Srimad Bhagavad Gita

The Holy Song of God
Arranged for singing by Swami Nirmalananda Giri

Copyright 2004 Atma Jyoti Ashram

Chapter One
The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna
Dhritarashtra said: Assembled there on dharma’s field– Kurukshetra–desiring war, What did my sons and the Pandus? Do tell me now, O Sanjaya. Sanjaya said: There then the King Duryodhana, Seeing the Pandav forces ranged– Ready for battle–did approach His teacher, Drona, and did say: “Behold, O Teacher! here arrayed This great army of Pandu’s sons, Assembled by Drupada’s son1 Who is thine own gifted pupil. “Here are heroes, mighty archers, Bhima and Arjuna’s equals, The great warriors Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, too. “Drishtaketu, Chekitana, And the valiant king of Kashi, Purujit and Kuntibhoja, And Shaibya–all the best of men. “And courageous Yudhamanyu, And valorous Uttamaujas– Shubhadra’s and Draupadi’s sons– All who are mighty car warriors.2







1 2

Arjuna A great-car-warrior (maharatha) was a commander of eleven thousand bowmen as he rode in his chariot.


“Hear, too, O best of the twice-born, Those distinguished among ourselves. The leaders of my army here: These now I recount unto you. “Yourself and Bhishma and Karna And Kripa, victorious in war; Ashwattama, Vikarna, and Somadatta’s son: all are mine. “Also many other heroes, Who now risk their lives for my sake, Discharging various weapons, All very skilled in waging war. “Impossible to count is this Army defended by Bhishma, But that army led by Bhima Is very easy to number. “Stationed in your proper places, Whatever be your positions, Do you now all give your support And protection unto Bhishma.” That powerful, oldest Kuru, Bhishma, the grandsire, blew his conch And sounded loud a lion-roar That he might cheer Duryodhana. Following Bhishma, suddenly Conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums And trumpets were sounded aloud, So the uproar was tremendous.









Then Madhava3 and Pandava,4 In the great chariot standing That was yoked with the white horses, Sounded forth their divine conches. Sri Krishna blew Panchajanya, Arjuna blew Devadatta, And Bhima of ferocious deeds, Blew upon his great conch, Paundra. King Yudhishthira, Kunti’s son, Blew on Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva: Sughosha, Manipushpaka. The supreme bowman, Kashi’s king, And the great warrior Shikhandi, Dhristadyumna and Virata, And invincible Satyaki. O Lord of Earth! then Drupada, All the sons of Draupadi, and Subhadra’s son, the mighty-armed, Each one blew upon his own conch. Then throughout heaven and the earth Resounded the terrific noise Which rent asunder all the hearts Of those in Dhritarashtra’s ranks. Then seeing Dhritarashtra’s ranks Standing marshalled, about to fight, The monkey-ensigned5 Pandava, Was impelled to take up his bow








3 4 5

Krishna Arjuna Arjuna’s standard was a flag with Hanuman, the monkey-devotee of Rama, depicted on it.


And speak unto Hrishikesha,6 O Lord of earth, these fateful words: Arjuna said: Achutya,7 place my chariot In the midst between the armies So from that place I may observe Those who are here prepared for war– Desiring to begin battle– And know with whom I have to fight. For I desire to observe those Who are assembled here for fight, Wishing to please Duryodhana By taking his side in this war. Sanjaya said: Commanded thus by Arjuna, O Bharata, then Krishna drove That grandest of all chariots Between the two hosts, and there stopped. Thus facing Bhishma, Drona, and The rulers of the whole vast earth, “Behold, O Partha,”8 then He said, “All the Kurus assembled here!” Then Pritha saw assembled there Fathers, grandfathers, teachers, sons, Maternal uncles, brothers, and Grandsons as well as friends of his. The son of Kunti, seeing there In both the armies relatives, Fathers-in-law, and companions, Stood and contemplated them all.
6 7 8








Bushy-haired One–Krishna Imperishable One–Krishna The Son of Pritha–Arjuna


not kingship nor yet pleasures– Kingship. brothers-in-law. My mouth is parched with grief and woe. I see my own kinfolk Desiring to fight approaching. Fathers-in-law. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 9 Beautiful-haired one–Krishna. My hair is standing up on end. Cowherd–Krishna 10 7 . fathers.10 Those for whose sake we should desire Kingship. My body now is shivering. he spoke: Arjuna said: Krishna. and pleasures. Nor can I even stand upright. and grandsons. too. My skin is burning as with fire. Inauspicious omens I mark. And not good fortune do I see.Then filled with infinite pity. Through sorrow my limbs now fail me. Maternal uncles. grandfathers. O Keshava. enjoyments surely mean Nothing to us. My bow is slipping from my hand. My mind is reeling and confused.9 if I destroy My own kinsmen in this battle. Nor do I desire victory– No. Teachers. Abandoning life and riches. And filled with despondence. enjoyments. And many other kinsmen. O Govinda. Array before us in battle. sons.

11 Who clearly see the evil caused By such destruction of our kin. They see no wrong in destruction Of family or even in Wreaking treachery upon friends. We are not justified to kill Our kinsmen–Dhritarashtra’s sons– How.Even if they wish to kill me. Janardana. and from corruption The confusion of castes arise. Their rites of dharma then die out. Overpowered by adharma The family’s women then are Corrupted. Ancestors also fall without Offerings of rice and water. Madhava? Their thoughts overpowered by greed. From killing Dhritarashtra’s sons? Sin only could take hold of us If we should slay these aggressors. 11 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Agitator of Men (an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 8 . what pleasure could be ours. From caste confusion families And their destroyers fall to hell. So how much less for rule of earth? Indeed. From the destruction of dharma. Could we be happy. Yet why should we. having killed our own people. Adharma overwhelms them all. I never could wish to kill them– Not even to rule the three worlds. Not turn away from this fell sin? On destruction of families.

the science of the Eternal. Janardana? Ah! Alas! we are now resolved To do great evil with our greed For royal pleasures for whose sake We intend to kill our own kin. Have we not heard.The family’s destroyers’ wrongs Produce the confusion of caste. 43 44 45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. repeatedly. Then observance of caste duties And family laws are destroyed. the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. His mind overcome with sorrow. ends the first discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna. Sanjaya said: In the midst of the battlefield Thus speaking. Arjun’ cast away His bow and arrows and sank down. That indefinite time in hell Accrues to those whose fam’ly laws Have been wiped out. 9 . If the sons of Dhritarashtra With weapons armed should now slay me Though unarmed. yet that still would be A greater happiness for me.

If I kill them my enjoyments in this world Of wealth and desires will all be stained with blood. not leading to heav’n.Chapter Two Sankhya Yoga Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity. O Arjuna? At no time should you entertain Such cowardice–unsuitable. 6 12 Destroyer of the Demon Madhu (properly an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 10 . and whose eyes were filled With tears. too. downcast and despairing. Against Bhishma and Drona.5 Indeed. Abandon this faintheartedness And stand up. Who are worthy of reverence? 1 2 3 4 Better that I eat the food of beggary Instead of my slaying these great-souled gurus. O Scorcher of Foes! Arjuna said: But how can I in battle fight With arrows. I cannot tell which will be better. Madhusudana. That we should conquer them or they conquer us. But to disgrace. The sons of Dhritarashtra stand facing us– After whose slaying we would not wish to live. Madhusudana12 spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: Whence has come this faintheartedness Of yours in the time of danger Ignoble.

Weakness and pity overcome my being. though you speak Words of wisdom–for the wise grieve Not for the living or the dead. nor these Lords of men–nor in the future A time when we shall cease to be. As to the embodied childhood. O Bharata. Sanjaya said: Having said this to Govinda. So he gets another body– The wise are not confused by this. I see nothing that can remove this sorrow That dries up my senses. Youth and old age arise in turn. scorcher of his foes. nor you. Then further said “I shall not fight. as though smiling Hrishikesha then spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: You have been mourning for those who Should not be mourned for. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 11 . do You direct me. and mast’ry over the gods. Truly there never was a time When I was not. To him who thus was despondent In the midst of the two armies. With mind in confusion I supplicate You. I am Your disciple. Arjuna. O say decidedly what is my duty.” And fell into a silence deep. though I should attain The unrivalled and prosperous dominion Over the earth.

The unreal never comes to be. That wise one. embodied Self are said to come to an end. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Literally: “These bodies inhabited by the eternal. Learn to endure them. The Self slays not.13 He who thinks the Self is slayer And he who thinks the Self is slain– Neither of the two understands. O Leader of Men. Therefore fight. heat. The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth. Impermanent.Truly material contacts Produce cold. pleasure. There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. The same in pain or in pleasure. It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. perpetu’l. and pain. nor yet does it die. Bharata. they come and go. He whom these things do not afflict. Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. These bodies inhabited by The eternal embodied Self Are declared to come to an end. Birthless. indestructible. immeasurable. O Bharata. That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. Bharata!” 13 12 . eternal. Neither is the Self slain. nor is it slain. Is fit for immortality. The real does never cease to be. Therefore now fight. primeval.

22 This self by weapons is cut not. This Self is called unchangeable. Of that which is dead. eternal self. birth is sure. And if you think this self to have Constant birth and death–even then. This self cannot be cut. unthinkable. there was no room for the final phrase: “What lamentation can there be over this?” 13 . eternal. Immovable. Nor wetted. You surely ought never to mourn. Unmanifest. knowing this to be such. And this self is by wind dried not. Unmanifest then in their end. Therefore you never should lament.14 14 23 24 25 26 27 28 To maintain the meter. you should not be Impelled for this reason to grieve. Manifest in their middle state. This self by fire is burnt not. All beings are unmanifest In their beginning. Bharata. O mighty-armed. Birthless and imperishable– Slay or cause another to slay? 21 Even as a man casts off his worn-out clothes And then clothes himself in others which are new So the embodied casts off worn-out bodies And then enters into others which are new. nor dried: ’tis changeless. Therefore. death is sure.In what way can he who knows this– Indestructible. All-pervading and unmoving. This self by water is wet not. nor burnt. Of that which is born. Over the unavoidable.

This indweller in all bodies Is ever indestructible. Ever mourn for any creature. Then forfeiting your own dharma And honor you shall incur sin. Fortunate are those Kshatriyas. then will say Of you things not to be uttered. But if you refuse to engage In righteous warfare. O Arjuna.Someone perceives this self as being wondrous. And looking at your own dharma. To fight in a battle like this. Therefore you should not. What could be greater pain than this? 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 14 . Bharata. Who thus are called. The great car-warriors will believe You shrink back from battle through fear. And you will be lightly esteemed By those who have thought much of you. For there is nothing better than A righteous war for Kshatriyas. Arjuna. Another hears of it as being wondrous. Your enemies. Another speaks of it as being wondrous. then cavilling At your great prowess. You surely ought never waver. That comes to them as heaven’s gate. does not understand. hearing. The world will also ever hold You as a craven reprobate. To the honored such disrepute Is surely worse even than death. And another.

the ignorant ones. The Ramakrishna-Vedanta Wordbook says: “Sankhya postulates two ultimate realities. 15 . And saying: “There is nothing else. victory and defeat the same. gain and loss. Nor are adverse results produced.” Filled with desires. Conquering. Whose goal is enjoyment and pow’r. The thoughts of the irresolute Are many-branched. Purusha and Prakriti. endorsed by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita.19. Addicted to so many rites.). In strength of heart resolved to fight. you enjoy the earth. rise. Therefore. then. 15 16 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Buddhi Yoga is the Yoga of Intelligence which later came to be called Jnana Yoga. This way you shall incur no sin.” Not surprisingly. E’en a little of this dharma Protects you from the greatest fear. Declaring that the cause of suffering is man’s identification of Purusha with Prakriti and its products. Arjuna. O Pritha’s son. (Gita 2:39.By dying you attain heaven. Make pain and pleasure. resolute Understanding here. In this no effort is wasted. Also. You shall be rid of karma’s bonds. intent on heav’n. 18:13. Sankhya: One of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy whose originator was the sage Kapila. Yoga is based on the Sankhya philosophy. Then engage now in this battle.5. proclaim Their flow’ry speech. There is a single. Sankhya teaches that liberation and true knowledge are attained in the supreme consciousness. They. the Yoga of Knowledge. truly endless. Off’ring rebirth as actions’ fruit. O son of Kunti. Sankhya is the original Vedic philosophy. where such identification ceases and Purusha is realized as existing independently in its transcendental nature. the second chapter of the Gita is entitled: Sankhya Yoga. 3:3. Delighting in the Veda’s word. This buddhi yoga15 by Sankhya16 Is now declared to you–so heed! Joining this insight to your will.

