SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

UNDER

PRABATH FINANCIAL SERVICES LIMITED
ON

“Study of Fluctuations of Indian Stock Market”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF THE RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA.

SUPERVISED BY:Mr. S. P. Kabra

SUBMITTED BY :Rahul Jajoo

FACITLITY SUPERVISOR:Ms. Shilpi Kuntal

SUBMITTED TO :DEPARTMENT OF MANAGENENT STUDIES, SWAMI KESHVANAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & GRAMOTHAN. JAIPUR

2008-2010

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Certificate

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Acknowledgement

“The completion of any project depends upon the co-operation, coordination and combined efforts of several resources of knowledge, inspiration & energy.” Words fall short acknowledging immense support lent to me yet I will try to give full credit to the deserver's. My sincere thanks goes to Mr. Vikas Shrotriya (HOD DMS) giving me an opportunity to discover more knowledge. I am also thankful to Mr. S. P. Kabra (Director,Prabhat financial services) for his support, guidance and cooperation throughout to accomplish this project also expressing deep sense of gratitude to my Project guide, Ms. Shilpi Kuntal (Lecturer) for her valuable guidance, continuous encouragement and tremendous patience in discussing my problems, have been of the greatest help in bringing out my task in present shape. I am equally grateful to all my other teachers for their complete support. It would be unfair on my part if I do not thank my colleagues for their continuous help without which this work could never have been accomplished. They made me realize the importance of teamwork and also the leadership skills. I am grateful to all of them standing with me and supporting me in this project.

( Rahul Jajoo )

Preface
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This study tells the factor which directly or indirectly affects the market and some basic information not only share market but also other market such as derivatives or commodity market for the new investors or the students who have some interest in stock market. so they will be less volatile than stock prices. The objective of selecting the topic is to know about the market trends of the stock market and the information related to the investment for the future investor. Volatile stock prices do not have a major impact on consumption and capital spending since there is a good chance that price movements in one direction may be reversed. it is necessary to invest consciously in the market whatever it is. this is the study about the last two year fluctuation in stock market which enables the investor in taking decision regarding investment. since it is difficult to assess certainty about future earnings and dividends. This is not easy to prove. The study of fluctuations of stock market makes the investor aquatinted with the factor affecting the investment and Stock prices can be volatile and some analysts argue that this volatility is excessive.In the present situation where stock market is going up and down. Companies tend to smooth dividends. Contents 4 .

3 Objective of Study 2.5 Scope of Study 2. Core Study 4.4 Type of Research 2. SWOT 5.2 Duration of the Project 2.6 Limitation of Study 3. Abstract 2. Conclusion 6. Bibliography Executive summary 5 .1.1 Title of the Study 2. Research Methodology 2.

With the rising price of oil and food.Free markets operate under ‘laissez-fare’ conditions. 6 . particularly if the industry is protected by government legislation. leading to massive money flows constantly changing hands. for the sale or barter of farm produce. or they can be planned and regulated . services. the increased demand will push up prices. seven days a week.A market is an environment that allows buyers and sellers to trade or exchange goods. If there are more buyers than sellers. clothing and tools. although they often maintain a physical location for buyers. Conversely. Some markets are very competitive. Markets are dependent on two major participants – buyers and sellers. such as specialist markets. supermarkets. virtual marketplaces supported by IT networks such as the internet have become the largest and most liquid. These markets may be distorted if a seller gains monopoly power by managing the majority of supply (or indeed if a buyer develops monophony power by managing demand). with a number of vendors selling the same kinds of products or services. The currency markets are the largest continuously traded markets in the world. These kinds of street markets developed into a whole variety of consumer-oriented markets. Although physical markets are still vital. some markets have low or no competition. These interactions define demand and supply characteristics and are therefore fundamental to economies. Buyers and sellers typically trade goods. Twenty four hours a day. Markets originally started as marketplaces usually in the center of villages and towns. sellers and market makers to interact directly. and has become known as the law of supply and demand. Historically. Most stock markets today are primarily electronic networks. Stock markets have become highly complex markets that allow investors to buy shares in companies or in funds that aggregate companies or industries together. services and/ or information. The number of buyers and sellers involved will have a direct bearing on the price of the good or service to be sold. banks. Markets can appear spontaneously when there are goods or services to be exchanged. the availability of supply will push down prices. or even virtual markets such as eBay. investors and consumers are buying and selling every currency. Governments or trade bodies often step in when such distortions undermine the smooth functioning of free markets. in that the government does not intervene in how the market operates. A market can be defined as a place where any type of trade takes place. governments. shopping centers. markets were physical meeting places where buyers and sellers gathered together to trade. Where there are more sellers than buyers. and information.

sugar. Capital goods markets help businesses to buy durable goods to be used in industrial and manufacturing processes. soya beans. then recovered and went up to 500 points up and finally settled for flat closing. Now that's history. gas. cotton.e. corn. Commodities underpin economic activity. coffee. on Tuesday. soft commodities and grains (wheat. etc). it paid off for those who bought. Stock markets are going to be volatile for next few days. meat. frozen orange juice. i. Transactions tend to be wholesale with large quantities of goods being transacted at low prices. oat. and financial commodities such as bonds.This article is a COMPLETE guide to the basics of making money in the stock market! If you are considering investing in the stock market. went till 3oo points down. cocoa. Commodity markets include: energy (oil. Today. rice.commodity markets are once again under the spotlight. markets opened in red. A number of services can also be associated with these goods. coal and increasingly renewable energy sources such as biodiesel). you MUST read this article! We have explained all the concepts and talked about all the "myths" that people have about the stock market! INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION 7 . Everyone has seen it and everyone is wishing if he should have buy stocks before this rally. Albeit it could have been a gamble buying stocks before declaration of election results. So what should a small investor do now? Should he buy stocks or should be selling stocks that he holds.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TITLE OF THE STUDY:8 .

Scientific research is funded by public authorities. a harnessing of curiosity. but need not do so.  To know the ups and downs of stock market of last two years. interpreting. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering. 9 . Research can use the scientific method. and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us.  To forecast or predict the future trend of stock market which helps in investment.“Study of fluctuations of Indian stock market” DURATION OF THE PROJECT:. TYPE OF RESEARCH Research Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.  To know the effect of these fluctuation on the Indian economy.  To get the knowledge of other markets such as commodity market and derivatives. by charitable organizations and by private groups. Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method. including many companies.  To make the investor aware about the factors which may affect their investment.45 days OBJECTIVE OF STUDY  To know the basic terminology of stock market.

analyze and interpret the present conditions. Qualitative descriptive research also emphasizes on what is. Descriptive research can be of two types: i. whoever is conducting the research must comply with strict research requirements in order to obtain the most accurate figures/results possible. SCOPE OF STUDY  Derivatives  Sebi  Stock exchange  Commodity market  Stock market 10 . The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo. For instance. if the research is to return useful results. the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables. this research could be used in order to find out what age group is buying a particular brand of cola. Quantitative descriptive research emphasizes on what is. and makes use of quantitative methods to describe.In this project the research type used is descriptive because this research is the most commonly used and the basic reason for carrying out descriptive research is to identify the cause of something that is happening. whether a company’s market share differs between geographical regions or to discover how many competitors a company has in their marketplace. to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. but makes use of non-quantitative research methods in describing the conditions of the present. record. However. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.

they refer to the data which have already been collected and analysed by someone else. 3. Data Collection: The most important constraint in this study was data collection as Secondary data was selected for study. Reliability: The data collected in research work was secondary data. for doing descriptive research time needed to be more. 11 . Securities  Day trading  Factor affecting Indian stock market  Effect on Indian economy LIMITATIONS Limitations are the limiting lines that restrict the work in some way or other. some of them are as under: 1. this puts a question mark on the reliability of this data. In this research study also their were some limiting factors. which a very important factor of this study as conclusion has been derived from this secondary data only. because in short period you cannot cover each point accurately. 2. So.e. Accuracy: The facts and findings of the data cannot be accepted as accurate to some extent as firstly. 4. So. secondary data was collected. Time Period: Time period was one of the main factor as only one month was allotted and the topic covered in research has a wide scope. Secondary data means data that are already available i. Secondly. it was not possible to cover it in a short span of time.

OTCBB and Pink Sheets. 11 times the size of the entire world economy. these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. e. Function and purpose The stock market is one of the most important sources for companies to raise money.g.Core study Stock market A stock market is a public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. The stock market in the United States includes the trading of all securities listed on the NYSE. This is an attractive feature of investing in stocks. as well as on the many regional exchanges. now part of Euronext. The liquidity that an exchange provides affords investors the ability to quickly and easily sell securities.e. The size of the world stock market was estimated at about $36. a derivative 'bet' on an event occurring is offset by a comparable derivative 'bet' on the event not occurring. cannot be directly compared to a stock or a fixed income security. the NASDAQ. the vast majority of derivatives 'cancel' each other out (i. which traditionally refers to an actual value. or raise additional capital for expansion by selling shares of ownership of the company in a public market.. the Deutsche Börse and the Paris Bourse.) The stocks are listed and traded on stock exchanges which are entities a corporation or mutual organization specialized in the business of bringing buyers and sellers of the organizations to a listing of stocks and securities together. The total world derivatives market has been estimated at about $791 trillion face or nominal value. This allows businesses to be publicly traded.). rather than an actual market price. the Amex.6 trillion US at the beginning of October 2008 . The value of the derivatives market. Moreover. compared to other less liquid investments such as real estate. European examples of stock exchanges include the London Stock Exchange. Many such relatively illiquid securities are valued as marked to model. because it is stated in terms of notional values. 12 .

