The potential differences in fuel properties Jp-4 properties have been identified,

and the impact that these

properties can have on the performance and durability of engines and fuel system components have been discussed. discuss The purpose of this chapter is to identify the engines and fuel system components used in Army aircraft, the interface between the components and the ·fuel, and identify In general this discussion will address specifIc potential problems. with most components. Materials compatibility can be reduced to elastomer compatibility if one makes the assumption that the synthetic and alternate fuel will meet the same restrictions on corrosion that Jp-4 does. assumption This is a reasonable The since there is no desire to allow corrosiveness in a fuel of elastomers to fuel properties, namely aromatic content, It is sufficient here to say that in

materials compatibility since this is the most significant area of impact

whereas there is pressure to increase the aromatic content of JP-S. sensitivIties higher dynamic were discussed earlier in this report.

aromatic concentrations cause Buna N to swell considerably; while applications and perhaps flexing diaphragms. Quite often the

this is generally not a problem in static seals it can be a problem

compatibility depends on the specific application and whether or not the distress is acceptable or within design limits. A. Army Aircraft The U.S. Army has a variety of jet engine aircraft. the aircraft considered in this program. are helIcopters Table 13 lists the Most five

This list identifies that are powered.by

airframes, engines, aUXiliary power units, and their manufacturers. of the U.S. Army's aircraft different types of engines.

Some of the larger helicopters have airborne


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auxiliary power units. hydraulic power. and other airframe requirements. requirements. Other complexities the number is a design criteria for components to improve depend upon the aircraft design of engines used. and. B. mission The second helicopter crash safety. An extensive survey was conducted with the assistance of AVRADCOM The detailed component personnel to identify the fuel system components. lists are provided as appendices to this report as follows: Appendix A R C Contents Airframe Fuel System Components Engine Fuel System Components APU Fuel System Components 47 . content on low-cycle thermal fatigue These are the major areas of life was discussed earlier in the report as were the impact of viscosity volatility on cold day ignition. Army Aircraft Fuel Systems There are two basic types of fuel systems used in Army aircraft: • • Pressurized versus suction Crashworthy versus non-crashworthy from the fuel cells to The first refers to the method of fuel delivery the engine. All of the fixedThe power. fueling/defueling capabilities. electric effects and These units usually provide starting capability. impact of potential fuel variation on engine performance and durability. in some cases. of reduced fuel hydrogen wing aircraft are powered with either TS3 or T74 turboprop engines. fuel crossfeed capabilities.

check valve is used in the right tank. The incoming fuel A swing/flapper type 48 . H-1 Fuel System The Army has a variety of different models of the H-1 helicopter. fueling is performed at the left fuel-cell filler cap. will fill both tanks through a crossover pipe.1. Fuel is directed to a common From these. fuelAircraft two check valves and two thermal relief valves) and then to the main fuel shutoff valve. The fuel tanks are vented together. system. boost pump is provided manifold valve (containing An electrically-driven. inside each cell. as noted below: Aircraft Type UR-lB UR-lC UR-1D UH-1H UH-1Q UH-1M EH-lH AH-lG TH-1G AH-IS AH-1Q Engine Used T53-L-llD T53-L-I1D T53-L-11D T53-L-13B T53-L-13B T53-L-13B T53-L-13B T53-L-13B T53-L-13B T53-L-703 T53-L-13B have similar Popular Name Huey/Iroquois Huey/Iroquois Buey/Iroquois Huey/Iroquois Huey II roquo1s Huey/Iroquois Huey/Iroquois Cobra Cobra Cobra Cobra fuel systems. Fuel is contained in two interconnected fuel cells. directed through a fuel filter to the engine fuel pump/fuel level sensors are used for total fuel quantity and low fuel indication. Figure centrifugal 9 The Huey and Cobra aircraft illustrates the fuel system schematic for the AS-lG. Sump drain valves are provided at low points in each fuel cell. the fuel is control Capacitance-type.


