develop generalizations or prejudices about a race of people based on passed experience, gossip, or the news. These opinions could be positive or negative, but whatever they

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are, they will most likely form the assumptions that one person may make about another person of a certain ethnic background upon their first meeting.

Methods Aim of the research The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons and factors for which second

generation immigrants may choose to highlight or suppress their ethnic identities in an American cultural context. This research also explores the role that faith plays in this search for identity.

Research tools To gather information for this research, the author read many research papers,

articles, and essays regarding immigration, identity, and acculturation. These sources came from newspapers, journals, and magazines spanning over 40 years. These articles were about peoples from South America, Mexico, the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, and Europe, all of which were immigrants to America. The articles discussed various issues regarding these immigrants. Surveys and interviews were also used to obtain information. A copy of the

survey can be found in Appendix A. Two surveys were sent out to about 40 people, and 32% (13 people) responded. Six of the participants were men and seven were women. Five of the participants were of Asian origin, and eight were from Europe. Several of those who participated in the surveys also participated in interviews.

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Analyzing the data Understanding that the topic of this paper is a fluid topic that has very complex

factors one being the individual personalities of each person, I looked for, in the papers that were read as well as the surveys and interviews that were conducted, similarities that could be found between people of similar backgrounds, people that grew up in similar neighborhoods, or peoples of the same gender. I looked for similarities that may be expressed in the ways that people choose to identify themselves in certain situations, the ways that people look at America or their home countries, and similarities in how people relate to parents and friends.

Findings Gender differences Several things that differed between the sexes were reflected in the surveys.

One of the differences was fluency in their parentʼs language. While all the participants expressed knowledge of the language of their parents, nearly 75% of the women considered themselves to be fluent in their parentsʼ language while only 50% of the men did. Furthermore, the women interviewed and surveyed considered themselves to be, on average, ʻvery closeʼ with their families while the men on average considered themselves as just ʻclose.' (see surveys and results in Appendix A) On the other hand, men proved to be more critical than women; not only of their

parentsʼ countries and cultures, but also of America. When asked if they had a positive or negative perception of America or their parentsʼ natal countries, all the women had positive responses, but when asked the same question, 80% of the men had a positive

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perception of America, and only 50% of the men had a positive perception of their parentsʼ natal countries. Further, nearly 85% of the men interviewed claimed to have experienced racism in their childhood, while only about 60% of women did. These data lead me to believe that women, in general, grow more comfortable

with their roots than men do. However, there is one piece of data that suggests otherwise. When asked whether they had ever wished they or their parents were different, almost 60% of the women surveyed indicated that at some point or another, they wished that they were of a different background. However, only 33% of the men indicated this feeling.

Background Differences I noticed a very distinct set of differences between Asian immigrants and those

from Europe. The first difference noticed in this study was knowledge of their parentsʼ language. When asked about language knowledge, 100% of the Asian participants said that they knew the language of their parents, but only 80% of the Europeans knew their ethnic languages. When asked about fluency, nearly 90% of the Asian participants claimed to be fluent in the tongues of their ancestors, but only 20% of the Western immigrants said they were fluent. This striking difference may show a difference in the values that the parents may have had in bringing up their children, but it also may show a difference in how these second geners value their ethnic identities. Contrasting this last statistic, the first survey discovered that second generation

Asian immigrants are far more critical of their natal cultures than their Western counterparts were. Almost 100% of the European rooted sample claimed that both they

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and their parents had high opinions of “the old country.” A little more than half of the second-gen Asians had positive opinions about their root countries. Finally, in the second survey, participants were asked to freely make five

statements about who they say they are. Afterward, participants were to give five statements regarding what they speculate others would say about them. Out of five Asian participants, there were ten statements that were ethnic in nature. Six of the statements were statements about how the participants would describe themselves. Four European participants yielded only four statements regarding race, and two were self proclaimed.

Blogs Blogs also reveal something about the subcultures being examined here. When

searching for blogs by Asian-Americans, I found many that discussed things that Asian Americans are commonly into, as well as little tidbits about the lives of the writers. These topics commonly included video games, girls, college life, photography, etc. The blogs were distinctly Asian and seemed to be for an Asian American audience, but most of the blogs had little to do with Asia. When searching for Russian-American blogs, I found many blogs that were about

Russia and her politics and culture. Many blog sites even had information about the language and some had lessons. These blogs were more centered on the country of Russia rather than the modern Russian-American subculture. Latino blogs often discussed the trials, struggles, and joys of being Latino in

America. Topics included music, dancing, politics, immigration, and language learning.