Without attachment do actions Heedless of success and failure– Evenness of mind is yoga. Free yourself from them.” 18 17 Buddhi yoga 16 . and to them is not granted The insight from meditation. The Vedas deal with the gunas. from the triad of the gunas. cast off In this world good and evil deeds.17 For the Brahmin who knows the self The Vedas are of no more use Than a reservoir of water When there is a flood ev’rywhere. ever-balanced. Joined to enlightenment. free from [the thought of] getting and keeping. O Arjuna. Action’s inferior by far To Yoga of Intelligence. Be free.Attached to pleasure and power Their minds are drawn away by this Speech. and be free From the pairs of opposites.18 Seek refuge in enlightenment. Therefore to yoga yoke yourself! For skill in action is yoga. Your right is to action alone. Abhor action done from desire. Or be attached to inaction. free from the pairs of opposites. Never should they move you to act. and Eternally fixed in the self. Not to its fruits at any time. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 “The Vedas deal with the three gunas. and established in the Self. Then being steadfast in yoga.

fear. When your intelligence crosses Beyond delusion’s confusion. Free from passion. He is called “of steady wisdom. When your intellect stands. Steadfast in deep meditation– How does he speak. Arjuna said: What. or walk? The Holy Lord said: When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. Then you shall be indifferent To the heard and the to-be-heard. is the description Of the man of steady wisdom. and anger. His self satisfied by the self. Are freed from bondage to rebirth And go to the place free from pain. Krishna. You’ll attain self-realization. In the pleasant or unpleasant Not rejoicing or disliking. fixed in Deep meditation. unmoving. And freed from desire for pleasures.” Unshaken by adversity. Disregarding Vedic doctrine. Steady in thought–such is a sage. Without attachment on all sides.Those whose minds are joined to wisdom. Having abandoned action’s fruit. His wisdom is seen to stand firm. or sit. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 17 .

Moving amongst objects of sense. 18 . he should Sit disciplined. the self-controlled Thus attains to tranquility. but the taste for them Remains. His wisdom is established firm. indeed. And from desire19 anger is born. thwarted desire. intent on Me. loss of mem’ry. As the tortoise draws in its limbs. He whose senses are thus controlled– His wisdom stands steadfast and firm. turns away From him who has seen the Supreme. Restraining all senses. but that. From delusion.And when he withdraws completely The senses from the sense-objects. In tranquility all sorrows Cease to arise for him. From attachment desire is born. Son of Kunti: The turbulent senses carry Away forcibly the mind of E’en the striving man of wisdom. 19 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 That is. By self-restraint. too. For the tranquil-minded at once The intellect becomes steady. From anger ’rises delusion. Desire and loathing banishing. destruction Of intelligence: All is lost. From loss of mem’ry. Know this indeed. Dwelling on objects of senses Engenders attachment to them. Sense-objects turn away from the Abstinent.

the Absolute Consciousness that is God. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. He attains Brahmanirvana. Brahman is the Supreme Reality. not so the man who is full of desire. As the ocean. The man of restraint is awake In what is night for all beings. Will be found firmly established. as The wind a ship on the waters.20 He who abandons all desires Attains peace.For the undisciplined there is No wisdom. The wisdom of him whose senses Are withdrawn from objects of sense On all sides. acts free from longing. no meditation. 19 . has peace. Fixed in it at the time of death. Yet remains unmoving and still. he whom all desires enter and who remains unmoved attains peace. unmoved. That in which all beings awake Is night for the wise one who sees.22 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 The literal translation is: “Like the ocean. becoming full. For him who does not meditate There is no peace or happiness. which becomes filled yet remains unmoved and stands still as the waters enter it.” 21 22 20 Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m.21 This is the divine state–having Attained this. he’s not deluded. O mighty-armed one. He in whom all desires enter And yet remains. it carries Away the understanding. Nirvana is the state of liberation from the bondage of karma and the wheel of birth and death that comes from knowing Brahman. When the mind is guided by the Wandering senses.

the science of the Eternal. the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. 20 . ends the second discourse entitled: Sankhya Yoga.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita.

a hypocrite. Then how is it you urge me to Engage in terrible action? With speech that seems equivocal You confuse my intelligence. undifferentiated matter. Keshava. And not by renunciation Alone approach to perfection. the root base of all elements. the fundamental power (shakti) of God from which the entire cosmos is formed. 21 .23 He who restrains action’s organs While yet revolving in his mind Thoughts of objects of the senses. And action: yoga of yogins.” Prakriti: Causal matter. No one for even a moment Exists without doing action. Also known as Pradhana. Each is forced to perform action– E’en against his will–by gunas. 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 “By the gunas born of prakriti.Chapter Three The Yoga of Action Arjuna said: If you believe that knowledge is Better than action. the material cause of the world. Tell me surely this one thing: How Should I attain the highest good? The Holy Lord said: In this world there is a two-fold Basis taught by Me long ago: Knowledge: the yoga of Sankhyas. Is deluded. Not by abstention from actions Does a man pass beyond action.

a title of Brahma the Creator. fostered by sacrifice. wrongdoings. i. Even maintaining your body Cannot be done without action. “The gods.e. You should act without attachment. But he who enjoys the gods’ gifts Without offering is a thief. You shall attain highest welfare. The good are freed from all evils. the Creator. “May you foster the gods by this. And may the gods then foster you. Perform your duty. Hence for sacrifice. each the others fostering.” Eating sacrificial remains. is superior.26 The wicked eat their own evil Who cook food only for themselves.. and yet is unattached While engaging action’s organs In action. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 24 25 26 Prajapati: Progenitor.He who by the mind controls the Senses. Arjuna. In the beginning with mankind Prajapati24 made 25 sacrifice. Will give you desired enjoyments. Said: “By this shall you multiply: This shall be granter of desires. The world is bound by the actions Not done for sake of sacrifice. 22 . created I.e. Then. for action Is far better than non-action..

lives full of sense delights. So “Brahma” is quite logical here. the first of the created beings. Nothing to gain by inaction.28 He who here on the earth does not Set in motion. On the other hand.27 Brahma from th’ Imperishable.From food all beings are produced: And from rain all food is produced: From sacrifice there comes down rain. Vidya. 28 Many translators feel that “Brahma” in this verse can legitimately be rendered “Veda”–Veda in the sense of divine wisdom. Indeed. Bhuwah. He has nothing to gain by acts. and Swah). Who is pleased only in the Self: For him there is no need to act. Hence the all-pervading Brahma Is established in sacrifice. angels. 27 23 . Maliciously and uselessly. perfection was attained Through action by King Janaka. and archangels (Bhur. Hiranyagarbha or cosmic intelligence. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Brahma: The Creator (Prajapati) of the three worlds of men. And no need of any being For any purpose soever. Who is satisfied in the Self. This wheel. He who is content in the Self. it is positively believed by all Hindus that Brahma attained his position specifically through the performance of sacrifice (yajna). Therefore. constantly unattached Perform that which is your duty. From action is born sacrifice. As an example you should act. O Arjuna. Indeed by unattached action Man surely attains the Supreme. For the maintenance of the world. Action arises from Brahma.

” 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 24 .Whatever the best of men does– This and that–thus other men do. Indeed. So the wise should act. Are done by Prakriti’s gunas. Whate’er the standard that he sets– That is what the world shall follow. if I should not engage– Tirelessly–at all in action. Nor anything that must be gained– Yet still I continue to act. everywhere. As the unwise ones act. For maintaining the world’s welfare. The wise should cause them to enjoy All acts–himself showing the way. I have no duty. Those with ego-deluded mind Imagine: “I am the doer. Follow the path set forth by Me. Whatsoever in the three worlds. in all instances. Then all mankind would. One should not unsettle the minds Of the unwise attached to works. And I would destroy these people. these worlds would perish if I Should fail to engage in action. Yea. All actions. O Descendant of Bharata. unattached. I would be confusion’s maker. Pritha’s son. attached.

And yet. One should not come under their pow’r. the man who knows the truth About the gunas’ actions thinks: “The gunas act in the gunas.”29 And thinking thus is not attached. They are indeed his enemies. With your fever30 departed. Even the wise acts according To his own nature: prakriti. Those deluded by the gunas Of prakriti become attached To their actions. 25 . Intent on the Supreme Spirit. Know them to be lost and mindless. full of faith. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 29 30 That is. the gunas as the senses move among and act within the gunas manifesting as the sense-objects. The “fever” of delusion and grief. Who thus refuse to practice it. Turn wisdom into confusion. All follow their own prakriti. Not contemning. fight! Those men who constantly practice This teaching of Mine. Free from desire and selfishness. But those despising My teaching. they are released From the bondage of their actions. So what will restraint accomplish? Attraction and aversion rule When senses contact sense-objects. Let not the wise Upset these of partial knowledge. Entrusting all actions to Me.

controlling the senses At the outset. know it as Desire’s unappeasable fire. and of great sin. O Bharata. For the dharma Of another invites danger.31 Seemingly against his own will. and intellect Are said to here be its abode: These things delude the embodied By veiling his innate wisdom. it is anger. As mirrors are obscured by dust. O son of Kunti. The constant foe of all the wise. Know that to be the enemy. The senses.One’s own dharma. Kill it–the sinful. And knowledge is covered by this. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 31 Clansman of the Vrishnis–Krishna 26 . mind. Varshneya. As fire is enveloped by smoke. As wombs cover the embryos. So is it enveloped by that. though imperfect. Therefore. Arjuna said: Then by what is a man impelled To commit evil. That’s born of the rajo-guna: Of great craving. Is better than another’s done To perfection. As if urged thereunto by force? The Holy Lord said: It is desire. destroyer Of knowledge and realization.

the scripture of Yoga. ends the third discourse entitled: The Yoga of Action. 42 43 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. that foe: desire.Above the body are senses. Thus. the science of the Eternal. and restraining The self by the Self. Above the intellect: the self. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. knowing Him Who is above The intellect. 27 . Above the mind is intellect. Above the senses is the mind. then destroy That enemy.

Arjuna. The royal sages knew of it. later was Your birth. Thus. by long lapse of time. This yoga. then he In turn taught it to Manu. Though birthless. This secret is supreme indeed. While you do not. 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 . handed down in succession. imperishable. Scorcher of Foes. And Vivaswat’s was earlier. Was lost here on earth. who Then taught it unto Ikshwaku. I manifest by my own pow’r. I have full knowledge of them all. This ancient yoga is today Declared by Me to you because You are my devotee and friend. Although the Lord of all beings. How then should I understand that You taught this in the beginning? The Holy Lord said: Many the births that I have passed– Many passed by you.Chapter Four The Yoga of Wisdom The Holy Lord said: This imperishable yoga I taught to Vivaswat. Arjuna. Controlling my own Prakriti. Arjuna said: O Krishna.

For establishing of dharma. Purified by fire of knowledge. changeless. and then there is The arising of adharma. Then do I manifest Myself. My divine birth and My action. In this world men worship the gods. fear. He who thus knows in its true light. nor Do I thirst for action’s result. Many have attained My Being. It is My path which ev’rywhere All men follow. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 29 . And whosoever knows Me thus Is not fettered by his actions. Never do actions taint Me. O Bharata. Because success from such action Is quickly attained in this world. O Arjuna. Based on guna and on karma. taking refuge in Me. is not born Again–but he attains to Me.Whenever dharma decreases. For protection of the righteous And destruction of the wicked. Longing for success in action. Freed from attachment. I manifest from age to age. Leaving the body. anger– Absorbed. In whatever way they resort To Me do I thus reward them. Though I am the Maker thereof. The fourfold caste was made by Me. Know Me as non-doer.

prohibited. Seeing inaction in action. The same in success or failure. therefore. Even sages are bewildered As what is action. Though acting he incurs no fault. For you should know the nature of Actions enjoined. I shall tell you what action is: This knowledge frees you from evil. Having abandoned attachment For action’s fruit. he is not bound. Acting with the body alone. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 . Beyond duality. Without wish. Do you. always content. thought and self restrained. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. the ancient seekers After freedom performed action. perform action. Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. Abandoning all thoughts of gain. Content with what comes unbidden. Seeing action in inaction– Such a man is wise among men: A yogi–doing all action. inaction. He truly does nothing at all.Knowing thus. Not dependent e’en when acting. envy. E’en though acting. As well as that of inaction– All this is hard to understand. As did the ancients in past times.

” 31 . intent on control of the vital breath (prana).” 33 34 32 Pronounced as two syllables: “fi-yers. Offer knowledge as sacrifice. Some offer wealth.34 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 “Brahman is the offering. austerity. Brahman is the off’ring and the Oblation made by Brahman in The fire that is Brahman. restraining the path of inhalation and exhalation. Brahman is to be attained by him who always sees Brahman in action. and Then stop the course of both the breaths– Their breath-control their sacrifice. Some offer senses like hearing Into the fires33 of restraint. Who acts only as sacrifice: His whole karma dissolves away.Having gone beyond attachment. sound and other sense objects Into the fire of the senses. Some. Who sees Thus. Some offer the outgoing breath Into the incoming breath. by him Brahman is attained. Some offer the senses’ actions And the functions of life force in The yoga-fire of self-control. And yoga as their sacrifice. and exhalation into inhalation. That is enkindled by knowledge. while some others Offer the self as sacrifice Unto the self in Brahman’s fire. Brahman is the oblation poured out by Brahman into the fire of Brahman.32 Some yogis offer sacrifice To gods alone. Some.” “Others offer inhalation into exhalation. of restraint and stringent vows. His mind established in knowledge.