then passes through the other half of the fuel outlet valve (tn-line fuel Vent valves 50 . is somewhat in five fuel cells interconnected to Two forward cells are An Three cells are located across the fuselage below deck with a filler cap on the right cell. (located under the cabin floor and gravity fed from the aft cells) provided with a fuel boost pump.and to the engine. 2. pump is also used in the left and right fuel cells. Figure 10 shows a schematic representation of the fuel system. fuel then passes through two check valves in a single outlet manifold an electrically controlled main fuel shutoff valve. single-engine.The fuel system used in the UH-l (no figure provided) different. observation helicopter This breakaway Fuel may be introduced into the aircraft by gravity or through Two interconnected self-sealing boost The fuel are Fuel is directed from a submerged centrifugal a closed-circuit fuel receiver assembly. the fuel then goes to a fuel filter. and and vented to the together is a small. center. H-6 Fuel System The H-6 aircraft designated as the OH-6A. separate located pressure is delivered from the boost pumps through check valve manifold The right pump is electrically operated Fuel under lines to a The to on the front of the engine firewall. crashworthy fittings. pump to a submerged fuel shutoff valve to a fuel outlet valve. right-hand atmosphere. helicopter has self-sealing hoses and several Sump drain valves are provided. shutoff valve system. bladders· are used. valves to relieve thermal expansion of trapped inoperative. fuel cells are interconnected fuel when As in the AH-IG fuel The fuel 1s and each check valve in the manifold have internal bypass the system The left-hand. valve) through a self-sealing hose to the engine. ejector and the left pump is driven by bleed air from the engine compressor. the engine The fuel is contained act as a single tank.

.-+-'(1. -0 +-' e a:: ....... Q) ClJ ..... ro "O~ t:"1tI .It:E ::::IOUJ >..C'l ClJ ClJ eLL.co VI.1 (I..... ..J ClI c:: +-' 1-+-'1tI+-' I z.-:::JVi Q)Q)...J U Vi .-:::JVI e ........0 +-'..... t: e 0.....c::: ct! III t...:::J . .- ViClJ ::I: LL.j.. :::J ..l E ..- o (I) :::J III III * w.:I UU>.. . . o s..... Q) roro u3: Q) I..( ..(I) IJ. C'l !:: O"t .s::_ :::J04-Q) s.. ' ...:::cu. o I.. 0 It:+-' 4. s.......J .-Q) . OH6A FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 51 ....... Q) ~. .. .c.. .... s. •• s..--+-...W4-E 4-... ClI ClJ .J...-..... ClJ V) e O"t s-s.. .. ClJ ...':l u . C'l..-..0 ClI E VI . > "0 Q) C'l +-'>... -. u> s.. .o . Q) Q) '+4..J.. U t: UIJ........Q) ClJ III (1)'-'" roLL. :::J u ..u.... VI s....._ ..s: ....u- FIGURE 10..

a thermal-relief check valves along with three fuel-level measuring probes. 3.located forward and aft of the fuel cells and are interconnected emergency shutoff overboard vent system. with two auxiliary tanks forward. level of the fuel is sensed by a float-lever-electrical than the usual capacitance types. has tanks aft. crossfeed capabilities for supply fuel to either or Each fue 1 tank has a submerged check valve and Each of pump with a check valve to ensure proper fuel flow direction.or rotary-wing aircraft. The six fuel The fuel boos other t tanks are di s tr f buted throughout the aircraft. H-47 Fuel System This is the simpl1est fuel system used The fa llowi ng mo dels of the H-47 cargo helicopter are used by the Army: Aircraft Type CH-47A CH~47B CH-47C CH-47D Engine Used TSS-L-7C TSS-L-7C T55-L-ll/llA / ASA/IID/712 TSS-L-712 Popular Name Chinook Chinook Chinook Chinook for This twin-engine aircraft has basically the same type of fuel system all of the models noted above (no figure provided). in any of the Army's fixed. Pressure switches are also provided at the discharge of each of the boost Each tank has two drain valves located at low points in the fuel 52 . The CH-47D model The aircraft uses a t~ have a total of six bladder-type fuel cells that are fueled by six independent is being modified closed-circuit fuel receiver for single point fueling. gravity filler caps. and two more auxiliary system has complete both engines from any fuel tank. the main fuel tanks appropriate pumps. to an The The fuel shutoff valve system rather (mentioned earlier) is actuated from the cockpit by a control cable. two main tanks.