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These blogs were not focused on the countries of origin like the Russian blogs, nor were they focused on Latin-American subculture, but on living as a Latino in America. These three themes found in these three ethnic online blog styles show distinct

attitudes toward origin and present situation.

Discussion Although there was not much literature about the topic of gender, the survey

showed that there is a difference between how men and women handle the identity struggles of growing up in a new culture. Overall, women seem to be able to handle the pressures and transitions better than men. Second generation men expressed higher levels of insecurity regarding both their natal cultures and American culture. As expressed above, 25% more women claimed to be fluent with their familiesʼ natal languages. Women claimed to be closer to their families. It seems that second generation women are less influenced by their surroundings and possibly more influenced by their families than men. The survey shows that they are not as critical with their ethnicity and language. 100% of women said that they have a positive perception of their parentsʼ cultures while only 50% of men showed this sentiment. Men seem much more critical of their origins. This discomfort in men could be due to many things including pressure to conform or to fit in to their surrounding cultures or groups of friends. With regard to American culture, women again show a higher level of comfort.

When asked how comfortable each participant was with Americans versus their comfort level with other ethnic Americans, over 70% of women said that they were just as

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comfortable with both. 33% of men, however, claimed to be comfortable with both. This means that 67% of the men interviewed felt alienated either from white Americans or from their ethnic peers. Although it seems women can operate in both realms, men feel that they have to pick a side. This can lead to confusion and a deepening of that internal struggle with the question of identity. To further serve this point, about 50% of women remember racist comments or actions directed toward them while growing up. Over 80% of the men perceived racism growing up. This could be because men took it to heart more often than the women did. The differences in the data between participants from different backgrounds is

most interesting. Judging from the results of the survey, second generation European immigrants seem to have a more positive outlook on their origins, have a more comfortable time in America, seem to be more comfortable with almost anyone, but have less of the language of their parents. For Asian immigrants it seems to be the opposite. Asians, although they seem to be more in touch with their linguistic roots, have more negative views of their ethnic origins, and yet are less comfortable around Americans of different backgrounds. Culture and skin color play a big role in this phenomenon. European-Americans

are from the cultures of which America was constructed, and are of the same races that compose the bulk of Americaʼs middle class. European immigrants look like Americans and can learn to think like Americans quite easily. Asian-Americans, however, look Asian. An Asian-American might have four generations of parents in America, and people might still ask the question “Where are you from?” because that person would still look like a “foreigner.” This type of visual alienation can become a big stumbling

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block for many Asians in the way of integrating or assimilating into American culture. The survey showed that more than half of the second generation Asian-Americans are most comfortable around other Asian-Americans compared to 80% of the EuropeanAmericans being comfortable with both. This kind of cultural impedance could also be the reason for why many second generation Asian-Americans have negative feelings toward their own ethnic cultures and countries. This seems to suggest a longing to belong and to adapt fully to the host culture. Contrary to this idea, Gaudet discovers in his research paper entitled “Daily

hassles, ethnic identity and psychological adjustment among Lebanese-Canadians,” that those Lebanese-Canadians that keep their identity as Lebanese have higher selfconfidence. He writes: “...loss of [Lebanese] support coupled with high [Canadian] support was related to greater levels of depression… [T]he positive relation between Canadian identity and depression may, therefore, be due to an implied isolation from the Lebanese group.” However, the same author quotes Noels, Pon, and Clement (1996) in showing that Chinese minority groups behave in the opposite way as I have seen in my own research; second generation Chinese immigrants that show more of an identity with Americans have greater confidence and self esteem while a lower level of self esteem is experienced by those who simultaneously identify with their natal culture and have negative feelings about that culture. Another article by Jensen entitled “Cultural identities as sources of civic

engagement,” discusses attitudes of second generation immigrants in terms of civic engagement and activity. Jensen finds that second generation immigrants who find their identities in their natal cultures are more prone to be active in their communities