All of them are born from action. Eating sacrificial remains. contained (encompassed) or completed in knowledge (jnana). As fire reduces wood to ash. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this. Know that by prostrating yourself. By questioning and by serving. Sacrifices of many kinds Are spread out before Brahman’s face. Arjuna. They go to the Primal Brahman. All these. O Arjuna. Destroy their sins by sacrifice.While those of regulated food Offer it to digestive fires. The wise who realized the truth Will instruct you in that knowledge. 32 . and you shall not again Become deluded. Yet you would cross over all sin By the raft of knowledge alone. In the same way. Better than mere material Sacrifice is that of knowledge. Neither this world nor the others Are for the non-sacrificing. Thus knowing you shall be released. knowers of sacrifice. All action without exception Is comprehended35 in knowledge. 35 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 That is. By this you shall come to see all Creation in your self and Me. Even if you should be the most Sinful among all the sinful. Know this.

the perfect in yoga Finds that knowledge within his heart. Dhananjaya. Cutting with the sword of knowledge This doubt about the self which is Born of ignorance in your heart. The man of faith. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the scripture of Yoga. And the master of his senses. 36 Conqueror of Wealth–Arjuna 33 . With work renounced by yoga and Doubts rent asunder by knowledge. The doubting. The ignorant man. Nor yet the next. Attains this knowledge. the science of the Eternal.36 Bind him who is poised in the self. and devoted. without faith. The doubter has neither this world. Actions do not. goes to destruction. nor happiness. Take refuge in yoga: arise! 38 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita.Within this world there is nothing So purifying as knowledge. In time. ends the fourth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom. and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace.

That person finds the fruit of both. the yoga of detached action. Sankhya and yoga are one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 37 That is: Karma Yoga. Without yoga. He is a constant renouncer Who neither likes nor dislikes: for Free from the pairs of opposites.” The childish declare–not the wise. “Sankhya and yoga are diff’rent. He Who perceives this truly perceives. The sage disciplined in yoga Quickly attains unto Brahman. The Holy Lord said: Renunciation and yoga Both lead to highest happiness. Of the two. however. yoga Excels mere renunciation. Renunciation’s hard to gain. The place attained by the Sankhyas Is also attained by yogis. 34 . He easily is freed from bonds. Which is the better of these two? Tell this to me decisively.Chapter Five The Yoga of Renunciation of Action Arjuna said: Renunciation of action And yoga37–You praise both of these. If one is practiced correctly. O Mighty-Armed.

He acts untainted by evil As lotus leaf is not wetted. “I do not do anything. For purifying of their heart. Forsaking attachment to deeds. releasing. 35 . with self purified. or the senses. Mind.Yoga-yoked. Yogis act only with body. The embodied sits happily38 Within the city of nine gates. smelling. Having abandoned attachment. Nor union with the fruit of deeds– Inherent nature does the deeds. Opening and closing his eyes– Convinced that it is the senses That move among the sense-objects. Speaking. breathing. Not acting or causing actions. 38 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 “As the ruler” omitted here to fit the meter. Eating. and holding. His self the self of all beings. touching. With self subdued. Renouncing all acts with the mind. He is not tainted when acting. hearing. nor actions Does the Lord create for the world. Seeing. Offering actions to Brahman. sleeping. They attain peace of steadfastness. senses conquered. Neither agency. forsaking action’s fruit. Well-poised. But those led by desire are bound By attachment to action’s fruit.” thus Thinks the steadfast knower of truth. walking. intellect.

Finding happiness in the Self. an elephant. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. whose selves are fixed on That. A cow. a dog– Even in an eater of dogs. Brahman is even and perfect– So they indeed rest in Brahman. whose basis is That. Whose self is That. Purified. Resting in Brahman. who hold That as the highest object. whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. The pleasant does not rejoice him Nor does the unpleasant grieve him.” 40 39 Dogs in India are wild animals related to jackals and hyenas. like the sun. undeluded.40 Those whose minds rest in evenness. steadfast in That. 36 .The Omnipresent takes note of Neither merit nor demerit. He gains unchanging happiness. And whose consummation is That. are freed from rebirth.39 The wise see the same atman in: A wise Brahmin who’s disciplined. Conquer existence in this world. go to the end of rebirth. Ignorance envelops knowledge. With intellect absorbed in That. By it people are deluded. Unattached to external things. And one with Brahman through yoga. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 “They whose minds are absorbed in That. and steady In intellect.

intellect. Released from desire and anger. They have beginning and an end. gains nirvana. Doubts dispelled and senses controlled. indeed. He who can endure here. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 37 . and anger: Such a sage is for ever free. Controlling sense. With thoughts restrained. Knowing Me. Mighty Lord of all the world and Friend of all creatures. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana. Balancing both inhaling and Exhaling within the nostrils. before Liberation from the body. With imperfections exhausted. He whose happiness is within. Whose delectation is within. With moksha as the supreme goal. those ascetics Who know the Self. One with Brahman. Is a yogi. The wise does not delight in them. the Enjoyer of Sacrificial austerities. he gains peace. Engaged in good for all beings– The seer gains Brahma-nirvana. Fixing awareness ’tween the brows. Whose light is within–that yogi. Are wombs of pain. mind.Pleasures born of contact. a happy man. Desire and anger’s impetus. Excluding all outside contacts. Son of Kunti. fear. Freed from desire.

the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 38 . the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. ends the fifth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Renunciation of Action.

For him who has conquered himself By the Self. For him who has attained yoga. and honor and dishonor. Know that to be karma yoga Which also is called renouncement. And the self’s only enemy. He should never degrade himself. When he is attached neither to The sense objects nor to actions. yogi. Pain.Chapter Six The Yoga of Meditation The Holy Lord said: He who performs bounden duty Without desiring action’s fruit– He is a renouncer. heat. the Self remains a foe. None becomes a karma yogi Without renouncing inner deeds. pleasure. the Self is a friend. He should lift himself by the Self. Not he without fire or action. And has renounced all purposing. The highest Self of him who has Conquered himself and is peaceful. Desiring to attain yoga. The Self is indeed the self’s friend. But for him who has not conquered Himself. The wise use action as the means. 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . Is steadfast in cold. Tranquility becomes the means. He’s said to have attained yoga.

foes. Firm in the brahmachari’s vow. not looking around. Always disciplining himself. Senses subdued. With senses conquered–unto him Earth. Looking t’ward the tip of his nose Steadfastly. and neck Erect. He attains eminence who looks The same on well-wishers.The yogi who is content in Knowledge and discrimination. and gold are all the same. Establishing for himself in A clean place. He should sit. Neutral to enemies and kin. And attains to union with Me. let him sit there On that seat and practice yoga For his self-purification. With mind controlled. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 40 . thoughts fixed on Me. fear banished. devoted to Me. The righteous and the unrighteous. the yogi should remain Alone. With mind quieted. not too high or low. motionless and steady. friends. The yogi whose mind is subdued Goes to nirvana. head. thought controlled. With mind one-pointed. Covered with a cloth and with a Antelope skin and kusha grass. Without desires or possessions. with thought and self controlled. supreme peace. Constantly concentrating on The Self. stone. Holding his body.

When the mind comes to rest. He is satisfied in the Self. Nor keeping awake. restrained. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “For him who is moderate in food and diversion.41 When he is absorbed in the Self Alone. Not the habit of too much sleep. When he feels that infinite bliss– Through his purified intellect– Which transcends the senses. And established therein he is Not moved by heaviest sorrow.” 41 41 . he regards No other gain better than that. disciplined. Nor is it not eating at all. from all desires. who is moderate in sleep and waking. and with his mind controlled. Then he is known to be steadfast. By the practicing of yoga. As a lamp in a windless place Flickers not–to such is compared The yogi with his mind controlled. then set In his true state he is steadfast. Arjuna.Yoga is not eating too much. Having obtained this. yoga destroys all sorrow. Moderate in sleep and waking. Yoga destroys all his sorrow. whose actions are disciplined. For the moderate in eating And in diversion. Beholding the Self by the self. Free from longing. Steadfast in yoga of the Self.

and which should be practiced With perseverance. Easily contacting Brahman. Moving here and there. Abandoning wilful desires– All of them without exception– Also completely restraining The many senses by the mind. He sees the same Self at all times. With intellect set in patience. With the mind fastened on the self. and freed from all evil. He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 42 . The yogi whose mind is tranquil With passions calmed. free of evil.Let that which is called yoga be Known as the state of severance From pain. sees The Self present in all beings. Whenever the unsteady mind. And who sees all things within Me. disciplined by yoga. I am never lost unto him. He. Thus constantly disciplining Himself. Attains the supreme happiness. He attains boundless happiness. The one who sees Me ev’rywhere. He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. wanders off. Having become one with Brahman. Nor is he ever lost to Me. undisturbed. And all beings within the Self.

That yogi is deemed the highest. He who judges pleasure or pain By the same standard ev’rywhere. Whatever be his mode of life. Kunti’s son. With mind wandering from yoga. O Krishna. But that one who is self-controlled. What is the end of him who fails To gain perfection in yoga? 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 43 . That yogi e’er abides in Me. Arjuna said: Possessed of faith.He. But through practice and dispassion It may be governed. The Holy Lord said: Without doubt the mind is restless And is difficult to control. established in unity. attains it. turbulent. Strong. but uncontrolled. That he applies unto himself. I do not see how it endures. Owing to the mind’s restlessness. and unyielding. I deem it is hard to control– As hard as to control the wind. Arjuna said: This yoga which is taught by You Characterized by evenness. Worships Me dwelling in all things. Yoga is hard to be attained By one whose self is uncontrolled. Striving by right means. The mind is restless.

O Keshava. supportless. fallen from both. He gains the worlds of the righteous. Then the fallen yogi takes birth Among the pure and prosperous.Does he not. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 42 Both worlds–the here and the hereafter. a birth such as that Is hard to obtain in this world. O Kuru’s son. His previous practice alone Impels him on the yogic path– He who just asks about yoga Rises above the Vedic rites. O mighty-armed. There he regains the knowledge which He acquired in his former life. deluded in The path that leads unto Brahman? This doubt of mine. And dwells there throughout countless years. You should now completely dispel. 44 . Verily. for Doers of good ne’er come to grief.42 then Perish. a torn cloud. earth and heaven. O son of Pritha. For perfection. And strives even more than before. Or else he will be born into A family of wise yogis. It is not possible for aught But You to dispel this my doubt. The Holy Lord said: Verily. There is no destruction for him Neither here nor hereafter.

ends the sixth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Meditation. I deem him as the most steadfast. The yogi is regarded as Superior to ascetics. or doers of works– Then be a yogi. Arjuna! Of all the yogis. he who with The inner self merged into Me. 45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Pure from taint. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. And jnanis. With faith devoted unto Me. 45 . gradually gains Perfection throughout many births And thus reaches the highest goal. striving earnestly.That yogi.

Chapter Seven The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization The Holy Lord said: With your mind intent upon Me. being known. ether.” I have inserted “Arjuna” in this verse to fill out the meter. Of thousands of human beings. Earth. O Arjuna.43 Which. Scarcely one strives for perfection.44 Such is my lower prakriti. ego-principle: These are the eight divisions of My prakriti. mind. To you I shall explain in full Knowledge and realization. just as in the first verse of this chapter I had to omit “Son of Pritha” to maintain it. now hear How through the practice of yoga You shall fully come to know Me. 46 . Mighty Armed. Intellect. nothing further Remains to be known in this world. Taking refuge in Me. These two Prakritis should be known As the womb of all these beings. Scarcely any knows Me in truth. Of this whole universe am I The Origin and Dissolver. And of those adept in striving. fire. air. 1 2 3 4 5 6 43 44 Pronounced as five syllables: “Re-a-li-za-tion. Yet know my higher prakriti Sustains all beings that exist And the whole cosmos. water.