Exchanges also act as the clearinghouse for each transaction.g.History has shown that the price of shares and other assets is an important part of the dynamics of economic activity. in general. central banks tend to keep an eye on the control and behavior of the stock market and. The major part of this adjustment in financial portfolios has gone directly to shares but a good deal now takes the form of various kinds of institutional investment for groups of individuals. and can influence or be an indicator of social mood. The smooth functioning of all these activities facilitates economic growth in that lower costs and enterprise risks promote the production of goods and services as well as employment. etc. tend to be associated with increased business investment and vice versa. insurance investment of premiums. meaning that they collect and deliver the shares. permitting a 13 . for instance.. pension funds. This eliminates the risk to an individual buyer or seller that the counterparty could default on the transaction. Share prices also affect the wealth of households and their consumption. One feature of this development is disintermediation. has been an important component of this process. in Sweden. The trend towards forms of saving with a higher risk has been accentuated by new rules for most funds and insurance. either directly or through mutual funds. hedge funds. In this way the financial system contributes to increased prosperity. Rising share prices. the stock market is often considered the primary indicator of a country's economic strength and development. on the smooth operation of financial system functions. Financial stability is the raison d'être of central banks. Relation of the stock market to the modern financial system The financial system in most western countries has undergone a remarkable transformation. e. An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up and coming economy. In the 1970s. The general public's heightened interest in investing in the stock market. compared to less than 20 percent in the 2000s. mutual funds. A portion of the funds involved in saving and financing flows directly to the financial markets instead of being routed via the traditional bank lending and deposit operations. In fact. and guarantee payment to the seller of a security. Statistics show that in recent decades shares have made up an increasingly large proportion of households' financial assets in many countries. Therefore. deposit accounts and other very liquid assets with little risk made up almost 60 percent of households' financial wealth.

despite all this available information.000 from seven limited partners consisting of Buffett's family and friends. only folly. investors find it increasingly difficult to profit.[4] Buffett began his career with $100. immersed in chat rooms and message boards. This is certainly more important now that so many newcomers have entered the stock market. The stock market.higher proportion of shares to bonds. individual investors. are exchanging questionable and often misleading tips. or have acquired other 'risky' investments (such as 'investment' property. analysts. 14 . Sometimes there appears to be no rhyme or reason to the market. This is something that could affect not only the individual investor or household.. The quote illustrates some of what has been happening in the stock market during the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. With each passing year. In all developed economic systems. Television commentators. i. Stock prices skyrocket with little reason. the trend has been the same: saving has moved away from traditional (government insured) bank deposits to more risky securities of one sort or another. and $105. in marked contrast to the stability of (government insured) bank deposits or bonds.e. and financial risk Riskier long-term saving requires that an individual possess the ability to manage the associated increased risks. such as the European Union. and people who have turned to investing for their children's education and their own retirement become frightened. Similar tendencies are to be found in other industrialized countries. Over the years he has built himself a multi-billion-dollar fortune. Stock prices fluctuate widely. Japan and other developed nations. individual investors. but also the economy on a large scale. the United States. At the same time. and market strategists are all overtaking each other to get investors' attention. then plummet just as quickly. The following deals with some of the risks of the financial sector in general and the stock market in particular. Yet. the noise level in the stock market rises. This is a quote from the preface to a published biography about the long-term value-oriented stock investor Warren Buffett. real estate and collectables). financial writers.

4(1)(a) of the SEBI Act.Chaired by C B Bhave.in SEBI is the Regulator for the Securities Market in India. 2008 - Total Staff[1] 525 Official Website Website www.Securities and Exchange Board of India SEBI Bhavan.sebi. Originally set up by the Government of India in 1988. Kolkata. .gov. Prior to taking charge as Chairman SEBI. he had been the chairman of NSDL (National Securities Depository Limited) ushering in paperless securities. SEBI is headquartered in the popular business district of Bandra-Kurla complex in Mumbai. Organization Structure Chandrasekhar Bhaskar Bhave is the sixth chairman of the Securities Market Regulator. it acquired statutory form in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being passed by the Indian Parliament. Chennai and Ahmedabad. He is a former Indian Administrative Service officer of the 1975 batch. Maharashtra. he had served SEBI as a Senior Executive Director. India 1992 India Chairman C B Bhave February 16. and has Northern. Prior to his stint at NSDL. Mumbai Headquarters of SEBI Organization Details Headquarters Established Jurisdiction Head Chairman Term Mumbai. The Board comprises[2] Name Mr CB Bhave Designation Chairman SEBI 15 As per CHAIRMAN (S. Eastern. Southern and Western regional offices in New Delhi.

1992) Mr KP Krishnan Joint Secretary. 16 . 1992) Member (S.4(1)(d) of the SEBI Act. Infosys Functions and Responsibilities SEBI has to be responsive to the needs of three groups.4(1)(d) of the SEBI Act. Bhopal Whole Time Member.4(1)(d) of the SEBI Act. Ministry of Finance Secretary. 1992) Mr Anurag Goel Dr G Mohan Gopal Mr MS Sahoo Director. SEBI 1992) Member (S. Though this makes it very powerful. SEBI has three functions rolled into one body quasi-legislative. National Judicial Academy.4(1)(d) of the SEBI Act. SEBI Mr Mohandas Pai Director. 1992) Member (S. There is a Securities Appellate Tribunal which is a three member tribunal and is presently headed by a former Chief Justice of a High court .4(1)(b) of the SEBI Act. A second appeal lies directly to the Supreme Court. there is an appeals process to create accountability. 1992) Dr KM Abraham Whole Time Member. Member (S.Mr. 1992) Member (S. it conducts investigation and enforcement action in its executive function and it passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity. quasi-judicial and quasiexecutive. Justice NK Sodhi. It drafts regulations in its legislative capacity. which constitute the market: • • • the issuers of securities the investors the market intermediaries.4(1)(b) of the SEBI Act. Ministry of Corporate Affairs Member (S.

Usually there is a central location at least for recordkeeping. To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange. The role of stock exchanges Stock exchanges have multiple roles in the economy. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of securities as well as other financial instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. (formerly a securities exchange) is a corporation or mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for stock brokers and traders. stock exchanges are part of a global market for securities. This is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Raising capital for businesses 17 . as in all free markets. Increasingly. which gives them advantages of speed and cost of transactions. Such trading is said to be off exchange or over-the-counter.SEBI has enjoyed success as a regulator by pushing systemic reforms aggressively and successively (e. it has to be listed there. affect the price of stocks (see stock valuation).g. as modern markets are electronic networks. Trade on an exchange is by members only. A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets is driven by various factors which. SEBI has been active in setting up the regulations as required under law. to trade stocks and other securities. unit trusts. The securities traded on a stock exchange include: shares issued by companies. pooled investment products and bonds. the quick movement towards making the markets electronic and paperless rolling settlement on T+2 basis). There is usually no compulsion to issue stock via the stock exchange itself. this may include the following: 1. derivatives. The initial offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. nor must stock be subsequently traded on the exchange. Stock exchange A stock exchange. but trade is less and less linked to such a physical place.

Corporate governance By having a wide and varied scope of owners. A takeover bid or a merger agreement through the stock market is one of the simplest and most common ways for a company to grow by acquisition or fusion.Redistribution of wealth Stock exchanges do not exist to redistribute wealth. 2.Mobilizing savings for investment When people draw their savings and invest in shares. 3. through dividends and stock price increases that may result in capital gains.The Stock Exchange provide companies with the facility to raise capital for expansion through selling shares to the investing public. are mobilized and redirected to promote business activity with benefits for several economic sectors such as agriculture. it is alleged that public companies (companies that are owned by shareholders who are members of the general public and trade shares on public exchanges) tend to have better management records than privately-held companies (those companies where shares are not publicly traded. resulting in stronger economic growth and higher productivity levels and firms. or kept in idle deposits with banks. companies generally tend to improve on their management standards and efficiency in order to satisfy the demands of these shareholders and the more stringent rules for public corporations imposed by public stock exchanges and the government. which could have been consumed. 5. hedge against volatility. commerce and industry. both casual and professional stock investors. often owned by the company founders and/or their families and 18 . Consequently. will share in the wealth of profitable businesses. it leads to a more rational allocation of resources because funds. increase distribution channels. However.Facilitating company growth Companies view acquisitions as an opportunity to expand product lines. or acquire other necessary business assets. 4. increase its market share.

largely. are classical examples of corporate mismanagement. The dot-com bubble in the early 2000s. investing in shares is open to both the large and small stock investors because a person buys the number of shares they can afford. Sunbeam (2001). or financial crisis could eventually lead to a stock market crash. thus loaning money to the government. the result is that the government must tax the citizens or otherwise raise additional funds to make any regular coupon payments and refund the principal when the bonds mature. on market forces. Therefore the Stock Exchange provides the opportunity for small investors to own shares of the same companies as large investors. Enron Corporation (2001). Parmalat (2003). Companies like Pets. and the subprime mortgage crisis in 2007-08. 7. Lehman Brothers (2008). 9. An economic recession. 8. These bonds can be raised through the Stock Exchange whereby members of the public buy them. Share prices tend to rise or remain stable when companies and the economy in general show signs of stability and growth. 19 .Creating investment opportunities for small investors As opposed to other businesses that require huge capital outlay. The issuance of such bonds can obviate the need to directly tax the citizens in order to finance development. although by securing such bonds with the full faith and credit of the government instead of with collateral. American International Group (2008). MCI WorldCom (2002).heirs. depression.Government capital-raising for development projects Governments at various levels may decide to borrow money in order to finance infrastructure projects such as sewage and water treatment works or housing estates by selling another category of securities known as bonds. Therefore the movement of share prices and in general of the stock indexes can be an indicator of the general trend in the economy. or otherwise by a small group of investors).com (2000). Webvan (2001).Barometer of the economy At the stock exchange. some well-documented cases are known where it is alleged that there has been considerable slippage in corporate governance on the part of some public companies. and Satyam Computer Services (2009) were among the most widely scrutinized by the media. One. However. share prices rise and fall depending.Tel (2001). Adelphia (2002).