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and in politics, while those who identify themselves as Americans tend to be less active. Due in part to the influence of their parents, second generation immigrants who understand where they came from and who they are may experience a greater gratitude and appreciation for the system of government and opportunities that they have in America. Others that may consider themselves as American may take for granted the country and culture from which they originated and find less interest in the blessings they have in America. Yet another researcher focused more on parenting. Abad and Sheldon (2008)

observed that many first generation immigrants had less stress and anxiety than many second generation immigrants. They hypothesized that there was a “tendency for firstgeneration immigrants to maintain and assert their ties to the natal culture when faced with perceived discrimination from the host culture.” Their general diagnosis was that many first generation parents will be quite strict and quick to enforce their natal cultural beliefs and tenets especially when they conflict with the host culture. This results in higher levels of stress for the second generation compared to a parent with an open mind who is a little more liberal with integrating their natal culture with the host culture. Speaking with some of my Chinese-American participants, I can see this phenomenon taking place. Many Chinese parents work to engrain Chinese culture into their children. 85% of the Asian participants claim to be fluent in their natal languages, while only 20% of the European participants did. This in itself proclaims that to a degree, that Asian participants had their natal culture pressed upon them more than their European counterparts resulting in their contrasting levels of comfort.

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Conclusions When a person is asked “Who are you?” or when one asks him/herself the same

question, the answer can sometimes be difficult and complex. The way one chooses to identify him/herself has a lot to do with the worldview and culture that the parents have instilled coupled with the pressures from the surrounding culture and society, whether negative and discriminatory or just plain different. It also has to do with how each person chooses to deal with these issues. Does one have to fully conform? Does one hide? Or does one accept that they are different and move forward? European immigrant children seem to have fewer struggles than Asian immigrant

children or other non-White immigrants. This is because of both skin color and culture. Those that are able to come to terms with these differences seem to find their place in America more easily. Unfortunately, the term ʻmelting-potʼ regarding American culture primarily refers to a mixture of European immigrant culture. Non-White immigrant culture is still regarded as ʻdifferentʼ in many places in America making transition into American culture slightly harder for people of color. I attended a church in Shanghai that was for foreign passport holders only. This

church was the best example of a melting pot that I have ever experienced. There was a congregation of about 1000 people with representation from more than 48 nations. There was hardly a majority, and I found myself becoming friends with a group of people from about 5 or 6 different countries from around the world. There was no room for prejudice because no one had the majority.

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Biblical reflection In the Old Testament, it was taboo for any Jew to intermarry with a non-Jew. In

fact, the Jewish culture was in many ways xenophobic (like Chinese culture in its isolationistic yet collectivistic tendencies). Israel was meant to be a light to all nations, a nation of priests to the world around them, but in order for that to be, the culture had to be preserved and the Law had to be kept so that Israel would be clean before the Lord. In the Old Testament Law, Israel is commanded not to intermarry with the people around them. The book of Ezra documents a time when Ezra forced numerous disobedient men to divorce women that they had married outside of Israel; the men subsequently left their wives and any children they had by them. Before Israel is able to enter the promised land, they are commanded to destroy the peoples living in Canaan, even the women and children. Even sojourners had to be circumcised and had to conform to Israelʼs law if they were to live there. When Israel was in Diaspora, Israel had the task of integrating themselves into

the host culture while remaining Israelite. They were to take jobs in their new culture, to build houses there, and to minister to the people around them while remaining culturally Israelite; they were not to forget the things God had done, nor were they to forget the laws of their fathers. In this way, they had to live in another culture while being distinctly different. To this day, many Jewish people that have lived in America for generations still consider themselves to be native to Israel and consider themselves to be Jewish first. After the law and sin were nailed to the cross with Christ, Paul is able to “become

all things to all people.” We are now commanded to find fellowship with the lost of the

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world. We are to make those from other tribes, tongues, and nations our brothers and sisters. We can now intermarry with men and women from other cultures, but we may not be “unequally yoked” with unbelievers (2 Cor. 6:14). We can live anywhere under anyoneʼs law and culture, but we are to be a spiritual beacon of light, and therefore, be different from the darkness. The laws of the Old Testament regarding blood are now precepts in the New Testament regarding faith and the spirit. As Christians, we may hold to our ethnic identities as we wish, but we must hold our faith closer than these. Like the Jews in Diaspora, I may be a citizen of any town, but I am first a citizen of the Kingdom of God. Because of that, I consider myself a sojourner wherever I go. The international church in Shanghai gave me the best example of what this looks like. Everyone in that church was a sojourner in a strange land, but all were brothers and sisters with their identities in Christ. Perhaps one day those who struggle with who they are would find their true identity, the one that transcends international borders and requires no passport: their identity as Christʼs children.