States of being which are sattwic. There is absolutely nothing. and the Splendor of the splendid am I. All creation is strung on Me Like strands of jewels on a thread. Who am Eternal and higher than these. Sound in ether. I am the desire in beings That is according to dharma. Rajasic and tamasic45–know As proceeding from Me. Thus it perceives Me not. Know me as the eternal seed Of all beings. 45 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 These three states will be discussed in Chapter Fourteen. And the brilliance within the fire. 47 . I am the strength of the strong. I am the taste within water. I am Om in all the Vedas. manhood in men. Dhananjaya. The radiance of moon and sun. and the Austerity of ascetics. The life in all beings. Only those devoted to Me Shall pass beyond this illusion. I am the fragrance within earth. This divine illusion of Mine Is difficult to go beyond. All this world is deluded by The states composed of the gunas. but they in Me.Higher than Me. yet I Am not in them. free From all desire and from passion. th’intelligence Of the intelligent.

seekers of welfare. And he is dear to Me. Follow the way of the demons. Of them. Seekers of knowledge.But those not devoted to Me– Evil-doers. He. excels. with mind steadfast. 48 .46” How very rare is that great soul! Others. By “this or that” desire or rite. and the wise. At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me. He knows: “All is Vasudeva. Devoted to the One. low– Deprived by Maya of good sense. 46 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “He who dwells in all things”–the Universal God. These four kinds of virtuous men Do worship Me. the Supreme Goal. e’er steadfast. the wise man. Endowed with faith he then receives His desires from that worshipped form Because I have decreed that those Desires should be granted to him. All these indeed are exalted. O Arjuna: The distressed. But I see the man of wisdom As My Self. as well. Whatever form a devotee May seek to worship with full faith– That faith of his is blessed by Me To be steadfast. Devote themselves to other gods. deprived of their good sense. deluded. Abides in Me. Supremely dear am I to him. Impelled thus by their own natures. unwavering.

Chief Sacrifice. My worshippers come unto Me. Also the living. Those men who take refuge in Me Seek freedom from old age and death. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 49 . They truly know Me with steadfast Thought even at the time of death. though Unmanifest. By desire and hatred rising Through duality’s delusion. And those who are yet to be born. This deluded world knows Me not– The Unborn. The unintelligent think Me Manifest. But none whatsoever knows me. At birth all beings fall into Delusion. and Know the Self and Karma as well.But temporary is the fruit For those of small understanding. Not knowing My supreme state as Unchanging and transcendental. Freed from the pairs of opposites– They worship Me with firm resolve. Arjuna. They know Brahman thoroughly. To the gods go their worshippers. They whose sin has come to an end. O Scorcher of Foes. Veiled by illusion born of the Combinations of the gunas. But those men of virtuous deeds. the Immutable. the Primal One. I know the departed beings. Those who know Me. The Primal God.

the scripture of Yoga.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the science of the Eternal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. 50 . ends the seventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization.

Chapter Eight
The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman
Arjuna said: What is Brahman and Primal Self, And what is Karma, O Krishna, What is the Primal Element, Also, what is the Primal God? Who, and in what way, is Primal Sacrifice here in this body? And how are You known at the time Of death by the self-controlled ones? The Holy Lord said: Deathless is the Supreme Brahman The Primal Self that dwells in all; The sacrificial offering: Karma–causing both birth and life. The Primal Element is the Perishable adjunct of this; The Primal God is Indweller, And I the Primal Sacrifice. And he who at the time of death Meditating on Me alone, Goes forth, and leaving the body, Doubtless attains to My Being. Whatever he remembers when Departing from the body, that Alone is reached by him because Of his constant thinking of that.








Therefore, at all times, constantly Remember Me, and then do fight: With mind and intellect absorbed In Me, you thus shall come to Me. With mind made steadfast by yoga, Which turns not to anything else, To the divine supreme Spirit He goes, meditating on Him. He who meditates on the Seer, the Ruler, The ancient, subtler than the atom, support Of all, Whose form is inconceivable and Radiant like the sun and beyond darkness. At the hour of death with his mind unmoving, Endowed with devotion and with yoga pow’r, With the prana ent’ring between the eyebrows, He goes unto the divine supreme Spirit. That which Veda-knowers call the Eternal,47 Which the ascetics, free from passion, enter; Desiring which they live as brahmacharins, That path I shall explain unto you briefly. Controlling all of the senses, Confining the mind in the heart, Drawing pranas into the head, Doing yogic concentration, Uttering OM, the syllable That is God, and intent on Me, Departing thus from his body, He then attains the Goal Supreme. He who thinks of Me constantly, Whose mind does never go elsewhere, Yogi of constant devotion– For him I am easy to reach.









Or: Imperishable.


Reaching the highest perfection, Having attained Me, those great souls Are no more subject to rebirth– The evanescent home of pain. All worlds, including Brahma’s realm, Are subject to rebirth’s return, But for him who attains to Me There is no rebirth, Kunti’s Son. The knowers of true “day” and “night” Know Brahma’s Day and Brahma’s Night Are each a thousand yugas48 long– And each one comes unto an end. At the approach of Brahma’s Day, All manifested things come forth From the unmanifest, and then Return to that at Brahma’s Night. Helpless, the same host of beings Being born again and again, Merge at the approach of the Night And emerge at the dawn of Day. But beyond this unmanifest There is the Unmanifested, Eternal Existence, Which is Not destroyed when all beings merge. The unmanifest, eternal, Is declared as the Supreme Goal, Attaining Which they return not. This is My supreme dwelling place. Yea, this is the Supreme Being, Attained by devotion alone, Within Which all beings do dwell, By which all this is pervaded.









One thousand yugas–one “day” (or “night”) of Brahma–is 4,320,000,000 years long.


The yogis shall once more return Or. Austerity and gifts–yogis Surpass and gain the Great Abode. The six months of the sun’s North Path– Knowers of Brahman take this path And thereby go unto Brahman. light. sacrifice. Truly these two light and dark paths The world thinks to be eternal. daytime. Whatever merit is declared As gained from Vedas. returns again. the science of the Eternal. be steadfast in yoga Throughout all times. 54 . Smoke. departing. nighttime. departing. Therefore. O Pritha’s son. the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.Now I shall tell you. the bright fortnight. ends the eighth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman. By the other. Arjuna. The six months of the sun’s South Path– Taking this path the yogi gains The lunar light. O Arjuna. shall not return. Fire. and the dark fortnight. By one he goes to non-return. No yogi who knows these two paths. 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. and thus returns. is deluded. Of the times in which.

My Divine Yoga! Bringing forth and supporting them. All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form: All beings do dwell within Me. 49 55 . We are contained in Him. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea of these two verses is that we draw our being from God. He is not contained in us. that even so Do all beings dwell within Me. Easy to practice.49 As mighty winds move ev’rywhere. This the supreme purifier. To the path of birth in this world– The realm of death. Readily learned by the righteous. Know.Chapter Nine The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret The Holy Lord said: To you who argue not shall I Declare this most secret knowledge Which. Royal knowledge. Arjuna. Shall free you from impurity. My Self yet does not dwell in them. But I do not dwell within them. royal secret. Return. Yet always dwell in the ether. Those without faith in this dharma. eternal. God does not draw His being from us. Nor do beings dwell within Me– Behold this. O Arjuna. without attaining Me. when joined with realization.

000 years. 51 Rakshasa: There are two kinds of rakshasas: 1) semidivine. Helpless under Prakriti’s sway. Prakriti produces all this. vain deeds. 52 50 Asura: Demon. Because of My proximity. It alternates with a Night of Brahma of the same length. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A kalpa is a Day of Brahma–4.000. Of vain hopes. enemies of the gods.At the end of a kalpa. The world revolves because of this. In the Day of Brahma creation is manifest and in the Night of Brahma is it resolved into its causal state. I Myself send them forth again. As their eternal Origin. benevolent beings. And yet these acts do not bind Me. The deluded disregard Me Dwelling within a human form. Animating My Prakriti. Worship Me single-mindedly. 56 .320. Without sense–truly they abide In the delusive nature of The rakshasas51 and asuras. vain knowledge. or 2) cannibal demons or goblins. Dhananjaya. Arjuna.50 all Beings merge in My Prakriti: At dawn of another kalpa. Unaware of My higher state As the Great Lord of all beings. evil being (a-sura: without the light). I project again and again This whole multitude of beings.52 But those great souls that abide in Their divine nature. Sitting as one indifferent And fully unattached to them: This is the truth. Meat-eating human beings are sometimes classed as rakshasas. The moving and the unmoving.

and as manifold. the sacrifice. Surendralokam–the world of Indra. Dissolution. king of the “gods” who control the forces of nature. Witness. Abode.” the object of knowledge. by drinking Soma. I am the mantra and the ghee. Father and Mother of this world. and Substratum. As the sun I give heat and I Withhold and send forth rain. As distinct. Bowing to Me in devotion. the All-Formed. the Lord.54 Gain worlds and enjoy pleasures of the Devas. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 53 54 The “to be known. Being and non-being am I! The knowers of the three Vedas worship Me By sacrifice. the Known. Goal. The offering. Storehouse. The fire. Friend. Always steadfast. and thus Made pure from sin pray for passage to heaven. the Pranava. sacrificing by The sacrifice of pure knowledge. This is a comparatively lower realm of development in the cosmos. I am Both immortality and death. Yajur Vedas. Refuge. Seed Imperishable. as one.Glorifying Me always and Striving ever with firm resolve. 57 . and act of oblation. Supporter. they worship Me.53 Purifier. I am the rite. the offered things. Grandfather. Sustainer. Worship Me. And others. Sama. Origin. The Rig.

Though with a mistaken approach55– This is the truth. Other possible terms–ignorantly. “Fathers” (pitris) are ancestors or other departed human beings. improperly. subject to rebirth.” The idea seems to be that these people do not know or understand how to worship God because they do not know or understand the nature of God. inappropriately. Filled with desires. To fathers go their devotees. mistakenly.Having enjoyed the heaven-world. haphazardly. they constantly come and go. 21 Those who direct their thoughts to Me. 22 23 24 25 26 The words “with a mistaken approach” is the best I can do with avidhipurvakam. also worship Me. with merit Exhausted. or water. Thus. keeping the injunctions of the Vedas. irregularly–either express a value judgment or add an extra meaning or attitude the Sanskrit does not include. inappositely. All of these may be either positive or negative.56 Whoe’er with devotion offers A leaf. Son of Kunti. Truly I am the Enjoyer. That I accept–the devout gift Offered by the pure-minded one. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind. inaptly. To spirits go their devotees. incorrectly. It literally means “not according to the rules” or even “without/outside the rules. And Lord of all sacrifices. For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess. “Gods” (devas) are the demigods presiding over various powers of material and psychic nature. 56 55 58 . flower. And to Me go My devotees. To the gods go their devotees. “Spirits” (bhutas) are non-human nature spirits. But because they do not know Me They return. they re-enter the mortal world. but this classification can also include earthbound human spirits. fruit. ineptly. Even those who with faith worship Other gods. some of them subhuman (“elementals”).

Vaishyas. then. whate’er you eat. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 At the time of Krishna. Women. Do that as offering to Me. then worship Me. All those who take refuge in Me Also go to the Supreme Goal. But those worshipping Me. Truly having rightly resolved. Whate’er you sacrifice or give. and I am in them. Steadfast in renunciation And freed. He should be considered righteous. Even those born of evil wombs. also Shudras. claim that only Brahmin and Kshatriya males can attain liberation–and they have to be from “good” backgrounds. Quickly he becomes virtuous And goes to everlasting peace.Whate’er you do. I am the same to all beings: To me none is disliked or dear. Are in Me. denying the truth of the Self. 58 57 Kshatriya 59 . holy Brahmins And devoted royal58 sages! Having obtained this transient And joyless world. and even today in India.57 How much more. Krishna denies this. Thus shall you be freed from the bonds Of actions–both good and evil. If even an evildoer Worships me single-heartedly. O Son of Kunti. some ignorant people. you shall come unto Me. Whate’er austerity you do. devout. understand: My devotee is never lost.

