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# Chapter 6 Sampling Distributions

True/False 1. If we have a sample size of 100 and the estimate of the population proportion is .10, we can estimate the sampling distribution of p with a normal distribution. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy 2. A sample size of 500 is sufficiently large enough to conclude that the sampling distribution of p is a normal distribution, when the estimate of the population proportion is .995. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 3. The sampling distribution of X must be a normal distribution with a mean 0 and standard deviation 1. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium (REF) 4. For any sampled population, the population of all sample means is approximately normally distributed. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 5. The sampling distribution of a sample statistic is the probability distribution of the population of all possible values of the sample statistic. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy 6. A sample statistic is an unbiased point estimate of a population parameter if the mean of the populations of all possible values of the sample statistic equals the population parameter. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 7. A minimum variance, unbiased point estimate has a variance that is as small or smaller than the variances of any other unbiased point estimate. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 8. We can randomly select a sample from an infinite population of potential process measurements by sampling the process at different and equally spaced time points. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium (REF)

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9. The reason sample variance has a divisor of n-1 rather than n is that it makes the variance an unbiased estimate of the population variance. Answer: True Difficulty: Hard 10. The standard deviation of all possible sample proportions increases as the sample size increases. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium (REF) 11. The central limit theorem states that as sample size increases, the population distribution more closely approximates a normal distribution. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium (REF) 12. If a population is known to be normally distributed, then it follows that the sample standard deviation must equal . Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 13. If the sampled population is exactly normal distribution, then the sampling distribution of X is also expected to be normal regardless of the sample size. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 14. If a population is known to be normally distributed, then it follows that the sample mean must equal the population mean. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 15. If p = .8 and n = 50, then we can conclude that the sampling distribution of p is approximately a normal distribution. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy 16. If p = .9 and n = 40, then we can conclude that the sampling distribution of p is approximately a normal distribution. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 17. If the sampled population distribution is skewed, then in most cases the sampling distribution of the mean can be approximated by the normal distribution if the sample size n is at least 30. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy

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18. The sampling distribution of a sample statistic is the probability distribution of the population of all possible values of the sample statistic. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 19. As the sample size increases, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution increases. Answer: False Difficulty: Easy (REF) 20. The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is . Answer: False Difficulty: Medium 21. The mean of the sampling distribution of X is always equal to the mean of the sampled population. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 22. The sampling distribution of the sample mean is developed by repeatedly taking samples of size n and computing the sample means and reporting the resulting sample means in the form of a probability distribution. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 23. If the sample size n is infinitely large, then s 2 is an unbiased estimator of 2 . Answer: True Difficulty: Medium 24. The sample standard deviation s is an unbiased estimator of the population standard deviation . Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Multiple Choice 25. The central limit theorem states that as the sample size increases the distribution of the sample ________ approach the normal distribution. A) medians B) means C) standard deviations D) variances Answer: B Difficulty: Medium

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26. Consider two population distributions labeled A and B. Distribution A is highly skewed and non-normal, while the distribution B is slightly skewed and near normal. In order for the sampling distributions of A and B to achieve the same degree of normality: A) Population A will require a larger sample size. B) Population B will require a larger sample size. C) Population A and B will require the same sample size. D) None of the above Answer: A Difficulty: Medium 27. As the sample size ______________ the variation of the sampling distribution of X ___________. A) Decreases, decreases B) Increases, remains the same C) Decreases, remains the same D) Increases, decreases E) None of the above Answer: D Difficulty: Medium (REF) 28. Consider a sampling distribution formed based on n = 3. The standard deviation of the population of all sample means X is ______________less than the standard deviation of the population of individual measurements . A) Always B) Sometimes C) Never Answer: A Difficulty: Easy 29. If the sampled population has a mean 48 and standard deviation 16, then the mean and the standard deviation for the sampling distribution of X for n = 16 are: A) 4 and 1 B) 12 and 4 C) 48 and 4 D) 48 and 1 E) 48 and 16 Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 30-31: A manufacturing company measures the weight of boxes before shipping them to the customers. If the box weights have a population mean and standard deviation of 90 lbs. and 24 lbs. respectively, then based on a sample size of 36 boxes, the probability that the average weight of the boxes will:

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30. Exceed 94 lbs. is: A) 34.13% B) 84.13% C) 15.87% D) 56.36% E) 16.87% Answer: C Difficulty: Medium 31. Be less than 84 lbs. is: A) 16.87% B) 93.32% C) 43.32% D) 6.678% E) 84.13% Answer: D Difficulty: Medium 32. The population of all sample proportions has a normal distribution if the sample size (n) is sufficiently large. The rule of thumb for ensuring that n is sufficiently large is: A) np 5 B) n(1 p) 5 C) np 5 D) n(1 p) .5 and np 5 E) np .5 and n(1 p) 5 Answer: E Difficulty: Medium 33. If we have a sample size of 100 and the estimate of the population proportion is .10, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion is: A) 10 B) 9 C) 3 D) 3.162 E) 90 Answer: C Difficulty: Medium 34. Whenever the population has a normal distribution, the sampling distribution of X is normal or near normal distribution: A) For only large sample sizes B) For only small sample sizes C) For any sample size D) For only samples of size 30 or more Answer: C Difficulty: Medium

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35. If a population distribution is known to be normal, then it follows that: A) the sample mean must equal the population mean. B) the sample mean must equal the population mean for large samples. C) the sample standard deviation must equal the population standard deviation. D) All of the above. E) None of the above. Answer: E Difficulty: Easy 36. If we have a sample size of 100 and the estimate of the population proportion is .10, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion is: A) .0009 B) .03 C) 3 D) 9 E) .10 Answer: B Difficulty: Medium 37. The internal auditing staff of a local manufacturing company performs a sample audit each quarter to estimate the proportion of accounts that are delinquent more than 90 days overdue. The historical records of the company show that over the past 8 years 13 percent of the accounts are delinquent. For this quarter, the auditing staff randomly selected 250 customer accounts. What is the probability that no more than 40 accounts will be classified as delinquent? A) 42.07 % B) 92.07 % C) 7.93 % D) 40.15 % E) 90.15% Answer: B Difficulty: Hard Use the following information to answer questions 38-39: The internal auditing staff of a local manufacturing company performs a sample audit each quarter to estimate the proportion of accounts that are delinquent more than 90 days overdue. The historical records of the company show that over the past 8 years 14 percent of the accounts are delinquent. For this quarter, the auditing staff randomly selected 250 customer accounts. 38. What is the probability that at least 30 accounts will be classified as delinquent? A) 31.86 % B) 18.14 % C) 81.86 % D) 63.72 % E) 75.84 % Answer: C Difficulty: Hard

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39. What are the mean and the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of p ? A) 14 and 250 B) .14 and .1204 C) 35 and 5.486 D) .14 and .0219 E) 35 and 30.1 Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 40-42: According to a hospital administrator, historical records over the past 10 years have shown that 20% of the major surgery patients are dissatisfied with after-surgery care in the hospital. A scientific poll based on 400 hospital patients has just been conducted. 40. What is the probability that less than 64 patients will not be satisfied with the after-surgery care? A) 47.72% B) 2.28% C) 97.72% D) 95.44% E) 4.56% Answer: B Difficulty: Hard (AS) 41. What is the probability that at least 70 patients will not be satisfied with the after-surgery care? A) 89.44% B) 39.44% C) 10.56% D) 78.88% E) 84.49% Answer: A Difficulty: Hard (AS) 42. Sixty-four (64) patients indicated that they were dissatisfied with the after surgery care. What are the mean and the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of p ? A) 16% and .034% B) 20% and 1.83% C) 20% and 2% D) 20% and .034% E) 20% and 16% Answer: C Difficulty: Hard (AS)

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43. For non-normal populations, as the sample size (n) ___________________, the distribution of sample means approaches a(n) ________________ distribution. A) Decreases, Uniform B) Increases, Normal C) Decreases, Normal D) Increases, Uniform E) Increases, Exponential Answer: B Difficulty: Hard Use the following information to answer questions 44-46: In a manufacturing process a machine produces bolts that have an average length of 3 inches with a variance of .03. If we randomly select three bolts from this process: 44. What is the standard deviation of the sample mean? A) .03 B) .01 C) .1732 D) .0577 E) .10 Answer: E Difficulty: Medium 45. What is the probability the mean length of the bolt is at least 3.16 inches? A) 97.72 % B) 5.48 % C) 94.52 % D) 44.52 % E) 2.28 % Answer: B Difficulty: Medium 46. What is the probability the mean length of the bolt is at most 3.1 inches? A) 84.13% B) 100 % C) 71.57 % D) 28.43 % E) 15.87 % Answer: A Difficulty: Medium