Wordcount: 5,051 words

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References Abad, N. & Sheldon, K. (2008). Parental autonomy support and ethnic culture identification among second-generation immigrants. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(3), 652-657. Gaudet, S., Clement, R., Deuzeman, K., (2005). Daily hassles, ethnic identity and psychological adjustment among Lebanese-Canadians. International Journal of Psychology, 40(3), 157-168. Jensen, L. (2008). Immigrants' cultural identities as sources of civic engagement. Applied Developmental Science, 12(2), 74-83. Noels, K.A., Pon, G., & Clement, R. (1996). Language, identity and adjustment: the role of linguistic confidence in the adjustment process. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 246-264. Park-Taylor, J., Ng, V., Ventura, A.B., Kang, A.E., Morris, C.R., Gilbert, T., Srivastava, D. & Androsiglio, R.A. (2008). What it means to be and feel like a "true" American: perceptions and experiences of second-generation Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(2), 128-137. Pearson, A. (2004). Being Hindu in Canada: personal narratives from first and second generation immigrant Hindu women. Religious Studies and Theology, 23(1), 55-88.

Appendix A

Survey 1

(1) (2) (3)

What country were your parents born and raised in? ________________ What country were you born and raised in? ____________________________ On a scale from 1 to 10, how “American” do you consider yourself to be? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(4)

When people ask you about your “ethnicity” or “heritage” what do you say? I am a/an _Chinese American.

(5)

How often was English used in your home growing up? Always Often Sometimes Rarely Yes Yes Never No No

(6) (7) (8)

Do you speak the language of your parents? Are you fluent in the language of your parents?

Did your parents teach you about the history and the culture of their native country? Yes No

(9)

Did your parents encourage you to learn about the language, history and culture of their native country? Yes No Yes No

(10) Have you spent any time in your parentʼs home country?

Appendix A

(11) If you answered ʻYesʼ to question 10, how long were you there during your longest stint? ________________ (12) Are your parentsʼ views about America primarily negative or positive? Negative Positive

(13) Are your views about America primarily negative or positive? Negative Positive

(14) Are your parentsʼ views about their natal country negative or positive? Negative Positive

(15) Are your views about your parentsʼ home country negative or positive? Negative Positive

(16) Growing up and attending school, what was the “heritage” of your friends and the majority of the children around you? ____________________________ (17) How close are you with your parents? Very close Close Kinda close Not so close Not close

(18) Did your friends at school know that your parents were of foreign origin? Yes No (19) Were you ever made fun of because of your background? Yes No

Appendix A

(20) Growing up, did you ever wish you were different, or that your parents were different? Yes No

(21) Today do you have many friends that are of the same heritage as you? Yes No (22) Who are you most comfortable around? Americans People like me Neither Both

(23) Where do you believe is your home? _______________________________ (24) Why did your parents come to America? _____________________________ (25) Did they find what they were looking for? Yes No Yes No

(26) Would you ever go back to the country of your fathers to live?

Appendix A

Survey 1 Results

Origi Over Italy n all

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

46% Fema male le Ameri ca 7.615 6 1 Italian amer 5-

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

2.5 some times 92.3 % yes 61.5 % yes 76.9 % yes

Some tims Yes

Italy Chno S. Thail Slove Taiw Yugo Chin rway Kore and njia an slavi a/ a a Taiw an Male Fema Male Fema Fema Fema Male Fema le le le le le Ameri Ameri Ameri Ameri Ameri Ameri Ameri Ameri ca ca ca ca ca ca ca ca 7 8 8 6 9 8 10 8 Italian Ameri Korea Thai- Slove Chine Cana Asian can nAmeri nian sedian / Ameri can Ameri Chns can can Ameri can Some Alway Often Never Often Often Often Some times s times Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Taiw Taiw Taiw Taiw an an an an

Male Male Fema le Ameri Ameri Ameri ca ca ca 8 7 7 Chine Chine Chine se se se

Male Ameri ca 7 Chine seAmeri can

Some Alway Often Some times s times Yes Yes Yes Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Q9

Q10

Q11

92.3 % yes 1.46 mo 92.3 % pos 92.3 % pos 69.2 % pos

Tradit L T F H T F L T F L H F n/a ions/ S S S Food Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

n/a

N/a

LHT LF FS Yes Yes

N/A

N/A

LHT F Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

3 mo. 6 w

2w

3 mo. 2 mo. 6 w

N/a

4 wks 1 mo 1.5 mo. pos Pos Pos.

Q12

Pos

Neg

Pos

Pos

pos

pos

Pos

2 Week s Pos.

2 week s Pos.

A sum mer Pos.

Q13

Pos

Pos

Pos

Neg

pos

pos

Pos

pos

Pos

Pos.