fuel to the forward or aft tanks.provided at low points in the tanks. and auxiliary fuel tanks. fuel Other drain valves are located throughout the system plumbing.ueL cell Loc a-t ed beneath and In back of the pilot's seat. R-58 Fuel System Two Ulodels of the H-s8 helicopter are used: Aircraft Type OR-S8A OR-SSC. A crossfeed valve is provided auxiliary fuel tank has two fuel transfer pumps capable of transferring engIne fuel shutoff valves and an auxiliary-power-unit The aIrcraft is fueled through three closed-circuit Appropriate drain valves are also (one per tank). 5. aft. "-54 Fuel System The fuel system of the twin-engined figure pumps provided) UH-54 utility helicopter (no The along has forward. and a solenoidoperated shutoff valve are also provided for fuel supply to the auxiliary power lIDit. . control panel (located in the cockpit) providasfuel A quantity indication for the fuel tanks and pump control for normal engine fueling and crossfeed control. helicopter f.cells. A separate fuel boost pump.ar Name Kiowa Kiowa Fuel System Noneraahworthy Crashwor-thy ha'S· slngie t-shaped a Only the Thi'B small single-engIne observa t Ion. 4. The main fuel system also has a connection for a ferry fuel tank whIch can be carried inside the helicopter. a manual shutoff valve. with appropriate fuel receivers fuel shutoff valve. 53 . Two boost are used in each of the forward and the aft fue 1 tanks. Engine Used T6-3-A-700 T63-A-720 Popuf.

The fuel system the fuel cell. power unit. As noted in Figure is used in flight.aircraft. valve. 6. 54 . the aircraft can be fueled by gravity and A suction-type fuel system 2 pressurized closed-circuit fueling methods.lower half of the fuel cell is constructed of self-sealing the non-crashworthy OH-58A aircraft. a breakaway the engine. H-60 Fuel System The UH-60A is the Army's newest utility helicopter. layer of purple (fire-explosion suppression) foam is used adjacent to the Foam is not used inside the fuel cells. This crashworthy sealing fuel cells that are supported outside of the fuel cell liners. DH-60A Figure 11 illustrates Two T700-GE-700 for the two selfA 3-inch jet engines are used for propulsion along with an airborne T62 auxiliary the fuel system schematic fuel system utilizes by fiberglass liners. with self-sealing material hoses on and In the crashworthy OR-S8C. valve fuel cell is self-sealing. The fuel is then directed indicate fuel pressure. the entire breakaway fittings. 11. A tank vent is provided Capacitance-type fuel-level sensors monitor the fuel quantity. helicopter. fuel low-level switch is also used to indicate that twenty minutes of fuel remains in the tank. of the The foam (made by the Foam Division of Scott Paper Company) is used to prevent explosions by acting as a void filler around the outside fuel cells. The fuel system serving engine I and the left fuel An electric pump (located outside of the fuel cell is identical to the other half of the fuel system serving engine and the right fuel cell. (no figure provided) uses gravity fueling to f111 A pressure sensor is provided to through a filter to A along with a sump drain-defuel A submerged boost pump is used to supply the fuel through to a shutoff valve.


by a capacitance to shut the fuel off during fueling operations. Two self-sealing auxiliary fuel tanks are used with breakawaYt self-sealing couplings. 7. The UH-60A also has the capability of accepting a range extension kit. lift and transfer transfer the fuel through a check valve. Complete fuel up to the engine Once the engine Is started. Figure 12 shows the fuel system schematic for the auxiliary fuel A system and its connection to the main fuel tanks. valves are used throughout tank is monitored valves are provided used to control the direction of the fuel flow. Fuel may be introduced by gravity or pressure from the forward cell to the aft cell by An air-driven boost pump is used to direct the fuel to the Fuel is transferred 56 . Appropriate vent and fuel tank drain valves are used.bladder) primes all of the fuel lines providing boost pump and the APU pump. fuel cells. vent valves are provided for each tank. engine. the fuel tank. fuel tanks are filled by gravity. is also powered by two T700-GE-700 engines and has an airborne GTP36-55H auxiliary power unit. H-64 Fuel System The YAH-64 is the Army'·s newest preproduction This aircraft attack helicopter called the Apache. The crashworthy fuel system (no ·f1gureprovided) has forward and aft self-sealing fueling. fuel to either engine from either tank. the engine- operated boost pump provides the necessary suction to draw the fuel from crossfeed capabilities are provided to supply Fifteen breakaway self-sealing the fuel system while six check valves are The fuel level in each High-level float control ~robe. Empty tank sensors and appropriate An emergency motor-operated dump valve is also provided. positive-displacement vane pump is used with each auxiliary fuel tanks to A motor-operated· Both of the valve is used to allow the fuel to flow to the main fuel tanks.