Worshipping.With mind fixed on Me. 60 . the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. bowing down to Me. Thus made steadfast. with Me as your Supreme aim–you shall come to Me. devoted. 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. ends the ninth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret.

truth. benevolence. non-delusion. Both good repute and ill repute– All these arise from Me alone. also fearlessness. Forbearance. Non-injury. Reason. fear. death. as well as of the great seers. and contentment. The Seven Rishis are great Beings who exist at the top of creation and supervise it. Birth. The ancient Seven Great Rishis60 And Four Manus.59 Austerity. 61 . Mighty-Armed. happiness.61 with pow’rs like Me. Calmness. For you are beloved to Me. I speak desiring your welfare. Were born of My mind. He who knows Me as birthless and Beginningless. restraint of sense. and from them Are all the creatures in this world.Chapter Ten The Yoga of Divine glories The Holy Lord said: Now hear from Me the supreme word Which I speak to you. In truth I am the source of the Gods. misery. The Manus were the progenitors of the human race. Neither the multitude of gods Or great seers know My origin. 1 2 3 4 5 6 59 60 61 I had to leave out “impartiality” in this line to keep the meter. the world’s Great Lord– He alone among mortals is Undeluded and freed from sins. knowledge.

the First God. Vyasa: One of the greatest sages of India. With minds and lives intent on Me. Out of compassion for them. I. And speaking of Me constantly. becomes established In yoga–there can be no doubt. The Birthless and All-pervading– Thus all the sages declare You: Narad’. Narada: A primeval sage to whom some of the verses of the Rig Veda are attributed.63 Asita Devala. Another ancient sage. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge.64 And Vyasa65–and now do You. They are content and do rejoice. the Brahma Sutras. and the codifier of the Vedas. composer of some of the hymns of the Rig Veda. Divine. Abiding in their hearts. too.He who knows all these manifold Manifestations of My pow’r And glory. Supreme Purifier. Arjuna said: Supreme Brahman. Yourself declare it unto me. the constantly steadfast. commentator on the Yoga Sutras. author of the Mahabharata (which includes the Bhagavad Gita). Eternal Person. Supreme Abode. Enlightening62 one another. I am the origin of all. To them. the wise worship Me With consciousness all filled with love. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me. 62 63 64 65 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 This can also mean “awakening” spiritually. And from Me ev’rything evolves– Thinking thus. 62 . Worshipping Me with affection.

because There is no end to My expanse. pervading all these worlds. O Yogi. Parama (Highest) Purusha. the Supreme Purusha:66 Source of beings. and the Purushottama (Best of the Purushas). I am never satiated In hearing Your amrit-like67 words.I regard all this that You say To me as true. How may I know You. O Keshava. I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. Lord of beings. You should now describe completely Your divine manifestations By which. 67 Amrita: That which makes one immortal. the middle. but God is the Adi (Original. neither gods nor demons Know of Your manifestation. For You know Yourself by Yourself. 66 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Purushottama. O You. But only the chief ones. Both God and the individual spirits are purushas. You do abide within all things. Archetypal) Purusha. God of gods. and Also the end of all beings. In truth. The Holy Lord said: Listen! I shall tell you of My Divine Self-manifestations. Ruler of the world. Always meditating on You? In what aspects of Your Being Are You to be thought of by me? Explain to me in more detail Your pow’rs and manifestations. 63 . I am The beginning. Purusha means “person” in the sense of a conscious spirit.

the god of war and son of Shiva and Parvati. 74 Kuber75 of yakshas.I am Vishnu68 of Adityas. Among the Rudras. the lord of wealth. O son of Pritha. Adityas: Solar deities. the ocean. 77 78 79 The Vasus are eight Vedic deities characterized by radiance. 21 22 23 24 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 Vishnu: “The all-pervading.” A title of Shiva. Of Vasus77 I am Pavaka. 80 81 Brihaspati: The guru–priest and teacher–of the gods. on which the gods dwell. of supreme height. goblin. and Marichi is their chief. Meru: The mountain. Intelligence in all beings.” God as the Preserver. or 2) a kind of ghost. Also known as Subramanya or Karttikeya. supporting heaven itself. “The Auspicious One. Of the senses I am the mind.81 Among the waters. Agni: The Vedic god of fire.70 Among the stars I am the Moon.71 I am Indra72 among the gods. Said to be the center of the world.78 And of mountains Meru79 am I. or the mountain on which Shiva is ever seated in meditation. The Maruts are the presiding deities of winds and storms. 64 . the Sama Veda. The Rudras are Vedic deities of destruction for renewal.80 Of generals I am Skanda. Of Vedas. or demon. the king of the lesser “gods” (demigods). And of priests. the god of wealth. Obviously a yogic symbol. I am Marichi of Maruts. Know Me the chief.69 The Sun among luminaries. Vasava: Indra. Yaksha: There are two kinds of yakshas: 1) semidivine beings whose king is Kubera.76 rakshasas. The Sama Veda is a compilation of Rig Veda hymns that have been pointed for singing. Vittesha: Kubera.73 Shankara. Brihaspati.

87 Of Deva-rishis. Of Gandharvas. Among weapons.84 the Japa85 Yajña. Ashwattha: The pipal (sacred fig) tree.83 Of words. Kandarpa. the god of beauty and love.93 And among men I am the king.86 Of immovables: Himalayas. a seer. In the context of this verse.96 Of serpents I am Vasuki.89 Among siddhas. the eternal tree of life whose roots are in heaven.90 Sage Kapila. the one-syllabled OM. Of trees I am the Ashwattha. Siddha: A perfected being. The king of the serpents.88 Chitraratha. Vajra: the special weapon of Indra. Uchchaishravas: The name of Indra’s horse (or the horse of the Sun god.Of great Rishis82 I am Bhrigu. offering.94 Among cows I am Kamadhuk.91 Among horses. 65 . Kapila: The great sage who formulated the Sankhya philosophy which is endorsed by Krishna several times in the Bhagavad Gita. Narada. Chitraratha: The chief of the gandharvas. so illustrious that he mediated quarrels among the gods. japa yajna is the offering or sacrifice of continually repeating Om. Uchchaishravas92 Who was born of the Amrita. that was born of the amrita that was churned from the ocean by the gods. Of elephants.95 The cause of offspring. 88 89 90 91 Gandharva: A demigod–a celestial musician and singer. 93 94 95 96 97 92 Airavata: The white elephant of Indra that was produced by the churning of the ocean. Of Yajñas. The name means “high-sounding” and refers to the power of mantra. Kamadhenu: Wishfulfilling cow produced at the churning of the milk ocean. Airavata. He assisted at the churning of the milk ocean. A name of Kamadeva. Surya).97 25 26 27 28 82 83 84 85 86 87 Rishi: Sage. Yajna: Sacrifice. The “world tree” in the sense of the axis of the earth and even of the cosmos. Japa: Repetition of a mantra. usually the fire sacrifice known as agnihotra or havan. the Thunderbolt. sacrificial ceremony. king of the gods. an adept. a ritual sacrifice. Bhrigu: An ancient sage. seer of the Truth. a perfect yogi.

Daityas: Demons who constantly war with the gods. 108 107 106 66 . Hindus consider that bathing in the Ganges profoundly purifies both body and mind.108 Of manifestations I am Beginning.107 Of fishes I am the dolphin. and upon whom Vishnu reclines. Varuna: A Vedic deity considered the sustainer of the universe and also the presiding deity of the oceans and water. Among beasts I am the lion. Ganges: The sacred river–believed to be of divine origin–that flows from high up in the Himalayas. His life is recorded in the ancient epic Ramayana. Often identified with the conscience. and empties into the Bay of Bengal. Rama: An incarnation of God–the king of ancient Ayodhya in north-central India. and therefore considered the king of birds. through the plains of Northern India. Among birds I am Garuda. the evil Hiranyakashipu.100 Of pitris101 I am Aryaman. Sometimes “races” or nationalities who acted contrary to dharma and fought against the “aryas” were also called demons (daityas or asuras).106 Of purifiers I am Wind.99 Of water beings. 101 102 103 104 100 99 98 Pitri: A departed ancestor. Often depicted as an eagle. 29 30 31 32 Nagas: Astral beings that often interact with human beings. Garuda: A great being who can assume bird form.105 Among measurers I am Time. 102 Of controllers I am Yama. Yama: The Lord of Death. yet he remained steadfast. middle. controller of who dies and what happens to them after death.) Ananta: The chief of the Nagas. and the end. he is the vehicle of Vishnu.103 Of demons104 I am Prahlada. 105 Prahlada: A daitya prince who rejected his daitya heritage and became a devotee of Vishnu. whose coils encircle the earth and who symbolizes eternity (“ananta” means “without end”). tortured him and attempted his life because of his devotion and his speaking to others of divine matters. This was the case with the people among whom Prahlada was born. Of rivers I am the Ganges. Of disputants I am logic. usually taking the form of snakes. a forefather. Aryaman: Chief of the Pitris. Varuna. knowledge of the Self. (In Sanskrit naga is the word for snake. Of knowledge. Among warriors I am Rama.Of Nagas98 I am Ananta. His father.

A lunar month. Ushanas. 112 113 114 115 111 Kusumakaras.115 The sceptre of authorities. I the Sustainer. speech. I am inexhaustible Time.114 Of Pandavas. “the season of flowers” is a term for Spring.111 Of seasons. the season of flow’rs. prosperity. 33 34 35 36 37 38 109 110 A type of chant to Indra in the Sama Veda. The splendor of the splendorous. Of compounds I am the dual. Of secret things I am silence. Dhananjaya.110 Of months I am Margashirsha. The ancestral clan of Krishna. Among sages I am Vyasa. patience. I am all-destroying death and Origin of all that shall be. The gayatri meter is found only in the Rig Veda and consists of three lines of eight syllables each.109 Of meters I am Gayatri. roughly the latter half of November and the first half of December.112 The gambling of the fraudulent. Strategy of the ambitious. courage. It is considered especially appropriate for mantric invocation of deities before worship. I am fame. Son of Vasudeva–Krishna An ancient seer and poet. the All-formed. I am sattwa of the sattwic.113 Vasudeva.Among letters. I am victory and effort. The knowledge of knowers am I. Of chants I am Brihatsaman. This is the time of ideal weather in India. Among the rishis. the letter A. 67 . Mem’ry. Among Vrishnis. wisdom.

the scripture of Yoga. there is no end of My divine manifestations. ends the tenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Divine Glories. O Arjuna? I ever support this whole world By just one portion of Myself. the science of the Eternal. 68 .Whate’er the seed of all beings. Understand that springs from but a Fraction of My radiant Pow’r. What I have spoken unto you Is but an example of them. Can e’er exist apart from Me. That also am I. No thing. Of what value is it for you To know all this. Whatever is glorious or Prosperous or yet powerful. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Arjuna. moving or unmoving. 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Arjuna.

Ruler. Then do You. The Rudras. They avert misfortune and sickness and bring treasures.117 and Maruts. Master. The Holy Lord said: Behold now. 117 69 .Chapter Eleven The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form Arjuna said: In kindness you spoke unto me Regarding the Supreme Secret That is known as the Supreme Self. O Krishna. celestial horsemen of the sun. O son of Bharata. O Lord. who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing. My forms A hundred fold–a thousandfold– Various. O Lord of Yogis. and also Of various colors and shapes. O Partha. O Supreme Lord! As You have declared of Yourself. And so it is. Behold the Adityas. By this my delusion is gone. omnipresence. or Controller of the cosmos. And Your eternal majesty. Wherefore. O Krishna. Behold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 116 Ishwara: “God” or “Lord” in the sense of the Supreme Power. Vasus. The origin and dissolving Of beings has been heard by me In detail from You. Yet still I desire to behold Your Ishwara116-Form. Show to me Your eternal Self. and omniscience. Many wonders ne’er seen before. “Ishwara” implies the powers of omnipotence. divine. Ashwins: Two Vedic deities. always together. Ashwins. if You should think Me capable of seeing It.

filled with wonder And with his hair standing on end. God embodying all wonders. Then that would be like the splendor Of that Resplendent Mighty One. There in the body of the God Of gods the son of Pandu saw The universe resting in One With its manifold divisions. With many divine weapons raised.See now in this My body the Whole universe centered in one– Both the moving and unmoving– And all else you desire to see. Wearing divine garlands and clothes. And with many wondrous aspects. Showed unto the son of Pritha His own Supreme Ishwara-Form: With many mouths and many eyes. With divine perfumes and ointments. Krishna. Arjuna. Sanjaya said: Then having thus spoken. Then Arjuna. But you are not able to see Me with your own eyes. the Great Lord of Yoga. 70 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 . The Infinite. If the light of a thousand suns Arose together in the sky. O King. I give to you the divine eye– Behold My supreme Yoga Pow’r. Bowing down in adoration Thus spoke with joined palms unto Him. With many divine ornaments. Omniscient.

And the hosts of all grades of beings in You. Heating the universe with Your radiance. O Great-souled One. You are the ultimate resting-place of all.Arjuna said: O God. into You enter these hosts of gods. and beyond measure. 15 I see You of boundless form on ev’ry side With Your manifold arms. Brahma. middle. middle. or end. seated upon the lotus. A mass of radiance shining ev’rywhere. Your marvellous and awesome form. 19 This firmament fixed between heaven and earth. and eyes. all around blazing Like burning fire and sun. club.20 Truly. 16 I see You with diadem. of manifold arms.21 71 . And all the quarters are filled by You alone. and discus. I see all the gods in Your body. the bands of great Rishis and Siddhas praise You with splendid hymns. nor beginning of You Do I see. mouths. “May it be well!” thus saying. burning fire Your mouth. The three worlds tremble with fear. Very hard to look at. 18 You are without beginning. Lord. Neither end. Seeing this. Infinite in power. the Supreme Being. I do ween. You are Guardian of Eternal Dharma. You are the Primal Purusha. the Lord. The sun and moon Your eyes. stomachs. of Your Universal Form. 17 You are the Unchanging. And all the rishis and celestial serpents. Some of which extol You in fear with joined palms.

have mercy. then. Yakshas. as the many torrents and streams Of all the rivers flow towards the ocean. 26 Enter precipitately into Your mouth.118 and Vishwa-Devas. Ushmapas. quite astounded. Ashwins. thighs. and Sutaputra. 22 Having seen this Your immeasurable form– With very many mouths. I know neither the four Quarters. Vishnu. Ushmapas: A class of ancestors (pitris) which live off subtle emanations or vapors. With the multitudinous hosts of monarchs. O Lord of Gods. Drona. Many stomachs. and feet. So do all these heroes of the world of men Now enter into Your fiercely flaming mouths. 23 On seeing You touching the sky. 24 Having seen Your mouths. blazing Like Pralaya-fires. with mouths wide open.119 Gandharvas. Vasus. 72 . and blazing With many a color. With large and fiery eyes: I am terrified At heart. and Siddhas– All these are looking at You.The Rudras.27 Verily. arms. fearful with tusks. and so am I. Among whom are numbered Bishma. Terrible with tusks and fearful to behold. with the warrior chiefs of ours. Adityas. Sadhyas. 25 And all these sons of evil Dhritarashtra. Abode of the universe. Asuras. and find no courage nor peace. and fearful with many tusks– All the worlds are terrified. And some with their heads completely pulverized. Maruts. nor do I find peace. Some are found sticking in the gaps ’tween Your teeth. 28 118 119 Sadhyas: A group of celestial beings with exquisitely refined natures thought to inhabit the ether. eyes.