The BSE Index.79 trillion . 2007 stood at USD 1. which for easy reference. as its strategic partners. Apart from the SENSEX. BSE is the world's number 1 exchange in terms of the number of listed companies and the world's 5th in transaction numbers. Over the past 133 years. pursuant to the BSE (Corporatisation and Demutualisation) Scheme. It migrated from the open outcry system to an online screen-based order driven trading system in 1995. B. BSE has facilitated the growth of the Indian corporate sector by providing it with an efficient access to resources. An investor can choose from more than 4. With demutualisation. BSE offers 21 indices. and is sensitive to market sentiments and market realities. It is an index of 30 stocks representing 12 major sectors. SENSEX. and is tracked worldwide. What is now popularly known as BSE was established as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers' Association" in 1875. are classified into A. Earlier an Association Of Persons (AOP). BSE has two of world's best exchanges. S. The SENSEX is constructed on a 'free-float' methodology.700 listed companies. T and Z groups. 1956. including 12 sectoral indices. BSE has entered into an index cooperation agreement with Deutsche Börse. BSE is the first stock exchange in the country which obtained permanent recognition (in 1956) from the Government of India under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956. BSE is now a corporatised and demutualised entity incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act. This agreement has made 20 .Bombay Stock Exchange Introduction Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in Asia with a rich heritage. There is perhaps no major corporate in India which has not sourced BSE's services in raising resources from the capital market. Today. Deutsche Börse and Singapore Exchange. now spanning three centuries in its 133 years of existence. is India's first stock market index that enjoys an iconic stature . BSE's pivotal and pre-eminent role in the development of the Indian capital market is widely recognized. 2005 notified by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The market capitalization as on December 31.

debt instruments and derivatives. the global leader in ETFs through its iShares® brand. The systems and processes are designed to safeguard market integrity and enhance transparency in operations. While the Directors Database provides a single-point access to information on the boards of directors of listed companies. it has become the first national level stock exchange to launch its website in Gujarati and Hindi to reach out to a larger number of investors. BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in equity. trading. It is also the first exchange in the country and second in the world to receive Information Security Management System Standard BS 7799-2-2002 certification for its BSE On-line Trading System (BOLT).SENSEX and other BSE indices available to investors in Europe and America. It has successfully launched a reporting platform for corporate bonds in India christened the ICDM or Indian Corporate Debt Market and a unique ticker-cum-screen aptly named 'BSE Broadcast' which enables information dissemination to the common man on the street. Barclays Global Investors (BGI). The ETF enables investors in Hong Kong to take an exposure to the Indian equity market. BSE is the first exchange in India and the second in the world to obtain an ISO 9001:2000 certification. called "SPIcE" is listed on BSE. In recent times. In 2006. It brings to the investors a trading tool that can be easily used for the purposes of investment. BSE continues to innovate. BSE also has a wide range of services to empower investors and facilitate smooth transactions: 21 . the ICERS facilitates the corporates in sharing with BSE their corporate announcements. BSE has always been at par with the international standards. has created the 'iShares® BSE SENSEX India Tracker' which tracks the SENSEX. hedging and arbitrage. BSE launched the Directors Database and ICERS (Indian Corporate Electronic Reporting System) to facilitate information flow and increase transparency in the Indian capital market. The first Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) on SENSEX. It has a nation-wide reach with a presence in more than 359 cities and towns of India. SPIcE allows small investors to take a long-term view of the market. Moreover.

'Safe Investing in the Stock Market' under which 264 programmes were held in more than 200 cities.1 million towards the investor protection fund. This initiative enables investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform. BSE was the first exchange in the country to provide an amount of Rs. BSE introduced the world's first centralized exchangebased Internet trading system.com: In February 2001. BSEWEBX. volume positions and members' positions and real-time measurement of default risk.Investor Services: The Department of Investor Services redresses grievances of investors. More than 20. It offers over 40 courses on various aspects of the capital market and financial sector. BSE Training Institute: BTI imparts capital market training and certification.com.000 Trader Workstations located across over 359 cities in India. 2006 and March 31 2007 have been awarded the ICAI awards for excellence in financial reporting. BSE launched a nationwide investor awareness programme. market reconstruction and generation of cross market alerts. BOLT is currently operating in 25. The BSE On-line Trading (BOLT): BSE On-line Trading (BOLT) facilitates on-line screen based trading in securities. Surveillance: BSE's On-Line Surveillance System (BOSS) monitors on a real-time basis the price movements. in collaboration with reputed management institutes and universities. BSEWEBX. 22 . it is an amount higher than that of any exchange in the country. • The Annual Reports and Accounts of BSE for the year ended March 31.000 people have attended the BTI programmes Awards The World Council of Corporate Governance has awarded the Golden Peacock Global CSR Award for BSE's initiatives in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

BSE has continuously 23 . The BSE National Index was renamed BSE-100 Index from October 14. the 'BSE-200' and the 'DOLLEX-200'. larger market capitalization and the new industry sectors. BSE launched on 27th May.that subsequently became the barometer of the Indian stock market. Over the decades. The launch of SENSEX in 1986 was later followed up in January 1989 by introduction of BSE National Index (Base: 1983-84 = 100). 2006. A lot has changed since 1875 when 318 persons by paying a then princely amount of Re.Pacific HRM awards for its efforts in employer branding through talent management at work.. In order to fulfill the need for still broader. BSE has come a long way in attuning itself to the varied needs of investors and market participants.Mumbai. Delhi. It comprised 100 stocks listed at five major stock exchanges in India . The journey in the 20th century has not been an easy one. History For the premier stock exchange that pioneered the securities transaction business in India. Calcutta. Till the decade of eighties. BSE will continue to remain an icon in the Indian capital market. BSE launched the dollar-linked version of BSE-100 index on May 22. With a view to provide a better representation of the increasing number of listed companies. over a century of experience is a proud achievement. the stock market in the country has passed through good and bad periods. 1. health management at work and excellence in HR through technology Drawing from its rich past and its equally robust performance in the recent times. 1996 and since then. Ahmedabad and Madras. 1994 two new index series viz. it is being calculated taking into consideration only the prices of stocks listed at BSE.• The Human Resource Management at BSE has won the Asia . became members of what today is called Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (BSE). segment-specific and sector-specific indices. BSE. in 1986. there was no measure or scale that could precisely measure the various ups and downs in the Indian stock market. came out with a Stock Index-SENSEX. Since then.

been increasing the range of its indices. BSE-500 Index and 5 sectoral indices were launched in 1999. In 2001, BSE launched BSE-PSU Index, DOLLEX-30 and the country's first free-float based index - the BSE TECk Index. Over the years, BSE shifted all its indices to the free-float methodology

National Stock Exchange of India
National Stock Exchange Limited

Type Location

Stock Exchange Mumbai, India 19°3′37″N 72°51′35″E/19.06028°N 72.85972°E/19.06028; 72.85972

Coordinates

Owner Key people Currency No. of listings MarketCap

National Stock Exchange of India Limited Mr. Ravi Narain (Managing Director & CEO) INR 1587 US$ 1.46 trillion (2006) S&P CNX Nifty

Indexes

CNX Nifty Junior S&P CNX 500

Website

http://www.nse-india.com/

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NSE is mutually-owned by a set of leading financial institutions, banks, insurance companies and The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE), is a Mumbai-based stock exchange. It is the largest stock exchange in India in terms of daily turnover and number of trades, for both equities and derivative trading.[1]. Though a number of other exchanges exist, NSE and the Bombay Stock Exchange are the two most significant stock exchanges in India, and between them are responsible for the vast majority of share transactions. The NSE's key index is the S&P CNX Nifty, known as the Nifty, an index of fifty major stocks weighted by market capitalisation. other financial intermediaries in India but its ownership and management operate as separate entities. There are at least 2 foreign investors NYSE Euronext and Goldman Sachs who have taken a stake in the NSE. As of 2006[update], the NSE VSAT terminals, 2799 in total, cover more than 1500 cities across India . In October 2007, the equity market capitalization of the companies listed on the NSE was US$ 1.46 trillion, making it the second largest stock exchange in South Asia. NSE is the third largest Stock Exchange in the world in terms of the number of trades in equities. It is the second fastest growing stock exchange in the world with a recorded growth of 16.6%. Origins NSE building at BKC The National Stock Exchange of India was promoted by leading Financial institutions at the behest of the Government of India, and was incorporated in November 1992 as a tax-paying company. In April 1993, it was recognized as a stock exchange under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. NSE commenced operations in the Wholesale Debt Market (WDM) segment in June 1994. The Capital Market (Equities) segment of the NSE commenced operations in November 1994, while operations in the Derivatives segment commenced in June 2000. Innovations

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NSE has remained in the forefront of modernization of India's capital and financial markets, and its pioneering efforts include:

Being the first national, anonymous, electronic limit order book (LOB) exchange to trade securities in India. Since the success of the NSE, existent market and new market structures have followed the "NSE" model.

Setting up the first clearing corporation "National Securities Clearing Corporation Ltd." in India. NSCCL was a landmark in providing innovation on all spot equity market (and later, derivatives market) trades in India.

Co-promoting and setting up of National Securities Depository Limited, first depository in India[2]. Setting up of S&P CNX Nifty. NSE pioneered commencement of Internet Trading in February 2000, which led to the wide popularization of the NSE in the broker community. Being the first exchange that, in 1996, proposed exchange traded derivatives, particularly on an equity index, in India. After four years of policy and regulatory debate and formulation, the NSE was permitted to start trading equity derivatives

• •

Being the first and the only exchange to trade GOLD ETFs (exchange traded funds) in India. NSE has also launched the NSE-CNBC-TV18 media centre in association with CNBCTV18, it is the one of the most important stock exchange in the world.

S&P CNX Nifty
S&P CNX Nifty is a well diversified 50 stock index accounting for 21 sectors of the economy. It is used for a variety of purposes such as benchmarking fund portfolios, index based derivatives and index funds.

