Los verbos modales realizan una función similar a la de los verbos auxiliares. Dan información adicional sobre el verbo que los sigue y se utilizan para indicar posibilidad, probabilidad, certeza, deducción, capacidad, consejo, obligación, prohibición, permiso, hacer peticiones, ofrecimientos, sugerencias, etc. Son verbos modales: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will y would. Los verbos modales tienen algunas características que los diferencian de los verbos normales: 1. Los modales van seguidos siempre de un verbo en infinitivo: She must leave in a few minutes. I think it will look rather nice. Things might have been so different. People may be watching. She ought to go straight back to England. My sister can't drive yet. You could be right. Shall we go out for a meal tonight? You should study harder. Would you finish this for me? 2. Los modales sólo tienen una forma. No añaden '-s' a la tercera persona del singular del presente y no tienen formas acabadas en 'ing' o en '-ed'. Tampoco tienen infinitivo. There's nothing I can do about it. I'm sure he can do it.
'Might not' y 'ought not' se contraen a veces en 'mightn't' y 'oughtn't'. Los verbos modales no necesitan el auxiliar DO para la forma negativa ni para las preguntas. Could you give me an example? Will you be coming in later? Shall I shut the door? 4. 'Can + not' se escribe siembre como una palabra. I wouldn't do it if I were you. Won't you change your mind? We can't stop now. I cannot go back. = I can't go back.
Las siguientes formas contractas son irregulares: shall not -> shan't will not -> won't cannot -> can't I shan't let you go. Para hacer una pregunta. La mayoría de los verbos modales no se pueden utilizar en tiempos de pasado o futuro. se pone el modal delante del sujeto. Por ejemplo. You mustn't talk about Ron like that. You shouldn't talk like that. 'cannot'.3. Sin embargo. no podemos decir *She will can 2
. es muy raro que 'may not' aparezca como 'mayn't' en inglés moderno. You must not worry. Para la forma negativa de un modal simplemente añadimos NOT o una palabra negativa inmediatamente detrás del modal. En inglés hablado o escrito informal 'not' se contrae en '-n't' y se añade al modal: could not -> couldn't should not -> shouldn't must not -> mustn't would not -> wouldn't We couldn't leave the farm. I can never remember his name.
ATENCIÓN: La forma contracta del auxiliar 'had' es también 'd. 'Shall'. Cuando nos referimos al pasado. = I had heard it many times. En inglés hablado y en inglés escrito informal. 'will' y 'would' no se contraen cuando van al final de una oración. 6. I could run for miles. He will not return for many hours. I will see my mother tomorrow --> He said that he would see his mother the next day. I shall do what you suggested. Paul said he would come. Tampoco es correcto *We musted study a lot.Puede que hayan visto la película 5. 'Could' se utiliza como pasado de 'can' para expresar habilidad. 'Would' se contrae en 'd. Mary said she'd love to stay. I'll see you tomorrow. 'Would' se utiliza en estilo indirecto como reporting verb de 'will' When I was young. utilizamos un modal seguido de 'have' y un participio pasado: They may have seen the film . Sin embargo. Los modales no indican normalmente el tiempo en que ocurre algo.come with me. I hope you'll agree. I'd heard it many times. 'shall' y 'will' se utilizan en forma contracta como 'll.
7. and I hope he will. 'shall' y 'will' indican a menudo un hecho o una situación futura. para expresar futuro.
Por ejemplo. needn't have + past participle You needn't have come (You came although it wasn't necessary)
ought to It's very cold. should You should bring your book Ausencia de obligación needn't You needn't come tomorrow Permiso can You can use your book may May I use your car? could Could I take another biscuit?
don't have to You don't have to buy it
haven't got to I haven't got to do any homework didn't need to I didn't need to take the bus because it was just across the road. will you? She can drive. Nunca se usan dos modales juntos. De la misma forma.8. You ought to take a coat
. tampoco podemos decir *"I will must go". Los modales se pueden utilizar en question tags: You won't tell her. Pero podemos utilizar HAVE TO: 9. En su lugar se puede utilizar BE ABLE TO: "He will be able to come". no se puede decir *"He will can come". can't she? "I will have to go".
Prohibición / Obligación / Ausencia de obligación / Permiso
Prohibición mustn't You mustn't run in the corridor can't You can't use your dictionary in the exam may not You may not use your mobile phone here shall not You shall not leave without permission Obligación must You must be here on time have (got) to You have to wear a uniform You've got to be quiet.
may It may rain
should She should be sad living in Great Britain
must have + past participle She must have forgotten
might It might be true
shall We shall be leaving as soon as we are ready.We were able to talk to the headteacher.Habilidad o capacidad / Posibilidad o probabilidad / Certeza / Deducciones
Habilidad o Capacidad can I can speak French could When I was younger I could play tennis quite well. be able to . . (We actually talked to her) Posibilidad o probabilidad can The temperature in Jaén can reach 40ºC in July could They could be friends Certeza will Most of you will have heard of this. must have + past participle I must have left my credit card in the bookshop (I'm sure I did)
can't have + past participle She can't have finished yet
may have + past participle She may have forgotten it might have + past participle They might have arrived could have + past participle He could have killed her
.I'll be able to finish it on time.
can't She can't have left the party. would You would agree that changes must be done Deducciones must You must be Tom's father.
would rather I would rather have left would sooner I'd sooner walk than go by bus
would Would you like a drink?
should Should I phone for a taxi for you?
. should have + past participle She ought to have finished it. shall Shall we meet outside the bank? can You can take a taxi if you are tired might You might like to come with us had better You'd better leave now (we might have a quarrel) Deseos would I would like to know the answer. please? would you mind if Would you mind If I used your car? would you mind + V-ing Would you mind bringing some bread? Ofrecimientos can Can I help you? may May I help you? shall Shall I close the door? will Will you have a cup of tea? Sugerencias y consejos should You should ask your teacher ought to She ought to be more careful could We could go to the cinema.Peticiones / Ofrecimientos / Sugerencias y consejos / Deseos
Peticiones can Can you help me? could Could I interrupt you? will Will you open the window.