1 Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves Janine Galicia*, Angelica Estorga, Cristina Gigante, and Adrian Go
Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
Abstract Caffeine exists in tealeaves and can be easily extracted which was demonstrated in this experiment.In the experiment, teabags were boiled for 5 minutes followed by extraction using dichloromethane, with all washings taking place inside a separatory funnel. The remaining substance was then evaporated until only the crude caffeine was left. Sublimation was then used to extract the pure caffeine from the crude caffeine. Weight of sublimate is 0.0032g, % yield of caffeine is 0.075012% and melting point of the pure caffeine is 229 oC to 240 oC.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to isolate, purify and characterize caffeine from the tea leaves and to calculate the percentage yield of caffeine. Caffeine is considered the most commonly used psychoactive drug in the world. Approximately 80% of the world's population consumes it on a daily basis, and continuous research is being done on its health benefits and consequences. Caffeine is the common name for 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. When purified, caffeine produces an intensely bitter white powder that provides a distinctive taste in soft drinks.  Caffeine belongs to a large class of compounds known as alkaloids. These are of plant origin, contain basic nitrogen, often have a bitter taste and complex structure, and usually have physiological activity. It is naturally found in certain leaves, seeds, and fruits of over 60 plants worldwide. The most common sources in our diet are coffee, tea leaves, cocoa beans, cola, and energy drinks. Caffeine can be easily extracted from teabags. The procedure one would normally do in making tea ± simply putting the teabags in hot water for a few minutes ± extracts most of the caffeine. Since caffeine is white, fine and powdery, it is obvious that water extracts more than just caffeine. The brown aqueous solution is subsequently extracted with dichloromethane to separate caffeine from other substances. Evaporation of the solvent leaves crude caffeine. Sublimation of the crude caffeine then yields pure caffeine. Purity of the pure caffeine is then tested through melting point.
0032 g x 100 4. Catalysts are substances that speeds up a chemical reaction.
. Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate was used as the catalyst in drying up the mixture. It agitates the tea leaf particles and separates any that are clumping together and hindering efficient extraction.
Crude Caffeine wasobtained through Extraction. is transferred into another container.
Decantation is the process by which.0032g
% yield of caffeine :0.075012%
Decantation was used in extracting the caffeine from the teabags in the boiling water.like Powdery
Shape Hair like Spikes
Size Fine Strands Fine Powder
Weight of sublimate = 31. In this procedure. without disturbing the settled particles.2650 g Melting point : 229 oC ± 235oC = 0. The separatory funnel must not be shaken vigorously because emulsion might form. Sodium hydroxide was used to make sure that other substances. It is also imperative to open the stopcock of the separatory funnel to vent it of any pressure building up inside. Extraction is a very common
laboratory procedure used when isolating or purifying a product. Emulsion is the mixture of 2 or more immiscible liquids. Gently shaking the separatory funnel was necessary to ensure the solvent moves amongst the tea leaf particles to extract all the caffeine. which are slightly soluble to dichloromethane are eliminated by converting them to their salts that remain in the water. the organic product is isolated from inorganic substances. a clear liquid obtained after sedimentation.4639g = 0.Results and Discussions
Color Crude Caffeine Pure Caffeine Yellow Green White
Appearance Silky Feather .4671g ± 31. Here the organic solvent dichloromethane is used to extract caffeine from aqueous extract of tea leaves because caffeine is more soluble in dichloromethane .
caffeine crystals were grinded into a very fine powder. A closer melting point range signifies good confirmation for judging that a substance to be pure. Pulverized caffeine was scooped using the open end of the microtube. the tea extract was transferred in a separatory funnel containing DCM (20 mL). The extraction was repeated thrice DCM (20 mL) on each repetition. Solution was swirled to allow Na2SO4to settle. fine and powdery. % yield was calculated. Melting point for purity was used as characterization. Both standard and caffeine sample were tied against a thermometer. Caffeine were packed well at the bottom of the tube by letting it fall inside a 1 meter long glass tubing and letting it bounce up and down a table top. The tealeaves were then returned in the bag. DCM portions were combined. One end of a micro capillary was sealed by heating while rotating it at a 45-degree angle from the blue potion of a Bunsen Burner flame. The teabags were boiled in water (100 mL) for 5 minutes. The cold finger was constantly refilled with ice water. Inner tube was carefully removed. silky feather like appearance. Weight of the sublimate was obtained by subtracting the weight of the empty vial from the weight of the vial with the pure caffeine.
Experimental The 3 teabags were opened and the weight of the combined tealeaves was recorded. without passing through the more common liquid phase between the two. The separatory funnel was gently shaken 3 times after which the caffeine is already extracted. With a mortar and pestle. Far melting point ranging signifies that the substance is not pure. or vapor. Cooking oil was constantly stirred to evenly distribute the heat. the standard and the sample caffeine. secured with a string and staple wire. Weight of the sublimate was also recorded. The extract was then left to cool down. Pressure was released constantly. DCM layer was drained into a clean dry beaker containing half spatula of anhyd Na2SO4. Pure Caffeine appeared to be white.
. Temperature range was recorded between the first appearances of liquid within the sample to the disappearance of the last traces of solid. The standard had a melting point of 228oC to 230oC while the sample caffeine had a melting point of 229 oC ± 235 oC indicating that the standard was more pure than our sample caffeine. the crude caffeine was scraped from the beaker and was transferred in a filter tube with a fitted inner test tube serving as ³cold finger´ and into a hot air bath for at least 35 minutes. Crude Caffeine appeared to be yellow green in color. Sublimation is the term for when matter undergoes a phase transition directly from a solid to gaseous form. NaOH layer was discarded. After drying up. hair like and fine. Cooking oil was heated with a Bunsen Burner flame. Water layer was discarded. The solution was then placed in the lockers for drying up. Same was done on the standard caffeine. Thermometer was clamped and dipped in a beaker filled with cooking oil. DCM lower layer as drained into a clean flask. we determined 2 melting points of substances.3 Pure Caffeine was obtained through Sublimation. The combined DCM was returned into the separatory funnel and was washed with NaOH solution (20 mL 6M). In the experiment. Caffeine clinging in the cold finger was scraped off and was transferred in a vial. After cooling down.
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