31 32 33 34 Sanjaya said: Having heard this speech of Krishna. mighty world-destroying Time. 29 Swallowing all the worlds on every side With Your flaming mouths. and surely You shall conquer your enemies in battle. Be merely an apparent cause. O Primeval One. In like manner so do these creatures also Rush into Your mouths though only to perish.Just as moths precipitately rush into A blazing fire. Are blazing. Bhishma.35 73 . Truly. consuming. although only to perish. Your fierce rays. and Others already killed by Me. Arjuna. Be not distressed with fear. O Vishnu! 30 Tell me who You are–You Who are fierce in form. prostrated himself. You are licking Your lips. Jayadratha. Bowing down to Him. Therefore do you arise and thus acquire fame. but fight. Drona. Here made manifest for destroying the world. by Myself are they already slain. and enjoy unrivalled dominion. indeed. filling the world with radiance. Conquer. burning. Karna. Salutations. And addressed Krishna in a faltering voice. Arjuna With joined palms. Even without you. and trembling. The Holy Lord said: I am. and overwhelmed with fear. none of the warriors here Arrayed within the hostile armies shall live. O Supreme God: have mercy! I desire to know You. I know not indeed Your doings or purpose. do you kill.

Arjuna said: It is fitting. By You is the whole universe pervaded. O Yadava. with others. beyond both. Source of the cosmos? Unchanging–Being. O Great-souled One. Agni: Vedic god of fire. Chandra. O Friend. wherefore You are All. Chandra: Presiding deity of the moon or the astral lunar world (loka). Salutation on every side. That rakshasas fly in fear to all quarters. Agni. Lord of gods. the Ancient Purusha. Again and again I bow. yea.121 Varuna. to forgive all this. the Creator. unconscious of this Your greatness– 41 However I may have been disrespectful To You in jest. 36 Why should they not bow to You. I implore You. O All! You. 37 You the Primal God. Eating. The Great and Primal Cause of even Brahma.” speaking As a friend.122 Prajapati. sitting. Knower. Prajapati and Pitamaha (Grandfather. Immeasurable One.123 I bow. alone. that the world Is delighted and rejoices in Your praise.120 Yama. the One Thing to be known. I bow to You a thousand times. You are Supreme Refuge of this universe. 74 . Pervadest all these things. or Great Father) are titles of Brahma. Infinite.40 Whatever I have presumptuously said From carelessness or love. 120 121 122 123 42 Vayu: The Vedic god of the wind. addressing You as “O Krishna. Non-being. 38 You are Vayu. and Great-grandfather. I bow to You! 39 Salutation to You before and behind. Hrishikesha. walking. And siddhas bow to You in adoration. Supreme Goal. reposing. infinite in power and in prowess.

rites. Abode of the universe. Mighty beyond compare? Prostrating in adoration. There is no one Your equal in the three worlds. Diademed. This Form Supreme.47 Not by Vedic study or by sacrifice. seeing Your form. only Your previous form– O Lord of gods. By any other than you. In mercy Lord. Who can excel You. 48 Be not afraid or bewildered. and a lover his love– Thus even so should You forgive Me. 43 44 45 46 The Holy Lord said: Graciously have I shown to you. Assume then That same beloved four-armed form of Yours. infinite. or by severe austerities Am I seen in such Form in the world of men. do I crave Forgiveness: as a father forgives his son. Which has not been seen before by aught but you. bearing the mace and the discus. and yet My mind is distracted with terror. by My own Yoga Power– Form resplendent. having seen This Form of Mine. universal. A friend his dear friend. Now see once again this former Form of Mine. By gifts.The world’s Father–of the moving. I wish to see You as before. Arjuna. so awesome. of universal form. Show me. unmoving– You are the worshipful Guru of gurus. Overjoyed am I. 49 75 . O You of thousand arms. O God. O Arjuna. so terrible With your fears dispelled and with your heart gladdened.

ends the eleventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. nor by Austerity. the science of the Eternal. Freed from desire. and I Am now restored to my nature. the scripture of Yoga. nor By sacrifice can I be seen As on this day you have seen Me. Thus the Great-souled One. enters into Me. the terrified. Not by Vedic study. 50 51 52 53 54 55 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. The Holy Lord said: Verily. Devoted to Me as his goal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. He who does work for Me alone. also Entered into. without ill will To any. O Janardana. Even the gods Ever long to behold this form. Your gentle Man-like form. My thoughts are now composed. 76 . assuming His gentle Four-armed form pacified him. having thus spoken to Arjuna. By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. Seen in reality.Sanjaya said: Krishna. nor by gifts. Scorcher of Foes. hard indeed it is To behold this great form of Mine Which you have seen. Arjuna said: Now having seen this. Showed once again His usual manlike form.

For the Unmanifest is hard For the embodied ones to reach. And even-minded ev’rywhere. resigning All action.Chapter Twelve The Yoga of Devotion Arjuna said: Those devotees who worship You. meditating on Me with single-minded yoga– 1 2 3 4 5 6 77 . Worship steadfast. Those who worship Me. with supreme faith. Immovable– Having subdued all the senses. Engaged in the welfare of all– Verily they reach Me alone. Omnipresent. deeming Me as the Supreme Goal. Unmanifest. Unthinkable Unchangeable. the Unmanifest– Which are better versed in yoga? The Holy Lord said: Those who. It is My opinion that they Are thus the best versed in yoga. They worship the Unperishing. Unspeakable. And those also who do worship The Changeless. fixing their mind on Me. Greater is their trouble whose minds Are set on the Unmanifest.

But if you are unable to Constantly practice yoga. 78 .To these whose mind is set on Me.” Even-minded and forbearing. Mind and intellect fixed on Me. O Pritha’s son. Then by taking refuge in Me. Self-controlled. Instant peace comes from renouncement. Verily. 124 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tyaga: Literally: “abandonment. By constant practice of yoga Seek to reach Me. I become ere long. Placing your intellect in Me. Fixing your mind on Me alone. Always content. here and hereafter. be Intent on acting for My sake. Abandon the fruits of action. If you are unable to fix Your mind on Me in steadiness. firm in conviction.” Renunciation–the relinquishment of the fruit of action. He hates no one. Becoming this way self-controlled. Meditation than mere knowledge. their Savior from The sea of mortal samsara. If you cannot do even this. Renouncement124 than meditation. Free from feelings of “I” and “mine. Devoted to Me. Dhananjaya. balanced in mind. and is friendly And compassionate towards all. Then doubtless you shall evermore Live in Me. Better is knowledge than practice. dear to Me. Even that leads to perfection.

And whom the world agitates not. Renouncing all undertakings– That devotee is dear to Me. They who follow this Immortal Dharma. He neither rejoices nor hates. nor desires. Homeless. Nor grieves. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. Who deems blame and praise as equal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. And in honor and dishonor. and full of Devotion–he is dear to Me. 79 . endued with faith. unconcerned. And ever free from attachment. Silent. He is the same to friend and foe. content with anything. Deeming Me as the Goal Supreme. steady-minded. fear. In heat and cold. ends the twelfth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Devotion.He who agitates not the world. 15 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. And worry–he is dear to Me. pleasure and pain. Pure. He who is free from dependence. skilled. renouncing Both good and evil. untroubled. described. Devoted–are most dear to me. full of Devotion–he is dear to Me. Who is freed from joy. envy.

and that which should be known– I wish to know these. Knowledge. If you include this verse also. Know Me also. Some commentators look upon this verse as an interpolation.” (Swami Sivananda in his Gita commentary. in sacred chants. To be the Knower in all Fields. 125 1 2 3 4 5 “In some of the books you will not find this verse. That do you hear from Me in brief.125 The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. Who He is and what His powers. the number of verses of the Bhagavad Gita will come to 701.) 126 The five jnanindriyas (organs of perception) and the five karmendriyas (organs of action). In passages about Brahman. Intellect. O Bharata. Keshava. The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower. The ten senses126 and the one–mind– The five objects of the senses. Egoism. Full of convincing reasoning. The great Elements. the Unmanifest. Modifications. What the Field is–its properties. This has been sung by the Rishis In many ways. cause-effects.Chapter Thirteen The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field Arjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha and The Field and Knower of the Field. 80 .

128 purity. And absence of egotism. and all suchlike. or society. pleasure. Stability and self-restraint. disease.130 Constant in knowledge of the Self. intelligence. or sitting near a teacher.127 patience. Seeing the goal of truth-knowledge– This is said to be true knowledge.129 Keeping in mind the evils of Birth. pain. aversion. and Frequenting secluded places. and its aspects. The aggregate. Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m. Unswerving devotion to Me With single-minded yoga. Approach of teacher. Distaste for others’ company. I shall describe what must be known. rectitude. wife.Desire. Absence of both pride and deceit. Constant evenmindedness in Desired and undesired events. death. old age. The contrary is ignorance. home. Indifference to sense objects. And steadfastness: thus is the Field Briefly described. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 127 128 129 130 Ahimsa Acharyopasanam: Approaching a teacher. Non-attachment and non-clinging To son. 81 . Which bestows immortality– Beginningless Supreme Brahman: Neither being nor non-being. and pain. Janasamsadi: crowds of people. Harmlessness.

Knowledge. Undivided. Yet without senses. Yet experiencing gunas. and know That all modifications and Gunas are born of Prakriti. yet It exists As if divided in beings: The sustainer of all beings– He absorbs and generates them. Shining by functions of senses. The Light even of lights. Originates from Purusha. Goal of knowledge. heads.With hands and feet everywhere. Pleasure and pain’s experience. Know Prakriti and Purusha Are both beginningless. With ears throughout the universe– THAT stands. Outside and inside all beings. knowledge and that which must Be known has been briefly stated. Incomprehensible because It is subtle and far and near. the One Thing to be known. It is Said to be beyond all darkness. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 82 . and faces ev’rywhere. yet Maintaining all. Eyes. pervading ev’rything. Both the unmoving and moving. In production of the body And senses Prakriti’s the cause. within all hearts. Thus Field. Knowing all this. detached. free from gunas. My devotee Attains to My state of being.

Know it to be from the union Of the Field and the Field-Knower. He injures not the Self by Self. Devoted to what they have heard. He who thus knows the Purusha And Prakriti with the gunas. and Still others by karma yoga. Worship as they hear from others. Whate’er is born. Then goes unto the Supreme Goal. Experiencer. Lord. Some perceive the Self in the Self By the Self through meditation. deathless in the dying. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 83 . again. He shall never be born again.Purusha within Prakriti Undergoes Prakriti’s gunas. The Supreme Purusha is called The Looker-on in this body: The Permitter. Others. O Bharata. the Supporter. too. The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. Since seeing the Lord equally Existing ev’rywhere in all. and Self. Whatever be his state in life. Others by Sankhya yoga. the moving or The unmoving. Even these. not knowing thus. go beyond death. Birth in good and evil wombs comes From his attachment to gunas.

He sees the sep’rate existence Of all inherent in the One. Through subtlety is not tainted. This Supreme Self. ends the thirteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field. And their expansion from That One– He then becomes one with Brahman. in the same way The lord of the field illumines The entire field. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. and Freedom from beings’ Prakriti. They indeed go to the Supreme. 29 30 31 32 33 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Being without beginning and Devoid of gunas. the scripture of Yoga. and is not tainted. The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. 84 . And that the Self is actionless. As the all-pervading ether. They who with the eye of knowledge Distinguish Field. unchanging. though embodied. O Bharata. Does not act. Field-Knower. As the sun alone illumines This entire world.The one who truly sees is he Who sees that all actions are done Solely by Prakriti alone.

Son of Kunti. rajas.131 For me great Brahma is the womb. embodied. Sattwa. At creation they are not born. Nor tremble at its dissolving.Chapter Fourteen The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas The Holy Lord said: I shall tell you supreme knowledge Which is the best of all knowledge. O Bharata. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea is that the liberated are not impelled into birth at the beginning of the creation cycle nor are they unsettled at its dissolution. creation and dissolution do not affect them in any way since they have severed all bonds with it. 131 85 . And free from defect. Whatever be the forms produced Within all wombs. Having known which all the sages Attained to highest perfection. Of them Brahma is the great womb. And in that do I place the egg. luminous. Sattwa is stainless. And I the seed-casting Father. The origin of all beings Then comes from that. Resorting to this knowledge they Attain identity with Me. and tamas–these Gunas born of Prakriti bind Fast in the body him who is Indestructible. That is. yet it binds By attachment to happiness And by attachment to knowledge.