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13 illustrates one half of the fuel system used in the C-l2 to Fuel from these tanks is gravity fed Fuel from the feeder tank is A crossfeed valve is Each wing has four nonselfseallng bladders interconnected each other and to a wet wing tank. to the engine by a jet-type transfer pump.means of an external air-driven transfer pump. C-12 Fuel System The C-l2 aircraft is one of the four fixed-wing aircraft used by the Army. and engine fuel shutoff valves. 8. 9. used to interconnect to the other engine and the other half of the fuel Check valves and suction relief valves are used throughout the Most of the fuel system along with drain valves and vent float valves. pumped system. The twin-engine aircraft is powered engines of the models noted below: Aircraft OV-IB OV-IC OV-ID RV-ID Engines T53-L-7A T53-L-7A/15 T53-L-70IA T53-L-701A by two Lycoming T53 58 . in the U-2l fixed-wing aircraft. OV-l Fuel System in the Army system components used in the C-12 aircraft are the same as the ones used There is a total of about 200 OV-l fixed-wing aircraft inventory. a fuel transfer valve. Figure aircraft. These commercially-purchased aircraft are powered by two PT6 PWA turboprop engines (T74 is the military designation for the same engine). valves are used throughout the fuel system along with fuel vent valves. tank is also available for mounting An external aluminum fuel Breakaway on the aircraft pylon. to a feeder tank (called a nacelle tank).

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main fuel tank and two ISO-gallon aluminum drop tanks. creating a pressure difference which actuates the solenoid shutoff valve and stops the fueling operation.system pumps are used to transfer tank. fuel reaches the maximum level. is also used as a backup for the forward direction. Avgas. The pilot valve has dual floats. jp-8. During a typical pressure-fueling operation. The gate valves for the right and left engines lef t engi ne and the main fuel tank. (no figure provided) has one self-sealing. and 3) between the right engine and actuated every time the engine is started. 2) between main fuel tan~. with leaded A maximum operation time of 50 hours is allowed for operation using leaded fuel. Fuel is directed to the engines by two submerged dual-impeller boost pumps (one forward and one aft in the main fuel tank). fuel from the drop tanks to the main fuel but gravity fueling capability is also The aircraft is generally fueled/defueled through the single-point provided. the pilot float valve shuts off. As pilot float valve to a solenoid-operated shutoff valve (both of which are the fuel Once the rises in the tank the pilot float valve senses the fuel level. Three motorized gate valves An ejector pump boost pump. extended operation fuels can cause damage to the turbine blades. JP-5.and ball-type) are used to maintain the correct fuel flow are used in this system: between the pressure-refueling and the main fuel tank. The main fuel tank has an access port with a cover assembly. The OV-I fuel. through located the fuel is directed the pressure-fueling adapter to the main fuel tank and through a inside the tank). on JP-4. oval access port uses a large Neoprene gasket This to seal the port to the 60 . and leaded fuels. Vane 350-gallon. Several check 1) the are valves (swing.The OV-l aircraft is qualified to operate unleaded gas. nozzle (pressure fueling).

A total of 370 gallons of usable fuel Is stored in several nonselfThe sealing fuel cells. by a boost pump to the engine.cover. fuel from these cells is directed to a feed tank by gravity and pumped by a transfer pump to another nacelle duplicate Crossfeed tank is pumped system Fuel from the A complete fuel system. No additional information was obtained. each 'powered by two T74 engines. Sinc·e the fuel system uses a large number of fuel cells and has crossfeed ~apabillty. The different Army aircraft types and engine models are noted below: Aircraft U-21A/n/F/G/H RU-21A/O/R/E RU-21B/C Engine T74-CP700 T74-CP700 T74-CP702 Figure 14 illustrates the fuel system used for the RU/U-2l aircraft. IN-18 Fuel System The Army has less than five of the UV-18A fixed-wing aircraft. a large number of check valves are used. Each wing has four interconnected fuel cells. U-21 Fuel System The Army has about 150 U-21 fixed-wing aircraft powered by two Pratt and Whitney T74-CP-700/702 turboprop engines. . is used for the other wing-to-engine capabi li ties are provided to transfer fuel to either engine. fuel cell (nacelle tank). The gasket is exposed to fuel vapors and some fuel sloshing which aggravates the Neoprene material causing it to swell. 10. 11.