S&P CNX Nifty is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products Ltd. (IISL), which
26

Just like the Sensex represents the top stocks of the BSE. The The Sensex Nifty is is an an indicator indicator of of all all the the major major companies companies of of the the BSE.Most of the stock trading in the country is done 27 though the BSE & the NSE. • The total traded value for the last six months of all Nifty stocks is approximately 65. 2009. The BSE is situated at Bombay and the NSE is situated at Delhi. it means that the prices of the stocks of most of the major companies on the BSE have gone up. but they are not as popular as the BSE and the NSE. These are the major stock exchanges in the country. Just in case you are confused. the BSE.2 crore is 0. this tells you that the stock price of most of the major stocks on the BSE have gone down. IISL has a Marketing and licensing agreement with Standard & Poor's (S&P). IISL is India's first specialised company focused upon the index as a core product. . NSE.34% of the total market capitalization as on Mar 31. who are world leaders in index services. Impact cost of the S&P CNX Nifty for a portfolio size of Rs. It gives you a general idea about whether most of the stocks have gone up or most of the stocks have gone down.16% S&P CNX Nifty is professionally maintained and is ideal for derivatives trading • • • Sensex & the Nifty The Sensex is an "index". the Nifty represents the top stocks of the NSE.68% of the traded value of all stocks on the NSE Nifty stocks represent about 65. If the Sensex goes up. What is an index? An index is basically an indicator. is the Bombay Stock Exchange and the NSE is the National Stock Exchange.is a joint venture between NSE and CRISIL. There are other stock exchanges like the Calcutta Stock Exchange etc. If the Sensex goes down.

If you know this you will know what prices go up and what prices go down! To figure out the likes and dislikes of people. 28 then the price will fall. If you understand this. Earnings are the profit a company makes. If more people want to buy a stock (demand) than sell it (supply). Dalal Street watches with great attention at these times. you will know what people are buying and what people are selling. and the price would fall. The reason behind this is that analysts base their future value of a company on their earnings projection. It makes sense when you think about it. the price jumps up. there would be greater supply than demand. which are referred to as earnings seasons. (Basics of economics!) Understanding supply and demand is easy. There is an index that gives you an idea about whether the mid-cap stocks go up and down.Besides Sensex and the Nifty there are many other indexes. If a company never makes money. By this we mean that stock prices change because of “supply and demand”. and in the long run no company can survive without them. The reasons for stock prices going "up" and "down" Stock prices change every day because of market forces. This is called the “BSE Mid-cap Index”. it isn't going to stay in business. The most important factor that affects the value of a company is its earnings. What is difficult to understand is what makes people like a particular stock and dislike another stock. Public companies are required to report their earnings four times a year (once each quarter). you have to figure out what news is positive for a company and what news is negative and how any news about a company will be interpreted by the people. if more people wanted to sell a stock than buy it. If a company's results are better than expected. If a company's results disappoint and are worse than expected. . then the price moves up! Conversely.

companies can either borrow it from somebody or raise it by selling part of the company. issuing stock is called “equity financing”. what are "all the factors" that affect the stocks price? The best answer is that nobody really knows for sure. while others think that by drawing charts and looking at past price movements. you can determine when to buy and sell. Issuing stock is advantageous for the company because it does not require the company to pay back the money or make interest payments along the way. which is known as issuing stock. for example.Of course. Still. it's not just earnings that can change the feeling people have about a stock. which is issued by the private company itself. On the other hand. As we all know. All that the shareholders get in return for their money is the hope that the shares will someday be worth more than what they paid for them. is called the initial public offering (IPO). this fact demonstrates that there are factors other than current earnings that influence stocks. these high stock prices did not hold. The only thing we do know is that stocks are volatile and can change in price very very rapidly. So. and most internet companies saw their values shrink to a fraction of their highs. Some believe that it isn't possible to predict how stock prices will change. It is important that you understand the distinction between a company financing through 29 . the stock price of dozens of internet companies rose without ever making even the smallest profit. It would be a rather simple world if this were the case! During the “dotcom bubble”. The reasons for which companies issue stocks Why would the founders share the profits with thousands of people when they could keep profits to themselves? The reason is that at some point every company needs to "raise money". The first sale of a stock. To do this. A company can borrow by taking a loan from a bank or by issuing bonds. Both methods come under "debt financing".

neither is a shareholder.debt and financing through equity. you are guaranteed the return of your money (the principal) along with promised interest payments. to try and figure out what the stock price is going to be like in the future. Stock Picking –Having understood all the basics of the stock market and the risk involved. you assume the risk of the company not being successful . When you buy a debt investment such as a bond. Technical analysis is a little more complicated. Fundamental Analysis 2. Simply put. for forecasting of future stock price or financial price movements. technical analysis is the study of prices and volume.just as a small business owner isn't guaranteed a return. so explaining technical analysis is out of the scope of this article. It depends more on experience and involves some statistics and mathematics. fundamental analysis looks at the actual company and tries to figure out what the company price is going to be like in the future. On the other hand. There are two major types of analysis: 1. Calculation of BSE SENSEX… 30 . but they also stand to lose their entire investment if the company isn't successful. This isn't the case with an equity investment. Technical Analysis Fundamental analysis is the analysis of a stock on the basis of core financial and economic analysis to predict the movement of stocks price. In this article we will go into the basics of “fundamental analysis”. On the other hand technical analysis look at the stocks chart. Before picking the right stock you need to do some analysis. By becoming an owner. Shareholders earn a lot if a company is successful. It is much more of an "art" than a science. peoples buying behavior etc. now we will go into stock picking and how to pick the right stock.

It is supposed to show whether the stocks are generally going up. the Sensex is calculated taking into consideration stock prices of 30 different BSE listed companies. or generally going down. : Don't even consider "tips" that tell you about "hot stocks". The Sensex has a very important function. The Sensex is supposed to be an indicator of the stocks in the BSE. 3 important things you must know and follow as an new investor! You need to KNOW some “unforgettable basics” before you enter the world of investing in stocks. Please note: The method used for calculating the Sensex and the 30 companies that are taken into consideration are changed from time to time. you can find this out by reading our “How to make money in the stock market?” article. If you are not sure what we mean by the Sensex or what the Sensex is all about. They do this because they have their money invested in those stocks. This is done to make the Sensex an accurate index and so that it represents the BSE stocks properly. You must always use your own brain. Always use your own brain: It's extremely important. If they can get enough people to buy the stock and they can get the stock price to rise. the stock market can be a VERY dangerous place. they will sell the stock for a huge price. For people who are not “on the inside”. is almost always a complete disaster. It is calculated using the “free-float market capitalization” method.This article explains how the value of the “BSE Sensex” or “sensitive index” is calculated. Make sure you dig in and really examine the "facts about the companies" 31 . Consider the source: There are many people in the market who put in all their time and effort in promoting certain stocks. no matter how well intentioned it may be. The stock market is a field dominated by savvy investors who know the ins-and-outs of the market. This is a world wide accepted method as one of the best methods for calculating a stock market index. the stock price will crash and they will walk off to promote another stock. To show this accurately. Relying on the advice of others.

You cannot understand the market by just looking at it from far. but in many cases. this means you buy a promise to convey ownership of the asset. Once you really get into the stock market you do not need to follow these rules anymore. It is a generic term for a variety of financial instruments. But if you are a new investor. You should only invest money that you can honestly afford to lose!! Everyone enters into investments with the idea of earning big profits. In more simpler form. but many many people miss it. The legal terms of a contract are much more varied and flexible than the terms of property ownership. derivatives are financial security such as an option or future whose value is derived in part from the value and characteristics of another security. interest level. By following these rules. Ignore press releases which have very little substance. nothing comes free.before you invest. (Especially if you are new to investing in the stock market!) Please understand that the above tips are tips for beginners. and rely on "hype" to tell the company's story. But then again. Essentially. They are for your own safety. you will basically not loose too much! Derivatives Commodities whose value is derived from the price of some underlying asset like securities. You will have to loose some money. it’s this flexibility that appeals to investors 32 . make some bad decisions and then only will you really understand the market. stock market index or anything else are known as “Derivatives”. Everything has a price. In fact. bullion. currency. And finally the most important tip!!! Only invest money you can afford to lose!! Sure this is a basic point. you MUST follow these rules. the underlying asset. this never works. rather than the asset itself. commodities.

The other examples of derivatives are warrants and convertible bonds (similar to shares in that they are assets). where the contract details may not be standardized. An ‘options’ contract gives the owner the right to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a given date. a contract is merely an agreement between two parties. the underlying asset is usually a commodity. ‘Futures’ and ‘options’ are two commodity traded types of derivatives. Derivatives securities or derivatives products are in real terms contracts rather than solid as it fairly sounds. But derivatives are usually contracts. Shares or bonds are financial assets where one can claim on another person or corporation. When a person invests in derivative. or currency. the derivatives range is only limited by the imagination of investment banks. bond. On the other hand. derivatives – wittingly or unwittingly.. India Commodity Market 33 . an insurance policy or a pension fund. Beyond this. stock. and exposed to. they will be usually be fairly standardised and governed by the property of securities laws in an appropriate country. that they are investing in. the owner of a ‘futures’ contract is obligated to buy or sell the asset. It is likely that any person who has funds invested. He bet that the value derived from the underlying asset will increase or decrease by a certain amount within a certain fixed period of time. On the other hand.

In fact. The traditional wholesale market in India dealt with whole sellers who bought goods from the farmers and manufacturers and then sold them to the retailers after making a profit in the process. The commodity market in India comprises of all palpable markets that we come across in our daily lives. The organized sector on the other hand are owned by various business houses like Pantaloons. • In recent years. It was the retailers who finally sold the goods to the consumers.The vast geographical extent of India and her huge population is aptly complemented by the size of her market. India Commodity Market can be subdivided into the following two categories: • • Wholesale Market Retail Market Let us now take a look at what the present scenario of each of the above markets is like. Tata and others. The improvement in transport facilities made the retailers directly interact with the producers and hence the need for whole sellers was not felt. acted as mere parasites who did not add any value to the product but raised its price which was eventually faced by the consumers. Such 34 . Almost every commodity under the sun both agricultural and industrial are now being provided at well distributed retail outlets throughout the country. The broadest classification of the Indian Market can be made in terms of the commodity market and the bond market. Here. we shall deal with the former in a little detail.the extent of the retail market (both organized and unorganized) has evolved in leaps and bounds. The unorganized retail outlets of the yesteryears consist of small shop owners who are price takers where consumers face a highly competitive price structure. Such markets are social institutions that facilitate exchange of goods for money. Moreover. The cost of goods is estimated in terms of domestic currency . the retail outlets belong to both the organized as well as the unorganized sector. Reliance. With the passage of time the importance of whole sellers began to fade out for the following reasons: • The whole sellers in most situations. the success stories of the commodity market of India in recent years has mainly centered around the growth generated by the Retail Sector.