Bharata. Stupefying the embodied. It binds fast the embodied one By the attachment to action. longing– When rajas is predominant All these arise. undertaking Of actions. and sleep. unrest.Know rajas’ nature is passion. And delusion–all these arise When tamas is predominant. O descendant of the Kurus. greed. Producing thirst and attachment. Then he attains the stainless realms Of the knowers of the Highest. and Tamas over sattwa. When through each sense of the body The light of knowledge clearly shines. Tamas is born of ignorance. Sattwa prevails over rajas And tamas. Attaches unto delusion. And Tamas. obscuring knowledge. and rajas prevails Over sattwa and tamas. Sattwa ’ttaches to happiness. Indolence. It binds by miscomprehension. O Bharata. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 86 . heedlessness. If the embodied one meets death When sattwa is predominant. Rajas to action. Darkness. Then it should be known that sattwa Is there fully predominant. Bharata. rajas. Activity. inertness.

he’s born Amid those attached to action. Is sattwic and pure. From rajas. Is freed from birth. he is born From the wombs of the deluded. He who goes beyond these gunas Which are the source of the body. they say. Dying in tamas. O Lord. Rajasics dwell in the middle. is he known Who has gone beyond the gunas? What is his conduct.Meeting death in rajas. abiding in the Lowest guna. while from tamas Arises miscomprehension. And attains immortality. death. When the seer beholds no agent Other than the gunas and knows That which is higher than gunas. The sattwa ’biding go upwards. and Ignorance the fruit of tamas. do go downward. greed. pain. and how does He pass beyond these three gunas? 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 87 . And delusion and ignorance. disease. From sattwa arises wisdom. The fruit of good action. He attains unto My being. Tamasics. The fruit of rajas is pain. Arjuna said: By what marks. verily.

Who is not moved by the gunas. Alike to pleasing. “I am the abode of Brahman. Abode of Eternal Dharma. the science of the Eternal. Firm. The same in honor and disgrace.The Holy Lord said: He who hates not the appearance Of light and of activity And delusion. he. O Pandava. Immutable. Nor yet longs for them when absent. He who renders service to Me With unswerving devotion. stone. 132 This is the realization of the liberated person. Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the gunas. He sees earth. Knowing: “The gunas operate. ends the fourteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas. and gold alike. the same in censure and praise. He.”132 22 23 24 25 26 27 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. The same to friend and enemy. Is fit for union with Brahman. The same in pleasure or in pain. Going beyond the three gunas. Abode of the Absolute Bliss. the scripture of Yoga. The Immortal. sitting like one unconcerned. displeasing.” Stands firm and is unwavering. 88 .

Becoming a soul in this world. they never return: “In that Primeval Purusha. Which. 89 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . without desires. attained. There shines neither the moon nor fire. Going whither they return not. That the sun illuminates not. and in the world Below its roots give rise to acts. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal. Takes on the senses and the mind And abides within Prakriti. above. existence.” Without pride. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self.Chapter Fifteen The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit The Holy Lord said: There is th’ eternal Ashwattha With roots above. This its form is not here perceived– Its end. For that is My Supreme Abode. is a Veda-knower. origin. Having cut this firm-rooted tree With the axe of non-attachment– Then that goal is to be sought for. the leaves. Fount of actions. I seek refuge. Nourished by the gunas. he who Knows it. An eternal part of Myself. Below. its buds Are sense-objects. branches below. The sacred hymns. spread its branches.

I support All beings with My energy. Dwelling within living beings In the form of digestive fire. as the wind takes the scents From their seats: the flowers and herbs. When He departs. I Myself cause all plants to thrive. Even though striving. That which is in the moon and fire– Know that light to be Mine as well.When the Lord obtains a body And when He leaves it. Thus presiding over the ear. the touch. Do I digest the fourfold food. Joined with prana and apana. Accompanied by the gunas. unintelligent. remains. The yogis. striving. the smell– As also the “sense” of the mind– He experiences objects. The light which resides in the sun. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 90 . enjoys. Author. He takes these And goes. The eye. behold Him Dwelling within themselves. I am seated within all hearts. see Him not. knowledge. That light illumines the whole world. Memory. and Knower. but the Unrefined. the taste. The deluded do not see Him– Those with the eye of knowledge see. and their loss Proceed from Me: for I am the Veda’s Goal. Entering the earth. Having become the wat’ry moon.

Two Purushas are in this world– The Changing and the Unchanging. 133 Purushottama 91 . ends the fifteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit. 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. knowing all. Kutastha is the Unchanging. thus worships Me With all his heart. one awakes To the highest enlightenment– All his duties thus accomplished. free from delusion. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. All beings comprise the Changing. But there is also the Supreme Purusha. O Bharata. He. I transcend the Changing and am Above even the Unchanging. called the Highest Self.133 He who. Immutable Lord. Who pervades All the three worlds and sustains them. So in this world and the Veda I am called the Supreme Spirit. thus Knows Me as the Supreme Spirit. the science of the Eternal. the scripture of Yoga. Knowing this most secret teaching Imparted by Me.

ignorance– All these qualities belong to One born for a demonic136 state. 136 135 92 .” Daivim: The state of a deva or “shining one. gentleness. truth. fortitude. anger. harshness. serenity. Tranquillity. forgiveness. non-calumny. Purity. but do not grieve: You are born for a divine state. Truthfulness. Austerity. The demonic. Flamboyance. veracity. absence of anger. The divine state is deemed to make For liberation–for bondage. sacrifice. one who dwells in darkness (a-sura–without the light). Uncovetousness. compassion. modesty. firmness in Knowledge and yoga. Sense-control. gentleness. compassion for beings. Harmlessness. It is: “Non-injury.” In this instance it means those positive souls who are progressing toward divinity. renunciation. Absence of pride–all these belong To one born for a divine135 state. absence of hatred. Self-conceit.Chapter Sixteen The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal The Holy Lord said: Courage. absence of anger.134 Boldness. almsgiving. study. the complete list could not be given. and uprightness. Here it means those negative souls who are turned away from divinity and moving further into degredation of consciousness and mode of life. absence of fickleness. purity. freedom from desire. renunciation. arrogance. 1 2 3 4 5 134 To maintain the meter. Asurim: The state of an asura.

All this is mine. Purity is not found in them. and Arrogance. With lust for cause–what else?” say they. they foully work. without God. Without a basis. bent on its destruction. Holding this view. The divine type has been described. Now hear of the demonic type. nor is truth. Given over to lust and wrath. Beset with immense cares ending Only with death. pride. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 93 . Those of demonic nature know Not what to do or refrain from. They strive to gain by unjust means Wealth for sensual enjoyment. and regarding Gratification of lust as The highest–feeling it is all.There are two types of beings in This world: divine and demonic. these ruined souls Small-minded and of cruel deeds Arise as the enemies of The world. Filled with insatiable desires. holding evil thoughts Through delusion. “This today has been gained by me. Bound by a hundred ties of hope. and now this wealth Also shall be mine in future. And this desire I shall obtain. “The universe is without truth. Full of hypocrisy. Nor is good conduct. Produced by mutual union.

therefore one Should forsake ev’ry one of these. Power. They sacrifice in name. anger. they fall into a foul hell. and happy. for show. give. and more I shall slay. Perfect. and greed. “Who else is equal unto me? I will sacrifice. Led astray by many fancies. And deluded birth after birth. Entering the demonic wombs. These malicious evildoers. powerful. triple is this gate of hell. Covered by delusion’s meshes. most degraded of men. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 94 . insolence. I am successful. For I am the Lord. Cruel. I hurl perpetu’lly into Only the wombs of demons here. lust and wrath. Addicted to gratifying Lust. stubborn. rejoice. Not attaining to Me. Given over to egoism. they fall Into still lower conditions. “I am rich and well-born.“I slew that enemy.” they say. Yea. These malignant people hate Me In both themselves and in others. Self-conceited.” Thus deluded by ignorance. That is destructive of the self– Lust. Contrary to the prescribed forms. filled with The pride and foolishness of wealth. I enjoy.

The scriptures should be your guide in What should be done and what should not. the science of the Eternal. 95 . nor Goal Supreme. Nor happiness. ends the sixteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal. And thus goes to the Goal Supreme. 22 23 24 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. the scripture of Yoga. Knowing what the scriptures prescribe. Practices what is good for him.The man who has got beyond these Three gates of darkness. You should act here within the world. Attains not unto perfection. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Arjuna.

spirits of the dead. Know them as of demonic will. doing sacrifice With faith. he is what his faith is. rajasic. Bhutas are ghosts and also various kinds of low-evolved spirits. Yea. rakshasas. senseless as they are. what is their condition: Sattwa. Do you hear of it. or rajas. The sattwic men worship the gods. or tamas? The Holy Lord said: Threefold is the embodieds’ faith Inherent within their nature– The sattwic. the man consists of his faith. In truth. 1 2 3 4 5 6 137 138 Pretas are ghosts. And Me. and the Tamasic.138 Those of extreme austerities– Unscriptural–given to show And egoity.Chapter Seventeen The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith Arjuna said: Those who set aside prescriptions Of scriptures. Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. impelled by The force of lust and attachment. 96 . the body’s indweller. The others–the tamasic men– The pretas137 and hosts of bhutas. Do torture. All the organs in the body. Rajasic: Yakshas.

the rajasic like– Producing pain. and disease. stinking. teachers. purity. cheerfulness. Is tamasic in character. Seeking for fruit. Cooked overnight. purity. That which is stale. or gifts. Hear from Me now their distinction. This is the truth. appetite. 139 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 That is. And burning. agreeable. Intent. dry. Worship of gods. Arjuna. as is sacrifice. is sattwic. without offering to the priests.139 or faith. Know that to be a sacrifice Rajasic in its character. Sacrifice unscriptural and Without the offering of food. refuse. continence. Is the food the tamasic like. pungent. impure. Foods that are bitter. Without mantras. Straightforwardness. That sacrifice which is offered Without desire for reward and According to scriptures’ command. Excessively hot. Health. grief. Savory. and for vain show.The food also liked by each one Is threefold. tasteless. joy. as duty. and Substantial–such the sattwic like. non-injury– Are austerity of body. sour. strength. salty. 97 . Austerity. That which is performed. twice-born. Food building life. O Arjuna. The wise. and almsgiving.

worship. silence. agreeable. to one worthy– That gift is held to be sattwic. or again Reluctantly. is rajasic. and transitory. and with Ostentation. is called tamasic. to unworthy persons. This threefold austerity done With highest faith by those without Desire for fruit. is rajasic. The gift given at the wrong place Or time. or Looking for the fruit. also steadfast Is considered to be sattwic. Kindliness. Honesty of motive–all this Is called mental austerity. 98 . Done out of a foolish notion. That gift which is given to one Who does no service in return. Austerity with self-torture. Without respect or with disdain. 140 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Satkara–hospitality with honor. beneficial. True. That is declared as tamasic. practice of Self-study–these are said to form What is austerity of speech. self-control. Unstable. Austerity practiced to gain Welcome.Unvexing speech. In a fit place. And what is given with a view To receiving in return. Or for the purpose of harming Another.140 honor. Steady serenity of mind.

And austerity then performed By seekers of liberation. gift.“Om. and Sacrifice. the science of the Eternal.”142 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Tat. whate’er austerity Is practiced without faith. gifts. Unreal or false. Sacrifice.” By the expounders of Brahman. ends the seventeenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith. the scripture of Yoga. Uttering “Tat.” without desire For fruits–thus are sacrifice. Or done. “Sat” is used with the meaning of Reality and of goodness.” Whate’er is sacrificed. is known Here or hereafter as “Asat. given. Steadfastness in sacrifice. By That were created of old Brahmins. 141 142 Real or true. austerities According to the scriptures. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Sat. are Begun with utterance of “Om.” this has been declared The triple title of Brahman. 99 . And austerity is called “Sat:”141 Also action in connection With these is designated “Sat. So also the word “Sat” is used In the sense of auspicious acts. Vedas. gift.

143 O Hrishikesha.144 Krishna. gift. Should still be performed. austerity. gift.Chapter Eighteen The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation Arjuna said: I desire to know sev’rally. Sacrifice. but done. But even these works. Sacrifice. Some say action should be renounced As an evil. the truth of Sannyasa. O mighty-armed one. austerity Are purifying to the wise. such is My best and certain conviction.” 100 . “casting aside. Arjuna. And gift should not be relinquished. though leaving Attachment and the fruits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 143 144 Renunciation. Hear the conclusion regarding Tyaga. The Holy Lord said: Renouncing desire-based actions Sages consider sannyasa: Abandonment of all works’ fruits The wise declare to be tyaga. austerity– Should not be relinquished. O Tiger of Men. while others say That sacrifice. “turning from. As also of tyaga.” Abandonment. O best of Bharatas. Tyaga has been declared to be Of three kinds.

