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All problems from Abstract Algebra, Herstein
Problem #1 (#3, p.73)
Let G be any group and A(G) the set of all 1-1 mappings of G, as a set, onto itself. Deﬁne La : G → G by La (x) = xa−1 . Prove that: (a) La = A(G). (b) La Lb = Lab . (c) The mapping Ψ : G → A(G) deﬁned by Ψ(a) = La is a monomorphism of G into A(G).
(a) A(G), as the set of all 1-1 mappings of G onto itself, can be represented as the set of all operations on an element x ∈ G such that the result is also in G. Since G is a group, we know that this set can be represented as the set of all group multiplications yx | x ∈ G, y ∈ G for a given element x. This is because any x element can be ﬁxed as the ﬁrst parameter, while the y elements are taken over every element of G. We have then that yx ∈ G, due to G’s closure under group multiplication. Furthermore, any element e ∈ G has an inverse element e−1 ∈ G, since G is a group. This means that we can consider any element in G as the inverse of its inverse: e = (e−1 )−1 . This, when plugged in for our variable x ∈ G above, gives us that ∀x ∈ G, ∀y ∈ G, yx−1 ∈ G. This is exactly our given mapping La above, with the labels rearranged. This shows that La is a mapping from G → G, as required. In order to show why this set contains every such possible mapping, we will assume that there is a mapping Ma (x) : G → G such that Ma (x) ∈ La . This mapping, as a mapping from G to G, must / take the form of a group multiplication: Ma (x) = x ∗ a, x ∈ G. However, since G is a group, we have again that a = (a−1 )−1 , or, if we let m = a−1 , that a = m−1 , and so our mapping can be rewritten as Ma (x) = x ∗ m−1 m ∈ G. However, this is exactly the same mapping as our above La (x), showing that every mapping in A(G) can indeed be written as a multiplication between some element x ∈ G and another element’s inverse a−1 ∈ G, and thus that La = A(G).