Although the stock market is associated with high risks and high returns .000 billion by the year 2010. Since the money market is extremely safe. Transactions take place over phone or the electronic system. Unlike the stock exchanges the money market securities do not operate in exchanges or through brokers. The money market deals with very short term debt securities that mature in less than a year.markets are usually sell a wide range of articles both agricultural and manufactured. However the growth of such markets has still centered around the urban areas primarily due to infrastructural limitations. Since the money market securities trade at very high denominations it becomes very difficult for the individual investors to have access to it. Demand for commodities is likely to become four times by 2010 than what it presently is. Treasury Bills and 35 . The money market securities that are issued by the government or financial institutions or large corporations are very liquid. The money market is a type of a dealer market where firms purchase securities in their own account by assuming the risks themselves. then it becomes risky to keep savings there. the total valuation of the Indian Retail Market is estimated to cross Rs. 10. Money Market Definition Money Market Definition is simply meant as the short-term debt market. Modern marketing strategies and other techniques of sales promotion enable such markets to draw customers from every section of the society. it yields very low returns unlike the bond market. perishable and durable. Money Market When the stock prices show a downward trend . many are risk averse and prefer to invest in the more secure money market . One may browse through the following links to have a more detailed information about money market. edible and inedible. Considering the present growth rate.

Money Market Index Money Market Index is a true indicator of the prevailing money market. so in that case you need to know the functioning of the market. trading and the distribution of short-term debt instruments across different regions over the world. On the other hand if people are selling more stocks. Get the method of finding the money market rates. you should be very careful when you decide to invest in the Indian stock market. federal funds rate.certificate of deposits are regarded as the instruments in the money market. There are some major factors that affect stock price. When people are buying more stocks. then you should always make a good survey of the whole market. So let us discuss about the different factors affecting the stock price in this article. Market Cap 36 . Demand AND SUPPLY One of the major factors affecting stock price is demand and supply. As you know that you cannot predict the stock market. rates on bankers' acceptance etc. Major Factors That Affect Stock Price in stock market globally When you wish to invest in the stock market. The trend of the stock market trading directly affects the price. Find detailed on the world money market. then the price of that particular stock increases. which renders a clear-cut idea on making investment. then the price of that stock falls. World Money Market World Money Market has been providing origination. So. Money Market Rates Money Market Rates can be simply defined as the market rates including the broker call loan rate.

simply multiply the “current share price” by the “number of shares issued by the company”! Just to give you an idea. if you were to buy all the shares of a particular company. On the other hand. “small-cap” and “large-cap” stocks. news is another factor affecting stock price.170. So. In this case you should remember that news should not matter much but the overall performance of the company matters more. News When you get positive news about a company then it can increase the buying interest in the market. "Market Capitalization"? You probably think that you have never heard of the term “market capitalization” before. the company will either be a “mid-cap” or “largecap” or “small-cap” company! Now the question is. what is the amount you would have to pay? That amount is called the “market capitalization”! To calculate the market cap of a particular company. how do YOU calculate the market cap of a particular company? You don’t! Just go to a website like MoneyControl.705. has a market cap of “Rs. you are talking about market capitalization! Market cap or market capitalization is simply the worth of a company in terms of it’s shares! To put it in a simple way. So market cap is another factor that affects stock price. Earning/Price Ratio 37 . when there is a negative press release. You should always keep in mind that it is not the stock but the market capitalization of the company that determines the worth of the company.Never try to guess the worth of a company simply by comparing the price of the stock.21 Cr” (when this article was written) Depending on the value of the market cap. Cap” will be the market cap value.com and look up the company whose market cap you are interested in finding out! The figure in front of “Mkt. ONGC. You have! When you are talking about “mid-cap”. it can ruin the prospect of a stock.

with the goal of making a profit from the difference between the buying price and the selling price. individual traders now have direct access to the same exchanges and market data. because only they had access to the exchanges and market data. Trading Styles There are several different styles of day trading. these are the major factors that affect stock price. But with recent technology such as the Internet. The stock becomes overvalued if the price is much higher than the actual earning. Day Trading Day trading (and trading in general) is the buying and selling of various financial instruments. 38 . currencies. The styles range from short term trading such as scalping where positions are only held for a few seconds or minutes. The stock becomes undervalued if the price of the share is much lower than the earnings of a company. So. suited to different day trader personalities. and can make the same trades at very low cost. depending upon how the trade is doing (whether it is in profit). options. Day trading differs slightly from other styles of trading in that positions are rarely (if ever) held overnight or when the market being traded is closed. but most traders will choose a single style and only take that type of trade. Some day traders will trade multiple styles. This gives you a fair idea of a company’s share price when it is compared to its earnings. such as futures. and stocks. Most day trading systems have a lot of flexibility. then it has the potential to rise in the near future. to longer term swing and position trading where a position may be held throughout the trading day.Another important factor affecting stock price is the earning/price ratio. Day trading was originally only available to financial companies (such as banks). and can have open positions for anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours. But if this is the case.

Day trading also has different types of trade. while the portfolio investment stood at US $ -11. Trend trades are trades in the direction of the current price movement (i. Most day traders will choose a single type of trade. Monthly trends in foreign investments ($ million) Total foreign investments 200708(P) 3617 3972 Months Foreign direct investments Portfolio investments 2007-08(P) 2008-09(P) 2007-08(P) 2008-09(P) 2008-09(P) April May 1643 2120 3749 3932 39 1974 1852 -880 -288 2869 3644 . In addition to the style and type of day trading. and ranging trades. are the same. the trading process that is used.e. Ranging trades are trades that go back and forth between two prices. The foreign direct investment (FDI) stood at US $ 27. counter-trend trades. while others prefer to wait for what they consider the best conditions for their trade. However many trades are made. but some traders will take different types. there are other variances between day traders. and perhaps only make one trade per day. Current State of the Indian Economy: Capital Inflows During the April-January period of 2008-09. and the desired goal of making a profit. buying if the price is moving up).881 million. India attracted total foreign investments of US $ 15. Some day traders like to make many trades throughout the trading day. and are used when the market is moving sideways.e. selling if the price is moving up). and counter-trend trades are trades against the direction of the current price movement (i. and choose which one to trade depending upon the current condition of the market.426 million.545 million. such as trend trades.

i.e. 1995 = 1000) Aver.100 S & P CNX Nifty * (Base : 1978 .84 = 100) Average High Low (Base : November 3.June July August September October November December January February March AprilJanuary 1238 705 831 713 2027 1864 1558 1767 5670 4438 2392 2247 2328 2562 1497 1083 1362 2733 - 3664 6713 -2875 7081 9564 -107 5294 6739 -8904 -1600 -3010 -492 593 -1403 -5243 -574 30 -614 - 4902 7418 -2044 7794 11591 1757 6852 8506 -3234 2838 -618 1755 2921 1159 -3746 509 1392 2119 - - 27426 - -11881 - 15545 Source: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Stock Market Trends * NSE . Nifty has been rechristened as ' S & P CNX Nifty with effect BSE Sensitive Index BSE .High age 7 8 9 10 Low Low .79 = 100) AveragHigh e 1 2 3 4 5 6 40 (Base : 1983 .50..

59 9240.92 6776.45 Jan-09 9350.64 8621.8 15049.06 4206.01 9435.35 7860.20 4835.35 4802.84 5028.66 5228.20 5 Nov-089453.30 5 Feb-08 17727.42 10335.22 3950.87 4343.46 15343.13716.55 5181.57 8095.86 12595.25 2553.3 16677.33 16729.96 8895.50 2895.00 4503.18 13461.10 08 8 Apr-0816290.12 16275.21 3210.93 8674.32 6580.87 6564.80 3077.00 3850.49 4417.01 4823.34 7704.02 4901.13942.6 17600.88 5201.64 5756.12 8451.80 3816.6 20873.75 2524.71 7760.00 3 Sept.75 7276.95 4441.94 10526.25 4 Mar.1 14942.67 8509.9 17378.79 4739.90 4838.59 8785.01 4769.16 16608.60 4040.Jan-08 19325.5 18663.91 5195.84 2854.55 41 .54 11509.59 8982.56 5432.79 3148.62 7029.69 4504.28 8488.88 14809.36 3121.67 4124.00 9 May.74 4463.28 12575.12 4620.35 6287.17 2834.40 4214.49 8363.15838.05 08 1 Oct-08 10549.6 13055.20 9348.23 7828.12 8627.45 2678.01 5328.15 Dec-08 9513.2 16063.55 08 8 July.24 4864.70 08 8 Aug-0814722.50 4647.50 2656.58 8907.09 4332.36 5396.60 9969.91 8739.96 10631.1 15503.58 10099.16945.60 7909.48 7362.94 4443.56 5483.14997.85 4899.60 4476.80 7143.30 08 5 June.75 8101.50 4953.92 14048.

