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the resistor colour code Resistance is measured in ohms.MBDin. Resistor values . On circuit diagrams the is usually omitted and the value is written 270K. 1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 .fleeforum. Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands.com – www. Connecting and soldering Resistors may be connected either way round. Most resistors have 4 bands: • • • • The Resistor Colour Code .com 0092 3217741545 . this may be ignored for almost all circuits This resistor has red (2). Each colour represents a number as shown in the table. So its value is 270000 = 270 k . Resistor values are normally shown using coloured bands. The second band gives the second digit. Colour Number Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The first band gives the first digit. violet (7). The third band indicates the number of zeros. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor. for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED.Resistors Example: Circuit symbol: Function Resistors restrict the flow of electric current. the symbol for ohm is an omega 1 is quite small so resistor values are often given in k and M .
fleeforum.com 0092 3217741545 . A resistor is used with a capacitor in a timing circuit. Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) Variable Resistor (Preset) Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit.com – www. Examples include: adjusting lamp brightness. It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal. This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (a potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage. Presets are cheaper than normal variable resistors so they are often used in projects to reduce the cost. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.Resistors Component Resistor Circuit Symbol Function of Component A resistor restricts the flow of current.MBDin. adjusting motor speed. for example to limit the current passing through an LED. Some publications still use the old resistor symbol: Variable Resistor (Rheostat) This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a rheostat) is usually used to control current.
com 0092 3217741545 . It can also be used as a filter.MBDin. µ (micro). polarised Variable Capacitor Trimmer Capacitor Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment Capacitor. so 1000000µF = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth). to block DC signals but pass AC signals. to block DC signals but pass AC signals. so 1000nF = 1µF p means 10-12 (million-millionth). Three prefixes (multipliers) are used. n (nano) and p (pico): • • • µ means 10-6 (millionth). A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit.fleeforum. This type must be connected the correct way round.Capacitors Function Capacitors store electric charge. 1F is very large Value so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. Capacitance is measured in farads. It can also be used as a filter. A variable capacitor is used in a radio tuner. This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. so 1000pF = 1nF Capacitors Component Capacitor Circuit Symbol Function of Component A capacitor stores electric charge.com – www. A capacitor stores electric charge. They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals. symbol F.
The diagram shows how they are connected. Zener diodes Example: a = anode. A special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across its terminals. Zener Diode Photodiode Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. Diodes Component Diode LED Light Emitting Diode Circuit Symbol Function of Component A device which only allows current to flow in one direction. A light-sensitive diode. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow.MBDin. A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. k = cathode Circuit symbol: Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals.com – www.Diodes Example: Circuit symbol: Function Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction.com 0092 3217741545 .fleeforum. with a resistor in series to limit the current.
the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or .MBDin. Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo.The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs.com 0092 3217741545 .Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Example: Circuit symbol: Function LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them.for cathode . If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method).fleeforum.com – www. but the risk is small unless you are very slow. LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering. Connecting and soldering LEDs must be connected the correct way round.
NC = Normally Closed. for example a 9V battery circuit connected to the coil can switch a 230V AC mains circuit. SPDT = Single Pole. Some DPDT switches have a central off position. Double Throw. Single Throw. SPST = Single Pole.MBDin. Double Throw. This is the switch used to operate a doorbell. 2-way Switch (SPDT) Dual On-Off Switch (DPST) Reversing Switch (DPDT) Relay Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. This switch can be wired up as a reversing switch for a motor. A 2-way changeover switch directs the flow of current to one of two routes according to its position. Single Throw. This type of push switch is normally closed (on). COM = Common. An on-off switch allows current to flow only when it is in the closed (on) position. An electrically operated switch. DPDT = Double Pole. DPST = Double Pole.com 0092 3217741545 . it is open (off) only when the button is pressed. Some SPDT switches have a central off position and are described as 'on-off-on'. A dual on-off switch which is often used to switch mains electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections.com – www.Switches Switches Component Push Switch (push-to-make) Push-to-Break Switch On-Off Switch (SPST) Circuit Symbol Function of Component A push switch allows current to flow only when the button is pressed. NO = Normally Open.fleeforum.
com – www.com 0092 3217741545 .Transistors Transistors Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transistor amplifies current. Transistor NPN Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. Phototransistor A light-sensitive transistor.MBDin.fleeforum. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo.
but strictly a battery is two or more cells joined together. A 'blob' should be drawn where wires are connected (joined). The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). but it is sometimes omitted. AC = Alternating Current. Wires connected at 'crossroads' should be staggered slightly to form two T-junctions. always flowing in one direction. Transformers are used to step up (increase) and step down (decrease) AC voltages. Supplies electrical energy.fleeforum. A safety device which will 'blow' (melt) if the current flowing through it exceeds a specified value. DC = Direct Current.MBDin. DC supply AC supply Fuse Transformer Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. In complex diagrams it is often necessary to draw wires crossing even though they are not connected. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). I prefer the 'bridge' symbol shown on the right because the simple crossing on the left may be misread as a join where you have forgotten to add a 'blob'! Wires joined Wires not joined Power Supplies Component Cell Circuit Symbol Function of Component Supplies electrical energy. as shown on the right. A single cell is often called a battery.Other Usefull Information Wires and connections Component Wire Circuit Symbol Function of Component To pass current very easily from one part of a circuit to another. Battery Supplies electrical energy. Supplies electrical energy.com 0092 3217741545 . Energy is transferred between the coils by the magnetic field in the core. continually changing direction. A battery is more than one cell. Two coils of wire linked by an iron core.com – www. There is no electrical connection between the coils.
Loudspeaker A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Audio and Radio Devices Component Microphone Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transducer which converts sound to electrical energy.MBDin. It is also known as ground. but for mains electricity and some radio circuits it really means the earth.com 0092 3217741545 . It is also known as an antenna.com – www. Amplifier (general symbol) An amplifier circuit with one input. Earphone A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Really it is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component.fleeforum. Piezo Transducer A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. For many electronic circuits this is the 0V (zero volts) of the power supply. Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. Aerial (Antenna) A device which is designed to receive or transmit radio signals.Earth (Ground) A connection to earth.
Meters and Oscilloscope Component Voltmeter Circuit Symbol Function of Component A voltmeter is used to measure voltage. for example a car headlamp or torch bulb.com 0092 3217741545 . Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting. A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. usually 1mA or less. This symbol is used for a lamp which is an indicator. An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be used to measure their voltage and time period. A transducer which converts electrical energy to kinetic energy (motion). Component Lamp (lighting) Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transducer which converts electrical energy to light.com – www. but most people prefer to say voltage! Ammeter An ammeter is used to measure current. This symbol is used for a lamp providing illumination. Ohmmeter Oscilloscope Output Devices: Lamps. Heater. Galvanometer A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter which is used to measure tiny currents.fleeforum. Motor.MBDin. Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo. The proper name for voltage is 'potential difference'. etc. An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance. A transducer which converts electrical energy to heat. for example a warning light on a car dashboard. Lamp (indicator) Heater Motor Bell A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
fleeforum.com 0092 3217741545 . It may have an iron core inside the coil. It can be used as a transducer converting electrical energy to mechanical energy by pulling on something. Inductor (Coil.MBDin. Solenoid) Cel_Phon Repairing - Cel_Phon@yahoo.com – www. A coil of wire which creates a magnetic field when current passes through it.Buzzer A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.