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56. A theorem that allows us to use the normal probability distribution to approximate the sampling distribution of sample means and sample proportions whenever the sample size is large is known as the _______________. Answer: Central limit theorem Difficulty: Medium 57. As the sample size increases the variability of the sampling distribution of the mean ______________. Answer: decreases Difficulty: Medium 58. As the sample size ___________, the standard deviation of the population of all sample proportions increases Answer: decreases Difficulty: Medium 59. The population of all _________________ proportions is described by sampling distribution of p . Answer: sample Difficulty: Medium 60. The _______________________ of a sample statistic is the probability distribution of the population of all possible values of the sample statistic. Answer: sampling distribution Difficulty: Medium 61. The ___________ is a minimum-variance unbiased point estimate of the mean of a normally distributed population. Answer: sample mean Difficulty: Medium Essay 62. Find P( X < 35) if = 40, x = 16, n = 16. Answer: .1056
Z= 35 40 16 = 64 35 40 = 1.25 16 4

## P ( X <35 ) =.5 / 3944 =.1056

Difficulty: Medium

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63. A PGA (Professional Golf Association) tournament organizer is attempting to determine whether hole (pin) placement has a significant impact on the average number of strokes for the 13th hole on a given golf course. Historically, the pin has been placed in the front right corner of the green, and the historical mean number of strokes for the hole has been 4.25, with a standard deviation of 1.6 strokes. On a particular day during the most recent golf tournament, the organizer placed the hole (pin) in the back left corner of the green. 64 golfers played the hole with the new placement on that day. Determine the probability of the sample average number of strokes exceeding 4.75. Answer:
Z= 4.75 - 4.25 .5 = = 2.5 1.6 .2 64

P( X 4.75) = .5 - .4938 = .0062 Difficulty: Hard (AS) 64. Packages of sugar bags for Sweeter Sugar Inc. have an average weight of 16 ounces and a standard deviation of 0.2 ounces. The weights of the sugar bags are normally distributed. What is the probability that 16 randomly selected packages will have a weight in excess of 16.075 ounces? Answer: 0.0668 16.075 16 PZ > = P( Z > 1.5) = .5 .4332 = .0668 .2 16 Difficulty: Medium 65. The population of lengths of aluminum-coated steel sheets is normally distributed with a mean of 30.05 inches and a standard deviation of 0.3 inches. What is the probability that average length of a steel sheet from a sample of 9 units is more than 29.95 inches long? Answer: 0.8413 29.95 30.05 PZ > = P( Z > 1) = .3413 + .5 = .8413 .3 9 Difficulty: Medium

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2 66. Find P ( X > 172), if = 175 and X = 9. Answer: .8413 172 175 Z= = 1 9 P ( X > 172) = .5 + .3413 = .8413 Difficulty: Medium

67. Find P ( X < 25) if = 16 and X = 4. Answer: .9878 25 16 Z= = 2.25 4 P( X < 25) = .5 + .4878 = .9878 Difficulty: Medium 68. Find P ( X > 2,510) if = 2,500 and X = 7. Answer: .0764 2510 2500 Z= = 1.43 7 P ( X > 2510) = .5 .4236 = .0764 Difficulty: Medium 69. Find x , if = 400, P( X < 396) =.0228, and n = 100. Answer: 20 X 396 400 4 X = = = = 20 Z 2 .2 n 100 Difficulty: Hard 70. Find P ( X < 402), if = 400, x = 200, and n = 100. Answer: .5398 402 400 2 Z= = = .1 200 20 100 P( X 402) = .5 + .0398 = .5398 Difficulty: Medium

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71. Find P(395.4 < X < 404.6), if the population mean = 400, x = 20, and n = 100. Answer: .9786 395.4 400 4.6 Z1 = = = 2.3 20 2 400 404.6 400 4.6 Z2 = = = 2.3 20 2 400 P (395.4 X 404.6) = .4893 + .4893 = .9786 Difficulty: Medium 72. The number of defectives in the samples of 50 observations each are the following: 5,1,1,2,3,3,1,4,2,3. What is the estimate of the population proportion of defectives? Answer: .05 5 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 1 + 4 + 2 + 3 25 p= = = .05 (10)(50) 500 Difficulty: Medium 73. The number of defectives in the samples of 100 observations each are the following: 1,2,1,0,2,3,1,4,2,1. What is the estimate of the population proportion of defectives? Answer: .017 1+ 2 + 1+ 0 + 2 + 3 + 1+ 4 + 2 + 1 17 p= = = .017 (10)(100) 1, 000 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 74-75: Suppose that 60 percent of the voters in a particular region support a candidate. Find the probability that a sample of 1,000 voters would yield a sample proportion in favor of the candidate within: 74. 4 percentage points of the actual proportion. Answer: .9902 (.6)(.4) p = = .0155 1000 .04 Z= = 2.58 .0155 .4951 + .4951 = .9902 Difficulty: Hard (AS)