Pos.

Pos.

Pos.

Q14

Pos

Pos

Pos

Pos

neg

neg

Neu

pos

Pos

Neg.

Pos.

Pos.

Pos.

Appendix A

Origi Over Italy n all

Q15

Q16

76.9 Pos % pos 61.5 Ameri Ameri Am/ AZN % can can scan amer do/ jew

Italy Chno S. Thail Slove Taiw Yugo Chin Taiw Taiw Taiw Taiw rway Kore and njia an slavi a/ an an an an a a Taiw an Pos Pos Neg pos pos Pos pos Pos Neg. Neg. Pos. Pos.

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Q21

Q22

Q23

Q24

Q25 Q26

pol/ WAS Chine Ameri Anglo ABC germ/ PS secan Cauc W/ irish Ameri asian Chine can se Paren ts 3.1 Very Close Very Kinda Very Very Very Kind Very Close close Close Close Close Close Close Close of Close Close 100% Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes friend s knew 69.2 No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No % racis m 46% Yes/ Yes/ No/ Yes/ Yes/ No/ Yes/ No/ Yes No/ want Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No No ed diff 84.6 Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes % friend s today 53.8 Both Ameri Both Neith Thai Both Both Both Both Peopl % cans er peopl e Like both e Me 84.6 Italy Ameri Ameri Califo Ameri Unite Unite Ameri Ameri Ameri % ca ca rnia ca d d ca ca ca usa State State s s Oppo Oppo Oppo Econ Bette esca Ed/ Oppo Ed, Educ rtunit rtunit rtunit omic r life/ pe Work rtunit Bette ation y y y Opp ed war y r life, Freed om Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 53.8 Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No % abroa d

Ameri Chine Africa can se n/ White /Azn

Kind Close Kind of of Close Close Yes Yes Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No/ No

No/ No

No/ No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Peopl e like me Ameri ca

Peopl Both e like me Ameri Earth( ca Ameri ca)

1974 Educ 1970’ ation a

Yes No

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Appendix B

Survey 2 Family: 1 How many brothers and sisters do you have? ______________ 2 How many Aunts and Uncles do you have? _________________ 3 Would you say that you have a big family? _________________ 4 Do you have family that still live in your parentʼs home country? _____________ 5 How close would you say you are with them? ____________ Religion: 6 Is your family religious? ____________ 7 If so, what religion does your family practice? _______ 8 Do you practice the same religion? ____________ 9 Why or why not? ______________ 10 Are you involved in your church and or community? ________ 11 In what way? Please describe. _____________________ Self 12 Please take time to think about this. Write five sentences beginning with “I am…” that you feel best describe you. -I am ______________ -I am ______________ -I am ______________ -I am ______________ -I am ______________

Appendix B

13 Write five sentences beginning with “He/She is” that you feel every-day Americans would use to describe you. -He/She is ______________ -He/She is ______________ -He/She is ______________ -He/She is ______________ -He/She is ______________ 14 When you think of the question “who are you?” what aspects of your life seem most important in answering that question? Please choose one from the following. If you have an answer that is not presented, please write it in the item labeled ʻotherʼ. Religion or faith______ Blood or ethnic origin_______ Your family __________ The place you grew up (country, state, town, etc.)______ Your friends ________ Your career_______ Other (specify) _______________________________ Feel free to write any other comments or tidbits that you feel may be pertinent, helpful, or interesting to this study.

Appendix B

Survey 2 Results Note: Numbers in left-hand column denote question number on survey. Letter markers ʻFʼ, ʻRʼ, and ʻSʼ denote ʻFamilyʼ, ʻReligionʼ, and ʻSelfʼ respectively.
SU Korea Taiwane Sloveni Slovenia Taiwanese Taiwane RV n se an n se EY II GE Male Male ND ER F1 2 F2 10 Male Female Female Female Indian Norse Italian

Male

Female

Female

4 4 2 6 15 6 including decease d and no spouses F3 no Yes no Yes no F4 yes Yes Yes Yes yes F5 not not very, Pretty very not close, close but still close only see connect them when ed we have traveled back to china, most are distant relatives R6 yes Yes Yes varies no R7 christi Christia Catholi catholicis n/a anity nity c m R8 yes Yes Yes no no

1 7

2 17

1 12

2 5

3 9

Yes Yes not very close, but i enjoy visiting

yes yes not very close

No Yes not close, have met them a coupe of times

yes yes close in heart but distant in communication due to language barrier

yes protesta nt c yes

Yes Yes Yes Christianit Christianity catholicism y Yes Yes no

Appendix B

SU Korea Taiwane Sloveni Slovenia Taiwanese RV n se an n EY II R9 faith is Raised I can’t I became a strong together practice christian in part of with it a religion the 9th family which I grade. I do not still veiw believe in my family traditions as my cultural backgroun d, but not as what I believe and live passionatel y by.