65 906.52 Week INDICES Close SENSEX MIDCAP SMLCAP BSE-100 BSE-200 BSE-500 14.63 7.66 3.60 8.042.14 11.69 76. crore) 2.27 6.31 184.162.60 11.98 2.741.853.16 2.112.899.803.157.91 1.12 BSE Sectoral Indices AUTO BANKEX CD CG FMCG HC IT METAL OIL&GAS POWER PSU REALTY 4.01 2.62 8.24 3.69 82.890.949.13 3.809.77 65.598.208.28 6.24 13.505.549.274.398.70 202.06 2.866.85 4.93 2.744.64 Turnover % to Total Turnover 31.92 1.59 17.70 High 17.71 807.60 128.58 407.262.805.13 921.99 253.53 2.23 2.38 .75 5.54 4.569.68 5.39 2.85 11.82 42 137.919.86 977.56 663.46 47.20 95.697.02 735.472.547.85 29.450.93 8.746.18 4.490.516.925.88 0.29 (Rs.888.41 3.36 182.74 5.43 5.24 7.52 94.874.408.15 4.62 7.38 1.27 284.57 8.04 0.75 2.38 3.90 2.516.28 Full Market Capitalisation % to (Rs.346.02 6.60 4.692.96 9.77 756.001.64 8.240.32 4.917.20 3.688.863.312.393.019.39 272.77 660.42 8.361.94 12.622.43 4.528.04 104.297.607.285.411.66 4.897.34 7.18 7.806.17 31.59 86.08 Low 7.330.060.08 623.74 1.86 1.602.77 7.186.750.774.251.46 9.54 211.748.18 1.45 1.120.853.127. crore) Total Mkt Cap 2.06 9.102.65 8.81 3.05 13.99 7.428.36 10.28 1.19 7.875.990.37 3.27 2.54 2.91 2.864.40 48.161.88 3.485.293.60 2.38 668.53 373.638.53 2.18 9.907.802.45 123.10 3.367.30 17.95 12.427.673.081.94 11.683.86 3.25 1.77 533.77 5.90 2.79 4.987.

59 0.00 --- --- --- --- 591.91 2.227.99 12.TECk BSE Dollex Indices DOLLEX-30 DOLLEX100 DOLLEX200 2.638.72 3.67 750.00 0.77 570.582.00 -- -- -- -- Note : The market capitalisation of all the indices is free float market capitalisation except for BSEPSU.82 0.664.32 3.58 841.328. Trends in Inflation 43 .64 1.13 2.423.472.15 8.41 1.618.

76 211.93 328.30 194.43 192.10 205.02 195.90 315. Light & Lubricants Manufactured Products 2006 January 196.10 171.30 200.30 July 204.76 May 201.73 175.75 191.94 177.78 310.63 320.84 317.40 March 196.28 February 196.80 171.80 177. Power.32 179.00 August 205.05 June 203.90 April 199.02 202.00 173.76 326.83 September 207.05 324.28 204.88 314.08 44 .(1) Index Numbers Of Wholesale Prices in India ( Monthly Averages) (Base: 1993-94 = 100) Year Month All Commodities Primary Articles Fuel.50 171.08 175.72 330.

An enormous liquid market making it easy to trade most currencies. the exchange rate of EUR/USD on Aug 26th. Standard instruments for controlling risk exposure. Many options for zero commission trading. The main enticements of currency dealing to private investors and attractions for short-term Forex trading are:        24-hour trading.Forex An overview of the Forex market The Forex market is a non-stop cash market where currencies of nations are traded. Forex trading The investor's goal in Forex trading is to profit from foreign currency movements.S.S. dollar.2083.0857. The ability to profit in rising or falling markets. Foreign currencies are constantly and simultaneously bought and sold across local and global markets and traders' investments increase or decrease in value based upon currency movements. the Forex rate was 1. which means that the value of the euro (the numerator of the EUR/USD ratio) increased in relation to the U. typically via brokers. Forex trading or currency trading is always done in currency pairs. If the investor had bought 1000 euros on that date. Foreign exchange market conditions can change at any time in response to real-time events. This number is also referred to as a "Forex rate" or just "rate" for short.70 U. For example. dollars. 5 days a week with non-stop access to global Forex dealers. Volatile markets offering profit opportunities. Leveraged trading with low margin requirements. The 45 . he would have paid 1085. One year later. 2003 was 1.

i.e. However. Analysis Technical analysis is a method of predicting price movements and future market trends by studying charts of past market action. At the very minimum. they were solely speculating on the movement of that particular currency. the U. government going bankrupt or being unable or unwilling to pay its debt obligation. However. The technician studies the effect while the fundamentalist studies the cause of market movement.30 dollars. the investor would have USD 122. it is estimated that anywhere from 70%-90% of the FX market is speculative.investor could now sell the 1000 euros in order to receive 1208. to know if the investor made a good investment. They have the same goal .to predict a price or movement. the person or institution that bought or sold the currency has no plan to actually take delivery of the currency in the end. trade only when you expect the currency you are buying to increase in value relative to the currency you are selling.60 more than what he had started one year earlier. One example of a risk-free investment is long-term U. An open trade (also called an open position) is a trade in which a trader has bought or sold a particular currency pair and has not yet sold or bought back the equivalent amount to close the position. Technical analysis and fundamental analysis differ greatly. you must sell back the other currency in order to lock in a profit. the return on investment (ROI) should be compared to the return on a "risk-free" investment. government bonds since there is practically no chance for a default. Therefore. Many successful traders combine a mixture of both approaches for superior results. Technical analysis is concerned with what has actually 46 . Forex-Forecasting This article provides insight into the two major methods of analysis used to forecast the behavior of the Forex market. In other words. When trading currencies. but both can be useful forecast tools for the Forex trader. rather. If the currency you are buying does increase in value.S. one needs to compare this investment option to alternative investments.S.

However. and creates charts from that data to use as the primary tool. Gann numbers) Waves (Elliott wave theory) Gaps (high-low. political factors and market sentiment. Technical analysis is built on three essential principles: 1. e. Prices move in trends Technical analysis is used to identify patterns of market behavior that have long been recognized as significant. 3.g. Some major technical analysis tools are described below: Relative Strength Index (RSI): 47 . supply and demand. for example. There are five categories in Forex technical analysis theory:      Indicators (oscillators. Also. rather than what should happen and takes into account the price of instruments and the volume of trading.: Relative Strength Index (RSI) Number theory (Fibonacci numbers. For many given patterns there is a high probability that they will produce the expected results. History repeats itself Forex chart patterns have been recognized and categorized for over 100 years and the manner in which many patterns are repeated leads to the conclusion that human psychology changes little over time. there are recognized patterns that repeat themselves on a consistent basis. Market action discounts everything! This means that the actual price is a reflection of everything that is known to the market that could affect it. not with the reasons for any changes. Forex charts are based on market action involving price. One major advantage of technical analysis is that experienced analysts can follow many markets and market instruments simultaneously. open-closing) Trends (following moving average). 2.happened in the market. the pure technical analyst is only concerned with price movements.

Conversely. then the instrument is assumed to be overbought (a situation in which prices have risen more than market expectations). An RSI of 30 or less is taken as a signal that the instrument may be oversold (a situation in which prices have fallen more than the market expectations). Divergence between the stochastic lines and the price action of the underlying instrument gives a powerful trading signal. then this is taken as a signal that a change in the trend is likely. as prices fall in a strong down trend. If the RSI is 70 or greater. Number theory: Fibonacci numbers: The Fibonacci number sequence (1.2. which is a popular Fibonacci retracement number. 48 .13.The RSI measures the ratio of up-moves to down-moves and normalizes the calculation so that the index is expressed in a range of 0-100.21.8.1. period closing prices tend to concentrate in the higher part of the period's range. which is an exponential moving average of the difference. %K and %D that are used to indicate overbought/oversold areas of a chart.3. is also used as a Fibonacci retracement number.. Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD): This indicator involves plotting two momentum lines.5. closing prices tend to be near to the extreme low of the period range.34. The indicator is based on the observation that in a strong up trend. which is 38%. Stochastic oscillator: This is used to indicate overbought/oversold conditions on a scale of 0-100%. Stochastic calculations produce two lines. If the MACD and trigger lines cross.) is constructed by adding the first two numbers to arrive at the third.. The MACD line is the difference between two exponential moving averages and the signal or trigger line. The ratio of any number to the next larger number is 62%. The inverse of 62%.

The breaking of a trend line usually signals a trend reversal. It usually signals the beginning of an important price move. Gaps Gaps are spaces left on the bar chart where no trading has taken place. falling peaks and troughs constitute a downtrend that determines the steepness of the current trend. He also used lines in charts to predict support and resistance areas. but in essence he used angles in charts to determine support and resistance areas and predict the times of future trend changes. A down gap is formed when the highest price of the day is lower than the lowest price of the prior day.D. An exhaustion gap is a price gap that occurs at the end of an important trend and signals that the trend is ending. They are also useful in deciding on a trading strategy. known as time/price equivalents. Trends A trend refers to the direction of prices. A breakaway gap is a price gap that forms on the completion of an important price pattern. An up gap is usually a sign of market strength. Horizontal peaks and troughs characterize a trading range. particularly in futures trading or a market with a strong up or down trend. 49 . There is no easy explanation for Gann's methods. Waves Elliott wave theory: The Elliott wave theory is an approach to market analysis that is based on repetitive wave patterns and the Fibonacci number sequence. it is also called a measuring gap. An up gap is formed when the lowest price on a trading day is higher than the highest high of the previous day. Rising peaks and troughs constitute an up trend. An ideal Elliott wave patterns shows a five-wave advance followed by a three-wave decline. Gann was a stock and a commodity trader working in the '50s who reputedly made over million in the markets. while a down gap is a sign of market weakness. A runaway gap is a price gap that usually occurs around the mid-point of an important market trend.Gann numbers: W. Moving averages are used to smooth price information in order to confirm trends and support and resistance levels. He made his fortune using methods that he developed for trading instruments based on relationships between price movement and time. For that reason.

seasonal cycles. environmental and other relevant factors and statistics that will affect the basic supply and demand of whatever underlies the financial instrument. Fundamental analysis Fundamental analysis is a method of forecasting the future price movements of a financial instrument based on economic. but concentrates on the activity of that instrument's market. the technical analyst is not much concerned with any of the "bigger picture" factors affecting the market. and other "fundamental" elements. 50 . political. many market players use technical analysis in conjunction with fundamental analysis to determine their trading strategy.The most common technical tools: Coppock Curve is an investment tool used in technical analysis for predicting bear market lows. In practice. Many profitable trades are made moments prior to or shortly after major economic announcements. Fundamental analysis is a macro or strategic assessment of where a currency should be trading based on any criteria but the movement of the currency's price itself. Unlike the fundamental analyst. monetary policy. DMI (Directional Movement Indicator) is a popular technical indicator used to determine whether or not a currency pair is trending. Factors involved in price analysis: Supply and demand. These criteria often include the economic condition of the country that the currency represents. weather and government policy. Fundamental analysis focuses on what ought to happen in a market.