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75. 2 percentage points. Answer: .8030 (.6)(.4) p = = .0155 1000 .02 Z= = 1.29 .0155 .4015 + .4015 = .803 Difficulty: Hard (AS) 76. An unbiased estimate of 2 is _____. Answer: s 2 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 77-83: A random sample of size 30 is taken from a population with mean 50 and standard deviation 5. 77. Describe the sampling distribution of X . Answer: Normal/approximately normal Difficulty: Medium 78. What is x ? Answer: 50 Difficulty: Medium 79. What is X ? Answer: .913 5 X = = .913 30 Difficulty: Medium 80. Find P ( X > 49). Answer: .8643 49 50 1 Z= = = 1.0953 5 .913 30 P( X > 49) = .5 + .3643 = .8643 Difficulty: Medium

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81. Find P ( X < 48). Answer: .0143 48 50 2.0 Z= = = 2.19 5 .913 30 P( X < 48) = .5 .4857 = .0143 Difficulty: Medium 82. Find P ( X > 50.5). Answer: .2912 50.5 50 0.5 Z= = = .548 5 .913 30 P( X > 50.5) = .5 .2088 = .2912 Difficulty: Medium 83. Find P ( X < 51.5). Answer: .95 51.5 50 1.5 Z= = = 1.643 5 .913 30 P ( X < 51.5) = .5 + .45 = .95 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 84-90: A random sample of size 1,000 is taken from a population where p = .20. 84. Describe the sampling distribution of p Answer: Normal/approximately normal Difficulty: Medium 85. What is p ? Answer: .20 Difficulty: Medium

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86. What is ( p )? Answer: .01265 (.2)(.8) p = = .01265 1000 Difficulty: Medium 87. Find P( p < .18). Answer: .0571 .18 .20 .2 Z= = = 1.581 (.2)(.8) .01265 1000 P( p < .18) = .5 .4429 = ..0571 Difficulty: Medium 88. Find P( p > .175). Answer: .9761 .175 .20 .25 Z= = = 1.976 (.2)(.8) .01265 1000 P ( p > .175) = .5 + .4761 = .9761 Difficulty: Medium 89. Find P( p > .21). Answer: .2148 .21 .20 .01 Z= = = .79 (.2)(.8) .01265 1000 > .21) = .5 .2852 = .2148 P( p Difficulty: Medium 90. Find P( p < .22). Answer: .9429 .22 .20 .02 Z= = = 1.58 (.2)(.8) .01265 1000 P( p < .22) = .5 + .4429 = .9429 Difficulty: Medium

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91. Packages of sugar bags for Sweeter Sugar Inc. have an average weight of 16 ounces and a standard deviation of 0.3 ounces. The weights of the sugar bags are normally distributed. What is the probability that 9 randomly selected packages will have a weight in excess of 16.025 ounces? Answer: 0.0062 16.025 16 PZ > = P ( Z > 2.5) = .5 .4938 = .0062 .3 9 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 92-94: The population of lengths of aluminum-coated steel sheets is normally distributed with a mean of 30.05 inches and a standard deviation of 0.2 inches. 92. What is the probability that randomly selected 4 sheets will have an average length of less than 29.9 inches long? Answer: 0.668 29.90 30.05 PZ = P ( Z 1.5) = .5 .4332 = .0668 .2 4 Difficulty: Medium 93. A sample of four metal sheets is randomly selected from a batch. What is the probability that the average length of a sheet is between 30.25 and 30.35 inches long? Answer: 0.0215 30.25 30.05 30.35 30.05 P Z = P (2 Z 3) = .4987 ..4772 = .0215 0.2 0.2 4 4 Difficulty: Medium