Taiwane se

Indian

Norse

Italian

R1 yes 0

Yes

no

Yes

Yes

they I believe it grandpare I decided that taught it nts were what I really to me missionarie needed whas s in china, not a religion strong but a heritage of relationship christian with God. faith and Since I service in personally did our family not feel nurtured in that area in the catholic church, i found a church that teaches the word of god ina way that I understand well Yes Yes Yes Yes

Appendix B

SU Korea Taiwane Sloveni Slovenia RV n se an n EY II R1 Help Intern teach 1 w/ service religious childre projects, ed at ns small unitarian ministr group universali y st church

Taiwanese Taiwane se

Indian

Norse

Italian

S12 I am a I am a I am 52 I am good follower years rational listene of Christ old r

Youngadult fellowship, we meet once a week for small group/bible study. We have also started abeing a part of the hospitality ministry at our church and serving the homeless near our small gorup. I also serve on the worship team as a singer, I serve as a counselor for the youth during camps and I am ccurrently a nominee for the missions committee I am seeking after truth

attend, worship play on team music team, trying to find a small group to join

small group leadership/ discipleshi p

I have participated in small group bible studies, chruch activities, and have formed many valuable friendships.

I am I am asian smart america n

I am a I am grateful follower of that jesus died jesus christ for me and that I hae made a decision to accept him and therefore have salvation through him

Appendix B

SU Korea RV n EY II I am more weak than strong

Taiwane Sloveni Slovenia Taiwanese Taiwane se an n se

Indian

Norse

Italian

I am a I am chinese- 5’9” america n

I am I am a reasonab woman le that loves christ

I am a I am I am believer independ dedicated ant to my family

I am I am a I am interes husband tired of ted in n father working social justice / enviro nment al care

I am I am a not teacher consis tent in how my action s reflect the values I hold and profes s

I am not capable of being convince d of that which I do not believe to be true by using my own capacity to reason I am I am a out of devoted money wife and mother

I am emotional

I am I am trying to christian embrac e the tension of my identity.

I am grateful for everything god has provided for me in my life including my parents, husbantd, children, grand children, family, friends, and job I am in love I am prayerful with my that my husband children, grand children, family will all respond to god’s call and accept him as their lord and saviour too

I am a passionate follower of all sports

I am I am working indian in marketin g

I ama good I am manager saddenned by all of the corruption in this world, especially in the white house where many godless decisions are being made that affect us all

Appendix B

I am empathet ic and am trying to make the world a better place through inviting people to avoid delusiona l religious fantasies and trust their reasonin g abilities S13 He is He is He is She is music asian over 50 selfal america years confident n old He is He is a He is She is friendl nice guy shorter not a y than follower average He is He is He is She is a skinny outgoin looking devoted g tired wife and mother He is He is He is She is weird religious cheap encourag ing He is He is He is She is tech- busy an outspoke savvy america n about n not being religious

SU Korea Taiwane Sloveni RV n se an EY II I am a I am a I am lifenice guy america long n learne r

Slovenia Taiwanese Taiwane n se

Indian

Norse

Italian

I am I am an I am a blessed by expat in teacher my famliy, china boyfriend and dog

I am a daughter of an immigrant

I am trusting god who is still in control

She is a teacher

she is He is chinese straight faced

She is good to her family

She is a she is He is well She is a young adult strange rounded great boss

She is chinese?? (doesn’t look like it) She is bilingual She is friendly

she is He is a religious christian

She is compassio nate She is religioius She is scandinavi an/ minnesota n

she is conserv ative she is idealisti c

He is an athlete He is a good teacher

She is a good christian who is not perfect but still learning she is trying her best to be a good wife, mother, and grandmother she is trying her best to be a good daughter she is trying her best to be a good friend she is trying her best to be an honest, hard working, loveing, compassionate , and generous person

Appendix B

SU Korea Taiwane Sloveni Slovenia Taiwanese Taiwane RV n se an n se EY II S14 Faith Faith Family/ faith my own person not afraid of the truth

Indian

Norse

Italian

Faith