But the renunciation of Required action is not proper. The presiding divinity. And that which is also the fifth. The relinquishment of action From fear of trouble or of pain. Relinquishers of sattwic kind. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 101 . Learn from Me these five causes for The accomplishment of all works As are declared in the Sankhya Which is the end of all action: The body. The functions of manifold kind. But not to the relinquishers. hate not Uncongenial work. When work is done only because It should be done. Abandonment from delusion Is declared to be tamasic. the senses. Steadfast. agent. But the relinquishing of fruits Of action is relinquishment. That relinquishment is sattwic. nor are they Attached to the congenial work. with doubts dispelled. congenial. leaving aside Attachment and the fruit as well. The threefold fruit of all action– Uncongenial. mixed– Accrues to non-relinquishers. Producing not the fruit thereof. Actions cannot be entirely Relinquished by the embodied. Is rajasic relinquishment.

Know that knowledge as rajasic. With intelligence untainted. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 102 . speech. Confined to a single effect As the whole. from the distinction of Gunas: hear them also duly. But that by which in all are seen Many beings of many kinds As diff’rent from one another. and the mind– Whether right or just the reverse– These five alone are its causes. and the knower Form the threefold cause of action. The instrument. and agent are Declared by Sankhya to be of Three kinds. as the agent– He of distorted mind sees not. The Absolute. action. and without reason Or basis in truth. He who is free from egoism. agent Are the threefold base of action. neither is he bound. He kills not. trivial– Know that knowledge as tamasic. the known. That by which in all is seen the One Indestructible Substance Inseparate in the sep’rate– Know that knowledge to be sattwic. Knowledge.Whate’er action a man performs By his body. Knowledge. He who through a non-purified Understanding looks on his Self. Although he kills all these people. purpose.

Bondage and freedom. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 103 . That intellect which knows the paths Of work and renunciation. endued with courage and Ardor. And free from any attachment Know that action is called sattwic. easily elated Or dejected. is sattwic. greedy. With self-conceit and much effort.Action without love or hatred And without desire for the fruit. obstinate. According to the three gunas Exhaustively and severally. Despondent. malignant. desirous of Action’s fruits. dishonest. Loss. Impure. Now hear the triple distinction Of intellect and fortitude. procrastinating– Such an agent is tamasic. fear. Action done desiring desires. Right and wrong acts. O Dhananjaya. know as truth: That action is called rajasic. Wicked. indolent. vulgar. damage. Action that’s done through delusion. and unaffected in Success or failure. Unsteady. is sattwic. An agent free from attachment. fearlessness. Without heed to the consequence. or ability: Know that action as tamasic. is rajasic. One passionate. Humble.

and seeing all things Distortedly. fear. prana. despondency. Now hear from Me of the threefold Happiness whose enjoyment is Learned by practice. That which is like poison at first. Born of self-realization’s light– That happiness is called sattwic. Fortitude by which the functions Of the mind. That fortitude is tamasic. That intellect enveloped in Darkness. and overweening conceit. That arising from the contact Of object with sense–at first like Amrit’ but like poison at last– That happiness is rajasic. unswerving By means of yoga is sattwic.That intellect of mistaken Apprehension of dharma and Adharma. That intellect is rajasic. is tamasic. and wealth. regarding adharma As dharma. That by which the stupid does not Give up sleep. and by which one Attains unto the end of pain. of right and wrong acts. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 104 . and senses Are regulated. That by which one regulates the Mind to dharma. Grief. From attachment to all their fruits. That fortitude is rajasic. But like amrita at the end. desire.

Are the duties of the Vaishyas. discernment. There is no entity on earth. Valor. Man attains highest perfection. as also of Shudras. From Whom all beings do come forth. sloth. Or in heaven among the gods. Devoted to his own duty. sovereignty– These are duties of Kshatriyas. patience. trade. That is declared as tamasic. Knowledge. A man attains to perfection. that now hear from Me. and skill. The duties are distributed According to guna-nature. And Shudras’ duty is service– Arising from innate nature. and miscomprehension. piety– These are the duties of Brahmins. courage. By Whom all this is pervaded. uprightness. splendor. husbandry. 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 105 .That which begins and results in Self-delusion arising from Sleep. Also not fleeing from battle. Agriculture. restraint. Generosity. Calmness. Arjuna. Worshipping Him with his duty. austerity Purity. Born of Prakriti. Of Brahmins and Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Found devoid of these three gunas. How by his duty he attains Perfection.

” and tranquil– He’s fit for union with Brahman. Abstemious. The duty to which one is born Should not be relinquished. Attains by renunciation To perfect freedom from action. Relinquishing the sense-objects. for as the fire by smoke So defect envelops all deeds. Arjuna. With body. and mind controlled. speech. though imperfect. although Faulty. He whose mind is ever detached. Is better than another’s though Done to perfection. Forsaking ego. freed from The notion of “mine. learn from Me in brief How. One with Brahman. 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 106 . e’er engaged in Meditation. Dwelling in a secluded place. Neither grieving nor desiring. The same to all. he thus attains Supreme devotion unto Me. Endued with a pure intellect. With subdued heart. possessiveness. Lust. that supreme Consummation of all knowledge. having reached such perfection. Leaving attraction and hatred. The duty Of one’s own nature brings no ill. tranquil-minded. Subduing body and senses. wrath. dispassionate. pride.One’s own dharma. power. He attains Brahman. without desires.

Though doing all actions always. He forthwith enters into Me. Desire not to do. as to the highest goal. you shall have To do–though in spite of yourself. What and Who I am. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 107 . You wrongly think: “I will not fight. If. Resorting to buddhi-yoga. you shall by My grace surmount all obstacles. Thus ever fix your mind on Me. But if from self-conceit you will Not hear Me. For your nature will compel you. causing Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine.Devoted. then having Known Me in My reality. he knows Me in truth. O Bharata.” In vain shall be this your resolve. what you. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. Resigning mentally all deeds To Me. By My grace he attains to the Eternal. filled with pride and self-conceit. With mind fixed on Me. deluded. with all your heart Take refuge in Him. then you shall perish. Fettered by your karma born of Your nature. Always taking refuge in Me. immutable State. and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode. O Arjuna.

You shall reach Me.” 145 108 . 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 “This shall not be spoken of by you to one who is without austerity. Nor among men is there any Who does dearer service to Me. Relinquishing all dharmas. Now hear again My supreme word. Fill your mind with Me.145 He who with supreme devotion To Me teaches this most supreme Secret unto My devotees Shall doubtless come to Me alone. nor to one who does not render service. nor to one who does not desire to listen. because you Are dearly beloved of Me. wherefore grieve not. Or one who renders not service. Therefore I shall speak for your good. nor to one who is without devotion. then do as you please. Nor shall there be another on The earth dearer to Me than he. been declared To you by Me. Most secret of all. Never speak this to one without Austerities or devotion. Then I shall fully liberate You from all sins. for truly I Promise you–you are dear to Me. Or to one who cavils at Me. you Should take refuge in Me alone. Sacrifice and bow down to Me. now reflect on It fully.Thus has wisdom. more secret than All other secrets. devoted. nor to one who speaks evil of Me.

By grace of Vyasa have I heard This supreme. Himself the one declaring it. And I have gained my memory Through Your grace. This is My certain conviction. I recall again and again This wondrous. Direct from Krishna. Full of faith and free from scoffing.And he who studies this sacred Dialogue of ours. destroyed is my delusion. He. shall worship Me by knowledge’s sacrifice. By you with a one-pointed mind? Moreover. holy dialogue Between Krishna and Arjuna And rejoice again and again. I will do Your word. Has this been heard. Sanjaya said: Thus have I heard this wonderful Dialogue of Vasudeva And the high-souled son of Pritha. O Pritha’s son. shall attain The happy worlds of the righteous. liberated. Causing my hair to stand on end. 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 109 . and my doubts are gone. And even that man who hears this. I am firm. most secret yoga. has the delusion Of your ignorance been destroyed? Arjuna said: Yea. Yoga’s Lord.

Yoga’s Lord. ends the eighteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation. 77 78 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. victory. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. there are Splendor. Where’er is Arjuna. and I rejoice again and again. 110 . Where’er is Krishna. Great is my wonder. O King. the science of the Eternal. wealth.As I recall and recall that Most wonderful form of Hari. and right Order: such is my conviction. the scripture of Yoga.

I am The beginning. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower. To be the Knower in all Fields. and whose eyes were filled With tears. 3) Know Me also.Sri maharshi gita 1) Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity. O Bharata. 4) I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. and Also the end of all beings. downcast and despairing. the middle. 111 . The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge. Madhusudana spoke these words: 2) The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. 146 2:1 13:1 13:2 10:20146 Sri Ramana Maharshi said that this verse is the quintessence of the Gita–the Gita in a single verse.

There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. eternal. Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. primeval. 9) The unreal never comes to be. eternal self. The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth. nor yet does it die. 7) This self cannot be cut. perpetu’l. Birthless. Nor wetted. death is sure. birth is sure. 10) As the all-pervading ether. 6) Neither is the Self slain. It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. Through subtlety is not tainted. Immovable. 2:27 2:20 2:24 2:17 2:16 13:32 112 . nor dried: ’tis changeless. Therefore you never should lament. nor burnt. 8) That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. Over the unavoidable. The real does never cease to be. Of that which is dead. All-pervading and unmoving.5) Of that which is born.

Seen in reality. 16) By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. 15:5 14) He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. Scorcher of Foes. without desires. also Entered into. Nor happiness. 15) The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. Attaining Which they return not. deathless in the dying.11) That the sun illuminates not. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self. Going whither they return not. 15:6 8:21 13) Without pride. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal. 12) The unmanifest. This is My supreme dwelling place. 16:23 13:27 11:54 113 . There shines neither the moon nor fire. nor Goal Supreme. eternal. Attains not unto perfection. For that is My Supreme Abode. Is declared as the Supreme Goal.

17:3 4:39 10:10 10:11 5:16 3:42 114 . like the sun. he is what his faith is.17) Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. Attains this knowledge. 19) To them. Worshipping Me with affection. the constantly steadfast. In truth. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. And the master of his senses. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge. and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace. 21) But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. I. Abiding in their hearts. 22) Above the body are senses. the man consists of his faith. Yea. 20) Out of compassion for them. 18) The man of faith. Above the mind is intellect. Above the senses is the mind. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me. Above the intellect: the self. and devoted.

and restraining The self by the Self. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana. 26) Released from desire and anger. 25) Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. 3:43 4:37 4:19 5:26 6:25 6:26 115 . He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing.23) Thus. Moving here and there. knowing Him Who is above The intellect. O Arjuna. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this. wanders off. that foe: desire. With the mind fastened on the self. 27) With intellect set in patience. then destroy That enemy. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. In the same way. 24) As fire reduces wood to ash. With thoughts restrained. those ascetics Who know the Self. He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. 28) Whenever the unsteady mind.

For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess.” How very rare is that great soul! 34) When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. sees The Self present in all beings. He sees the same Self at all times. disciplined by yoga. fear. as well. And all beings within the Self. 30) He. He is called “of steady wisdom. Freed from desire. And he is dear to Me.29) Controlling sense. mind. and anger: Such a sage is for ever free. excels. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind. intellect. the wise man. 31) Those who direct their thoughts to Me. 33) At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me. His self satisfied by the self. He knows: “All is Vasudeva. With moksha as the supreme goal.” 5:28 6:29 9:22 7:17 7:19 2:55 116 . 32) Of them. e’er steadfast. Devoted to the One. Supremely dear am I to him.

40) Content with what comes unbidden. Who is pleased only in the self: For him there is no need to act. Beyond duality.35) He who abandons all desires Attains peace. Who is satisfied in the Self. causing 147 2:71 12:15 14:25 3:17 3:18 4:22 Pronounced as four syllables. he is not bound. And whom the world agitates not. The same to friend and enemy. And no need of any being For any purpose soever. fear. 38) He who is content in the Self.147 36) He who agitates not the world. 117 . Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the Gunas. Nothing to gain by inaction. 37) The same in honor and disgrace. The same in success or failure. 39) He has nothing to gain by acts. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. Who is freed from joy. envy. E’en though acting. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. acts free from longing. 41) O Arjuna. And worry–he is dear to Me. envy.

18:61 18:62 148 These four lines where written by Sri Ramana to be included in the recitation of the forty-two verses he selected as the essence of the Gita’s teachings. Spoke the Gospel to Arjuna And removed his distress. Om. and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode. He.Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine. may that Embodiment of Grace save us!148 Om Tat sat. 42) O Bharata. Who seated in Arjun’s car. 118 . with all your heart Take refuge in Him.

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