2008 but they collapsed to 2003 levels in December. Commodities traded around all time high levels in June. 51 . 2008. 7. Companies are now shutting down plants and are removing employees due to lack of demand and piling up of inventories.What happened in 2008? Sensex was crossed 21. 3. Investment banking is the most sought after industry in early 2008. Experts are now talking about 55 against dollar in 2009. Inflation moved to 13% and analysts talked about 15% but inflation fell to 8% in December. 6.000 targets in 2009. Experts are now talking about $30 per barrel in 20094. Indian GDP grew at 9% in 2007-08 and analysts predicted about 10% growth in 2009. Rupee strengthened to 39 against dollar and analysts like ICICI Kamat predicted 35 levels but rupee fell to 50 levels. They are actually now talking about deflation. 5. But todays it has been touch the point 14000 due to government stability. Crude Oil prices touched $147 per barrel and Goldman Sachs talked about $200 per barrel but crude oil in now trading around $45 levels.000 levels but Sensex fell to 7.000 levels in January and analysts predicted 25. 2. Experts are now talking about 4% levels in 2009. Experts are now talking about 7. Experts are now talking about 7% GDP growth in 2008-09 and 5% GDP growth in 2009-10.800 in October. They are now either disappeared or merged with banks.

8. If economic conditions will improve by early 2010. Biggest investment lesson: When investors are in panic mood. Timing: It is very difficult to time the stock market investments. stock markets now become more dynamic. Many real estate stocks were corrected by 70-90% in this year alone. Never follow herds. We will hear some bankruptcies in 2009 in this sector. stocks will rise by late 2009. 6. Unlike in past. 2008. RBI Governor: “The global economic crisis is turning out to be deeper and longer than we had earlier expected. They are steep and severe. more volatile and more unpredictable due to more global integration of economy and money flows. Significant statements: 1.” This is the frank statement from Subbarao. If real economy will suffer in early 2009. the impact on India is also turning out to be stronger than we had earlier expected. Investment lessons from 2008: 1. 80% of price variations occur in 20% of days – time of maximum profits and losses. Stock market investors will never react normally – they will either overreact or under react to the economic or political events. 7. 4. On 18 May we have been seen more variation in recession time market has been touched the level of 14000 with growth of 2100 points 5. One should take into consideration this psychological aspect along with business fundamentals in arriving at price target. stocks fell by October. As I said in my previous posts. 3. Significant falls or rises do not occur in slow motion. DLF and Unitech will cut prices by 30% in 2009. Real Estate prices reached stratospheric levels in early 2008 but investors bought them as if there will be no land available for purchase in 2009. 2. They are now announcing bonuses and free offers to attract buyers. How long Government will deceive people on this unmanageable issue? Biggest problem with this crisis is no one in the world 52 . Believe in your research and gut feeling. Just see what happened to investors in Reliance Power IPO. stock markets always move much ahead of real economy. even good companies with strong growth prospects also fall along with bad overvalued stocks.

Jack Welch (former GE Chairman): “The terror strike in Mumbai could well tilt the focus of foreign investors towards neighboring China. According to World Bank. India will grow by 5.knows about magnitude and duration of financial crisis. 2009-10 may be a more difficult year. Significant statistics: 1. 2. Textiles. Rakesh Jhunjhunwala: “India will see the mother of all bull runs in the next 4 or 5 years.” 6.” 3. World Bank: “The financial crisis is now likely to result in the most serious recession since the 1930s. 53 .5% in the last 5 years. This is the first drop for crude oil demand since 1983. Indian economy never grew less than 7.” 4. Indian GDP growth will be around 6. boosted by double-digit economic growth and increased investment by domestic investors. Commerce Minister: “Government will announce second stimulus package in the next week. It estimates for Indian GDP: 6.8% in 2009.Reuters poll: India's economy is expected to grow at its slowest pace in six years in the fiscal year to March 2009. Not just whether to pull back from India but how risky pushing forward will be. Agriculture and Construction are the priority sectors for Government in the next package. including pension and insurance funds. How India’s leaders respond to the Mumbai attacks will tell the business world what it wants and needs to know. According to RBI Governor.2% in 2009-10.8% in 2008-09 and 6.2% in 2008-09. demand for crude falls. 5% in 2009-10 and will be around 7% in 2010-11. International Energy Agency (IEA): for the first time in 25 years. This is the perception of foreigners about India. Many investors will be thinking about tilting the balance to China.” 5.

Positive Stock market news: 1. R-Com stock lost 70% of value in 2008.the largest yearover-year monthly decline since April 1999. given its weaker fiscal position. India needs particular attention.2% and 6. 7. Global Telecom Companies are planning to buy 20-25% stake in Reliance Communications. 6. Asian Development Bank (ADB): Growth rates of China and India will be at 8. These losses will increase if another major asset class will collapse 4.000) in 26 years in USA. World Bank: Global trade will fall for the first time since 1982.2% in November. More than 20 lakh Americans will lose jobs in 2009 and unemployment rate will touch 9% level in 2009.73. 54 . World economy will grow by 0. Shocking! China will grow at 9% in 2010 if Government takes proper simulative decisions. DLF and Unitech may lower property prices by 30% in mid-2009 to stimulate buyers. 5. These job losses will have cascading effect on real economy. This deal is beneficial for investors as only 12% of shares are available for trading after this purchase in the secondary market. Manpower survey: India is the second most optimistic employment market in the world but there will freezing in hiring in the next 3 months. McKinsey report: United States credit losses may top $3 trillion. IT and Hospitality sectors are the worst affected while Telecom is the most optimistic one. 2. Anil Ambani family holds 67% stake in the company. Promoter will not reduce his holding.5% respectively in 2009. Government stability is big positive reason for sensex. 3. Goldman Sachs: China GDP growth for 2009 is around 6%. 3. India will be in election mood when we need these measures. the first decline since June 2001 . 8. China: Exports fell by 2. New claims for unemployment benefits reached their highest level (5.9% in 2009 and inflows to developing countries will fall by 50%.2.

B. 2008: Asian economy will grow by 7. 2008: Asian economy will grow by 6. ADB estimates about Asian economy in 2009: A. November. As stock markets are unlikely to recover in the next 12-15 months. 2008: World economy will grow by 0.500 crore. We may hear some shocking news on this front in the next 2 years.2% in 2009.9% in 2009. December. NPAs will affect in 2 ways. December.2% in 2009. B. 2. 2008: Asian economy will grow by 5.. NPAs will not only propel the negative sentiment but increase the banks reluctance to give loans which will once again destroy the positive aspects of the bailout packages. Only positive aspect is many PSU banks reported fall in NPAs in 2008 over 2007 except SBI and IOB. B. Interesting statistics about Asian and World economies: 1. 55 . September. 2008: Asian economy will grow by 7.930 crore.9% in 2008.8% in 2009. 3. World Bank estimates: A. NPAs of ICICI Bank in 2008: Rs 9.FCCB shocks: Foreign currency convertible bonds (FCCBs?) of many companies will be due for repayment in the next 3 years. NPA statistics: NPAs of ICICI Bank in 2007: Rs 5. ADB estimates about Asian economy in 2008: A. 2008: World economy will grow by 2.5% in 2008. NPA shocks: Many people are underestimating the impact of Non Performing Assets (NPAs). December. September. it is interesting to see how promoters will clear their dues.

Since the continuous inflow of dollar into Indian economy is making the Indian currency (Rupee) stronger and thus making the export costlier. which ultimately allows them trade in the market.5 This is a much severe crisis than 2001 slowdown. more than half was in the form of hot money being invested into the market by anonymous investors who pump money into the market by utilizing the Participatory Note (PN) facility. it also ensure free entry of dollars into Indian economy as well as increase the percentage of hot money in the market. All those foreign investors who are not registered with the SEBI (Stock Exchange Board of India). Effect of fluctuation on Indian stock market Nothing actually. Yet. Current P/E of Sensex: 10. The hot money is that kind of money which is invested only for a short time to make some quick buck. can not directly deal in buying/selling of sticks. the Government was looking for someway to curb this inflow of dollars. It is not invested with a long term mindset. Let me explain it a bit : As I wrote in my last article that a major portion of the money being invested into the share market is coming from FIIs (Foreign Institutional Investors). this concept of allowing anonymous investors in the market broaden the reach of the market. Though. So they took a sort of permission from registered FIIs by buying Participatory Notes (PN) from them in exchange of dollars. The companies are as profitable as they were a few days ago. The cause of concern for the Government was that in this major share of FIIs.4. So a few days ago the SEBI contemplated on a draft policy to make the issuing of PN difficult for FIIs. the regulatory body for stocks in India. P/E of Sensex in 2008 economic slowdown: 9. The economy is as sound as it was in the boom time. 56 . the market crashed because the Government tried to instill some sort of regulation in it. Making the availability of Participatory Notes some difficult for foreign investors was one step Government thought would help control the inflow of dollars.