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94. The population of lengths of aluminum-coated steel sheets is normally distributed with a mean of 30.05 inches and a standard deviation of 0.3 inches. What is the probability that average length of a steel sheet from a sample of 9 units is more than 29.95 inches long? Answer: 0.8413 29.95 30.05 PZ > = P( Z > 1) = .3413 + .5 = .8413 .3 9 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 95-96: The chief chemist for a major oil/gasoline production company claims that the regular unleaded gasoline produced by the company contains on average 4 ounces of a certain ingredient. The chemist further states that the distribution of this ingredient per gallon of regular unleaded gasoline is normal and has a standard deviation of 1.2 ounces. 95. What is the probability of finding an average in excess of 4.3 ounces of this ingredient from randomly inspected 100 gallons of regular unleaded gasoline? Answer: .0062 4.3 4 .3 Z= = = 2.5 1.2 .12 100 P( X > 4.3) = .5 .4938 = .0062 Difficulty: Medium 96. What is the probability of finding an average less than 3.85 ounces of this ingredient from randomly inspected 64 gallons of regular unleaded gasoline? Answer: .1587 3.85 4 0.15 Z= = = 1.0 1.2 .0.15 64 P( X < 3.85) = .5 .3413 = .1587 Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 97-99: In the upcoming governor's election, the most recent poll based on 900 respondents predicts that the incumbent will be reelected with 55% of the votes.

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97. From the 900 respondents, how many indicated that they would not vote for the current governor or indicated that they were undecided? Answer: 405 (.45)(900) = 405 Difficulty: Easy 98. What is X ? Answer: .0166
=

(.55)(.45) 900

= .0166

Difficulty: Medium 99. For the sake of argument, assume that 51% of the actual voters in the state support the incumbent governor (p = 0.51). Calculate the probability of observing a sample proportion of voters 0.55 or higher supporting the incumbent governor. Answer: .0082
=

P (p . 5 5= ). 5- . 4 9 1= 80 0 8 2 .

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102. Calculate the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean. Answer:0.05
x =
.03 .3 = = .05 6 36

Difficulty: Medium (AS) 103. 80% of the sample means will be between what two values symmetrically distributed arount the population mean. Answer: .83575, .96425 Z = 1.285 1.285=
x .9 x .9 = .96425 , -1.285= = .. 83575 .05 .05

Difficulty: Hard (AS) 104. What is the probability that the sample mean will be less than 0.80 seconds? Answer: .0228
p ( X < 0.80 ) = P ( Z <

Difficulty: Hard

## .8 .9 = P ( Z < 2.00 ),. 5000 .4772 = .0228 .05

Use the following information to answer questions 105-108: The College Student Journal (December 1992) investigated differences in traditional and nontraditional students, where nontraditional students are defined as 25 years or older and working. Based on the study results, we can assume the population mean and standard deviation for the GPA of nontraditional students is =3.5 and =0.5. Suppose a random sample of 100 nontraditional students is selected and each students GPA is calculated. 105.What is x ? Answer: x =3.5 Difficulty: Easy 106. Calculated x . Answer: .05
x .= .5

100

= .5

10

= .05

Difficulty: Medium

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107. Find the interval that contain 95.44% of the sample means. Answer:3.4, 3.6 [3.5 2(.05)] = (3.5.1)= [3.4, 3.6] Difficulty: Medium 108. What is the probability that the random sample of 100 nontraditional students have a mean GPA greater than 3.65? Answer: .0013
P ( X > 3.65 ) = p ( Z > 3.65 3.50 .15 ) = P(Z > ) = P ( Z > 3.00 ) , .5-.4987=.0013 .05 .05

Difficulty: Medium Use the following information to answer questions 109-112: The diameter of small Nerf balls manufactured at a factory in Chine is expected to be approximately normally distributed with a mean of 5.2 inches and a standard deviation of .08 inches. Suppose a random sample of 20 balls are selected. 109. Calculate the mean of the sampling distribution of the sample mean. Answer: x = 5.2 Difficulty: Easy (AS) 110. Calculate the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean. Answer: .018

x = .08

20

= .08

4.47

= .018

Difficulty: Medium (AS) 111. Find the interval that contains 95.44% of the sample means/ Answer: 5.164, 5.236 [5.22(.018)]=[5.2.036]=5.164, 5.236 Difficulty: Medium (AS) 112. What percentage of sample means will be less than 5.00 inches? Answer: less than .01%
P( X < 5.00 ) P ( Z < 5.0 5.2 ) = P( Z <11 .1), less than .01% .018

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