This was the step which gave a jolt to the buying spree of FIIs. With the above note. However. As this boom is being driven by FIIs (Foreign Institutional Investors). it is also because of the appreciation in the price of the shares of Reliance industries. Yes you read it write. However. As people found that it would be difficult to trade in the market in future owing to non-availability of PN. are going to become really rich. Ultimately the Government had to rush in to alleviate the growing concern of Investors by stating that it would not control the issuing of PN to investors. there is only a remote possibility of that as of now. it will continue it’s upward swing despite such momentary crash. Once they find a place which offer better return on their investment than India. the chairman of Reliance group was earning Rs 40 Lakhs ($ 100000) per minute.the market fell more than a 1000 point in a few hours and had to shut down for some time. we must not forget that these people are here only till they find a new market more profitable than India. Though. they started exiting form the market by selling their stock. The main reason of my belief is that the Indian economy as a whole is performing very well Same is the case with most Indian companies listed in the market. who are in the market for quite sometime. As of now the market is still fluctuating and is yet to be stabilized. there is a word of caution here. That’s why most expert 57 . Result. $100000 per minute ! Though it has much to do with his huge and expanding empire of Reliance industries. here are some of my observations on what can happen if the stock market boom continues for lone in India: First some positive one First of all if this boom continues for long. they will immediately shift there. you never know what can happen in future. soon the richest person in the world will be an Indian. The word crorepati (multimillionaire) can soon become a common thing in India all thanks to share market. Secondly most investors. On the last count (as per a leading newspaper report) Mukesh Ambani. This news will from the Business standard give you some detail of this exercise done by the Government. I think that in all probability.

The last but not the least is the overvaluation of many stocks in the market. The profits margin of these industries have reduced as it mostly depend on current value of dollar. I must say that this boom is not going to last forever as it is dependent on some very volatile factors that may change in the times to come. All these things. Some of our major export oriented industries such as Softwares and textiles are feeling the heat every day. The RBI is facing difficultly in managing this continuous inflow of dollars as their huge supply and easy availability has resulted into dollar’s depreciation vis-à -vis Rupee. (it actually happened some days ago as I described above) Government certainly don’t want to spoil the party that is going on in the stock market. Recession A recession is a decline in a country's gross domestic product (GDP) growth for two or more consecutive quarters of a year. a increase in interest rate in US may reverse this flow of FIIs. 58 . Some experts have opined that market is trading at 22 to 23 times of actual earning and no one can justify these valuations. A recession is also preceded by several quarters of slowing down. However. if happen. there is another very interesting situation being faced by Reserve Bank of India(RBI) (the leading central bank which decides various economic policies here just like the Federal Reserve Bank of US. Owing to stock market boom. Ironically. Or we may see emergence of a new market with great potential on some other place on earth. In nutshell if I am to summarize this boom of stock market. As I explained in my earlier article.are advising people to stick to their long-term investment plan and don’t make any move in haste. the continued depreciation of dollar is also a cause of deep concern which needs to be addressed. this can only be done if Government put some break on the inflow of dollars by FIIs which will actually mean putting a break on stock market boom. can put a break on this boom. The Rupee is becoming stronger to dollar thus making imports cheaper and export costlier.) The investment being made by FIIs in Indian share market has resulted in to a huge inflow of dollars into the economy. There is a pressure on Government to mange the appreciation of rupee to favour exporters.

Causes of recession An economy which grows over a period of time tends to slow down the growth as a part of the normal economic cycle. The way in which Asian stock prices responded last week to the fall of the Dow Jones and Nasdaq indices by 4 per cent. The Indian stock markets also crashed due to a slowdown in the US economy. it was inevitable that stock markets around the world would start catching the chill. The Sensex crashed by nearly 13 per cent in just two trading sessions in January. When the global economy has been cooling down. The stock markets reflect the buoyancy of the economy. lay-offs and a sharp rise in unemployment. a recession is yet to be declared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. stock prices are now at a low ebb in India with little cheer coming to investors. An economy typically expands for 6-10 years and tends to go into a recession for about six months to 2 years. This leads to a decreased demand for goods and services. and the financial sector in particular has been heading from one cold shower to the next. Investors around the world have taken note of the fact that the broad-based S&P 500 index is at a 16-month low. but the market has already 59 . The markets bounced back after the US Fed cut interest rates. along with European stocks. In the US. And investors seem to have little faith in the Bush rescue plan's ability to ward off a recession in the US. However. A recession normally takes place when consumers lose confidence in the growth of the economy and spend less. Investors spend less as they fear stocks values will fall and thus stock markets fall on negative sentiment. has also punctured a hole in the decoupling argument (which said Asia would not be hit by an America-based problem) that had become fashionable in recent weeks. The Fed will almost certainly respond with sharp cuts in interest rates towards the end of the month. which in turn leads to a decrease in production. but investors are a worried lot. hitting a 10-month low. Stock markets & recession The economy and the stock market are closely related.

among all Asian markets.000 crore (Rs 1. it is a large enough sum for the market to go into correction mode. when compared to the same quarter a year earlier. fresh buyingcannot be very far away. or whether a further fall is required before value-based buying starts. The floor therefore would probably be a Sensex level of 17. and FIIs have been net sellers to the tune of Rs 2. the Sensex trades at a trailing P/E multiple of 24.discounted for that. 60 . Provided the general economic and corporate news does not get worse than has already been anticipated. There is no doubt that valuations had become expensive.15. which is not cheap in anyone's book.which would mean wiping out the gains of the past three months. This may have been because the correction in the overheated Chinese stock market began some weeks ago. it was inevitable that stock prices would have to come off their dizzy highs.5 per cent decline in the Sensex. which pulled in a record amount of application money (Rs 1.5. buying may soon begin A global liquidity surplus had certainly contributed to momentum buying. the Sensex trades at an FY09 estimated P/E of 18. Foreign institutional investors had moved to the sidelines in the secondary markets even earlier. What began with profit-booking and unwinding of long positions cascaded on Friday into a 3. Investors will also have noticed that the third-quarter corporate numbers show significant deceleration in both sales and profit growth. Even after the 10 per cent correction from the market's peak.000-odd -. Even if a third or a fourth of that was being garnered by sale of stocks. Impact of a US recession on India A slowdown in the US economy is bad news for India. no more.200 crore (Rs 22 billion) in January.150 billion)). Also relevant was the Reliance Power IPO. When coupled with the data showing that the export target for the year will be missed by a wide margin. On a forward basis. Yet. and that the industrial sector has suffered a sharp slowdown. Indian markets worst hit It is interesting that Indian markets were hit the most. The question is whether the correction that has occurred so far is enough for fresh buying to emerge.

Indian companies with big tickets deals in the US would see their profit margins shrinking. factors. The worries for exporters will grow as rupee strengthens further against the dollar. One of the primary triggers is the huge fear of the United States' economy going into a recession with foreign institutional investors trying to reallocate their funds from risky emerging markets to stable developed markets.6 per cent. the Sensex was down 45 per cent. But experts note that the long-term prospects for India are stable. A recession could bring down oil prices to $70. There is a big correlation among global markets. Between January 2001 and December 2002. The whole of Asia would be hit by a recession as it depends on the US economy. A weak dollar could bring more foreign money to Indian markets. If the fall from the record highs reached is taken.7 per cent. Asia is yet to totally decouple itself (or be independent) from the rest of the world. the Dow Jones Industrial Average went down by 22.Indian companies have major outsourcing deals from the US. there is a change in the global investment climate. Black Monday saw bloodbath on Dalal Street as the Indian stock markets crashed by over 1430 points in afternoon trade (the market has since then recovered somewhat). Oil may get cheaper brining down inflation. The current volatility is also linked to global bourses. while the Sensex fell by 14. India's exports to the US have also grown substantially over the years. The India economy is likely to lose between 1 to 2 percentage points in GDP growth in the next fiscal year. the DJIA was down 30 per cent in December 2002 from the highs it hit in January 2000. Hedge funds and FIIs could have been the biggest sellers in the Indian markets. along with increased global movement of capital. 61 . reminding investors that there is no one-way bet on the stock market. booking profits and making the most of the unprecedented bull run that has dominated the Indian stock market for a long time now. The presence of hedge funds across asset classes. say experts. In contrast. has increased event-related volatility. One. Analysts are now expecting a cut in US interest rates.

on NDTV Profit. said Adrian Mowat of JP Morgan. Analysts expect the markets to continue to be choppy for a while till global liquidity and commodity prices settle in. This could be seen as a buying opportunity and we will revisit market valuations after the correction. With the markets falling. On the local front there has been a huge build-up in derivatives positions and volatility led to margin calls. other emerging markets were down nearly 20% so India is playing catch-up. he said. he added. There is no need to get very pessimistic that this is the end of equity investing in India. At current levels it would be a buy call and we would not advise investors to wait to catch the bottom. The Sensex can fall another 10-15%. a technical correction in the derivatives segment has perpetrated a larger fall.Volatility in commodities markets has also significantly affected equity markets. on NDTV Profit. said Mihir Vora of HSBC Mutual Fund. On the global front. he said. India is trading at 65% premium to emerging markets and India is playing catchup with other declining global markets. he added. Also many IPOs have sucked out liquidity from the primary market into the secondary market. he added. said Vora. 62 . A combination of global and local factors is affecting this market.

 Can’t predict future W Opportunity:  Lot of people wants to invest but don’t invest due to insufficient knowledge.Strength:  High return  Large investment  Acquire capital for expanding the business  Secure the future losses Weakness:  High risk  Based on the fluctuation. Threat :  Recession  New government  Bubble burst  Fluctuates dollar  Market is providing new opportunities and new options to invest. It becomes high loss when market goes down. prices 63 s: al si O S T n a y .

may survive in the market and generates profits or good return whether the market is down  Investors should not invest on the basis of rumors they must observe the market condition or trends Indian economy and than invest If they wanna generate good return.Conclusion: Through this research we can conclude that:  Stock market fluctuates by the external environment.  Stock market is all about future prediction.”  Comparatively stock market is less risky than the other market and generates more money for the economy  One who have good knowledge in stock market.  It is based on “high risk and high return.  Stock market is very sensitive market. 64 .

Hafer work package no. 23.org • www. R. W.htm www.stockmarkets.org • http://en.7 & 8 Investment Analysis and portfolio management-M Raghunathan. Hein. Madhumati page no.ltslnewsStock_ExchangesStock.com • www.com • http://econ.org • www.worldbank. Scott E.24.tdd.Hafer.Bibliography Text books • The Stock Market-The Stock Market . 6.28.bseindia.tradingstock.icai.200.wikipedia.Rik W.209 Journals and magazines JARN.26. Published Feb 2009 • Business today • Business standard Websites: www.com • The economics times - 65 .

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